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  • Articles  (10)
  • F35  (7)
  • Educación
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)  (10)
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  • Articles  (10)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We present an analysis of the effects of foreign aid on economic development when the quality of governance may be compromised by corruption. The analysis is based on a dynamic general equilibrium model in which growth is driven by capital accumulation and public policy is administered by government-appointed bureaucrats. Corruption may arise due to the opportunity for bureaucrats to embezzle public funds which are otherwise used to provide productive public goods and services. Our main results may be summarized as follows: (1) corruption impedes economic development and compromises the effectiveness of aid programmers; (2) the incidence of corruption may, itself, be affected by both the development process and the donation of aid; (3) foreign aid is good for development when governance is good, but may be bad (perhaps very bad) for development when governance is bad; and (4) corruption and poverty may co-exist as permanent, rather than just transitory, fixtures of an economy.
    Keywords: D73 ; F35 ; O11 ; ddc:330 ; Corruption ; development ; foreign aid ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Entwicklung ; Korruption
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Millennium Development Goal number 8 (MDG8) concerns those external flows (Official Development Assistance, trade and debt relief) that ought to help developing countries achieve the MDGs by 2015. This paper reviews the role of these MDG8-related external flows in the case of Bolivia. Riding on high international prices for its major exports, and on fiscal expansion, remittances and debt forgiveness, Bolivia has experienced solid economic performance in the past few years. This economic performance coupled with the recent increase in social public expenditures by the government has increased the likelihood that the country will achieve all of the MDGs by 2015, except probably for MDG 2. These advances have been achieved in a period of radical change in Bolivia's dependence on MDG8-related external flows. The composition of external finance in public expenditure has shifted from domination by ODA and debt forgiveness in the first half of the decade to domination by trade, mainly through revenues from hydrocarbon exports. Our findings support the idea that the provision of additional financial resources may not be the priority with regard to organising support to MDG achievements. Spending efficiently and effectively seems to be a more important area for support in Bolivia. As far as trade is concerned, Bolivia already enjoys good market access in its main markets, thus better access through lower non-tariff barriers may be more relevant than improving access in terms of tariffs. Moreover access to markets would be easier if Bolivia were better integrated with world markets, with its regional neighbours in particular. This calls for the support of the international community through aid for trade (AfT), which has instead been worryingly dwindling in recent years. Finally, we argue that MDG8 could be pursued in Bolivia through support for improving access to technology and access to affordable drugs.
    Keywords: F35 ; O11 ; O54 ; P45 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; MDGs ; aid ; trade ; debt ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Millennium Development Goals ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper utilizes a unique three-wave panel of household data from Nicaragua, which allows a thorough exploration of the relationships between migration, remittances and household consumption. The paper distinguishes between the effects of emigration and the impacts of remittances received. There is a self-selection bias in the decision to send a migrant, as well as in the decision to receive remittances. To adequately correct for these selection biases, we develop a bivariate selection correction procedure. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that households do not benefit (in terms of higher consumption growth) from receiving remittances, but rather from having migrants abroad. This suggests that not only money are remitted from abroad, but also something more subtle, which could be business ideas, belief systems, aspirations, patterns of social interaction, and other intangibles, which have been dubbed social remittances.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Migration, Remittances ; Social Remittances ; Nicaragua ; Bivariate Selection Correction
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Remittances are a very important source of income for many Nicaraguan families. More than 40% of all households receive remittances that on average amount to 12-15% of total household income in these households. More than 30% of these households receive remittances at least monthly, implying that it is a relatively stable source of income. This paper shows that remittances do tend to reduce the vulnerability of households and increase their upward social mobility, at least as long as the households do not depend too heavily on remittances. However, remittances also cause moral hazard problems. Nicaraguans tend to reduce their labor supply in response to more remittances, and they also tend to reduce their savings rates, both of which are detrimental to long run economic growth.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Remittances ; aid ; Nicaragua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The paper reexamines empirically the robustness of competing theories of foreign aid effectiveness. By shifting the focus from the effects of aid on income to effects of aid on productivity, it is possible to put to test 3 existing theories of foreign aid effectiveness. The results provide support for the hypotheses that (i) aid has a positive effect in fostering growth of average productivity, (ii) aid doesn't operate with diminishing returns, and (iii) the magnitude of the total effect depends on climate-related circumstances. The results support the policy recommendation previously made in the literature to seriously reconsider the conditionality rule for foreign aid disbursements.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Foreign Aid ; cross-country ; conditionality
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las últimas dos décadas han visto mejoramientos sustanciales en la asistencia escolar de niñas en América Latina, hasta el punto que, en la mayoría de los países, más niñas que niños asisten a las escuelas. Sin embargo, Bolivia es una excepción, especialmente en áreas rurales donde la brecha educativa entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes todavía es significativa. El informe muestra que en 113 de los 314 municipios en Bolivia las niñas tienen menor acceso y/o permanencia en el sistema escolar que los niños, mientras que las niñas sólo tienen ventajes de acceso y/o permanencia en 2 municipios. En el resto de los municipios, los niños y las niñas tienen el mismo acceso y el mismo nivel de permanencia (medido a 15 años). La mayoría de los municipios con inequidades genéricas en contra de las niñas se encuentran en el altiplano en las zonas con mayor pobreza y mayor proporción de población Aymara. En términos absolutos, el problema de inasistencia de las niñas (y también de los niños) se concentra en cinco municipios grandes (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Sucre). En cuatro de estos cinco municipios hay problemas de desigualdad genérica en la permanencia escolar, sólo en el municipio de El Alto hay inequidad tanto en acceso como en permanencia.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Permanencia ; Acceso ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This document investigates the effectiveness of foreign aid in Bolivia. When comparing accumulated aid in each sector during the period 1998-2002 with the progress in each sector during the same period, it becomes clear that the four sectors receiving by far the most aid (Institutional strengthening, Rural Development, Roads, and Budget support) have shown disappointingly little progress. When the impact of aid is analyzed in a computable general equilibrium model, it becomes clear that aid tends to have a positive effect on growth, but only in the short run, and it tends to have an adverse effect on the income distribution.
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Efectividad ; Ayuda extera ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This document investigates the effectiveness of foreign aid in Bolivia. When comparing accumulated aid in each sector during the period 1998-2002 with the progress in each sector during the same period, it becomes clear that the four sectors receiving by far the most aid (Institutional strengthening, Rural Development, Roads, and Budget support) have shown disappointingly little progress. When the impact of aid is analyzed in a computable general equilibrium model, it becomes clear that aid tends to have a positive effect on growth, but only in the short run, and it tends to have an adverse effect on the income distribution
    Keywords: F35 ; ddc:330 ; Aid effectiveness ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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