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  • Environment Pollution  (233)
  • 1995-1999  (233)
  • 1999  (233)
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  • 1995-1999  (233)
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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2018-06-09
    Description: Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc. was founded in 1991 specifically to take advantage of the emergence of a new technology field related to spectral imaging. The technology has applications in diverse areas such as Earth remote sensing, agriculture, geology, medical diagnosis, manufacturing, forensics, and more. Under the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center STTR project, OKSI developed several major aspects to further the state of the art, resulting in several commercial products.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Spinoff 1999; 70; NASA/NP-1999-10-254-HQ
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the developmental approach to the Environmental Impact Statement regarding the X-33 vehicle.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Third Aerospace Environmental Technology Conference; 43-53; NASA/CP-1999-209258
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: The Environmental Health activity for the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was formed to develop an overall strategy for safeguarding crew members from potential airborne hazards anticipated on missions of extended duration. These efforts were necessary because of major modifications to the air revitalization system of the U.S. Space Shuttle and an increased potential for environmental health risks associated with longer space flights. Degradation of air quality in the Shuttle during a space flight mission has the potential to affect the performance of the crew not only during piloting, landing, or egress, but also during space flight. It was anticipated that the risk of significant deterioration in air quality would increase with extended mission lengths and could result from: (1) a major chemical contamination incident, such as a thermodegradation event or toxic leak, (2) continual accumulation of volatile organic compounds to unacceptable levels, (3) excessive levels of airborne particles, (4) excessive levels of microorganisms, or (5) accumulation of airborne pathogens.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project; 4-1 - 4-12; NASA/SP-1999-534
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The objectives of this work are to measure the ice discharge of the Greenland Ice Sheet close to the grounding line and/or calving front, and compare the results with mass accumulation and ablation in the interior to estimate the ice sheet mass balance.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA); 12-15; NASA/TM-1999-209205
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Sampling Procedures and Venues Workgroup discussed the potential venues available and issues associated with obtaining measurements. Some of the issues included Incoming Air Quality, Sampling Locations, Probes and Sample Systems. The following is a summary of the discussion of the issues and venues. The influence of inlet air to the measurement of exhaust species, especially trace chemical species, must be considered. Analysis procedures for current engine exhaust emissions regulatory measurements require adjustments for air inlet humidity. As a matter of course in scientific investigations, it is recommended that "background" measurements for any species, particulate or chemical, be performed during inlet air flow before initiation of combustion, if possible, and during the engine test period as feasible and practical. For current regulatory measurements, this would be equivalent to setting the "zero" level for conventional gas analyzers. As a minimum, it is recommended that measurements of the humidity and particulates in the incoming air be taken at the start and end of each test run. Additional measurement points taken during the run are desirable if they can be practically obtained. It was felt that the presence of trace gases in the incoming air is not a significant problem. However, investigators should consider the ambient levels and influences of local air pollution for species of interest. Desired measurement locations depend upon the investigation requirements. A complete investigation of phenomenology of particulate formation and growth requires measurements at a number of locations both within the engine and in the exhaust field downstream of the nozzle exit plane. Desirable locations for both extractive and in situ measurements include: (1) Combustion Zone (Multiple axial locations); (2) Combustor Exit (Multiple radial locations for annular combustors); (3) Turbine Stage (Inlet and exit of the stage); (4) Exit Nozzle (Multiple axial locations downstream of the nozzle). Actual locations with potential for extractive or non-intrusive measurements depend upon the test article and test configuration. Committee members expressed the importance of making investigators aware of various ports that could allow access to various stages of the existing engines. Port locations are engine si)ecific and might allow extractive sampling or innovative hybrid optical-probe access. The turbine stage region was one the most desirable locations for obtaining samples and might be accessed through boroscope ports available in some engine designs. Discussions of probes and sampling systems quickly identified issues dependent on particular measurement quantities. With general consensus, the group recommends SAE procedures for measurements and data analyses of currently regulated exhaust species (CO2, CO, THC, NO(x),) using conventional gas sampling techniques. Special procedures following sound scientific practices must be developed as required for species and/or measurement conditions not covered by SAE standards. Several issues arose concerning short lived radicals and highly reactive species. For conventional sampling, there are concerns of perturbing the sample during extraction, line losses, line-wall reactions, and chemical reactions during the sample transport to the analyzers. Sample lines coated with quartz.or other materials should be investigated for minimization of such effects. The group advocates the development of innovative probe techniques and non-intrusive optical techniques for measurement of short lived radicals and highly reactive species that cannot be sampled accurately otherwise. Two innovative probe concepts were discussed. One concept uses specially designed probes to transfer optical beams to and from a region of flow inaccessible by traditional ports or windows. The probe can perturb the flow field but must have a negligible impact on the region to be optically sampled. Such probes are referred to as hybrid probes and are under development at AEDC for measurement in the high pressure, high temperature of a combustor under development for power generation. The other concept consists of coupling an instrument directly to the probe. The probe would isolate a representative sample stream, freeze chemical reactions and direct the sample into the analyzer portion of the probe. Thus, the measurement would be performed in situ without sample line losses due either to reactions or binding at the wall surfaces. This concept was used to develop a fast, in situ, time-of-flight mass spectrometer measurement system for temporal quantification of NO in the IMPULSE facility at AEDC. Additional work is required in this area to determine the best probe and sampling technique for each species measurement requirement identified by the Trace Chemistry Working Group. A partial list of Venues was used as a baseline for discussion. Additional venues were added to the list and the list was broken out into the following categories: (1)Engines (a) Sea Level Test Stands (b) Altitude Chambers; (2) Annular Combustor Test Stands, (3) Sector Flametube Test Stands, (4) Fundamentals Rigs/Experiments.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 187-237; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The assignments and charges to the three workgroups are discussed. The three workgroups were: (1) Trace Chemistry, (2) Instrumentation, (3) Venues and procedures.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 163-176; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The goals of the trace chemistry group were to identify the processes relevant to aerosol and aerosol precursor formation occurring within aircraft gas turbine engines; that is, within the combustor, turbine, and nozzle. The topics of discussion focused on whether the chemistry of aerosol formation is homogeneous or heterogeneous; what species are important for aerosol and aerosol precursor formation; what modeling/theoretical activities to pursue; what experiments to carry out that both support modeling activities and elucidate fundamental processes; and the role of particulates in aerosol and aerosol precursor formation. The consensus of the group was that attention should be focused on SO2, SO3, and aerosols. Of immediate concern is the measurement of the concentration of the species SO3, SO2, H2SO4 OH, HO2, H2O2, O, NO, NO2, HONO, HNO3, CO, and CO2 and particulates in various engines, both those currently in use and those in development. The recommendation was that concentration measurements should be made at both the combustor exit and the engine exit. At each location the above species were classified into one of four categories of decreasing importance, Priority I through IV, as follows: Combustor exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2, and particulates; Priority II species: OH and O; Priority III species - NO and NO2; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. For the Engine exit: Priority I species - SO3:SO2 ratio, SO3, SO2,H2SO4, and particulates; Priority II species: OH,HO2, H2O2, and O; Priority III species - NO, NO2, HONO, and HNO3; and Priority IV species - CO and CO2. Table I summarizes the anticipated concentration range of each of these species. For particulate matter, the quantities of interest are the number density, size distribution, and composition. In order to provide data for validating multidimensional reacting flow models, it would be desirable to make 2-D, time-resolved measurements of the concentrations of the above species and, in addition, of the pressure, temperature, and velocity. A near term goal of the experimental program should be to confirm the nonlinear effects of sulfur speciation, and if present, to provide an explanation for them. It is also desirable to examine if the particulate matter retains any sulfur. The recommendation is to examine the effects on SOx production of variations in fuel-bound sulfur and aromatic content (which may affect the amount of particulates formed). These experiments should help us to understand if there is a coupling between particulate formation and SO, concentration. Similarly, any coupling with NOx can be examined either by introducing NOx into the combustion air or by using fuel-bound nitrogen. Also of immediate urgency is the need to establish and validate a detailed mechanism for sulfur oxidation/aerosol formation, whose chemistry is concluded to be homogeneous, because there is not enough surface area for heterogeneous effects. It is envisaged that this work will involve both experimental and theoretical programs. The experimental work will require, in addition to the measurements described above, fundamental studies in devices such as flow reactors and shock tubes. Complementing this effort should be modeling and theoretical activities. One impediment to the successful modeling of sulfur oxidation is the lack of reliable data for thermodynamic and transport properties for several species, such as aqueous nitric acid, sulfur oxides, and sulfuric acid. Quantum mechanical calculations are recommended as a convenient means of deriving values for these properties. Such calculations would also help establish rate constants for several important reactions for which experimental measurements are inherently fraught with uncertainty. Efforts to implement sufficiently detailed chemistry into computational fluid dynamic codes should be continued. Zero- and one-dimensional flow models are also useful vehicles for elucidating the minimal set of species and reactions that must be included in two- and three-dimensional modeling studies.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 177-178; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: We presented results from the SASS Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment which was conducted during May and June 1997 in collaboration with the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard Units. The project objectives were to quantify the fraction of fuel sulfur converted to S(VI) species by jet engines and to gain a better understanding of particle formation and growth processes within aircraft wakes. Size and volatility segregated aerosol measurements along with sulfur species measurements were recorded in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft equipped with F-100 engines burning fuels with a range of fuel S concentrations at different altitudes and engine power settings. A total of 10 missions were flown in which F-16 exhaust plumes were sampled by an instrumented T-39 Sabreliner aircraft. On six of the flights, measurements were obtained behind the same two aircraft, one burning standard JP-8 fuel and the other either approximately 28 ppm or 1100 ppm S fuel or an equal mixture of the two (approximately 560 ppm S). A pair of flights was conducted for each fuel mixture, one at 30,000 ft altitude and the other starting at 35,000 ft and climbing to higher altitudes if contrail conditions were not encountered at the initial flight level. In each flight, the F-16s were operated at two power settings, approx. 80% and full military power. Exhaust emissions were sampled behind both aircraft at each flight level, power setting, and fuel S concentration at an initial aircraft separation of 30 m, gradually widening to about 3 km. Analyses of the aerosol data in the cases where fuel S was varied suggest results were consistent with observations from project SUCCESS, i.e., a significant fraction of the fuel S was oxidized to form S(VI) species and volatile particle emission indices (EIs) in comparably aged plumes exhibited a nonlinear dependence upon the fuel S concentration. For the high sulfur fuel, volatile particle EIs in 10-second-old-plumes were 2 to 3 x 10 (exp 17) / kg of fuel burned and exhibited no obvious trend with engine power setting or flight altitude. In contrast, about 8-fold fewer particles were observed in similarly aged plumes from the same aircraft burning fuel with 560 ppm S content and EIs of 1 x 10(exp 15)/ kg of fuel burned were observed in the 28 ppm S fuel case. Moreover, data recorded as a function of plume age indicates that formation and growth of the volatile particles proceeds more slowly as the fuel S level is reduced. For example, ultrafine particle concentrations appear to stabilize within 5 seconds after emission in the 1100 ppm S cases but are still increasing in 20-second old plumes produced from burning the 560 ppm S fuel.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 83-100; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Solid (soot) and liquid (presumed sulfate) particle emissions from aircraft engines may have serious impacts on the atmosphere. While the direct radiative impact of these particles is expected to be small relative to those from natural sources (Atmospheric Effects of Subsonic Aircraft: Interim Assessment of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program, NASA Ref. Pub. 1400, 1997), their indirect effects on atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation may have a significant impact. The potential impacts of primary concern are the increase of sulfate surface area and accelerated heterogeneous chemical reactions, and the potential for either modified soot or sulfate particles to serve as cloud nuclei which would change the frequency or radiative characteristics of clouds. Volatile (sulfate) particle concentrations measured behind the Concorde aircraft in flight in the stratosphere were much higher than expected from near-field model calculations of particle formation and growth. Global model calculations constrained by these data calculate a greater level of stratospheric ozone depletion from the proposed High speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleet than those without particle emission. Soot particles have also been proposed as important in heterogeneous chemistry but this remains to be substantiated. Aircraft volatile particle production in the troposphere has been shown by measurements to depend strongly on fuel sulfur content. Sulfate particles of sufficient size are known to provide a good nucleating surface for cloud growth. Although pure carbon soot is hydrophobic, the solid particle surface may incorporate more suitable nucleating sites. The non-volatile (soot) particles also tend to occupy the large end of aircraft particle size spectra. Quantitative connection between aircraft particle emissions and cloud modification has not been established yet, however, even small changes in cloud amount or properties could have a significant effect on the radiative balance of the atmosphere.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 55-60; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: This presentation discusses the problem of local air quality as it is affected by modern aircraft engine exhaust and the objective of this workshop. It begins with a discussion on the nature and sources of particulates and aerosols. The problems, and the technical considerations of how to regulate the aircraft emissions, are reviewed. There is no local (i.e., state or county) regulations of the aircraft operations. Amongst the conclusions are: (1) there is an inadequate database of information regarding the emittants from aircrafts. (2) That data which does exist represents older engines and aircraft, it is not representative of the advanced and future fleet.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 21-44; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: This paper reviews the relationships of the programs and projects and reviews the purpose of the Engine Exhaust Trace Chemistry (EETC) Committee. The charges of the Committee are: (1) to prioritize the engine trace constituents for assessing impacts of aircraft; (2) Assess both extractive and insitu measurement techniques; and (3) Determine the best venues for performing the necessary measurements. A synopsis of evidence supporting and questions concerning the role(s) of aerosol/particulates was presented. The presentation also reviewed how sulfur oxidation kinetics interactions in the hot-section and nozzle play a role in the formation of aerosol precursors. The objective of the workshop, and its organization is reviewed.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 5-19; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 12
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: Although the importance of aerosols and their precursors are now well recognized, the characterization of current subsonic engines for these emissions is far from complete. Furthermore, since the relationship of engine operating parameters to aerosol emissions is not known, extrapolation to untested and unbuilt engines necessarily remains highly uncertain. 1997 NASA LaRC engine test, as well as the parallel 1997 NASA LaRC flight measurement, attempts to address both issues by expanding measurements of aerosols and aerosol precursors with fuels containing different levels of fuel sulfur content. The specific objective of the 1997 engine test is to obtain a database of sulfur oxides emissions as well as the non-volatile particulate emission properties as a function of fuel sulfur and engine operating conditions. Four diagnostic systems, extractive and non-intrusive (optical), will be assembled for the gaseous and particulate emissions characterization measurements study. NASA is responsible for the extractive gaseous emissions measurement system which contains an array of analyzers dedicated to examining the concentrations of specific gases (NO, NO(x), CO, CO2, O2, THC, SO2) and the smoke number. University of Missouri-Rolla uses the Mobile Aerosol Sampling System to measure aerosol/particulate total concentration, size distribution, volatility and hydration property. Air Force Research Laboratory uses the Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer to measure SO2, SO3/H2SO4, and HN03 Aerodyne Research, Inc. uses Infrared Tunable Diode Laser system to measure SO2, SO3, NO, H2O, and CO2.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines; 123-134; NASA/CP-1999-208918
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  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The primary role of models in the assessment process is to predict changes to ozone. It is crucial therefore that the ability of the models to reproduce the actual distribution of ozone be tested. Historically, maps of the ozone column (latitude by month) have been used for this purpose. In MM I a climatology was developed for the vertical distribution of ozone for 15-60 km, based on SBUV data for 1979-80. SBUV profiles are reported with vertical resolution of approx. 5 km, but the true resolution is lower, approx. 8 km above the ozone maximum and approx. 15 km for 10-25 km. The climatology was considered valid to about 20-30% at 20 km and to 50% at 15 km. Comparisons were made with models in mixing ratio (ppm), which emphasizes the middle and upper stratosphere. A new ozone climatology was developed for the vertical distribution of ozone for MM II. Our goal was to develop a product that could be used to evaluate models in the lower stratosphere, the region where most of the ozone column resides and where most of the ozone loss is occurring, as well as the middle and upper stratosphere.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Models and Measurements Intercomparison 2; 307-362; NASA/TM-1999-209554
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The Second Workshop on Stratospheric Models and Measurements Workshop (M&M II) is the continuation of the effort previously started in the first Workshop (M&M I, Prather and Remsberg [1993]) held in 1992. As originally stated, the aim of M&M is to provide a foundation for establishing the credibility of stratospheric models used in environmental assessments of the ozone response to chlorofluorocarbons, aircraft emissions, and other climate-chemistry interactions. To accomplish this, a set of measurements of the present day atmosphere was selected. The intent was that successful simulations of the set of measurements should become the prerequisite for the acceptance of these models as having a reliable prediction for future ozone behavior. This section is divided into two: model experiment and model descriptions. In the model experiment, participant were given the charge to design a number of experiments that would use observations to test whether models are using the correct mechanisms to simulate the distributions of ozone and other trace gases in the atmosphere. The purpose is closely tied to the needs to reduce the uncertainties in the model predicted responses of stratospheric ozone to perturbations. The specifications for the experiments were sent out to the modeling community in June 1997. Twenty eight modeling groups responded to the requests for input. The first part of this section discusses the different modeling group, along with the experiments performed. Part two of this section, gives brief descriptions of each model as provided by the individual modeling groups.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Models and Measurements Intercomparison 2; 10-109; NASA/TM-1999-209554
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2004-12-03
    Description: The overall focus of our research is to document long-term elevation change of the Greenland ice sheet using satellite altimeter data. In addition, we are investigating seasonal and interannual variations in the ice-sheet elevations to place the long-term measurements in context. Specific objectives of this research include: 1) Developing new techniques to significantly improve the accuracy of elevation-change estimates derived from satellite altimetry. 2) Measuring the elevation change of the Greenland ice sheet over a 10-year time period using Seasat (1978) and Geosat GM (1985-86) and Geosat ERM (1986-88) altimeter data. 3) Quantifying seasonal/interannual variations in the elevation-change estimates using the continuous time series of surface elevations from the Geosat GM and ERM datasets. 4) Extending the long-term elevation change analysis to two decades by incorporating data from the ERS-1/2 missions (1991-99) and, if available, the Geosat-Follow On (GFO) mission (1998-??).
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Program for Arctic Regional Climate Assessment (PARCA); 6-11; NASA/TM-1999-209205
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia) was contaminated in 1949-1956 by liquid radioactive wastes from the Mayak complex, the first Russian facility for the production of plutonium. The measurements of environmental contamination were started in 1951. A simple model describing radionuclide transport along the free-flowing river and the accumulation of radionuclides by bottom sediments is presented. This model successfully correlates the rates of radionuclide releases as reconstructed by the Mayak experts, hydrological data, and available environmental monitoring data for the early period of contamination (1949-1951). The model was developed to reconstruct doses for people who lived in the riverside communities during the period of the releases and who were chronically exposed to external and internal irradiation. The model fills the data gaps and permits reconstruction of external gamma-exposure rates in air on the river bank and radionuclide concentrations in river water used for drinking and other household needs in 1949-1951.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Health physics (ISSN 0017-9078); Volume 77; 2; 142-9
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: Results are presented for six simulations of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global atmosphere-ocean model for the years 1950 to 2099. There are two control simulations with constant 1950 atmospheric composition from different initial states, two GHG experiments with observed greenhouse gases up to 1990 and compounded .5% CO2 annual increases thereafter, and two GHG+SO4 experiments with the same varying greenhouse gases plus varying tropospheric sulfate aerosols. Surface air temperature trends in the two GHG experiments are compared between themselves and with the observed temperature record from 1960 and 1998. All comparisons show high positive spatial correlation in the northern hemisphere except in summer when the greenhouse signal is weakest. The GHG+SO4 experiments show weaker correlations. In the southern hemisphere, correlations are either weak or negative which in part are due to the model's unrealistic interannual variability of southern sea ice cover. The model results imply that temperature changes due to forcing by increased greenhouse gases have risen above the level of regional interannual temperature variability in the northern hemisphere over the past 40 years. This period is thus an important test of reliability of coupled climate models.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: We take advantage of the May 1998 biomass burning event in Southern Mexico to test the global applicability of a smoke aerosol size model developed from data observed in South America. The Mexican event is an unique opportunity to observe well-aged, residual smoke. Observations of smoke aerosol size distribution made from vertical profiles of airborne in situ measurements show an inverse relationship between concentration and particle size that suggests the aging process continues more than a week after the smoke is separated from its fire sources. The ground-based radiometer retrievals show that the column-averaged, aged, Mexican smoke particles are larger (diameter = 0.28 - 0.33 micrometers) than the mean smoke particles in South America (diameter = 0.22 - 0.30 micrometers). However, the difference (delta - 0.06 micrometer) translates into differences in backscattering coefficient of only 4-7% and an increase of direct radiative forcing of only 10%.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: Analyses of satellite, ground-based, and balloon measurements allow updated estimates of trends in the vertical profile of ozone since 1979. The results show overall consistency among several independent measurement systems, particularly for northern hemisphere midlatitudes where most balloon and ground-based measurements are made. Combined trend estimates over these latitudes for the period 1979-96 show statistically significant negative trends at ail attitudes between 10 and 45 km, with two local extremes: -7.4 +/- 2.0% per decade at 40 km and -7.3 +/- 4.6% per decade at 15 km attitude. There is a strong seasonal variation in trends over northern midlatitudes in the altitude range of 10 to 18 km, with the largest ozone loss during winter and spring. The profile trends are in quantitative agreement with independently measured trends in column ozone, the amount of ozone in a column above the surface. The vertical profiles of ozone trends provide a fingerprint for the mechanisms of ozone depletion over the last two decades.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Science; Volume 285; 1689-1692
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: Analyses of satellite, ground-based, and balloon measurements allow updated estimates of trends in the vertical profile of ozone since 1979. The results show overall consistency among several independent measurement systems, particularly for northern hemisphere midlatitudes where most balloon and ground-based measurements are made. Combined trend estimates over these latitudes for the period 1979-96 show statistically significant negative trends at all altitudes between 10 and 45 km, with two local extremes: -7.4 plus or minus 2.0% per decade at 40 km and -7.3 plus or minus -4.6% per decade at 15 km altitude. There is a strong seasonal variation in trends over northern midlatitudes in the attitude range of 10 to 18 km, with the largest ozone loss during winter and spring. The profile trends are in quantitative agreement with independently measured trends in column ozone, the amount of ozone in a column above the surface. The vertical profiles of ozone trends provide a fingerprint for the mechanisms of ozone depletion over the last two decades.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Science; Volume 285; 1689-1692
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: To retrieve temperature and humidity profiles from SSM/T and AMSU, it is important to quantify the contribution of the Earth surface emission. So far, no global estimates of the land surface emissivities are available at SSM/T and AMSU frequencies and scanning conditions. The land surface emissivities have been previously calculated for the globe from the SSM/I conical scanner between 19 and 85 GHz. To analyze the feasibility of deriving SSM/T and AMSU land surface emissivities from SSM/I emissivities, the spectral and angular variations of the emissivities are studied, with the help of ground-based measurements, models and satellite estimates. Up to 100 GHz, for snow and ice free areas, the SSM/T and AMSU emissivities can be derived with useful accuracy from the SSM/I emissivities- The emissivities can be linearly interpolated in frequency. Based on ground-based emissivity measurements of various surface types, a simple model is proposed to estimate SSM/T and AMSU emissivities for all zenith angles knowing only the emissivities for the vertical and horizontal polarizations at 53 deg zenith angle. The method is tested on the SSM/T-2 91.655 GHz channels. The mean difference between the SSM/T-2 and SSM/I-derived emissivities is less than or equal to 0.01 for all zenith angles with an r.m.s. difference of approx. = 0.02. Above 100 GHz, preliminary results are presented at 150 GHz, based on SSM/T-2 observations and are compared with the very few estimations available in the literature.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing; Volume 20
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This century, especially in the last few decades, Earth's history was marked by intense study and concern about our environment and how we affect it. Scientific studies show that the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is rising, the ocean's productivity is changing, and the average global temperatures have risen by 0.511. What we do not completely understand is: What fraction of this variation is due to human interference with the environment? What fraction is due to natural phenomena? How do these changes correlate with each other? In order to obtain a better understanding of how land, atmosphere and ocean interact to produce changes on Earth's climate and how human intervention affects these changes, NASA started planning for the Earth Observing System (EOS) in the early 1980's. As a result, a series of satellites will be sent into orbit to monitor the Earth for the next 18 years, providing scientists with necessary data to help them answer these questions.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: We discuss the methodology of interpreting channel 1 and 2 AVHRR radiance data to retrieve tropospheric aerosol properties over the ocean and describe a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of monthly average retrievals to the assumed aerosol models. We use real AVHRR data and accurate numerical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering and spectral absorption of light in the vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere-ocean system. Our analysis shows that two-channel algorithms can provide significantly more accurate retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness than one-channel algorithms and that imperfect cloud screening is the largest source of errors in the retrieved optical thickness. Both underestimating and overestimating aerosol absorption as well as strong variability of the aerosol refractive index may lead to regional and/or seasonal biases in optical thickness retrievals. The Angstrom exponent appears to be the most invariant aerosol size characteristic and should be retrieved along with optical thickness as the second aerosol parameter.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2011-08-23
    Description: The SASS (Subsonic Assessment) Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) was an airborne field campaign conducted in October-November 1997 in the vicinity of the North Atlantic Flight Corridor Lo study the impact of aircraft emissions on NOx and ozone (03). A fully instrumented NASA DC-8 aircraft was used as the primary SONEX platform. SONEX activities were closely coordinated with the European POLINAT-2 (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) program, which used a Falcon-20 aircraft and an instrumented in-service Swissair B-747. Both campaigns focused on the upper troposphere/"lowermost" stratosphere (UT/LS) as the region of greatest interest. Specific sampling goals were achieved with the aid of a state-of-the art modeling and meteorological support system, which allowed targeted sampling of air parcels with desired characteristics. A substantial impact of aircraft emissions on NO(x) and O3 in the UT/LS of the study region is shown to be present. It is further shown that the NO(x)- HO(x)-O3 relationships are highly nonlinear and must be accurately simulated to make meaningful future predictions with global models. SONEXIPOLINAT-2 results are being published in Special Sections of GRL and JGR. Here we provide a brief overview of SONEX design, implementation, and expected results to provide a context within which these publications can be understood.
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Health physics (ISSN 0017-9078); Volume 76; 6; 605-18
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The role of naturally varying vegetation in influencing the climate variability in the Sahel is explored in a coupled atmosphere-land-vegetation model. The Sahel rainfall variability is influenced by sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the oceans. Land-surface feedback is found to increase this variability both on interannual and interdecadal time scales. Interactive vegetation enhances the interdecadal variation significantly, but can reduce year to year variability due to a phase lag introduced by the relatively slow vegetation adjustment time. Variations in vegetation accompany the changes in rainfall, in particular, the multi-decadal drying trend from the 1950s to the 80s.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: In the framework of the project POLINAT 2 (Pollution in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) we measured NO(x) (NO and NO2) and ozone on 98 flights through the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) with a fully automated system permanently installed aboard an in-service Swissair B-747 airliner in the period of August to November 1997. The averaged NO, concentrations both in the NAFC and at the U.S. east coast were similar to that measured in autumn 1995 with the same system. The patchy occurrence of NO(x), enhancements up to 3000 pptv over several hundred kilometers (plumes), predominately found over the U.S. east coast lead to a log-normal NO(x) probability density function. In three case-studies we examine the origins of such plumes by combining back-trajectories with brightness temperature enhanced (IR) satellite imagery, with lightning observations from the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) or with the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) satellite. For frontal activity above the continental U.S., we demonstrate that the location of NO(x) plumes can be well explained with maps of convective influence. For another case we show that the number of lightning flashes in a cluster of marine thunderstorms is proportional to the NO(x) concentrations observed several hundred kilometers downwind of the anvil outflows and suggest that lightning was the dominant source. From the fact that in autumn the NO, maximum was found several hundred kilometers off the U.S. east coast, it can be inferred that thunderstorms triggered over the warm Gulf Stream current are an important source for the regional upper tropospheric NO(x) budget in autumn.
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Flight 10 of NASA's Subsonic Assessment (SASS) Ozone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX) extended southwest of Lajes, Azores. A variety of chemical signatures were encountered. These signatures are examined in detail, relating them to meteorological data from a high resolution numerical model having horizontal grid spacing of 30 and 90 km and 26 vertical levels. The meteorological output at hourly intervals is used to create backward trajectories from the locations of the chemical signatures. Four major categories of chemical signatures are discussed-stratospheric, lightning, continental pollution, and a transition layer. The strong stratospheric signal is encountered just south of the Azores in a region of depressed tropopause height. Three chemical signatures at different altitudes in the upper troposphere are attributed to lightning. Backward trajectories arriving at locations of these signatures are related to locations of cloud-to-ground lightning. Results show that the trajectories pass through regions of lightning 1-2 days earlier over the eastern Gulf of Mexico and off the southeast coast of the United States. The lowest leg of the flight exhibits a chemical signature consistent with continental pollution. Trajectories arriving at this signature are found to pass over the highly populated Northeast Corridor of the United States. Surface based pollution apparently is lofted to the altitudes of the trajectories by convective clouds along the East Coast that did not contain lightning. Finally, a chemical transition layer is described. Its chemical signature is intermediate to those of lightning and continental pollution. Trajectories arriving in this layer pass between the trajectories of the lightning and pollution signatures. Thus, they probably are impacted by both sources.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The impact of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LS) was estimated using the NO(y)-O3 correlation obtained during the SASS Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) carried out over the US continent and North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) region in October and November 1997. To evaluate the large scale impact, we made a reference NO(y)-O3 relationship in air masses, upon which aircraft emissions were considered to have little impact. For this purpose, the integrated input of NO(x) from aircraft into an air mass along a 10-d back trajectory (DELTA-NO(y)) was calculated based on the ANCAT/EC2 emission inventory. The excess NO(y) (dNO(y)) was calculated from the observed NO(y) and the reference NO(y)-O3 relationship. As a result, a weak positive correlation was found between the dNO(y) and DELTA-NO(y), and dNO(y) and NO(x)/NO(y) values, while no positive correlation between the dNO(y) and CO values was found, suggesting that dNO(y) values can be used as a measure of the NO(x) input from aircraft emissions. The excess NO(y) values calculated from another NO(y)-O3 reference relationship made using in-situ CN data also agreed with these dNO(y) values, within the uncertainties. At the NAFC region (45 N - 60 N), the median value of dNO(y) in the troposphere increased with altitude above 9 km and reached 70 pptv (20% of NO(y)) at 11 km. The excess NO(x) was estimated to be about half of the dNO(y) values, corresponding to 30% of the observed NO(x) level. Higher dNO(y) values were generally found in air masses where O3 = 75 - 125 ppbv, suggesting a more pronounced effect around the tropopause. The median value of dNO(y) in the stratosphere at the NAFC region at 8.5 - 11.5 km was about 120 pptv. The higher dNO(y) values in the LS were probably due to the accumulated effect of aircraft emissions, given the long residence time of affected air in the LS. Similar dNO(y) values were also obtained in air masses sampled over the US continent.
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Using state-of-the-art satellite-gauge monthly rainfall estimate and optimally interpolated sea surface temperature (SST) data, we have assessed the 1997-98 AA-monsoon anomalies in terms of three basic causal factors: basin-scale SST, regional coupling, and internal variability. Singular Value Decomposition analyses of rainfall and SST are carried out globally over the entire tropics and regionally over the AA-monsoon domain. Contributions to monsoon rainfall predictability by various factors are evaluated from cumulative anomaly correlation with dominant regional SVD modes. Results reveal a dominant, large-scale monsoon-El Nino coupled mode with well-defined centers of action in the near-equatorial monsoon regions during the boreal summer and winter respectively. The observed 1997-98 AA-monsoon anomalies are found to be very complex with approximately 34% of the anomalies of the Asian (boreal) summer monsoon and 74% of the Australia (austral) monsoon attributable to basin-scale SST influence associated with El Nino. Regional coupled processes contribute an additional 19% and 10%, leaving about 47% and 16% due to internal dynamics for the boreal and austral monsoon respectively. For the boreal summer monsoon, it is noted that the highest monsoon predictability is not necessary associated with major El Nino events (e.g. 1997, 1982) but rather in non-El Nino years (e.g. 1980, 1988) when contributions from the regional coupled modes far exceed those from the basin-scale SST. The results suggest that in order to improve monsoon seasonal-to-interannual predictability, there is a need to exploit not only monsoon-El Nino relationship, but also intrinsic monsoon regional coupled processes.
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Measurements of NO(x) and ozone performed during the NOXAR project are compared with results from the coupled chemistry-climate models ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM and GISS-model. The measurements are based on flights between Europe and the East coast of America and between Europe and the Far East in the latitude range 40 deg N to 65 deg N. The comparison concentrates on tropopause altitudes and reveals strong longitudinal variations of seasonal mean NO,, of 200 pptv. Either model reproduced strong variations 3 km below but not at the tropopause, indicating a strong missing NO(x) or NO(y) sink over remote areas, e.g. NO(x) to HNO3 conversion by OH from additional OH sources or HNO3 wash-out. Vertical profiles show maximum NO(x) values 2-3 km below the tropopause with a strong seasonal cycle. ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM reproduces a maximum, although located at the tropopause with a less pronounced seasonal cycle, whereas the GISS model reproduces the seasonal cycle but not the profile's shape due to its coarser vertical resolution. A comparison of NO(x) frequency distributions reveals that both models are capable of reproducing the observed variability, except that ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM shows no very high NO(x) mixing ratios. Ozone mean values, vertical profiles and frequency distributions are much better reproduced in either model, indicating that the NO(x) frequency distribution, namely the most frequent NO(x) mixing ratio, is more important for the tropospheric photochemical ozone production than its mean value. Both models show that among all sources, NO(x) from lightning contributes most to the seasonal cycle of NO(x) at tropopause altitudes. The impact of lightning in the upper troposphere on NO(x) does not vary strongly with altitude, whereas the impact of surface emissions decreases with altitude. However, the models show significant differences in lightning induced NO(x) concentrations, especially in winter, which may be related to the different treatment of the lower stratospheric coupling between dynamics and chemistry.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: An algorithm is presented for retrieving vertical profiles of O3 concentration using measurements of UV and visible light scattered from the limb of the atmosphere. The UV measurements provide information about the O3 profile in the upper and middle stratosphere, while only visible wavelengths are capable of probing the lower stratospheric O3 profile. Sensitivity to the underlying scene reflectance is greatly reduced by normalizing measurements at a tangent height high in the atmosphere (approximately 55 km), and relating measurements taken at lower altitudes to this normalization point. To decrease the effect of scattering by thin aerosols/clouds that may be present in the field of view, these normalized measurements are then combined by pairing wavelengths with strong and weak O3 absorption. We conclude that limb scatter can be used to measure O3 between 15 km and 50 km with 2-3 km vertical resolution and better than 10% accuracy.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Two instruments were flown on shuttle flight STS-87 to test a new technique for inferring the ozone vertical profile using measurements of scattered sunlight from the Earth's limb. The instruments were an ultraviolet imaging spectrometer designed to measure ozone between 30 and 50 km, and a multi-filter imaging photometer that uses 600 nm radiances to measure ozone between 15 km and 35 km. Two orbits of limb data were obtained on December 2, 1997. For the scans analyzed the ozone profile was measured from 15 km to 50 km with approximately 3 km vertical resolution. Comparisons with a profile from an ozonesonde launched from Ascension Island showed agreement mostly within +/- 5%. The tropopause at 15 km was clearly detected.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Airborne measurements of NO(x) total reactive nitrogen (NO(y)), O3 and condensation nuclei (CN) were made within air traffic corridors over the U.S. and North Atlantic regions (35-60 deg N) in the fall of 1997. NO(x) and NO(y) data obtained in the lowermost stratosphere (LS) were examined using the calculated increase in NO(y) ((delta)NO(y)) along five-day back trajectories as a parameter to identify possible effects of aircraft on reactive nitrogen. It is very likely that aircraft emissions had a significant impact on the NO(x) levels in the LS inasmuch as the NO(s), mixing ratios at 8.5-12 km were significantly correlated with the independent parameters of aircraft emissions, i.e., (delta)NO(y) levels and CN values. In order to estimate quantitatively the impact of aircraft emissions on NO(x), and CN, the background levels of CN and NO(x) at O3 = 100-200 ppbv were derived from the correlations of these quantities with (delta)NO(y)). On average, the aircraft emissions are estimated to have increased the NO(x) and CN values by 130 pptv and 400 STP,cc, respectively, which corresponds to 70 -/+ 30 % and 30 -/+ 20 % of the observed median values.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The Goddard trajectory chemistry model was used with ER-2 aircraft data to test our current knowledge of radical photochemistry during the POLARIS (Polar Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region In Summer) campaign. The results of the trajectory chemistry model with and without trajectories are used to identify cases where steady state does not accurately describe the measurements. Over the entire mission, using trajectory chemistry reduces the variability in the modeled NO(x) comparisons to data by 25% with respect to the same model simulating steady state. Although the variability is reduced, NO(x)/NO(y) trajectory model results were found to be systematically low relative to the observations by 20-30% as seen in previous studies. Using new rate constants for reactions important in NO(y) partitioning improves the agreement of NO(x)/NO(y) with the observations but a 5-10% bias still exists. OH and HO2 individually are underpredicted by 15% of the standard steady state model and worsen with the new rate constants. Trajectory chemistry model results of OH/HO2 were systematically low by 10-20% but improve using the new rates constants because of the explicit dependence on NO. This suggests that our understanding of NO(x) is accurate to the 20% level and HO(x) chemistry is accurate to the 30% level in the lower stratosphere or better for the POLARIS regime. The behavior of the NO(x) and HO(x) comparisons to data using steady state versus trajectory chemistry and with updated rate coefficients is discussed in ten-ns of known chemical mechanisms and lifetimes.
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Annual zonal averages of ozone amounts from Nimbus-7/TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) (1979 to 1992) are used to estimate the interannual variability of ozone and UVB (290 - 315 nm) irradiance between plus or minus 60 deg. latitude. Clear-sky interannual ozone and UVB changes are mainly caused by the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of stratospheric winds, and can amount to plus or minus 15% at 300 nm and plus or minus 5% at 310 nm (or erythemal irradiance) at the equator and at middle latitudes. Near the equator, the interannual variability of ozone amounts and UV irradiance caused by the combination of the 2.3 year QBO and annual cycles implies that there is about a 5-year periodicity in UVB variability. At higher latitudes, the appearance of the interannual UVB maximum is predicted by the QBO, but without the regular periodicity. The 5-year periodic QBO effects on UVB irradiance are larger than the currently evaluated long-term changes caused by the decrease in ozone amounts.
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Sea level has been rising for the past century, and inhabitants of the Earth's coastal regions will want to understand and predict future sea level changes. In this study we present results from new simulations of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global atmosphere-ocean model from 1950 to 2099. Model results are compared with observed sea level changes during the past 40 years at 17 coastal stations around the world. Using observed levels of greenhouse gases between 1950 and 1990 and a compounded 0.5% annual increase in Co2 after 1990, model projections show that global sea level measured from 1950 will rise by 61 mm in the year 2000, by 212 mm in 2050, and by 408 mm in 2089. By 2089, two thirds of the global sea level rise will be due to thermal expansion and one third will be due to ocean mass changes. The spatial distribution of sea level rise is different than that projected by rigid lid ocean models.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: We present a study of the distribution of ozone in the lowermost stratosphere with the goal of characterizing the observed variability. The air in the lowermost stratosphere is divided into two population groups based on Ertel's potential vorticity at 300 hPa. High (low) potential vorticity at 300 hPa indicates that the tropopause is low (high), and the identification of these two groups is made to account for the dynamic variability. Conditional probability distribution functions are used to define the statistics of the ozone distribution from both observations and a three-dimensional model simulation using winds from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System for transport. Ozone data sets include ozonesonde observations from northern midlatitude stations (1991-96) and midlatitude observations made by the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) (1994- 1998). The conditional probability distribution functions are calculated at a series of potential temperature surfaces spanning the domain from the midlatitude tropopause to surfaces higher than the mean tropical tropopause (approximately 380K). The probability distribution functions are similar for the two data sources, despite differences in horizontal and vertical resolution and spatial and temporal sampling. Comparisons with the model demonstrate that the model maintains a mix of air in the lowermost stratosphere similar to the observations. The model also simulates a realistic annual cycle. Results show that during summer, much of the observed variability is explained by the height of the tropopause. During the winter and spring, when the tropopause fluctuations are larger, less of the variability is explained by tropopause height. This suggests that more mixing occurs during these seasons. During all seasons, there is a transition zone near the tropopause that contains air characteristic of both the troposphere and the stratosphere. The relevance of the results to the assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft effluence is also discussed.
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The stretched-grid approach provides an efficient down-scaling and consistent interactions between global and regional scales due to using one variable-resolution model for integrations. It is a workable alternative to the widely used nested-grid approach introduced over a decade ago as a pioneering step in regional climate modeling. A variable-resolution General Circulation Model (GCM) employing a stretched grid, with enhanced resolution over the US as the area of interest, is used for simulating two anomalous regional climate events, the US summer drought of 1988 and flood of 1993. The special mode of integration using a stretched-grid GCM and data assimilation system is developed that allows for imitating the nested-grid framework. The mode is useful for inter-comparison purposes and for underlining the differences between these two approaches. The 1988 and 1993 integrations are performed for the two month period starting from mid May. Regional resolutions used in most of the experiments is 60 km. The major goal and the result of the study is obtaining the efficient down-scaling over the area of interest. The monthly mean prognostic regional fields for the stretched-grid integrations are remarkably close to those of the verifying analyses. Simulated precipitation patterns are successfully verified against gauge precipitation observations. The impact of finer 40 km regional resolution is investigated for the 1993 integration and an example of recovering subregional precipitation is presented. The obtained results show that the global variable-resolution stretched-grid approach is a viable candidate for regional and subregional climate studies and applications.
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: During the Aerosols99 trans-Atlantic cruise from Norfolk, VA, to Cape Town, South Africa, daily ozonesondes were launched from the NOAA R/V Ronald H Brown between 17 January and 6 February l999. A composite of tropospheric ozone profiles along the latitudinal transect shows 4 zones, which are interpreted using correlative shipboard ozone, CO, water vapor, and overhead aerosol optical thickness measurements. Elevated ozone associated with biomass burning north of the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone) is prominent at 3-5 km from 10-0N, but even higher ozone (100 ppbv, 7-10 km) occurred south of the ITCZ, where it was not burning. Column-integrated tropospheric ozone was 44 Dobson Units (DU) in one sounding, 10 DU lower than the maximum in a January-February 1993 Atlantic cruise with ozonesondes [Weller et al., 1996]. TOMS tropospheric ozone shows elevated ozone extending throughout the tropical Atlantic in January 1999. Several explanations are considered. Back trajectories, satellite aerosol observations and shipboard tracers suggest a combination of convection and interhemispheric transport of ozone and/or ozone precursors, probably amplified by a lightning NO source over Africa.
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Chemical data from flight 8 of NASA's Subsonic Assessment (SASS) Ozone and Nitrogen Oxide Experiment (SONEX) exhibited signatures consistent with aircraft emissions, stratospheric air, and surface-based pollution. These signatures are examined in detail, focussing on the broad aircraft emission signatures that are several hundred kilometers in length. A mesoscale meteorological model provides high resolution wind data that are used to calculate backward trajectories arriving at locations along the flight track. These trajectories are compared to aircraft locations in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor over a 27-33 hour period. Time series of flight level NO and the number of trajectory/aircraft encounters within the NAFC show excellent agreement. Trajectories arriving within the stratospheric and surface-based pollution regions are found to experience very few aircraft encounters. Conversely, there are many trajectory/aircraft encounters within the two chemical signatures corresponding to aircraft emissions. Even many detailed fluctuations of NO within the two aircraft signature regions correspond to similar fluctuations in aircraft encountered during the previous 27-33 hours. Results indicate that high resolution meteorological modeling, when coupled with detailed aircraft location data, is useful for understanding chemical signatures from aircraft emissions at scales of several hundred kilometers.
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Key questions to which SONEX was directed were the following: Can aircraft corridors be detected? Is there a unique tracer for aircraft NO(x)? Can a "background" NO(x) (or NO(y) be defined? What fraction of NO(x) measured during SONEX was from aircraft? How representative was SONEX of the North Atlantic in 1997 and how typical of other years? We attempt to answer these questions through species-species correlations, probability distribution functions (PDFs), and meteorological history. There is not a unique aircraft tracer, largely due to the high variability of air mass origins and tracer ratios, which render "average" quantities meaningless. The greatest NO and NO(y) signals were associated with lightning and convective NO sources. Well-defined background CO, NO(y) and NO(y)/ozone ratio appear in subsets of two cross-track flights with subtropical origins and five flights with predominantly mid-latitude air. Forty percent of the observations on these 7 flights showed NO(y)/ozone to be above background, evidently due to unreacted NO(x). This NO(x) is a combination of aircraft, lightning and surface pollution injected by convection. The strongly subtropical signatures in SONEX observations, confirmed by pv (potential vorticity) values along flight tracks, argues for most of the unreacted NO(x) originating from lightning. Potential vorticity statistics along SONEX flight tracks in 1992-1998, and for the North Atlantic as a whole, show the SONEX meteorological environment to be representative of the North Atlantic flight corridor in the October-November period.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: For the past decade, the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) has been the U.S. focal point for research on aircraft effects. In conjunction with U.S. basic research programs, AEAP and concurrent European research programs have driven remarkable progress reports released in 1999 [IPCC, 1999; Kawa et al., 1999]. The former report primarily focuses on aircraft effects in the upper troposphere, with some discussion on stratospheric impacts. The latter report focuses entirely on the stratosphere. The current status of research regarding aviation effects on stratospheric ozone and climate, as embodied by the findings of these reports, is reviewed. The following topics are addressed: Aircraft Emissions, Pollution Transport, Atmospheric Chemistry, Polar Processes, Climate Impacts of Supersonic Aircraft, Subsonic Aircraft Effect on the Stratosphere, Calculations of the Supersonic Impact on Ozone and Sensitivity to Input Conditions.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported that in the southeastern US and eastern China, the general greenhouse warming due to anthropogenic gaseous emissions is dominated by the cooling effect of anthropogenic aerosols. To verify this model prediction in eastern China and southeastern US, we analyzed regional patterns of climate changes at 72 stations in eastern China during 1951- 94 (44 years), and at 52 stations in the southeastern US during 1949-94 (46 years) to detect the fingerprint of aerosol radiative forcing. It was found that the mean rates of change of annual mean daily, maximum, minimum temperatures and diurnal temperature range (DTR) in eastern China were 0.8, -0.2, 1.8, and -2.0 C/100 years respectively, while the mean rates of change of annual mean daily, maximum, minimum temperatures and DTR in the southeastern US were -0.2, -0.6, 0.2, and -0.8 C/100 years, respectively. This indicates that the high rate of increase in annual mean minimum temperature in eastern China results in a slightly warming trend of daily temperature, while the high rate of decrease in annual mean maximum temperature and low rate of increase in annual mean minimum temperature lead to the cooling trend of daily temperature in the southeastern US. We found that the warming from the longwave forcing due to both greenhouse gases and aerosols was completely counteracted by the shortwave aerosol forcing in the southeastern US in the past 46 years. A slightly overall warming trend in eastern China is evident; winters have become milder. This finding is explained by hypothesizing that increasing energy usage during the past 44 years has resulted in more coal and biomass burning, thus increasing the emission of absorbing soot and organic aerosols in eastern China. Such emissions, in addition to well-known Asia dust and greenhouse gases, may be responsible for the winter warming trend in eastern China that we have reported here. The sensitivity of aerosol radiative properties to aerosol composition, size distribution, relative humidity (RH) is examined for the following aerosol systems: inorganic and organic ions (Cl-, Br-, NO3 -, SO4 2-, Na+, NH4 +, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCOO-, CH3COO-, CH3CH2COO-, CH3COCOO-, OOCCOO2-, MSA-1); water-insoluble inorganic and organic compounds (elemental carbon, n-alkanes, SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and other organic compounds). The partial molar refraction method was used to calculate the real part of the refractive index. It was found that the asymmetry factor increased by approximately 48% with the real part varying from 1.40 to 1.65, and the single scattering albedo decreased by 24% with the imaginary part varying from -0.005 to -0.1. The asymmetry factor increased by 5.4 times with the geometric standard deviation varying from 1.2 to 3.0. The radiation transmission is very sensitive to the change in size distribution; other factors are not as significant. To determine the aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF), the aerosol optical depth (AOD) values at the three operational wavelengths (415, 500 and 673 nm) were determined at a regionally representative site, namely, Mt. Gibbs (35.78 deg N, 82.29 deg W, elevation 2006 m) in Mt. Mitchell State Park, NC, and a site located in an adjacent valley (Black Mountain, 35.66 deg N, 82.38 deg W, elevation 951 m) in the southeastern US. The two sites are separated horizontally by 10 km and vertically by 1 km. It was found that the representative total AOD values at 500 nm at the valley site for highly polluted (HP), marine (M) and continental (C) air masses were 0.68 +/- 0.33, 0.29 +/- 0.19 and 0.10 +/- 0.04, respectively. A search-graph method was used to retrieve the columnar size distribution (number concentration N, effective radius reff and geometric standard deviation=?g) from the optical depth observations at three operational wavelengths. The ground albedo, single scattering albedo and imaginary part of the refractive index were calculated using a mathematically unique procedure involving a Mie code and a radiative transfer code in conjunction with the retrieved aerosol size distribution, AOD, and diffuse-direct irradiance ratio. It was found that N, r(eff) and sigma(g) were in the ranges of 10 to 1.7 x 10(exp 4)/cubic cm, 0.09 to 0.68 micrometers and 1.12 to 2.95, respectively. The asymmetry factor and single scattering albedo were in the ranges of 0.63 to 0.75 and 0.74 to 0.97 respectively. The ground albedo for the forested terrain and imaginary part of refractive index were found to be in the ranges of 0.06 to 0.29 and 0.005 to 0.051 respectively. On the basis of these aerosol radiative properties obtained at the research sites and computations using the Column Radiation Model (CRM) of National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model (CCM3), it was found that the average cloud-free 24-hour ADRF values were -13 +/- 8, -8 +/- 3, -33 +/- 16 W/square m for marine, continental, and polluted air masses, respectively. On the assumption that the fractional coverage of clouds is 0.61, it was estimated that the annual mean ADRF was 7 +/- 2 W/square m in the southeastern US. The review with respect to the current knowledge of organic acids shows that aerosol formate and acetate concentrations range from 0.02 to 5.3 nmol/cubic m and from 0.03 to 12.4 nmol/cubic m respectively, and that between 34% to 77% of formate and between 21% to 66% of acetate are present in the fine fraction of aerosols. It was found that although most (98-99%) of these volatile organic acids were present in the gas phase, their concentrations in the aerosol particles were sufficient to make them a good candidate for cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). It is hypothesized that organic acids are at least one of the primary sources of CCN in the atmosphere due to their ubiquitous presence in the troposphere, especially over the continental forested areas. The results of our measurements at Palmer Station, Antarctica show that the daily average CCN concentrations at 0.3% and 1% supersaturations ranged from 0.3 to 160/cubic cm and from 4 to 168/cubic cm, respectively, during the period from 17 January to 26 February, 1994. New evidence for substantial and definitive CCN enhancement near and within cloud has been observed at Mt. Mitchell, North Carolina. The results show that the average monthly CCN concentrations were 460 +/- 217, 386 +/- 286, 429 +/- 228 and 238 +/- 134/cubic cm for in-cloud, overcast, clear and rainy conditions, respectively. The typical CCN spectra show that there were a lot of small CCN produced and the ion concentrations (especially H+ and SO4 2-) were very high during the CCN enhancement period. The significantly positive correlation between black carbon (BC) and CCN at 1% supersaturation indicates that a percentage of the BC measured at the site may be in the form of an internal mixture and participated in the formation of CCN.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Airborne, in-situ measurements from PEM-Tropics-A (September/October 1996) are analyzed to show the presence of distinct pollution plumes in the middle-tropical troposphere of the remote South Pacific (10-30degS). These elevated plumes cause a relative maximum at about 5-7km attitude in the vertical distribution of primary and secondary species characteristic of fuel combustion and biomass burning (CO, C2H2, C2H6, CH3Cl, PAN, O3). Similar plumes were also observed at mid-latitudes in the middle troposphere during three flights east of New Zealand (40-45degS). In all, pollution plumes with CO larger than 100 ppb were observed 24 times on 7 separate flight days south of the equator. The observed plumes were generally embedded in very dry air. Ten-day back trajectory analysis supports the view that these originated from the biomass burning regions of South Africa (and South America) and were transported to the South Pacific along long-distance subsiding trajectories. The chemical composition of the southern Pacific troposphere analyzed from the PEM-Tropics-A data is compared with data from the tropical regions of the northern Pacific (PEM-West-A) and southern Atlantic (TRACE-A) during the same Sept/Oct time period. Sizable perturbations in the abundance of ozone and its key precursors, resulting from the transport of pollution originating from biomass burning sources, are observed in much of the Southern Hemispheric troposphere.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Angular distributions of spectral reflectance for four common arctic surfaces: snow-covered sea ice, melt-season sea ice, snow-covered tundra, and tundra shortly after snowmelt were measured using an aircraft based, high angular resolution (1-degree) multispectral radiometer. Results indicate bidirectional reflectance is higher for snow-covered sea ice than melt-season sea ice at all wavelengths between 0.47 and 2.3 pm, with the difference increasing with wavelength. Bidirectional reflectance of snow-covered tundra is higher than for snow-free tundra for measurements less than 1.64 pm, with the difference decreasing with wavelength. Bidirectional reflectance patterns of all measured surfaces show maximum reflectance in the forward scattering direction of the principal plane, with identifiable specular reflection for the melt-season sea ice and snow-free tundra cases. The snow-free tundra had the most significant backscatter, and the melt-season sea ice the least. For sea ice, bidirectional reflectance changes due to snowmelt were more significant than differences among the different types of melt-season sea ice. Also the spectral-hemispherical (plane) albedo of each measured arctic surface was computed. Comparing measured nadir reflectance to albedo for sea ice and snow-covered tundra shows albedo underestimated 5-40%, with the largest bias at wavelengths beyond 1 pm. For snow-free tundra, nadir reflectance underestimates plane albedo by about 30-50%.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The impact of NO(x) from aircraft emissions, lightning and surface contributions on atmospheric nitrogen oxides and ozone has been investigated with the three-dimensional global chemistry transport model TM3 by partitioning the nitrogen oxides and ozone according to source category. The results have been compared with POLINAT II and SONEX airborne measurements in the North Atlantic flight corridor in 1997. Various cases have been investigated: measurements during a stagnant anti-cyclone and an almost cut-off low, both with expected high aircraft contributions, a southward bound flight with an expected strong flight corridor gradient and lightning contributions in the South, and a transatlantic flight with expected boundary layer pollution near the U.S. coast. The agreement between modeled results and measurements is reasonably good for NO and ozone. Also, the calculated impact of the three defined sources were consistent with the estimated exposure of the sampled air to these sources, obtained by specialized back-trajectory model products.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The 6-year wind archives from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies/Global Climate-Middle Atmosphere Model (GISS/GCMAM) were in- put to the GISS/Harvard/Irvine Chemical Transport Model (G/H/I CTM) to study the seasonal and interannual variability of the budgets and distributions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and trichlorofluoromethane (CCl3F), with the corresponding chemical loss frequencies recycled and boundary conditions kept unchanged from year to year. The effects of ozone feedback and quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) were not included. However, the role of circulation variation in driving the lifetime variability is investigated. It was found that the global loss rates of these tracers are related to the extratropical planetary wave activity, which drives the tropical upward mass flux. For N2O, a semiannual signal in the loss rate variation is associated with the interhemispheric asymmetry in the upper stratospheric wave activity. For CCl3F, the semiannual signal is weaker, associated with the comparatively uniform wave episodes in the lower stratosphere. The loss rates lag behind the wave activity by about 1-2 months. The interannual variation of the GCM generated winds drives the interannual variation of the annually averaged lifetime. The year-to-year variations of the annually averaged lifetimes can be about 3% for N2O and 4% for CCl3F.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GCN-99-59
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The sensitivity of global and regional climate to changes in vegetation density is investigated using a coupled biosphere-atmosphere model. The magnitude of the vegetation changes and their spatial distribution are based on natural decadal variability of the normalized difference vegetation index (ndvi). Different scenarios using maximum and minimum vegetation cover were derived from satellite records spanning the period 1982-1990. Albedo decreased in the northern latitudes and increased in the tropics with increased ndvi. The increase in vegetation density revealed that the vegetation's physiological response was constrained by the limits of the available water resources. The difference between the maximum and minimum vegetation scenarios resulted in a 46% increase in absorbed visible solar radiation and a similar increase in gross photosynthetic C02 uptake on a global annual basis. This caused the canopy transpiration and interception fluxes to increase, and reduced those from the soil. The redistribution of the surface energy fluxes substantially reduced the Bowen ratio during the growing season, resulting in cooler and moister near-surface climate, except when soil moisture was limiting. Important effects of increased vegetation on climate are : (1) A cooling of about 1.8 K in the northern latitudes during the growing season and a slight warming during the winter, which is primarily due to the masking of high albedo of snow by a denser canopy. and (2) A year round cooling of 0.8 K in the tropics. These results suggest that increases in vegetation density could partially compensate for parallel increases in greenhouse warming . Increasing vegetation density globally caused both evapotranspiration and precipitation to increase. Evapotranspiration, however increased more than precipitation resulting in a global soil-water deficit of about 15 %. A spectral analysis on the simulated results showed that changes in the state of vegetation could affect the low-frequency modes of the precipitation distribution and might reduce its low frequency variability in the tropics while increasing it in northern latitudes.
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GCN-99-50
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This report assesses the potential atmospheric impacts of a proposed fleet of high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft. The purpose of the report is to assess the effects of HSCT's on atmospheric composition and climate in order to provide a scientific basis for making technical, commercial, and environmental policy decisions regarding the HSCT fleet. The work summarized here was carried out as part of NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (a component of the High-Speed Research Program) as well as other NASA, U.S., and international research programs. The principal focus is on change in stratospheric ozone concentrations. The impact on climate change is also a concern. The report describes progress in understanding atmospheric processes, the current state of understanding of HSCT emissions, numerical model predictions of HSCT impacts, the principal uncertainties in atmospheric predictions, and the associated sensitivities in predicted effects of HSCT'S.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NASA/TP-1999-209237 , Rept-99B00055 , NAS 1.60:209237
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: An immense global plume of CO meanders widely around the world in the Southern Hemisphere. It arises over Southern America and Africa and flows eastward. The first emissions are in tropical Brazil, and the plume circulates around the world to South America again. The plume was largely unexpected until there were aircraft studies made in NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission - Tropics (Part A). This paper describes the meteorology of the Global Plume, as our simulation, with a synoptic model adapted to global transport, reveals it with a tracer-CO simulation. The observations and their simulation require a particular set of conditions of pollutant accumulation, cumulonimbus venting with required strengths at a narrow range of altitude. Additionally, a particular subtropical conduction region, over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and the westeRNmost South Pacific, relatively free of storms, appears to be a key part of the mechanism. These conclusions are the results of a synoptic reconstruction of the PEMT-A period, September- October, 1996.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Launches of Delta, Atlas, and Titan rockets from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) have potential environmental effects. These could occur from direct impacts of launches or indirectly from habitat alterations. This report summarizes a three-year study (1 995-1 998) characterizing the environment, with particular attention to threatened and endangered species, near Delta, Atlas, and Titan launch facilities. Cape Canaveral has been modified by Air Force development and by 50 years of fire suppression. The dominant vegetation type around the Delta and Atlas launch complexes is coastal oak hammock forest. Oak scrub is the predominant upland vegetation type near the Titan launch complexes. Compositionally, these are coastal scrub communities that has been unburned for 〉 40 years and have developed into closed canopy, low-stature forests. Herbaceous vegetation around active and inactive facilities, coastal strand and dune vegetation near the Atlantic Ocean, and exotic vegetation in disturbed areas are common. Marsh and estuarine vegetation is most common west of the Titan complexes. Launch effects to vegetation include scorch, acid, and particulate deposition. Discernable, cumulative effects are limited to small areas near the launch complexes. Water quality samples were collected at the Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes in September 1995 (wet season) and January 1996 (dry season). Samples were analyzed for heavy metals, chloride, total organic carbon, calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, total alkalinity, pH, and conductivity. Differences between fresh, brackish, and saline surface waters were evident. The natural buffering capacity of the environment surrounding the CCAS launch complexes is adequate for neutralizing acid deposition in rainfall and launch deposition. Populations of the Florida Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens), a Federally-listed, threatened species, reside near the launch complexes. Thirty-seven to forty-one scrub-jay territories were located at Titan, Atlas, and Delta launch complexes between 1995 and 1997. No direct impacts to scrub-jays were observed as a result of normal launches. The explosion of the Delta rocket in January 1997 caused direct impacts to the habitat of several scrub-jays families, from fire and debris; however, no scrub-jay mortality was observed. Mortality exceeded reproductive output at all areas over the course of the study. Populations of the southeastern beach mouse (Peromyscus polionotus niveiventris) populations, a Federally listed, threatened species, reside near all the launch complexes. Hurricane Erin and several other tropical storms impacted several areas at the inception of the study in 1995 causing coastal habitat alterations as a result of salt-water intrusion. Both the habitat and the beach mice populations recovered during the course of the study. No direct impacts to southeastern beach mice were observed as a result of normal launch operations. Direct impacts were observed to the habitat as a result of the explosion of the Delta rocket in January 1997. This alteration of the habitat resulted in a shift in use with the mice moving on to the newly burned part of the site. Waterbirds use wetlands and aquatic systems near the launch complexes. Species include the Federally-listed, endangered Wood Stork (Mycferia americana) and several state-listed species of special concern including the Snowy Egret (Egretfa thula fhula), Reddish Egret (Egreffa rufescens rufescens), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), Roseate Spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), Tricolored Heron (Egreffa tricolor ruficolis), and Little Blue Heron (Egreffa caerulea). No impacts to these populations resulting from any launch operations were observed. Gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) also occur around the launch complexes. Most of those observed appeared to be in good condition; however, upper respiratory tract disease is known to occur in the population. Cape Canaveral Air Station, including areas near active launch colexes, remains important habitat for a variety of native plants and animals including threatened and endangered species. Direct negative effects of current launch systems appear limited. Additional monitoring of these populations and habitats is required to determine if subtle, long-term changes are occurring, to determine if new launch systems and facilities cause other effects, and to determine the effects of habitat restoration and management.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NASA/TM-1999-208553
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This paper outlines the methodology of interpreting channel 1 and 2 AVHRR radiance data over the oceans and describes a detailed analysis of the sensitivity of monthly averages of retrieved aerosol parameters to the assumptions made in different retrieval algorithms. The analysis is based on using real AVHRR data and exploiting accurate numerical techniques for computing single and multiple scattering and spectral absorption of light in the vertically inhomogeneous atmosphere-ocean system. We show that two-channel algorithms can be expected to provide significantly more accurate and less biased retrievals of the aerosol optical thickness than one-channel algorithms and that imperfect cloud screening and calibration uncertainties are by far the largest sources of errors in the retrieved aerosol parameters. Both underestimating and overestimating aerosol absorption as well as the potentially strong variability of the real part of the aerosol refractive index may lead to regional and/or seasonal biases in optical thickness retrievals. The Angstrom exponent appears to be the most invariant aerosol size characteristic and should be retrieved along with optical thickness as the second aerosol parameter.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GCN-99-60
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The (GISS) Goddard Institute for Space Studies coupled atmosphere-ocean model is used to investigate the effect of increased atmospheric CO2 by comparing a compounded 1 percent CO2 increase experiment with a control simulation. After 70 years of integration, the global surface air temperature in the 1 percent CO2 experiment is 1.43 C warmer. In spite of this global warming, there are two distinct regions, the northern Atlantic Ocean and the southern Pacific Ocean, where the surface air temperature is up to 4 C cooler. This situation is maintained by two positive feedbacks: a local effect on convection in the South Pacific and a non-local impact on the meridional circulation in the North Atlantic. The poleward transport of latent energy and dry static energy by the atmosphere is greater in the 1 percent CO2 experiment, caused by warming and therefore increased water vapor and greater greenhouse capacity at lower latitudes. The larger atmospheric transports tend to reduce upward vertical fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean surface at high latitudes, which has the effect of stabilizing the ocean, reducing both convection and the thermohaline circulation. With less convection, less warm water is brought up from below, and with a reduced North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (by 30 percent at time of CO2 doubling), the poleward energy transport by the oceans decreases. The colder water then leads to further reductions in evaporation, decreases of salinity at high latitudes, continued stabilization of the ocean, and maintenance of reduced convection and meridional overturning. Although sea ice decreases globally, it increases in the cooling regions which reduces the overall climate sensitivity; its effect is most pronounced in the Southern Hemisphere. Tropical warming has been observed over the past several decades; if modeling studies such as this and others which have produced similar effects are valid, these processes may already be beginning.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: GCN-99-49
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The current effort addresses two issues important to the research conducted by the Thermal Radiation Group at Virginia Tech. The first research topic involves the development of a method which can properly model the diffraction of radiation as it enters an instrument aperture. The second topic involves the study of a potential next-generation space-borne radiometric instrument concept. Presented are multiple modeling efforts to describe the diffraction of monochromatic radiant energy passing through an aperture for use in the Monte-Carlo ray-trace environment. Described in detail is a deterministic model based upon Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the particle theory of light. This method is applicable to either Fraunhofer or Fresnel diffraction situations, but is incapable of predicting the secondary fringes in a diffraction pattern. Also presented is a second diffraction model, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle with a correcting obliquity factor. This model is useful for predicting Fraunhofer diffraction, and can predict the secondary fringes because it keeps track of phase. NASA is planning for the next-generation of instruments to follow CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System), an instrument which measures components of the Earth's radiant energy budget in three spectral bands. A potential next-generation concept involves modification of the current CERES instrument to measure in a larger number of wavelength bands. This increased spectral partitioning would be achieved by the addition of filters and detectors to the current CERES geometry. The capacity of the CERES telescope to serve for this purpose is addressed in this thesis.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: This report assesses the potential atmospheric impacts of a proposed fleet of high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft. The purpose of the report is to assess the effects of HSCT's on atmospheric composition and climate in order to provide a scientific basis for making technical, commercial, and environmental policy decisions regarding the HSCT fleet. The work summarized here was carried out as part of NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (a component of the High-Speed Research Program) as well as other NASA, U.S., and international research programs. The principal focus is on change in stratospheric ozone concentrations. The impact on climate change is also a concern. The report describes progress in understanding atmospheric processes, the current state of understanding of HSCT emissions, numerical model predictions of HSCT impacts, the principal uncertainties in atmospheric predictions, and the associated sensitivities in predicted effects of HSCT's.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NASA/TP-1999-209237 , NAS 1.60:209237 , Rept-99B00055
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: Mixing ratios of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCS) were not enhanced in whole air samples collected within the North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) during the fall of 1997. The investigation was conducted aboard NASA's DC-8 research aircraft, as part of the Subsonic Assessment-Ozone and Nitrogen Experiment (SONEX). NMHC enhancements were not detected within the general Organized Tracking System (OTS) of the NAFC, nor during two tail-chases of the DC-8's own exhaust. Because positive evidence of aircraft emissions was demonstrated by enhancements in both nitrogen oxides and condensation nuclei during SONEX, the NMHC results suggest that the commercial air traffic fleet operating in the North Atlantic region does not contribute significantly to NMHCs in the NAFC.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The MIT group participated in seven publications in the 1999 issues of JGR with sections devoted in PEM-Tropics A, and had two papers which may be considered offshoots of these studies combined with commercial aircraft trace constituents data, one in Nature and one in EOS. In the meteorological overview we contributed a set of 1000 hPa divergent wind maps which we calculated from ECMWF data, meridional wind cross-sections, velocity potential and divergent wind maps, maps of stream function and rotational wind components, and vertical velocity profiles computed from mass balance, these all constituting part of the overall climatology. We also contributed material for the "stalactite" case observed from the DC-8 on September 3, 1996. This included a map of potential vorticity on 350 K, a cross-section of lidaro O3 a cross-section of potential vorticity along 140 deg W, and a map of specific humidity showing extreme dryness accompanying the high potential vorticity values and the high ozone values, all suggesting subsidence from the local stratosphere. In the paper on chemical characteristics we contributed 12 hour values of the 1000 hPa divergent wind component for the full period of PEM Tropics A; these were used by David Westberg to establish the air mass boundaries and in turn used by Gerry Gregory to set up a table of quantitative values of trace constituents and their ratios both sides of the boundaries.
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: High spectral resolution (0.003 per cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5N, 155.6W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4-16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first 2 years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4-16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32'N and 45'S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4-16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997- 1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Paper-1999JD900366 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 104; D15; 18,667-18,680
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The first Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument has been returning useful data on Earth's radiation budget from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft since late 1997. Validation of the initial data is now intensively underway. As one component of this validation, the CERES Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) project has been operational since April 1998 - the 2nd CERES validation month. S'COOL involves school children in over 140 schools in 15 countries on 5 continents in making and reporting observations and measurements which they and CERES scientists can then compare to the satellite retrievals. The project is planned to continue through the life of the CERES Project (nominally 15 years), and new participants are invited to join on a continuous basis. This paper will report on the first year of the operational phase of the project, during which a number of exciting events occurred (a demonstration of the project to First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, and visits by CERES personnel to participating schools, among others). It will further report on some of the noteworthy observations and comparisons which have been made possible by this project. We have found that schools are often located in interesting places, in terms of the clouds found there and the satellite's ability to observe these clouds. The paper will also report on the learning opportunities delivered by this project, and on new questions about the planet and its climate which arise in the students' minds as a result of their active participation.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Education; 10-15 Jan. 1999; Dallas, TX; United States
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This report documents the research performed under NASA Ames Cooperative Agreement NCC 2-991, which covered the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1999. Previously, an interim technical report (Technical Report No. 1, 20 March 1998) summarized the work completed during the period 1 April 1997 through 31 March 1998. The objective of the proposed research was to advance our understanding of atmospheric aerosol behavior, aerosol-induced climatic effects, and the remote measurement and retrieval capabilities of spaceborne sensors such as SAGE II by combining and comparing data from these instruments and from airborne and ground-based instruments.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In response to the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, the Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines was organized by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held on July 29-30, 1997 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to develop consensus among experts in the field of aerosols from gas turbine combustors and engines as to important issues and venues to be considered. Workshop participants' expertise included engine and aircraft design, combustion processes and kinetics, atmospheric science, fuels, and flight operations and instrumentation.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: NASA/CP-1999-208918 , E-11676 , NAS 1.55:208918 , 29-30 Jul. 1997; Cleveland, OH; United States
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  • 67
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This report discusses the work done in validation the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) data. This data was analyzed and compared to data from the RS-80 radiosonde. After an error was found and corrected in the programs used to analyze the LASE data, the results were closer to the results expected. The interpretation of the LASE measurements was based on the use of the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model. This work is further described in the report.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 68
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Increased droughts are to be expected in a warmer world, and so are increased floods. A warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture, and evaporate more water from the surface. Thus, when it is not raining, available soil water should be reduced. When it is raining, it could very well rain harder. Most researchers agree then that a warmer world will have greater hydrologic extremes. In addition, there is a basic imbalance that develops as climate warms, between the loss of moisture from the soil by evaporation and replenishment via precipitation. The land has a smaller heat capacity than the ocean, so it should warm faster. Evaporation from the land proceeds at the rate of its warming, while precipitation derives primarily from evaporation at the ocean surface. As the latter is increasing more slowly, in a warmer world, precipitation will not increase as rapidly as evaporation due to the fact that the oceans warm more slowly than the land surface (evaporation over the ocean is slower than over the land). Hence, more droughts are anticipated in a warmer world, but the specific location of such droughts is somewhat uncertain. To address the question of where droughts are likely to occur, one first needs to have a reasonable sense of what the future magnitude of warming will be, and what the latitudinal distribution of warming will be. For example, the greater the warming at high latitudes relative to low latitudes, the more likely there will be increased drought over the U.S. in summer. In contrast, substantial tropical warming could give us El Nino-like precipitation, with intensified flooding along the southern tier of the U.S. All of these conditions are likely to intensify as the global temperature rises.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: 25 Jan. 1999; Washington, DC; United States
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The archived ozone profiles from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) have already been corrected for the effects of the spectrally varying, interfering absorption due to aerosols composed of aqueous sulfuric acid, and agreement with correlative measurements in the stratosphere is generally excellent. However, comparisons of sets of coincident HALOE and ozonesonde profiles indicate occasional large differences at the lowest levels of the stratosphere. Most of those instances occur at altitudes just below a well-defined minimum in the 5.26 microns channel aerosol extinction profile, whose wavelength dependence is not represented by a sulfuric acid aerosol model. Further, when the aerosol extinction exceeds about 10(exp 3)/ km, the aerosol correction to the ozone channel transmittances is both large and uncertain. After screening out the HALOE ozone profile segments whose corresponding aerosol/cirrus corrections are likely uncertain and after averaging lie ozonesonde profiles into 2.5 km thick layers, we find that the HALOE ozone areas, on average, to within 10% of their coincident ozonesonde measurements down to 100 hPa at tropical/subtropical latitudes and to 200 hPa at extratropical latitudes. A tightening of the coincidence criteria for the comparisons does not improve the mean differences for the sets nearly as much. Part of the variance of the paired differences was also accounted for when the ozonesonde profile values were integrated into those 2.5 km layers, prior to taking differences. This improvement is due mainly to the vertical averaging of the local, higher-resolution ozonesonde data, matching the lower resolution for HALOE ozone in the lower stratosphere. It is concluded that HALOE is providing accurate ozone profiles throughout the lower stratosphere, when its correction for interfering aerosols has been well characterized and when cirrus layers are not indicated.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Paper-1999JD900055 , Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 104; D8; 9261-9275
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  • 70
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The primary constituents of the Earth's atmosphere are molecular nitrogen and molecular oxygen. Ozone is created when ultraviolet light from the sun photodissociates molecular oxygen into two oxygen atoms. The oxygen atoms undergo many collisions but eventually combine with a molecular oxygen to form ozone (O3). The ozone molecules absorb ultraviolet solar radiation, primarily in the wavelength region between 200 and 300 nanometers, resulting in the dissociation of ozone back into atomic oxygen and molecular oxygen. The oxygen atom reattaches to an O2 molecule, reforming ozone which can then absorb another ultraviolet photon. This sequence goes back and forth between atomic oxygen and ozone, each time absorbing a uv photon, until the oxygen atom collides with and ozone molecule to reform two oxygen molecules.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: UNISPACE; 19-30 Jul. 1999; Vienna; Austria
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Land surface processes are known to have a profound impact on the overlying atmosphere over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Many atmospheric numerical models include special parameterizations to improve the specification and partitioning of surface fluxes which are critical to the accurate prediction of warm season boundary layer behavior, organized mesoscale circulations, and convective precipitation. However, the added degrees of freedom resulting from the inclusion of vegetation and soil schemes require the specification of additional surface parameters such as vegetative resistances, green vegetation fraction, leaf area index, soil physical and hydraulic characteristics, and the vertical distribution of soil moisture. As satellite data have become more readily available in recent years, many investigations have attempted to use these new measurements to infer missing components of the surface energy budget. Sensitivity studies have shown land-skin temperature (LST) tendencies during the mid-morning hours are strongly sensitive to the surface moisture availability (a function of soil wetness and vegetation) and less sensitive to other parameters such as surface roughness. Based upon results from these and other studies, developed a simple technique that dynamically assimilates Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) derived land-surface products into the surface energy budget of a mesoscale model. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that assimilating the GOES satellite data has the potential to improve the representation of land surface characteristics within the model without prior knowledge of the land surface characteristics. The assimilation technique is presented in Section 2 and the numerical experiments are detailed in Section 3. Preliminary results and conclusions are presented in Sections 4 and 5, respectively.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Land Surface Modeling; 21-25 Jun. 1999; Boulder, CO; United States
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: ABSTRACT The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, etc. and data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft, its materials, and its instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other government agencies, National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and will present SEE contamination engineering technology development and risk mitigation for future spacecraft design.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: Optical System Contamination; 18-23 Jul. 1999; Denver, CO; United States
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A survey of the photography taken by cosmonauts and astronauts from the Mir station during the NASA-Mir mission was undertaken in order to understand the global spatial patterns of biomass burning events and their associated smoke palls. These NASA-Mir photographs provided spatial and temporal profiles of these dynamic and vital environmental phenomena. The information extracted from the photographic data has the potential to be integrated into the current atmospheric and environmental models to refine their predictive capabilities. In this photo-essay, we provide the results of survey of the NASA-Mir documentation of biomass burning and smoke palls.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Summer Faculty Fellowship Program, 1998; 1; 8-1 - 8-15; NASA/CR-1999-208923/VOL1
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: AERONET is an optical ground-based aerosol monitoring network and data archive supported by NASA's Earth Observing System and expanded by federation with many non-NASA institutions including AEROCAN (AERONET CANada) and PHOTON (PHOtometrie pour le Traiteinent Operatonnel de Normalisation Satellitaire). The network hardware consists of identical automatic sun-sky scanning spectral radiometers owned by national agencies and universities purchased for their own monitoring and research objectives. Data are transmitted hourly through the data collection system (DCS) on board the geostationary meteorological satellites GMS, GOES and METEOSAT and received in a common archive for daily processing utilizing a peer reviewed series of algorithms thus imposing a standardization and quality control of the product data base. Data from this collaboration provides globally distributed near real time observations of aerosol spectral optical depths, aerosol size distributions, and precipitable water in diverse aerosol regimes. Access to the AERONET data base has shifted from the interactive program 'demonstrat' (reserved for PI's) to the AERONET homepage allowing faster access and greater development for GIS object oriented retrievals and analysis with companion geocoded data sets from satellites, LIDAR and solar flux measurements for example. We feel that a significant yet under utilized component of the AERONET data base are inversion products made from hourly principal plane and almucanter measurements. The current inversions have been shown to retrieve aerosol volume size distributions. A significant enhancement to the inversion code has been developed and is presented in these proceedings.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: 17-23 Jan. 1999; Meribel; France
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The objective of the research supported by this grant was the development of a new instrument to both further the technology of small, lightweight instruments for robotic aircraft and to achieve the ability to detect ClONO2, NO2, ClO and BrO from the NASA ER-2 aircraft. All of these objectives were accomplished.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Current uncertainties in the effects of clouds and aerosols on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations - Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO-CENA) is a recently approved satellite mission within NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program which will address these uncertainties with a unique suite of active and passive instruments. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) demonstrated the potential benefits of space lidar for studies of clouds and aerosols. PICASSO-CENA builds on this experience with a payload consisting of a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive lidar, an oxygen A-band spectrometer (ABS), an imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and a wide field camera (WFC). Data from these instruments will be used to measure the vertical distributions of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosols and clouds which influence the Earth radiation budget. PICASSO-CENA will be flown in formation with the PM satellite of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide a comprehensive suite of coincident measurements of atmospheric state, aerosol and cloud optical properties, and radiative fluxes. The mission will address critical uncertainties iin the direct radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds as well as aerosol influences on cloud radiative properties and cloud-climate radiation feedbacks. PICASSO-CENA is planned for a three year mission, with a launch in early 2003. PICASSO-CENA is being developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: 10th Conference on Atmospheric Radiation; 290-293|Atmospheric Radiation; 28 Jun. - 2 Jul. 1999; Madison, WI; United States
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: This Joint Research Interchange was originally Proposed concurrent with the launch in the fall of 1996 of a revolutionary new satellite sensor which offered great promise to significantly advance atmospheric, oceanographic and land surface studies, i.e., ADEOS POLDER (Advanced Earth Observation Satellite / POLarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance). Unfortunately, the ADEOS mission ended on June 30, 1997 due to a loss of power. As a consequence, this NASA-UVM collaboration was redirected to focus on analyses of airborne-POLDER data acquired in support of the joint U.S.-Canada Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in the summer of 1994. We present here a brief summary of results of that effort; details are provided in the manuscripts referenced below.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In a 1994 National Research Council report, "Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft: An Evaluation of NASA's Interim Assessment", the assessment panel's key issues for better determining the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft, particularly on ozone, were presented.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In order to analyze and share results of global change data sets, scientists require a venue in which to exchange their results. One appropriate medium for these collaborative efforts is the world wide web. Intuitive and efficient user interfaces, and background processes have been developed at the Global Hydrology and Climate Center to interactively view weather satellite, radar, global temperature anomaly, and model output data using the world wide web. These tools combine scripts, Java and C code which allows the user to easily interact with data, to create high resolution sector images, and sectored animation sequences. This paper examines the architecture and interfaces and how they are used for collaborative research.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: IIPS for Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology; 10-15 Jan. 1999; Dallas, TX; United States
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Since the pioneer works of Bjerknes (1966,1969) many studies have been conducted to understand the El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. These studies have led to a basic understanding of the dynamics of El Nino. Central to the couple dynamics of ENSO is the delayed action oscillator theory (Suarez and Schopf 1988), which successfully describes the cyclic feature of El Nino. While the oscillatory feature of El Nino is reasonably well understood, the irregularity of El Nino, the effect of monsoon on ENSO, and the response of coupled system to the global warming are still under debate. In the present study, we attempt to provide some theoretical understanding of possible impacts of seasonal cycle, monsoon, and climate changes on ENSO using intermediate coupled model.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: 10-15 Jan. 1999; Dallas, TX; United States
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  • 81
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In this study, we have developed time series of global temperature from 1980-97 based on the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) Ch 2 (53.74 GHz) observations taken from polar-orbiting NOAA operational satellites. In order to create these time series, systematic errors (approx. 0.1 K) in the Ch 2 data arising from inter-satellite differences are removed objectively. On the other hand, smaller systematic errors (approx. 0.03 K) in the data due to orbital drift of each satellite cannot be removed objectively. Such errors are expected to remain in the time series and leave an uncertainty in the inferred global temperature trend. With the help of a statistical method, the error in the MSU inferred global temperature trend resulting from orbital drifts and residual inter-satellite differences of all satellites is estimated to be 0.06 K decade. Incorporating this error, our analysis shows that the global temperature increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.06 K decade during 1980-97.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: 10-15 Jan. 1999; Dallas, TX; United States
    Format: application/pdf