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  • M14  (26)
  • ddc:300  (23)
  • Einkommensverteilung  (21)
  • Spanish  (70)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: This study aims to explore the key factors that may affect the entrepreneurial capacity of students of Higher Education Centers (CES). Once the factors were established, these were grouped into internal and external to the ESCs, then the AHP method was applied to determine the relative weights of each of the criteria to groups of experts belonging to different disciplines and Latin American countries. Through the consensus of the experts, the results indicate that internal factors that most influence the entrepreneurship of their students are "Entrepreneurial Spirit", "Work Experience" and "Performance of specific courses" and as external factors affect to a greater extent "The Networks", "Friends" and "Scope of development". The results of the study can be used as an important reference for educational establishments, to define strategies based on these factors, which help to improve ecosystems within their centers, effectively enhancing the entrepreneurial capacity of their students.
    Keywords: I23 ; M13 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; entrepreneurship ; Higher Education centers ; entrepreneurial capacity ; entrepreneurial ecosystem
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Este artículo examina las dinámicas en torno a los mecanismos de participación ciudadana que se han activado en fronteras extractivas de Colombia desde 2004 con el fin de proteger las fuentes de agua, los territorios y los medios de vida campesinos. Los casos demuestran que ha habido dos olas de democratización ambiental en Colombia, que existe una sinergia entre los instrumentos de deliberación y de participación, tensiones entre la democracia participativa y la representativa, y que los discursos sobre el agua constituyen un hilo conductor que unifica la movilización para la democratización ambiental en el contexto de los conflictos socio ambientales. La emergencia de, y las barreras a, la democratización ambiental se analizan como dos tendencias opuestas constituidas por diferentes capas de lógicas y estrategias. Vistas en el contexto nacional, las movilizaciones sociales en las fronteras extractivas están reinterpretando la democracia, fortaleciendo las luchas por la justicia ambiental y poniendo de manifiesto las contradicciones del capitalismo. La respuesta de la sociedad en general a estas iniciativas tiene implicaciones importantes para el futuro de modelos económicos menos destructivos y para la democracia misma.
    Description: This article examines the dynamics around citizen participation mechanisms activated in the extractive frontiers of Colombia since 2004 to protect water sources, territories, and peasant livelihoods. The cases show that there have been two waves of environmental democratisation in Colombia; that there is synergy between the instruments of deliberation and participation, as well as tension between participatory and representative democracy; and that water discourses are a common thread that unifies mobilisation for environmental democratisation in the context of socio-environmental conflicts. The emergence of and barriers to environmental democratisation are analysed as two opposing trends constituted by different logics and strategies. Viewed in the national context, the social mobilisations emerging in extractive frontiers are reinterpreting democracy, strengthening claims for environmental justice, and making evident the contradictions of capitalism. The response of the broader society has important implications for the future of less destructive economic models and for democracy itself.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; environmental democratisation ; water ; extractive frontiers ; Colombia ; Latin America ; socio‐environmental conflicts
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: This research tested and empirically analyzes the in uence of certain intangibles business on the export performance of manufacturing SMEs. Specifically, the proposed research model assesses the relationship between participative management, entrepreneurial culture and innovative orientation, managerial capacity and export performance. Considering the innovative orientation as a key in these businesses to compete in foreign markets, and export performance as a measure of competitive success, elaborate on how it affects promote an entrepreneurial culture, and how it in uences managerial capacity to conquer external markets. The technique Partial Least Squares (PLS) has been applied in 180 manufacturing SMEs. The results show that the entrepreneurial culture is a mediating variable between participatory management style and innovative orientation of the company and managerial capacity affect export performance but not moderate the relationship between innovation and export performance orientation.
    Keywords: L21 ; M14 ; M3 ; ddc:330 ; entrepreneurial culture ; export performance ; innovative orientation ; participative management ; managerial ability
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: The importance of management systems for the integration of CSR in the company strategy is a vital resource that has been little studied in technology companies. In this paper a structural equation model is proposed in order to explain the in uence of CSR and its integration into the management system of the company. This in uence is facilitated by the existence of previous standardized management systems, and how this integration affects the strategy of the company and if this is a reflection on the economic performance of the technology company. The study was conducted in companies located in Spanish Science and Technology Parks. On the one hand, model results shows that there is a positive, direct and statistically significant relationship between the integration of CSR and strategy; on the other hand, performance and integration has also this relationship. Likewise, the model shows also some indirect evidence relations between Management System before the implementation of CSR and performance.
    Keywords: M14 ; ddc:330 ; structure equation modeling ; corporate social responsibility ; technology companies ; integration ; performance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The maximization of profit as the main objective of companies is being criticized from different forums, advocating for an economic system in which the achievement of social sustainability will play a leading role. In the banking sector, after the outbreak of the crisis in 2008, financial bailouts that have used public funds to save various entities have provoked a current of opinion about the necessary social role that banking companies must develop. In this article, a case study is carried out analyzing the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in ABANCA, the financial institution with the largest presence in Galicia (northwest Spain), which has been rescued with public money, Identifying a series of objectives and actions carried out by said entity. The analyzes carried out show, among others, the importance of trust and transparency, as well as attention to intangibles.
    Keywords: G30 ; G38 ; L21 ; M14 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: Integrated reporting (IR) is one of the latest innovations regarding sustainability reporting and non-financial information in the world. Although some companies began IR practices in the 2000s (Eccles & Krzus, 2010), IR has only been recognized since 2010 as the best way to get a complete picture of the value of organizations, overcoming the limitations of traditional reports (Eccles & Krzus, 2010; Jensen & Berg, 2012; Abeysekera, 2013).Our research aims to analyze this innovative reporting trend. To do this, we first review some practices in the annual reports published by the pioneering companies in IR, then, we present the antecedents for the current IR framework. Finally we look into the process that the International Integrated Reporting Council has followed to develop the framework, pointing out some milestones for the widespread adoption of integrated reporting.Our findings suggest that reporting practices have been ahead both from theoretical developments and institutional efforts. However, private regulators continue to have a major influence on the theoretical definition of standards that are intended to guide IR and the development of accountability practices to stakeholders.
    Keywords: M14 ; M40 ; ddc:650 ; Integrated reporting ; Reporting ; Financial and non-financial information ; First integrated reporting practices ; International Integrated Reporting Council pilot programme ; The International Integrated Reporting Framework
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: Los recursos de naturaleza intangible se han convertido en los principales generadores de valor de manera sostenible en las empresas. En concreto, aquellos que permanecen ocultos en los balances debido a las dificultades que plantea su reconocimiento y medición (es decir, lo que se denomina capital intelectual). Si bien, el suministro por parte de las empresas de información voluntaria sobre estos recursos puede ayudar a reducir las posibles asimetrías de información y mejorar la transparencia informativa entre sus grupos de interés (stakeholders). En este sentido, los informes anuales son los principales medios de divulgación que tienen las empresas para suministrar información voluntaria. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, las memorias de sostenibilidad se han convertido en la principal vía de comunicación como mecanismo para legitimar las actuaciones de las empresas ante sus stakeholders. Así, nuestro objetivo es explorar y analizar el medio de comunicación que están empleando las empresas para suministrar información voluntaria sobre sus recursos intangibles ocultos. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que se ha producido un cambio en la política de información empresarial y las memorias de sostenibilidad se han convertido en el principal soporte para suministrar información voluntaria a los stakeholders, además de ser un buen medio para suministrar información de los recursos intangibles.
    Description: Intangible assets have become the main sustainable value creation of companies. Specifically,those assets which remain hidden in the accounting statement due to the difficulties in identification and measuring (ie what is called intellectual capital). Voluntary information disclosed by companies on these assets can help to reduce symmetries of information and improve information transparency among stakeholders. In this sense, annual reports are the primary tool of information disclosure that companies have for provide voluntary information. In recent years, sustainability reports have become in the main means of communication as a way to legitimize the actions of companies to their stakeholders. Thus, our aim is to explore and analyze the means of communication used by companies to provide voluntary information about their hidden intangible assets. Results obtained indicate that there has been a change in corporate information policy and sustainability reports have become the mainstay to provide information voluntarily to stakeholders as well as being a good way to provide information of intangible resources
    Keywords: M14 ; M19 ; M41 ; ddc:650 ; Intangibles ; Capital intelectual ; Divulgación de información ; Informe anual ; Memoria de sostenibilidad ; Intangibles ; Intellectual capital ; Disclosure ; Annual report ; Sustainability report
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
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    Buenos Aires: Banco Central de la República Argentina (BCRA), Investigaciones Económicas (ie)
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Keywords: C23 ; D31 ; D33 ; E44 ; F32 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Leistungsbilanz ; Finanzsystem ; Finanzkrise ; Schwellenländer ; Industrieländer ; Welt
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-09-24
    Description: The Protocol for Socially Responsible Territory is the result of a local sustainability management experience, which has demonstrated the importance of public administration in social innovation. This article describes the process through which such protocol was obtained, its characteristics and its principles as well as the strengths that this protocol offers. The definition of Socially Responsible Territory (TSR) is presented as a contribution to the theoretical development of a new research area, whose prospects are favored by the potential practical effects on public and corporate alliances locally. This protocol offers competitive advantages to governments who are preparing to seize the opportunities from the Europe 2020 Strategy for Growth.
    Keywords: M14 ; R58 ; R11 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Se conoce como skill premium a la brecha salarial promedio existente entre los trabajadores calificados y los no calificados. A partir de la segunda globalización financiera, en los países desarrollados se ha visto un ensanchamiento de este diferencial mientras que en los países en desarrollo el comportamiento ha sido más volátil. Específicamente para el caso de los países de América Latina hubo un incremento del skill premium en la década de 1990 y una reducción a partir del comienzo del nuevo siglo. Explicaciones basadas en el comercio internacional, el cambio técnico sesgado, vaivenes en el marco institucional y choques macroeconómicos han sido propuestas para comprender el origen de los movimientos en la desigualdad en el mercado laboral. En este trabajo se repasan cada una de ellas y se las relaciona con el efecto particular que el tipo de cambio real puede generar en economías subdesarrolladas. Los vínculos entre ambas variables son diversos y se mueven en distintas direcciones. A priori, un incremento en el tipo de cambio real implica una mayor demanda de trabajadores calificados en el sector dinámico exportador, pero al mismo tiempo funciona como una protección natural para la industria manufacturera doméstica intensiva en mano de obra no calificada. A su vez, encarece la importación de capital que resulta más complementario con el trabajo calificado. La predominancia de un efecto sobre otro está históricamente determinada por lo que su estudio tiene un fuerte componente empírico. Con el objetivo de indagar sobre los distintos canales sobre los que el tipo de cambio real puede afectar al skill premium se construyó un panel con datos de 13 países latinoamericanos para el periodo 1993-2011. Del análisis cuantitativo emergen dos conclusiones. Mientras que una moneda nacional débil medida en niveles parece estar asociada a una elevada brecha salarial, una depreciación induciría una reducción del skill premium. En esta aparente contradicción se esconde la posibilidad de que la relación mute a través del tiempo. En los primeros años posteriores a una devaluación el efecto ingreso asociado a un encarecimiento de las importaciones produce un incremento en la demanda de trabajadores no calificados gracias a la expansión de la industria sustitutiva. A medida que el tipo de cambio real se establece en un nivel competitivo se alienta el desarrollo del sector exportador, intensivo en mano de obra calificada y toma fuerza la demanda de trabajadores calificados. Por otra parte la estructura productiva es relevante en materia distributiva. No sólo afecta por sí misma a la brecha salarial sino que influye significativamente reforzando o mitigando los efectos que el tipo de cambio real tiene sobre el skill premium. El resultado es consistente aún si se consideran potenciales problemas de endogeneidad.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Fachkräfte ; Einkommensverteilung ; Kaufkraftparität ; Arbeitsmarktforschung ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: This article presents a review of the studies on on boards of directors and corporate social responsibility practices in the banking industry. Several characteristics of bank boards, in particular independence and diversity, may impact their CSR commitments. By studying a sample of 159 banks in nine countries during the period 2004-2010, there is evidence that suggests that banks with more independent and diverse directors follow a path of socially responsible behaviour.
    Keywords: G21 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; Corporate governance ; Board of directors ; Corporate social responsibility ; Banks
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Keywords: C15 ; C24 ; D31 ; J16 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; Weibliche Arbeitskräfte ; Arbeitsmarktstatistik ; Arbeitszeitgestaltung ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En las ultimas décadas, los paises de America Latina experimentaron una reduccion en el numero de hijos promedio por hogar, lo cual no se dio en forma uniforme a lo largo de la distribucion del ingreso. Este trabajo busca cuantificar el impacto distributivo de los cambios en las decisiones de fecundidad en cinco paises de America Latina: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, El Salvador y Uruguay. Utilizando encuestas de hogares, y mediante metodologias de microdes- composicion, se desarrollan escenarios contrafacticos de la distribucion del ingreso de forma de descomponer el efecto asociado de los cambios en las decisiones de fecundidad. Los resultados muestran que los cambios en las decisiones de fecundidad tuvieron un efecto igualador sobre la distribucion del ingreso, junto con un efecto reductor de la pobreza.
    Keywords: C25 ; D31 ; I31 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Fertilität ; Einkommensverteilung ; Mikrodaten ; Lateinamerika
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: This study analyses the social and environmental research published in Spanish journals between 2004 and 2012. The main areas of concern of the Spanish researcher are analysis of Spanish practices, external publication, attitude studies and the different theoretical frameworks. There are also encouraging changes in the methodological approaches used, placing greater importance on empirical research with the conducting of field and case studies, at the same time as analysis of different statistical relationships, from interviews and content analysis, although without the features of cooperation and interactivity typical of dynamic, and innovative knowledge production communities. There appears to be some difficulty in getting published in Spanish journals, and generating critical social and environmental research is even harder.
    Keywords: M14 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Research ; Methods ; Spain ; Corporate social responsibility ; Sustainable development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 19
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    München : Goethe-Inst.
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 20
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Este trabajo presenta el concepto de JIT (Just-In-Time, o justo a tiempo) y ofrece aplicaciones en la Argentina. En la Parte I, pone el JIT en el contexto de la gestión japonesa (management japonés): destaca las características de esta gestión, y resume su evolución a lo largo de las últimas décadas. Hace hincapié en la gestión de la producción y analiza los desafíos, críticas y las teorías de la convergencia con los sistemas occidentales que se han examinado a lo largo de los últimos 20 años. El artículo examina los desarrollos de la gestión japonesa en el extranjero y, en particular, las prácticas de la gestión japonesa en la Argentina. En particular, estudia las condiciones para el éxito o fracaso de la transferencia de este estilo de gestión en diversos países, incluyendo la Argentina. También estudia la posibilidad de transferencia parcial de algunos elementos del sistema y su aplicación en empresas japonesas y no japonesas. En la Parte II, se presenta un marco teórico del JIT como: (a) una filosofía; (b) un conjunto de técnicas productivas; (c) un método de la planificación y control de la producción. Finalmente, se trata con aplicaciones del JIT en las siguientes empresas: McDonald's, Wal-Mart, Zara, Alpargatas, Toyota, Becher Logística, Motor Parts y Master Trim. Como conclusión de estos estudios de caso, se llega a que el JIT es aplicable en la Argentina.
    Keywords: F23 ; M10 ; M11 ; M12 ; M14 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; Just-In-Time ; gestión japonesa ; gestión japonesa en el extranjero ; transferibilidad de la gestión japonesa ; empresas internacionales ; empresas internacionales japonesas ; corporaciones multinacionales japonesas ; kanban
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: In Latin America the inequality of income has declined in the 2000s. This study applies a variant of the noparametric decomposition methodology proposed by Barros et al. (2006, 2007) to assess the relevance of the households’ sources of income, focusing on the importance of public transfers, on changes in inequality of the Southern Cone countries in the 2000s: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay. The results suggest that the non-labor income of the households had a significant contribution to the inequality changes in the 2000s in those countries, which was mainly explained by the equalizing effect of the public source of income. The changes in that source and their impact on inequality were closely associated with the implementation or expansion of non-contributive cash transfer programs during the last decade.
    Keywords: C15 ; D31 ; I38 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Öffentliche Sozialleistungen ; Cono Sur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 22
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El presente documento analiza las encuestas de hogares y las metodologías de las estimaciones oficiales de pobreza de la región; en particular, en primer lugar busca analizar la forma en que se miden los ingresos de las personas y los hogares en las encuestas de hogares de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC). El segundo objetivo consiste en reseñar las características principales de las metodologías de identificación de hogares e individuos pobres que se realizan en la región utilizando el enfoque de los ingresos, lo cual permitirá indagar acerca del grado de comparabilidad de las estimaciones resultantes. Finalmente, y en base a la evidencia que permita alcanzar la búsqueda de los dos objetivos anteriores, se efectuarán algunas sugerencias sobre ciertas modificaciones que algunos países podrían considerar, tanto en la medición de los ingresos como en las metodologías de estimación de pobreza.
    Keywords: F16 ; D58 ; J2 ; J6 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Messung ; Haushaltsstatistik ; Lateinamerika ; Karibische Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo obtuvo el Premio Fundación Vidanta 2012 “Contribuciones a la reducción de la pobreza y la desigualdad en América Latina y el Caribe”. El material utilizado para este documento fue producido en el marco del proyecto de investigación “Mercados de Trabajo para el Crecimiento Inclusivo en América Latina”, desarrollado en el CEDLAS con el apoyo del Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo (IDRC-Canadá).
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialpolitik ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armut ; Lateinamerika ; Karibische Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Spanish banking sector through social responsibility reports. Based on the theories of legitimacy and Stakeholders justified the use of CSR to analyze the behavior information about its environment. As survey methodology used content analysis, in particular are analyzed and compared the information practices in relation to four pillars on which the RSC is organized: customers, community, employees and the environment. In particular, it proposes a content index of liability (IDR) that measures the quality and detail of information provided. The study concludes that the community and environment categories are the most generally reported, although nature are social institutions (savings banks and credit unions) more transparent about customers and community is concerned, on the evolution during the recent years have seen that the transparency of information does not increase, but remains stable or even decreased as in the case of the contents on customers, in addition, we find that the contents are related to the internal activity of the company remains concerned about the most institutions to address the impacts of their activities as financial intermediaries.
    Keywords: M14 ; ddc:330 ; Content analysis ; Financial institutions ; Global reporting initiative ; Corporate social responsibility
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: This research intends to show whether the prevalence of individualistic or collectivist cultures in an organization can moderate the effects of the human resource policies on business performance. To date, there is a lack of literature which analyzes this relationship. A sample of 102 companies, situated in southern of Spain, with more than 100 employees was used for this study. In accordance with the statistical analysis conducted using Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS) results reveal the existence of the moderating effect.
    Keywords: L25 ; M12 ; M14 ; M50 ; ddc:330 ; Human resource practices ; Employees commitment ; Organizational performance ; Individualism/collectivism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 26
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El desarrollo de proveedores es una actividad que enriquece la gestión de la cadena de suministro, dotándola de mayor valor a través del aporte mutuo entre empresas clientes y subcontratistas. Este aporte incluye nuevas tecnologías, know-how, herramientas de la calidad y organización del trabajo, además de negociaciones sobre la política de precios, entre otros temas. En este trabajo presentamos sus conceptos fundamentales. Nos basamos, ante todo, en la Guía para el Desarrollo de Proveedores de ONUDI, que analizamos con detenimiento como material de referencia obligado. Estudiamos las etapas de un programa de desarrollo de proveedores, que incluyen, entre otras, las siguientes: análisis de los requerimientos de los clientes; selección de los subcontratistas; diagnóstico de los productos, procesos y productividad de los subcontratistas; análisis de las facultades de los subcontratistas para cumplir con los requerimientos de sus clientes; formulación de las recomendaciones técnicas; capacitación de los subcontratistas; aplicación de las recomendaciones; y análisis de la posibilidad de establecer alianzas y fortalecer las existentes. Examinamos los objetivos principales del desarrollo de proveedores que son, fundamentalmente, tres: lograr la reducción de los costos, ajustar la política de precios, y mejorar la tecnología, en sentido amplio. También dedicamos atención a las normas de la serie ISO 9000, que hacen referencia al desarrollo de proveedores. Tratamos con cierto detalle las dificultades del desarrollo de proveedores; las describimos y presentamos algunas herramientas para facilitar la gestión del cambio. Entre estas incluimos la educación y el entrenamiento, la atención a la cultura organizacional, la motivación y las recompensas, y el ejercicio del liderazgo. Finalmente, presentamos el resumen de cuatro estudios de caso, tres de ellos reales y uno hipotético, para destacar los efectos económicos y de otro tipo del desarrollo de proveedores; el estudio hipotético, en particular, ofrece algunos principios orientadores del sistema de desarrollo de proveedores, sus elementos motivadores y breves consideraciones para mejorarlo, así como posibles contenidos de un programa. El artículo constituye una invitación a abordar el estudio y la aplicación de estas técnicas, dada la capacidad que tienen para mejorar la ecuación económica de la cadena de suministros y beneficiar a todos los interesados en su progreso.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; desarrollo de proveedores ; cadena de suministro ; contratista ; subcontratista ; gestión del cambio ; bolsas de subcontratación y de alianzas industriales ; educación y entrenamiento ; John Deere & Co. ; Maruti Udyog Ltd. ; FUJUDES
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: El objetivo de este trabajo es reseñar brevemente los métodos tradicionales de evaluación del impacto distributivo de las políticas públicas y discutir algunos de los avances más relevantes en los últimos veinte años. El trabajo se concentra en la evaluación de programas sociales, dejando de lado otras intervenciones públicas y su financiamiento. El trabajo resume los progresos a nivel internacional con algunas referencias a la experiencia argentina.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Sozialpolitik ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Verteilungswirkung ; Einkommensverteilung ; Theorie
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-01-15
    Description: Micro.enterprises have certain attributes that distinguish them from large companies and from those that see problems when adopting principles and social responsibility policies. However, the principles of social responsibility can and should be integrated into any organization, including micro.enterprises. In this paper, we study how cooperation networks could be an appropriate incentive for the micro.enterprises to implement social responsibility policies, strengthening some advantages and mitigating some disadvantages that micro.enterprises may have when dealing with such policies, and enhancing, ultimately, the level of development of their relational and structural capital. In preparing the study theoretical model is proposed that analyses the components of these types of capital in the company, adapted to the micro.enterprise as well as studying the influences that social responsibility policies and membership of cooperation networks can have on these components.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M13 ; M14 ; L14 ; ddc:650 ; networking ; micro-enterprise ; social responsibility ; relational and structural capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: In the past few decades a large number of studies have been carried out aimed at integrating and incorporating ethics into organizations, mainly highlighting the need to enhance ethical behavior within organizations. However, none of them makes any reference in their approach concerning the value which is generated as a consequence of organizational ethics, when not only several studies have been found supporting such statement but also a theoretical justification is found based on the perspectives of the Resource-Based View of the Firm and Dynamic Capabilities. Therefore, the authors of this study, starting from a model previously designed (Ruiz-Palomino y Ruiz-Amaya, 2011), have designed an integrating model as an attempt to link an ethical organizational culture to the business value generation by means of human resources. To be precise, attention in this paper is focused on the analysis of the direct and indirect effects that an ethical organizational culture has on the value job response of the employee. Discussion of the model, managerial implications and directions for future research are finally presented.
    Keywords: M1 ; M10 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; organizational culture ; resource-based view of the firm ; dynamic capabilities theory ; business value ; business ethics ; person-organization values fit
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: Here we describe the origins, evolution and classification of stakeholders. It highlights the relationship created between the credit institution as a social organization and its various stakeholders, analyzing the importance attached to them. The field work was conducted through a questionnaire answered by 57 Spanish institutions. The results show the sensitivity of banks to CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), with regard to the entire Spanish financial sector. Our goal is to analyze the importance of the various stakeholders: shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, community and public administration for the Spanish credit institutions. Credit institutions focus their interest mainly on two interest groups: employees and customers. Transparency and open dialogue about performance, priorities and future plans for sustainability are actions to be implemented in order to inspire confidence and future.
    Keywords: G30 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; corporate social responsibility ; credit institutions ; stakeholders
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    Granada : Univ. de Granada | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) meaning the active and voluntary contribution of firms to enhance welfare, is achieving a greater importance in Business administration as an intangible asset which management generates competitive advantages and promotes sustainable development. This work indentifies similarities between CSR management and Intellectual Capital management, this one meant as those activities which help us to manage the knowledge of the firm. Our aim is that firms understand the importance of considering CSR as a corporate strategy that enhances the value of the organization, and that they become conscious about its efficiency and efficacy.
    Keywords: M12 ; M14 ; M15 ; M48 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: En vista de la creciente competencia por el agua, existe el peligro que particularmente los pobres en las áreas rurales enfrenten cada día más dificultades para cubrir sus necesidades de agua para usos domésticos y productivos. El presente DIIS Working Paper fue elaborado con base a una encuesta llevada a cabo en el año 2008, en el municipio de Condega, Nicaragua; en él se expone un perfil de pobreza de los hogares rurales y se analiza el acceso al agua que tienen los hogares más pobres, menos pobres y no pobres; además de sus contactos con las instituciones que juegan un papel en la gobernanza de agua.
    Keywords: ddc:300
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    Santiago de Chile: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Economía
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: This study measures the impact of changes in the income determinants on inequality in the 1990 to 2003 period, in order to answer the question of why income distribution as a whole has not changed. The methodology utilized are micro-simulations of income distribution, which is the most appropriate technique for analyzing the relationship between changes in determinant factors and changes in income inequality. It is analyzed the role of returns, participation rates, occupational choices, schooling endowments, subsidies, pensions and household size. The inertia shown by inequality reflects the interplay of factors that cancel each other out, others that operate slowly over time, and the emergence of new developments that affect distribution. Furthermore, there are no clear indications that this situation will change over the next few years. Progress in this area will require a more active public policy than in the past.
    Keywords: D3 ; J2 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; microsimulation ; income distribution ; inequality ; pensions ; labor participation ; returns to schooling ; Einkommensverteilung ; Chile
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En este trabajo se analizan los cambios en la desigualdad producidos durante el período 1998-2005. Se presenta un conjunto de resultados que pueden contribuir a entender mejor los cambios en la desigualdad. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la desigualdad distributiva observada entre ambos años esconde importantes cambios distributivos que en el análisis distributivo no se observaban. Los retornos a la educación ha jugado un papel importante en el aumento de los factores inobservables y los mayores niveles de empleo parecen haberla reducido.
    Description: This paper analyses the changes in inequality occurred during the period 1998 - 2005. A set of results are presented in order to contribute to a better understanding of the changes in inequality. The obtained results show that important distributive effects were hidden by the apparent observed distribution stability between both years. The returns to education have played an important role in the rise in inequality while the rise in the unobservable factors and the higher levels of employment seem to have reduced it.
    Keywords: C14 ; C15 ; C24 ; D31 ; I21 ; I32 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 36
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: En este trabajo utilizamos los más recientes métodos de regresión no condicionada por cuantiles (RNCQ) para estudiar los efectos distributivos de la educación en Argentina. Los métodos estándar se centran, por lo general, en efectos promedio o estudian los efectos distributivos ya sea haciendo uso de suposiciones estrictas al modelar y/o a través de descomposiciones contrafácticas que requieren varias observaciones temporales. La aplicación empírica en este trabajo muestra la flexibilidad y utilidad de los métodos de RNCQ. Nuestra aplicación para el caso de Argentina sugiere que la educación ha contribuido positivamente al aumento de la desigualdad, debido principalmente a efectos fuertemente heterogéneos de la educación sobre los ingresos.
    Description: This paper studies inequality of opportunity on earnings among young argentines. It aims to contribute to measure this phenomenon and it uses information from household surveys conducted in Argentina from 2004 to the present. Sample selection into employment and co-residence selection is dealt with a multiple selection model. We consider some econometrics methods implemented by Bourguignon, Ferreira y Menéndez (2007) to measure the degree of inequality of opportunity. The results suggest that while income inequality has decreased there seems no clear pattern of inequality of opportunity, moreover in recent periods it has increased. -- inequality of opportunity ; income inequality ; Argentina
    Keywords: D31 ; D63 ; ddc:330 ; inequality of opportunity ; income inequality ; Argentina ; Arbeitsmarktdiskriminierung ; Einkommensverteilung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: The management of stakeholders is becoming increasingly important to the corporate sustainability. The engagement of stakeholders gives legitimacy to the company, generating trust and credibility. The enterprises that are seeking sustainability in their activities must know stakeholders, promote dialogue, meet the demands and expectations, and be transparent in the accountability for their actions. The sustainable company triggers continuous improvement and innovation and seeks for social acceptance to achieve success in their activities. In this context, our focus is on thinking about the main challenges faced by companies pursueing sustainable development through effective management of their stakeholders. We further propose the use of flexible tools that aid employers in decision making and help them improve the stakeholder management.
    Keywords: M10 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; stakeholders ; corporate sustainability ; decision-making ; fuzzy logic
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: In the literature on business ethics a large number of studies can be found with a focus on establishing comprehension frameworks concerning the factors which make an individual behave ethically or unethically. However, the models proposed up to the present moment are excessively generalists, as there are no specifications on those factors which are presented as more prominent in terms of influence according to the empirical literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop an explanatory model that in addition to allowing a better comprehension of the main factors influencing on the individual's ethical behaviour. For this aim we review the most significant contributions in the literature on this aspect and raise a series of theoretical propositions which define the explanatory model. Finally we present the discussion of the model, thus drawing a series of conclusions and proposing future lines for research.
    Keywords: M1 ; M10 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; ethical/unethical behaviour ; organizational ethics ; individual characteristics context ; explanatory model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: This study focuses on the structure of the board of directors that is considered more suitable in terms of corporate social responsibility, and also on those contextual factors that could influence the socially responsible behavior of family firms. Empirical analysis on 535 non-listed Spanish firms leads to the identification of three clusters in terms of the variables related to boards´ structure: family dominated boards, professional boards and immature boards. Results show that the firms that have boards' structure with more potential for a socially responsible behavior (professional boards) are the ones who are bigger, older and with higher generational evolution.
    Keywords: M14 ; M19 ; ddc:330 ; family firm ; board of directors ; social responsibility ; stakeholders.
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2012-11-22
    Description: In the Latin American context, Chile has the highest level of per capita income and the human development index, though the distribution of income is quite unequal. Unlike Uruguay, Chile has one of the more unequal income distributions of the region. In 2003, Chile had Gini Coefficient of 8.5 points higher than Uruguay. Using micro/simulations, the analysis shows that most of the difference regarding income distribution comes from the wealthier households, particularly those that belong to the top 2%. Those households get the greatest proportion of resources coming from non-labor income. At the same time, the difference in returns to higher education explains another 20% of the income differences between Chile and Uruguay. Social conditions such as social security benefits and the participation of women in the labor market are not significant to explain the differences between these countries. Finally, this paper shows that national account adjustment to income information in Chilean households´ survey explains a third of the Gini coefficient gap between Chile and Uruguay, without the national account adjustment, the income distribution gap among both countries would diminish in three points from earlier estimation. Even though this significative reduction the reasons to explain the gap would remain identical than previous analysis.
    Keywords: D3 ; J2 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; microsimulation ; income distribution , inequality ; pensions ; labor participation ; returns to schooling ; Einkommensverteilung ; Disparitätsmaß ; Regionale Einkommensverteilung ; Mikrosimulation ; Chile ; Uruguay
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 41
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Numerosos conceptos se entrelazan para dar lugar al concepto de gobernancia de una empresa, tanto en el caso de las empresas cotizantes como el de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (pymes). Para que la gobernancia se concrete y sea efectiva, es necesario traducir sus conceptos en acciones que transformen la realidad de la firma y su entorno en el sentido exigido por los conceptos. Las empresas grandes, sobre todo si están bien organizadas, cuentan en general con mecanismos adecuados de planificación y control para llevar a la práctica sus acciones de gobernancia. Las pymes, por su parte, caracterizadas por menores recursos relativos, tienen grandes dificultades metodológicas y conceptuales para implementar y mantener una arquitectura de gobernancia. En las últimas tres o cuatro décadas, sin embargo, se han difundido en el mundo algunas técnicas japonesas de gestión que pueden aplicarse en la implementación y consolidación de la gobernancia. Estas aplicaciones, naturalmente, son posibles tanto en las grandes firmas como en las pequeñas, pero hacemos hincapié en estas últimas porque en ellas encontrarán un terreno fértil para la aplicación inmediata y fecunda. Esta aplicación, que permitirá realzar la gobernancia de la pyme en pocos meses, solo depende de la decisión de un gerente inquieto dispuesto a transformar su organización. En este trabajo, presentamos los conceptos básicos de gobernancia y su aplicación en las pymes, mostramos los rudimentos de algunas herramientas japonesas de gestión e ilustramos con breves ejemplos cómo estas herramientas pueden utilizarse para implementar y mejorar la gobernancia de una pyme. Las herramientas consideradas son: un indicador de gobernancia pyme, basado en la estructura –aunque no necesariamente los contenidos- del Premio Deming, el premio nacional japonés a la calidad; la gestión hoshin; y los sistemas de reuniones eficaces.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M14 ; ddc:330
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  • 42
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: This article analyzes the support for democracy in Chile from an economic, institutional and political perspective. It uses data from Latinobarómetro for the period 1996-2007 and a statistical method of estimation, 'ordered logit', in order to answer the question of why support for Chilean democracy is not connected with economic growth. The analysis generates three key results of interest. First, regardless of the fact that GDP per capita does not have any effect on the level of support for democracy, it does affect individuals' perceptions of economic performance, since the variable 'economic situation' is one of the most explanatory variable of the model. Second, the analysis demonstrates the importance of the degree of confidence in the Congress at the moment that perceptions of democracy are evaluated. Third, 'political ideology' is the most useful variable in explaining support for democracy, a fact which suggests that the adherents of the right wing do not support the democratic system. This is the most reliable reason for the moderate level of support for democracy in Chile.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag analysiert die Unterstützung der Demokratie in Chile im ökonomischen, institutionellen und politischen Kontext. Hierzu werden Daten des Unternehmens Latinobarómetro aus dem Zeitraum der Jahre 1996-2007 unter Anwendung des 'Ordered Logit'-Modells verwendet, um die Frage nach der Beziehung zwischen wirtschaftlichem Wachstum und Unterstützung der Demokratie zu beantworten. Die Analyse zeigt drei bedeutsame Ergebnisse: 1) Obwohl das nationale Pro-Kopf-BIP keinen Einfluss auf das Niveau der Unterstützung der Demokratie hat, zeigt sich in einer Analyse auf Individualebene gleichwohl, dass die Variable 'ökonomische Situation' eine der aussagekräftigsten ist, um die Einstellung der Individuen zur wirtschaftlichen Leistungsfähigkeit der Demokratie zu erklären. 2) Die Analyse weist nach, wie wichtig das Vertrauen in das Parlament im Moment der Befragung ist. 3) Die Variable 'politische Ideologie' erweist sich als die bedeutsamste in Hinblick auf die Unterstützung der Demokratie, was auf die mangelnde Unterstützung des demokratischen Systems durch die politische Rechte verweist. Dies ist der entscheidende Faktor, der das nur mäßige Niveau der Unterstützung der Demokratie in Chile erklärt.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Demokratie ; Meinung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Ideologie ; Chile
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  • 43
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo realiza un estudio comparativo del impacto de las remesas y la migración internacional sobre la pobreza y la desigualdad en cuatro países latinoamericanos con importantes procesos migratorios (Ecuador, El Salvador, Honduras y Nicaragua). A partir de encuestas de hogares se estiman los cambios producidos sobre estas dos dimensiones utilizando diferentes microsimulaciones. La metodología utilizada también permite descomponer los cambios totales en efectos directos e indirectos. Los cambios directos están relacionados con la salida del migrante del hogar y la sustitución de ingresos laborales por remesas. Los efectos indirectos (no observables) operan sobre el resto de los miembros del hogar y entre ellos se incluyen restricciones a la liquidez o cambios en las decisiones laborales. La incorporación de un doble mecanismo de selección muestral permite tener en cuenta arreglos intra-hogar que usualmente son excluidos del análisis empírico pero que han recibido fuerte soporte teórico en la literatura. Los resultados indican que en los cuatro países el proceso de migraciones y remesas reduce la desigualdad y en Ecuador, El Salvador y Honduras también se reducen significativamente las tasas de pobreza. La importancia relativa de los canales directos e indirectos depende entre otros factores de las características de los hogares involucrados en el proceso y el tipo de selección que opera sobre los mismos. En términos generales, la sustitución directa de ingreso laboral por remesas tiende a ser más importante cuando los hogares son más pobres mientras que los efectos indirectos se concentran en los hogares con ingresos medios.
    Keywords: D30 ; D63 ; I38 ; J22 ; ddc:330 ; poverty ; opportunities ; education ; children ; impact evaluation ; conditional cash transfers ; Internationale Migration ; Rücküberweisungen ; Armut ; Einkommensverteilung ; Lateinamerika ; Ecuador ; El Salvador ; Honduras ; Nicaragua
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the most relevant factors of organizational culture that appear in Global Manufacturing Virtual Networks (GMVNs). These organizations are formed by highly dynamic manufacturing companies, that may even be even competitors, which establish horizontal and vertical relations among themselves, and where it is not necessary to maintain internally many manufacturing assets but to manage and share efficiently network resources. This study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as the similarity of cultural practices, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the importance of trust in the network. By using the proposed theoretical model, it will analyzed the presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous values and cultural practices where network actors can feel indentified. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, the case methodology will be applied to one of the most successful collaborations of GMVNs within the aeronautics industry, the collaboration between GE and SNECMA to manufacture the CFM56 engine.
    Keywords: L14 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; global manufacturing virtual networks ; inter-organizational culture ; aeronautics industry
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: This paper analyses financial performance of companies considered as highly socially responsible. For this purpose, companies that compose the Spanish sustainability index FTSE4Good IBEX (as well as other IBEX indices) are examined. Two basic results can be highlighted: first, stocks of companies that are socially responsible earn returns on excess over systematic risk, making them investment-attractive. Second, they have a higher systematic risk.
    Keywords: G30 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; corporate social responsibility ; socially responsible investment ; FTSE4Good IBEX ; sustainability index ; ethical alpha
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: This paper examines the representations of violence in Guatemalan and El Salvadoran lite- rature against the backdrop of persistently high levels of violence and crime following the civil wars in both countries. It adopts an interdisciplinary approach settled within cultural studies and uses two examples - De fronteras (2007) by Claudia Hernández and Días amarillos (2009) by Javier Payeras - to analyze the narrative strategies applied in the process of re- counting violence. The results of the literary analysis enable the author to draw conclusions concerning the way in which both societies deal with urban post-war violence. The texts refer to the ubiquity of violence and the hopelessness of the situation, as well as to the responsibil- ity of the mass media for reproducing violence and a general turning away from the public domain towards the private life.
    Description: In diesem Beitrag werden Darstellungen von Gewalt in der Literatur Guatemalas und El Salvadors vor dem Hintergrund der anhaltend hohen Gewaltkriminalität in der Nachkriegszeit untersucht. Dabei wird auf eine kulturwissenschaftliche und interdisziplinäre Herangehensweise zurückgegriffen. Anhand zweier Beispiele - De fronteras (2007) von Claudia Hernández und Días amarillos (2009) von Javier Payeras - wird betrachtet, welche narrativen Strategien beim Erzählen von Gewalt zum Einsatz kommen. Die Rückschlüsse, die diese literarischen Texte hinsichtlich des Umgangs beider Gesellschaften mit der urbanen Nachkriegsgewalt ermöglichen, beziehen sich sowohl auf die Allgegenwart von Gewalt und die Ausweglosigkeit der Situation als auch auf die Verantwortung der Massenmedien sowie die kla- re Abwendung von der staatlichen Ebene und den Rückzug ins Private.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Este trabajo es un estudio de caso del sistema de reuniones de Tejedurías Naiberger, una empresa textil y de indumentaria argentina. Comenzamos resumiendo conceptos generales sobre las reuniones y pasamos luego a describir un sistema de reuniones eficaces, su estructura, su utilización y sus elementos constitutivos. A continuación, presentamos características generales de la empresa objeto del caso de estudio. Describimos su sistema de reuniones a través de una lectura del Manual del Sistema de Reuniones Eficaces, que reproducimos completamente en un apéndice, y evaluamos el funcionamiento del sistema en un lapso de más de diez años, desde la fecha de su implementación, en 1997. El caso incluye preguntas de discusión, apéndices conceptuales sobre el trabajo en equipo, ejemplos de minutas y agendas de reuniones, y otros, además de tres entrevistas de evaluación del sistema de reuniones realizadas a directivos de la empresa.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; sistema de reuniones ; sistema de reuniones eficaces ; reuniones ; directorios ; agenda de reunión ; minuta de reunión ; trabajo en equipo
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: This paper takes advantage of a new source of information – the Gallup World Poll 2006 – to estimate and characterize income poverty and inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) at the country level, and to compare LAC estimates to those in other regions of the world. The Gallup survey has the advantage of being conducted in over 130 nations with almost the same questionnaire in all countries, and then it stands as a complement to national household surveys for international comparison purposes.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Intergenerationale Übertragung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: La cultura es la suma de los comportamientos atribuidos al ser humano más los objetos materiales que forman parte integral de estos comportamientos. Si limitamos el concepto al mundo de las empresas, hablamos hoy de la cultura corporativa, es decir, del dominio del cómo hacemos las cosas aquí. Más específicamente, hablamos también de la cultura de la manufactura, para revelar aspectos de cómo una empresa enfoca el trabajo y las técnicas de fabricación, así como las actitudes generales hacia ellos. En este artículo presentamos nuestra perspectiva del concepto de cultura de la manufactura y los elementos que la constituyen. Exploramos, también, las implicaciones que estas ideas tienen para los gerentes de producción y para los gerentes generales. Contrastamos dos modelos: la cultura de la manufactura tradicional y la cultura de la manufactura moderna. Aunque no es posible, estrictamente, pensar a la cultura tradicional -o a la moderna- como originaria exclusiva de un único país en un tiempo específico, simplificando el panorama podemos asociar a la cultura de la manufactura tradicional con los Estados Unidos de las primeras décadas del siglo XX, y a la cultura de la manufactura moderna con el Japón de la segunda mitad del mismo siglo. La cultura de la manufactura es un sistema integrado, según nuestra perspectiva, por los siguientes elementos: la gente, la calidad, la gestión de los materiales, las máquinas y su utilización, los proveedores, la higiene y seguridad en el trabajo, el cuidado del medio ambiente, la organización y la ejecución. El artículo detalla las relaciones entre estos elementos y contrasta su lugar en las distintas culturas. Nos preguntamos si hay culturas manufactureras mejores que otras, y respondemos afirmativamente. Hay, en cada cultura, aspectos propios que la caracterizan, que si son marginales no permiten juzgar la superioridad de una cultura sobre otra. Pero existen, además, principios básicos -que mencionamos en nuestro trabajo- que distinguen a una cultura manufacturera superior. ¿Cómo promover, entonces, el cambio hacia una cultura manufacturera superior? Entra aquí el tema del cambio organizacional, que tratamos brevemente al cerrar el artículo.
    Keywords: M10 ; M11 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; cultura ; cultura corporativa ; cultura de la manufactura ; técnicas de fabricación ; elementos de la cultura de la manufactura ; cambio cultural ; Unternehmenskultur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo estudia la incidencia distributiva del gasto y consumo de servicios públicos en la Argentina, resultante tanto de la estructura tarifaria y cobertura de redes vigente, como de las decisiones de conexión y consumo de esos servicios por parte de los hogares. Se utilizan datos de gastos en electricidad, agua y saneamiento, teléfonos, gas natural y su principal sustituto, gas envasado, provenientes de la Encuesta Nacional de Gastos de los Hogares de 1996-1997 para la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; servicios públicos ; incidencia distributiva ; curvas de Engel ; curvas de concentración ; Öffentliche Dienstleistung ; Einkommenseffekt ; Einkommensverteilung ; Nachfragetheorie des Haushalts ; Argentinien ; Buenos Aires
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Plata: Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Centro de Estudios Distributivos, Laborales y Sociales (CEDLAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-18
    Description: Este trabajo presenta y discute un conjunto de estadísticas que caracterizan el nivel y la evolución de la polarización laboral en Argentina entre los años 1992 y 2006. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que el nivel de polarización ha atravesado una primera etapa de crecimiento para luego iniciar un proceso de reducción. Los retornos a la educación se muestran como la fuerza fundamental para explicar la evolución de la polarización en el mercado de trabajo. La obtención de una distribución más igualitaria del capital humano parece ser el camino a seguir para alcanzar un mercado laboral menos polarizado.
    Keywords: D3 ; D6 ; I3 ; J3 ; ddc:330 ; polarización ; mercado laboral ; desigualdad ; Argentina ; Einkommensverteilung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: This article analyzes the 'other' goals that drive Chile and Mexico to achieve intra- and extra-regional FTAs. These countries have a predominantly economic motivation to negotiate FTAs. However, there are other elements that are less apparent, but equally important, in Chile's and Mexico's FTA policies. These accords can also be seen as means to power and as mechanisms for establishing a closer system of global economic governance than that available through multilateral forums. Therefore, these two countries' FTAs are an ad hoc system that represents their respective economic contexts and realities. In other words, FTAs as an essential part of Chile's and Mexico's foreign policies have a strategic political-economic logic that synthesizes the notions of power and institutions. However, these two forces do not exclude of the economic logic for FTAs, which focuses on the maximization of consumers' welfare and producers' gains. On the contrary, they have to be taken as complementary factors.
    Description: In diesem Artikel werden die 'anderen' Ziele analysiert, die Chile und Mexiko dazu bewegen, intra- und extraregionale Freihandelsabkommen anzustreben. In diesen Staaten besteht ein vordringlicher ökonomischer Anreiz, Freihandelsabkommen abzuschließen. Nichtsdestoweniger gibt es weitere weniger offensichtliche, aber für die Gestaltung ihrer Freihandelspolitik gleichfalls bedeutsame Elemente. So können diese Vereinbarungen auch als Mittel zur Macht und als Mechanismen globaler ökonomischer Governance angesehen werden, die über die bereits in multilateralen Foren bestehenden hinausgehen. Die Freihandelsabkommen bilden in diesem Sinne ein Ad-hoc-System, das die jeweiligen ökonomischen und politischen Realitäten der beiden Länder repräsentiert. Das heißt, die Freihandelsabkommen haben als wesentlicher Bestandteil der chilenischen und der mexikanischen Außenpolitik eine strategische politisch-ökonomische Logik, die in der Vorstellung von Macht und Governance-Institutionen aufgeht. Diese beiden Kräfte stehen nicht im Widerspruch zur ökonomischen Logik der Freihandelsabkommen, deren Hauptanliegen die Maximierung des Wohles der Konsumenten und des Nutzens der Produzenten bildet, sondern sollten als komplementäre Faktoren angesehen werden.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Centro de Estudios sobre Población, Empleo y Desarrollo (CEPED)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Einkommensverteilung ; Argentinien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: This article aims to evaluate to what extent the Argentine Senate was able to fulfil its constitutional function of controlling the Executive's prerogative to nominate judges between 1983 and 2006, as well as to examine the factors that influenced the exercise of this role. To do so, the paper focuses on the parliamentary procedure of the proposals submitted by the Executive for the nomination of all federal judges, the members of the so-called 'national justice' of Buenos Aires and those of the Public Ministry. The findings show that the Senate's powers depend on several factors, such as, the institutional resources with which presidents count in this chamber (which includes not only the size of the parliamentary majority but also their power in the Committee of Acuerdos), the category of the position to be filled (whether involving Supreme Court justices or not), presidential ambitions in other policy areas (such as re-election), and the rules regulating the selection and confirmation of candidates (such as the secrecy or publicity of the legislative process).
    Description: Der Artikel analysiert, in welchem Maß der argentinischen Senat zwischen 1983 und 2006 in der Lage gewesen ist, seine verfassungsmäßige Funktion als Kontrollorgan bei der Nominierung von Richtern durch die Exekutive auszuüben. Dabei wird auch nach den Faktoren gefragt, die die Ausübung dieser Rolle beeinflussten. Zu diesem Zweck untersucht die Studie die parlamentarischen Verfahren bei den von der Exekutive unterbreiteten Kandidaten für alle Bundesrichter, die Mitglieder der sogenannten 'nationalen Justiz' von Buenos Aires sowie der Staatsanwaltschaft. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Macht des Senats von einer Reihe von Faktoren abhängt, unter anderem von den institutionellen Ressourcen des Präsidenten in dieser Kammer (was nicht nur die Größe der Parlamentsfraktion umfasst, sondern auch ihre Macht in der Verhandlungskommission), der Art der zu besetzenden Stelle (ob es sich um den Obersten Gerichtshof handelt oder nicht), den Ambitionen des Präsidenten in anderen Politikfeldern (z.B. Wiederwahl) sowie den bestehenden Regeln über Auswahl und Bestätigung von Kandidaten (z.B. ob das Verfahren öffentlich oder nicht-öffentlich erfolgt).
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; judicial appointments ; presidential nominations ; senatorial confirmations ; Argentine Supreme Court ; Argentine lower courts
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Barcelona : Icaria Editorial | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Distinguimos entre educación para la calidad y entrenamiento para la calidad. A través de la educación, aprendemos la 'filosofía' de la calidad; a través del entrenamiento, aprendemos sus herramientas. Así, el aprendizaje es un concepto central de este artículo. Pero no es el único. Para que el aprendizaje sea efectivo se requiere motivación, y ésta depende de muchos factores, como el liderazgo y el sistema de recompensas de la organización. El aprendizaje es a veces solitario, pero más frecuentemente se realiza en equipo, a través de la cooperación, en un marco que llamamos cultura organizacional. La cultura organizacional también afecta a las actitudes hacia la educación y el entrenamiento para la calidad. Presentamos estas ideas y tratamos de mostrar sus relaciones mutuas. La educación para la calidad y el entrenamiento para la calidad (que condensamos en la sigla EEC) sólo tienen éxito duradero cuando se los considera como partes de un sistema que incluye a otros componentes. Finalizamos el artículo con un estudio de caso.
    Keywords: D20 ; M10 ; M11 ; M12 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; educación ; entrenamiento ; calidad ; aprendizaje ; motivación ; liderazgo ; recompensas ; cooperación ; cultura organizacional
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: Much of recent international relations literature argues conflicts to achieve or to frustrate regional dominance will become more virulent in the future. In this context we examine different approaches in international relations theory regarding the role and importance which they attribute to regional powers. We discuss diverse theoretical approaches that address the topics of power relations and power hierarchies in international politics. Marking differences as well as common grounds with the more traditional concept of 'middle powers', we sketch an analytical concept of regional powers adequate for contemporary international relations research. The paper concludes with reflections on the relationship between regional powers and regional integration and a short discussion of the analytical value of the concept of cooperative hegemony for the study of regional powers.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; International Relations ; Power ; Power Transition ; Regional Powers ; Middle Powers ; Cooperative Hegemony
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: In all Central American countries we witness a struggle to define, interpret and classify types of violence, delinquency, crime and (in)security. Although this struggle has highly relevant political and social implications, it has not been analyzed systematically. This article evaluates the state of the art and, based on methodological considerations, emphasizes the contribution of qualitative research on the local level in contrast to quantitative studies on the national or regional level. In a second step, using the discourse on Central American youth gangs as an example, the authors show that moral panic and repressive criminal policies are not direct consequences of the violence phenomena per se. Rather, the perception of and the reactions to insecurity and violence are based on social discourses about these phenomena.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Central America ; violence ; delinquency ; insecurity ; discourse analysis
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Uno de los temas que mayor controversia ha generado en los últimos años, es en qué medida una economía de mercado es más eficiente para impulsar el crecimiento y el bienestar de la población, frente a economías con menor libertad económica. Este tema ha sido estudiado en varios trabajos, los que concluyeron que, efectivamente, mayores grados de libertad económica se traducen en tasas de crecimiento más altas y mejores niveles de vida. Esta constatación nos estimuló a indagar si al interior de la base donde se desarrollan las actividades laborales en Bolivia, también se reflejaba que el mercado promueve una menor desigualdad en la distribución del ingreso. Los resultados alcanzados nos conducen a probar el temple de esta hipótesis, es decir, que cuando más cercanas están las actividades laborales de la lógica del mercado, menor es la desigualdad en la distribución de los ingresos.
    Description: Among the most controversial issues raised during the last decade, one of them is associated with the measurement of market economy’s efficiency in terms of economic growth and population’s well being. Previous investigations show that higher economic freedom levels have direct relationship with higher economic growth rates and better living conditions. Therefore, we find strong motivations to carry out this research for the Bolivian labor markets, demonstrating that the market economy promotes a lower income inequality levels. The results help us to test the following hypothesis: as a labor market gets closer to the market economy, then, there are improvements in the income distribution.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Einkommensverteilung
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: El presente trabajo analiza, desde una perspectiva comparada, las percepciones de las elites parlamentarias de los países miembros del MERCOSUR respecto a las Fuerzas Armadas y a cuestiones de seguridad y defensa. Ante la creciente cooperación en materia de seguridad, se indaga en el plano de los valores y convicciones de las elites políticas para buscar indicios relacionados con el desarrollo de una comunidad regional de seguridad en el sur de América Latina. A partir de los resultados de dos proyectos de investigación empírica sobre los sectores parlamentarios, el artículo identifica semejanzas y discrepancias entre las percepciones de los diputados y senadores de Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay, y discute las posibles consecuencias con miras a una profundización de la cooperación en materia de seguridad.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Integración regional ; democratización ; política de seguridad ; Fuerzas Armadas ; parlamento ; Mercosur ; Argentina ; Brasil ; Uruguay ; Paraguay ; Chile Ruth Fuchs
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This paper reviews Bolivia's economic and social development over the period 1985-99, and investigates the country's future prospects for pro-poor growth using a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. It turns out that past economic growth cannot be called pro-poor. Model simulations show that under optimistic assumptions the growth and poverty goals envisaged in the Bolivian poverty reduction strategy may be achieved, but that performance will fall short of expectations once external shocks are taken into account. The evolution of poverty is likely to remain uneven, with considerable improvements in urban areas and a high persistence in rural areas.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Entwicklung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Armut ; Einkommensverteilung ; Armutspolitik ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)