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  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Arabian-Nubian Shield ; Egypt ; Pan-African orogeny ; Proterozoic ; Extensional collapse ; Thrust tectonics ; Transpression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Detailed structural geological and related studies were carried out in a number of critical areas in the Proterozoic basement of eastern Egypt to resolve the structural pattern at a regional scale and to assess the general characteristics of tectonic evolution, orogeny and terrane boundaries. Following a brief account of the tectonostratigraphy and timing of the orogenic evolution, the major structural characteristics of the critical areas are presented. Collisional deformation of the terranes ended about 615-600 Ma ago. Subsequent extensional collapse probably occurred within a relatively narrow time span of about 20 Ma (575 – 595 Ma ago) over the Eastern Desert and was followed by a further period of about 50 Ma of late to post-tectonic activity. The regional structures originated mainly during post-collisional events, starting with those related to extensional collapse (molasse basin formation, normal faulting, generation of metamorphic core complexes). Subsequent NNW-SSE shortening is documented by large-scale thrusting (towards the NNW) and folding, distributed over the Eastern Desert, although with variable intensity. Thrusts are overprinted by transpression, which was localized to particular shear zones. Early transpression produced, for example, the Allaqi shear zone and final transpression is documented in the Najd and Wadi Kharit-Wadi Hodein zones. Two terrane boundaries can be defined, the Allaqi and South Hafafit Sutures, which are apparently linked by the high angle sinistral strike-slip Wadi Kharit-Wadi Hodein shear zone with a tectonic transport of about 300 km towards the W/NW. In general, the tectonic evolution shows that extensional collapse is not necessarily the final stage of orogeny, but may be followed by further compressional and transpressional tectonism. The late Pan-African high angle faults were reactivated during Red Sea tectonics both as Riedel shears and normal faults, where they were oriented favourably with respect to the actual stress regime.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Basin dynamics ; Biostratigraphy ; Well data ; Geophysical data ; Egypt
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The results of integrating geological well data and geophysical information from the subsurface of northern Egypt are presented in terms of basin dynamics. Recent biostratigraphic data from wells and scarce outcrops are shown to be critical to an understanding of syndepositional tectonics. Six tectonostratigraphic phases of basin evolution are recognized to span the Phanerozoic. These phases initially record the development of intracratonic subsidence, controlled by deep crustal strike-slip tectonics, as Nubian continental and Tethyan marine influences competed across the northern margin of Gondwanaland. Evidence is also presented for the formation of the present day continental margin to northern Egypt. After a phase of crustal stretching, oceanic rifting focused on the western margin of the Arabian Platform, propagating progressively westwards during the Early-Mid-Jurassic. Thereafter, the effects of passive subsidence on the continental margin were disturbed by discrete phases of intracratonic strike-slip, associated ‘Syrian Arc’ folding, and the formation of deep basins in the opening Red Sea and Gulf of Suez. Three structural fabrics persisted throughout Phanerozoic basin evolution, the result of repeated extensional reactivation and inheritance from Pan-African basement.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Eastern Desert ; Egypt ; Granitoid gneisses ; Single zircon dating
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Strongly deformed and locally migmatized gneisses occur at several places in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt and in Sinai and have variously been interpreted as a basement to Pan-african (≈900 to 600 Ma) supracrustal and intrusive assemblages. A suite of grabbroic to granitic gneisses was investigated in the Hafafit area, which constitutes an I-type calc-alkaline intrusive assemblage whose chemistry suggests emplacement along an active continental margin and whose granitoid members can be correlated with the so-called ‘Older Granites’ of Egypt.207Pb/206Pb single zircon evaporation from three samples of the Hafafit gneisses yielded protolith emplacement ages between 677 ± 9 and 700 ± 12 Ma and document granitoid activity over a period of about 23 Ma. A migmatitic granitic gneiss from Wadi Bitan, south-west of Ras Banas, has a zircon age of 704 ± 8 Ma, and its protolith was apparently generated during the same intrusive event as the granitoids at Hafafit. Single zircons from a dioritic gneiss from Wadi Feiran in south-west Sinai suggest emplacement of the protolith at 796 ± 6 Ma and this is comparable with ages for granitoids in north-east Sinai and southern Israel. None of the above gneisses is derived from remelting of older continental crust, but they are interpreted as reflecting subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism during early Pan-african magmatic arc formation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Eastern Desert ; Egypt ; Granitoid gneisses ; Single zircon dating
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Strongly deformed and locally migmatized gneisses occur at several places in the southern Eastern Desert of Egypt and in Sinai and have variously been interpreted as a basement to Pan-african (≈900 to 600 Ma) supracrustal and intrusive assemblages. A suite of grabbroic to granitic gneisses was investigated in the Hafafit area, which constitutes an I-type calc-alkaline intrusive assemblage whose chemistry suggests emplacement along an active continental margin and whose granitoid members can be correlated with the so-called ‘Older Granites’ of Egypt. 207Pb/206Pb single zircon evaporation from three samples of the Hafafit gneisses yielded protolith emplacement ages between 677 ± 9 and 700 ± 12 Ma and document granitoid activity over a period of about 23 Ma. A migmatitic granitic gneiss from Wadi Bitan, south-west of Ras Banas, has a zircon age of 704 ± 8 Ma, and its protolith was apparently generated during the same intrusive event as the granitoids at Hafafit. Single zircons from a dioritic gneiss from Wadi Feiran in south-west Sinai suggest emplacement of the protolith at 796 ± 6 Ma and this is comparable with ages for granitoids in north-east Sinai and southern Israel. None of the above gneisses is derived from remelting of older continental crust, but they are interpreted as reflecting subduction-related calc-alkaline magmatism during early Pan-african magmatic arc formation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Arabian-Nubian Shield ; Egypt ; Pan-African orogeny ; Proterozoic ; Extensional collapse ; Thrust tectonics ; Transpression
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Detailed structural geological and related studies were carried out in a number of critical areas in the Proterozoic basement of eastern Egypt to resolve the structural pattern at a regional scale and to assess the general characteristics of tectonic evolution, orogeny and terrane boundaries. Following a brief account of the tectonostratigraphy and timing of the orogenic evolution, the major structural characteristics of the critical areas are presented. Collisional deformation of the terranes ended about 615-600 Ma ago. Subsequent extensional collapse probably occurred within a relatively narrow time span of about 20 Ma (575 – 595 Ma ago) over the Eastern Desert and was followed by a further period of about 50 Ma of late to post-tectonic activity. The regional structures originated mainly during post-collisional events, starting with those related to extensional collapse (molasse basin formation, normal faulting, generation of metamorphic core complexes). Subsequent NNW-SSE shortening is documented by large-scale thrusting (towards the NNW) and folding, distributed over the Eastern Desert, although with variable intensity. Thrusts are overprinted by transpression, which was localized to particular shear zones. Early transpression produced, for example, the Allaqi shear zone and final transpression is documented in the Najd and Wadi Kharit-Wadi Hodein zones. Two terrane boundaries can be defined, the Allaqi and South Hafafit Sutures, which are apparently linked by the high angle sinistral strike-slip Wadi Kharit-Wadi Hodein shear zone with a tectonic transport of about 300 km towards the W/NW. In general, the tectonic evolution shows that extensional collapse is not necessarily the final stage of orogeny, but may be followed by further compressional and transpressional tectonism. The late Pan-African high angle faults were reactivated during Red Sea tectonics both as Riedel shears and normal faults, where they were oriented favourably with respect to the actual stress regime.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Continental rift models ; Extensional tectonics ; Reflection seismic profiles ; North-east Africa Sudan ; Kenya ; Egypt ; Red Sea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Large areas of north-east Africa were dominated by regional extension in the Late Phanerozoic. Widespread rifting occurred in the Late Jurassic, with regional extension culminating in the Cretaceous and resulting in the greatest areal extent and degree of interconnection of the west, central and north African rift systems. Basin reactivation continued in the Paleocene and Eocene and new rifts probably formed in the Red Sea and western Kenya. In the Oligocene and Early Miocene, rifts in Kenya, Ethiopia and the Red Sea linked and expanded to form the new east African rift system. This complex history of rifting resulted in failed rift basins with low to high strain geometries, a range of associated volcanism and varying degrees of interaction with older structures. One system, the Red Sea rift, has partially attained active seafloor spreading. From a comparison of these basins, a general model of three-dimensional rift evolution is proposed. Asymmetrical crustal geometries dominated the early phases of these basins, accompanied by low angle normal faulting that has been observed at least locally in outcrop. As rifting progressed, the original fault and basin forms were modified to produce larger, more through-going structures. Some basins were abandoned, others experienced reversals in regional dip and, in general, extension and subsidence became focused along narrower zones near the rift axes. The final transition to oceanic spreading was accomplished in the Red Sea by a change to high angle, planar normal faulting and diffuse dike injection, followed by the organization of an axial magma chamber.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Neoproterozoic ; Dokhan volcanics ; Egypt ; Geochemistry ; Petrogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Neoproterozoic Dokhan volcanics of the Fatira area in eastern Egypt comprise two main rock suites: (a) an intermediate volcanic suite, consisting of basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, and their associated pyroclastic rocks; and (b) a felsic volcanic suite composed of rhyolite and rhyolitic tuffs. The two suites display well-defined major and trace element trends and a continuum in composition with wide ranges in SiO2 (54–76%), CaO (8.19–0.14%), MgO (6.96–0.04%), Sr (983–7 ppm), Zr (328–95 ppm), Cr (297–1 ppm), and Ni (72–1 ppm). They are enriched in LILEs (Rb, Ba, K, Th, Ce) relative to high field strength elements (Nb, Zr, P, Ti) and show strong affinity to calc-alkaline subduction-related rocks. However, their undeformed character, their emplacement temporally and spatially with post-orogenic A-type granite, and their high Zr/Y values suggest that their emplacement follow the cessation of subduction in eastern Egypt in an extensional-related within-plate setting. Major and trace element variations in the intermediate volcanics are consistent with their formation via partial melting of an enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle source followed by a limited low-pressure fractional crystallization of olivine and pyroxene before emplacement. The LILE enrichment relative to HFSE is attributed to the inheritance of a subduction component from mantle material which constituted the mantle wedge during previous subduction events in eastern Egypt. The evolution of the whole volcanic spectrum was governed mainly by crystal/melt fractionation of amphibole, plagioclase, titanomagnetite, and apatite in the intermediate varieties and plagioclase, amphibole, biotite, Fe–Ti oxides, apatite, and zircon in the felsic varieties. At each stage of evolution, crystal fractionation was accompanied by variable degrees of crustal contamination.
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