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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: By means of new methods it has been possible to measure the overall community metabolism as well as the standing state community in Silver Springs. Photosynthetic rates have been determined by downstream gradient methods, transplantation growth plots, and bell jars diurnally and annually. Respiration rates have been estimated with bell jars. The downstream losses of particulate, and dissolved organic matter have been found to balance, the excess of photosynthesis over respiration. The community has thus been demonstrated to be in a constant temperature, steady state, somewhat comparable to a climax on land. Nitrate, phosphate, and major chemical constituents are essentially constant. There is an approximate constancy of standing crop of organisms although the production rates in summer are three times those in the winter. Some evidence suggests that there, are photoperiodic changes in reproduction rates in spite of constant temperature. Rates of protein syntehsis estimated from nitrate uptake downstream agree (1) with photosynthetic quotients obtained from carbon dioxide and oxygen uptake downstream and (2) with the nitrogen content of the community. The overall annual production of 50,000 lbs/acre is the greatest productivity we know of on land or sea. Such high figures seem reasonable with the flow of high nutrient, warm water and high light intensity over a dense periphyton community. Theoretical concepts of steady state thermodynamics have been applied to show that self maintaining open systems tend to adjust to high power and low efficiency output. The 3% photosynthetic efficiency observed in Silver Springs is in agreement with this principle. Pyramids of weight and pyramids of number have been determined including bacteria. These pyramids are similar to some in the literature. The contribution of an acre of a fertile stream annually is readily inferred from data obtained on downstream increase of bacteria, chlorophyll, and organic matter. In other springs, Mr. Sloan has related stability of insect populations to chlorinity and to gradients of stability of environmental factors. Dr. L.S. Whitford during the summer made an ecological and taxonomic study of the distribution of algae in 26 contrasting springs. From this lists and from analytical data on the chemostatic water in these springs one can infer culture conditions necessary for many species. (27 pages)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Work has begun on studying the factors responsible for productivity in the Florida springs, which are nearly constant temperature, constant chemical, steady state giant laboratories. Progress has been made on five aspects: qualitative description, quantitative description, completion of knowledge of chemical factors, measurement of productivity , development of productivity theory. Measurement of the primary productivity in Silver Springs and Green Cove Springs by two new methods: the raising of organisms in cages, and the measurement of night & day differences in oxygen downstream agree roughly. Production in these springs is greater than previous production figures reported for marine, fresh water, and land areas. Instantaneous measures of production show large variations with season, time of day, cloud cover. Production estimates range from 11,000 lbs per acre per year to 70,000 lbs. glucose per acre per year during daylight hours. Essential stability of the springs environment has been shown with respect to temperature, phosphorus, and plant cover. A correlation of species number with lack of stability has been shown with insects. Quantitative studies have shown very large plant base to pyramids of mass. Correlation of marine invasion with chlorinity has been shown. The essential aspects of pH regulated phosphorus geochemistry in Florida have been outlined. Some theoretical ideas on productivity have been evolved. Mapping of sessile organisms in springs and taxonomic identification of dominants are half completed. Plans for second six months include measurement of herbivore and carnivore production rates and completion of food chain efficiency determinations in Silver Springs as a preparation for subsequent comparisons between springs. (34pp.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2010-12-09
    Description: Breve excursión en 1936 por tercera vez a la zona del río Negro correspondiente a Viedma para efectuar nuevos estudios sobre lampreas y larvas, coleccionar peces propios del río, de la desembocadura y marinos, y aumentar los datos de ecología de la región.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Oceanography ; Biology ; Limnology ; Environment
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: A great deal has been written on the part which birds play in the dispersal of freshwater fauna. This article summarises literature on the dispersal of aquatic animals by birds and aquatic insects.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This short paper summarises findings of experiments that were carried out using copepod eggs taken from guts of Coregonus which breeds in various Ural lakes. The study showed that copepod eggs can pass through the gut of Coregonus unharmed.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: This study focusses on the plants in the open parts of the lake - mostly aquatic charophytes and mosses, in what are called in Lake Sevan (Armenia), the ”zones of chara and moss”. Distribution and other ecological conditions are reviewed. Quantity of chara in the littoral zone of lake Sevan is provided
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2014-02-10
    Description: This bulletin reports, in a non-technical manner, investigations on the Virginia muskrat, prevalent in Maryland, from July, 1949 to June, 1951.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: Organisms were collected on test panels, six inch lengths of dressed two by four inch pine, suspended in the water in a vertical position as described by Turner (1947). The panels were usually located at some convenient structure such as a dock-piling or sea-wall. Except where otherwise indicated by the data, the samples were collected from each station once a month between May 1950 and May 1953. During the three year period, seven hundred and nineteen panels were submerged in Chesapeake Bay. Approximately 14,000 organisms were encountered on these panels of which 20% or approximately 3,000 organisms could be identified from the dried pallets. Preliminary notes on the extent of fouling were made in the field after which the samples were removed to the laboratory for further study.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 9
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: Baltimore Harbor is polluted by discharge of sewage and industrial wastes into tributary streams and peripheral waters. The Harbor is used extensively for navigation, industrial water supply, and recreation as well as for waste disposal. The degree of pollution varies from negligible in the principal fairway to severe in the innermost sections. Private industry discharges several hundred tons of acid materials daily and is also the principal source of organic pollution.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Environment ; Pollution
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 10
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    Game Department, Uganda Protectorate
    Publication Date: 2016-05-21
    Description: Fisheries section of the annual report covers the following A. ADMINISTRATION (1) General, (2) Legislation, (3) Nets (4) Imports and Exports of Dried Fish, (B) ECONOMIC :( 1) Lake Victoria, (2) Lake Albert (including the Albert Nile), (3) Lake Edward and Associated Fisheries, (4) Report by Fish Culturist, (5) Lake Kyoga, (6) Minor Lakes and the Victoria Nile, (7) Dams,(8) Introductions,(9) Fish Transfers (10) Crocodiles:(i) Control,(ii) Industry, (iii) General (ll) General Notes, (C) ANGLING:Trout, Nile Perch Barbei, Tilapia variabilis.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Production measurements at different times of the year indicate a linear relationship of light intensity and overall production at about 8% of the visible light energy reaching plant level. Measurements of a coral reef at Eniwetok indicate 6%. Further evidence of breeding at all seasons but with a quantitative pulse in the seasons of maximum light indicates that the seasonal fluctuation in primary production is routed through reproduction rather than through major changes in populations. The succession of plants and anmals of the aufwuchs has been shown with glass slides and counts from Sagittaria blades. Losss of oxygen bubbles during the day and emergence of aquatic insects at night have been measured with funnels. Bell jar measurements are reported for bacterial metabolism on mud surfaces. pH determined CO2 uptake agrees with titration determinations. A few rough estimates of herbivore production have been made from caged snails, aufwuchs succession, and fish tagging. Nitrate uptake a night by aufwuchs communities has been confirmed in a circulating microcosm experiment as well as in bell jars in the springs. Distributions of oxygen and organisms have been used to criticize the saprobe stream classification system. Theoretical consideration of maximum photosynthetic rates in teh literature data indicates logarithmic rate variation inversely with organismal size just as for respiratory metabolism. Extreme pyramid shapes are thus shown for communities in which organismal size decreases up the food chain and for other communities with the same energy influx but with organismal size increasing up the food chain. Literature data is used to further demonstrate the validity of the optimum efficiency-maximum power principle for photosynthesis. Work on plants by Dr. Delle Natelson indicates essential stability of aquatic plant communities after 3 years and about 10-20% reproducibility in previous biomass estimates by Davis. Work on an animal picture of the fishery characteristics by Caldwell, Barry, and Odum is half completed. The study of aquatic insects in relationship to spring gradients by W.C. Sloan has been completed an an M.S. thesis. J. Yount has begun a study of affect of total productivity on community composition using aufwuchs organisms on glass slides placed in different current and light conditions in Silver Springs. (49pp.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2010-12-09
    Description: Los resultados científicos de las excursiones de estudio realizadas a principios de 1937 han sido importantes, como así también las colecciones efectuadas, no sólo por el número de ejemplares, sino por las observaciones realizadas al obtenerlos, según el hábitat, la estación, el estado de los individuos, etc. El estudio de los materiales del Museo comparativamente con los ya catalogados permite elaborar contribuciones que se darán a conocer progresivamente o al tiempo que este informe, de caracter general, para satisfacer el deseo de la Dirección del Instituto de que sé de cuenta sobre los viajes efectuados. Se comprende que es un anticipo de una monografía científica.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Biology ; Limnology ; Environment
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2010-12-09
    Description: La presente contribución al conocimiento de la fauna de peces argentina y otras que le siguen, son una continuación natural de un trabajo publicado en esta revista bajo el título un poco largo, pero deliveradamente comprensivo, de Nuevos conceptos sobre la distribución geográfica de los peces argentinos, basados en expediciones del Museo de La Plata. Sigo aquí el mismo método de descripciones y aplico el mismo criterio taxonómico y ecológico para alcanzar las conclusiones zoogeográficas. Se verá nuevamente, pues, cuánto falta aún para delimitar el contenido de la fauna sudamericana, y cuán necesario es descibir minuciosamente, con materiales de procedencia cierta y con conocimiento del ambiente, si se quiere iniciarse de una vez en la vía de la identificación sistemática de las formas pero en función del hábitat, como se ve en las obras de Leo Berg, Hubbs, y otros maestros de la ictiología contemporánea.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Biology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 14
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    U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service
    Publication Date: 2010-12-14
    Description: This report reviews experiments in the marking, for study purposes, of seals, sea-lions, and fur seals in the North Atlantic, North Pacific, and Antarctic regions. Also discussed are the results of studies of the northern fur seal, especially the series from 1940 to 1049 carried out by U.S. Government agents on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. (PDF contains 38 pages)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Management ; Biology ; Environment
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 15
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Life history, habits, structure, industry, conservation efforts for: Blue Crabs; Oyster; Fin fishes - shad, rock, croaker; Sport fish and fishing - marine and fresh-water; other aquatic forms - Diamondback terrapin, muskrat. Problems that confront husbandry and conservation of the commercial species, while many of the fish types found in the Chesapeake Bay are superior from the sportive viewpoint. (PDF contains 103 pages)
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Management ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Cyclopids, exactly in the same way as daphnids, significant component in the nutrition of plankton-f and the young of the majority of fishes. It is established that the food spectrum of cyclopids is extremely broad: daphnids, planarians, Copepodite stages of copepods (cannibalism), rotifers, protists, bacteria, phytoplankton and so on. It is clear that the problem of studying these or other components of feeding in the general food spectrum can be definitely resolved only after obtaining exact quantitative data on the feeding of cyclopids. This article attempts to fill the gap in the study of the quantitative side of the feeding of cyclopias; in it is investigated the size of the 24-hour ration of cyclopids feeding on protists, the dependence of the ration on some factors of the external medium, and the difference of 24-hour consumption per unit weight of tody with two species of cyclopids (Cyclops strenuus and Cyclops viridis).
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 17
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2013-06-18
    Description: A review of the relative productivity and value of the shad fisheries of North America as reflected in recorded commercial catches. A review of reasons for the decline that are biological and socioeconomic. Factors that have been held responsible are: pollution; destruction or impairment of spawning and nursery areas; overfishing; hydroelectric and canal dams; natural fluctuations in abundance. Natural catastrophes, parasites, and predators are not considered important in causing the decrease in commercial production. Attempts to rehabilitate the fisheries by various means of stocking artificially-reared fry and pond-reared fingerling shad, appear to have failed in every instance. Introduction of shad fry on the Pacific Coast has resulted in a major fishery. The most significant program is a controlled catch management plan, operating at this time [1953] only in Maryland.
    Keywords: Aquaculture ; Conservation ; Ecology ; Environment ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 18
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: The Chesapeake Biological Laboratory is a research and study center founded to accelerate the acquisition of knowledge through the gathering and dissemination of facts to the end that there may be a fuller appreciation of nature.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 19
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: This paper is based on an attempt to assemble the existing knowledge of the silverside, Menidia menidia, and to contribute to what is known about the life history of this species. A vast amount of work is needed on the ecological relationships between the food fish and the forage fish. One of the most important forage fishes on the Atlantic Coast is the silverside. To understand the inter-relationships between the food fish and the forage fish it is necessary first to understand the life histories of both. For this reason it is important that the life history of this species be studied.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 20
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    University of California, Berkeley
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Description: In various areas along the coast in the vicinity of Monterey there are many colonies of the Polychaete worm Dodecaceria pacifica. An attempt has been made to find out something of the distribution, size, structure and the flora and fauna associated with these colonies.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Biology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 21
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    Game Department, Uganda Protectorate
    Publication Date: 2016-05-19
    Description: The annual report presents information on the following under fisheries section Breaches of Game Laws (Fish Sections) Development and Control of the Lake Victoria Fishing Industry. Collection of Statistics Statistical Tables.- (A) Number of half-yearly licences issued (B) Quantities and value of nets imported (C) Dried fish handled by Railways and Steamers (D) Smoked and salted fish exported to the Belgian Congo Mpondwe Customs Post Lake Bunyonyi Lake Mugisha (or Kaiyumbu) Lake Chahafi Lake Mulehe Lake Mutanda Lake Saka Lake Nabugabo Lake Kachira and Lake Kijanebalola Lake Kyoga Commercial Development:- Lake Edward and associated fisheries Uganda Fisheries Limited Nsonzi Fishery, Kigezi Experimental Nets in Lake Victoria Legislation (B) angling a) Trout (b) Nile pereh or mpufa
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The caddisfly (Trichoptera) Sericostoma siculum was found in the Marche region in Italy. The article summarises biology and ecology of the caddisfly, focusing on the larvae stage.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: Three ponds were chosen for this study. The two lower ones were of 2 - 4 hectares in area, the depth of the littoral zone was 2.5 - 3 metres at the time of maximum flooding and the mud which covered the floor of the ponds was homogeneous and autochthonous in nature with very few vegetable remnants. The ponds which were originally set up in 1950. were intended for water supply and populated with Crucian Carp (for human consumption). A survey was done in the ponds in order to establish number and biomass of Tendipes semireductus. The author concludes that in these ponds T.semireductus has 2-3 generations per year.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: The winter eggs of Daphnia pulex, after passing safely through the winter , develop and hatch in the spring, multiplying by themselves, while some males emerging among them with the changes in environment produce fertile eggs, which are universally known as winter eggs . This study researches the factors governing the development of winter eggs through experiments.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 25
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    Freshwater Biological Association
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: A progress report on research undertaken on the chemical budget of a lake, outlining the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus in governing the production of life in freshwater. The report uses the Rivers Brathay and Leven, which flow into Windermere, as examples. The report also refers to the Rivers Rothay, Troutbeck and Cunsey. A table is including which shows the monthly average nitrate content (mg per litre) of the River Brathey and River Leven for 1937 into 1938. The report also includes a figure showing Windermere lake levels, discharge and rainfall during 1937. It also briefly considers possible anthropogenic influences on water quality.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Book Section , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 26
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    Freshwater Biological Association
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 27
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    Freshwater Biological Association
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: An article detailing some of the conclusions of the salmon investigation undertaken by the author, on the River Eden and its tributaries, for the previous few years. It is proposed that seasonal changes in young salmon growth are related to water temperature variation. A figure is included showing length of fish compared to the average temperature of water in the River Eden over a two year duration. The article describes comparative work undertaken to date between three streams within the Thurso watershed and the River Eden. A table is included showing the average size of fish in each of the watercourses compared. Laboratory experiments on the effects of temperature on young salmon are outlined, as well as investigative work undertaken into the realtionship between fish scales and fish length.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: This study was initiated during the summer of 1940 with the following objectives: (1) To determine at what age sexual maturity begins in striped bass of the Chesapeake Bay. (2) To determine whether the potential of reproduction declines with increasing age in Chesapeake Bay fish. (3) To determine whether striped bass in northern waters have a spawning cycle similar to that found in the Chesapeake Bay fish.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 29
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: Reports of high mortality resulting from the impoundment of crabs (Callinectes sapidus) during the preshedding period, to produce soft crabs, have been current in Maryland and Virginia for many years. The death rate of crabs on floats has been estimated by certain of the operators to run as high as 86% at Cape Charles, and to figures nearly as high at Crisfield and elsewhere during one season of the year. A study of this mortality and the factors influencing it have been in progress at the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory for two seasons.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 30
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: Substantial progress was made in 1938 both in respect to additions made in the physical plant and to the problems effectively pursued by an energetic staff.
    Keywords: Conservation ; Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 31
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    Chesapeake Biological Laboratory
    Publication Date: 2014-02-08
    Description: The study here reported is a survey of the most common non-parasitic nematode families of Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, with descriptions and figures, so that ecological workers and students of invertebrate zoology may be encouraged not to pass over this highly interesting and abundant invertebrate phylum. This survey is not a complete account of the free-living nematode population of the Bay, however, since only the middle section of the Bay was sampled and since the collections were not made systematically throughout the year. The physical and chemical factors of Chesapeake Bay may be found in several publications of the Chesapeake Biological Laboratory, Solomons Island, Maryland, and in the records of the Chesapeake Bay Institute, Annapolis, Maryland.
    Keywords: Ecology ; Fisheries
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 32
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    University of California, Berkeley
    Publication Date: 2015-04-27
    Description: The purpose of this paper is to add to the identification of planktonic forms found in Monterey Bay, and also to compare the composition and population fluctuation with findings of previous years.
    Keywords: Biology ; Ecology ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2011-09-29
    Description: During this second six months emphasis has been laid on developing a complete understanding of the metabolism of the Silver Springs ecosystem as an example of a community apparently in a steady state. Variation in phosphates, uptake of nitrates, and importance of boron have been estimated. Fluctuation of some major elements has been estimated. Examination of stomach contents has permitted trophic classifications of dominant species and the standing crops have been estimated for these species by number and by dry weight. From these a pyramid of mass has been constructed. Special attention has been paid to bacteria using 3 methods for comparison of Silver Springs with lakes and estimation of the standing crop. The oxygen gradient method has been repeated at half hourly intervals. A carbon-dioxide gradient method has also been used to check the oxygen and to obtain a photosynthetic quotient. Black and light Bell jar experiments have been initiated to obtain checks on the other production measurement and to obtain a community respiration rate. An approximate balance has resulted from estimates of production , respiration , and downstream loss. A flow rate diagram has been constructed to clarify definitions of efficiency and their relationship to a steady state system. Mr. Sloan has statistically verified the increase of insect number and variety away from the boils and demonstrated the reliability of quantitative dipping for aquatic insects. Plans for the third half year include detained and comparative study of the dominant algae and further estimates of rates of growth of all community components. (29pp.)
    Keywords: Ecology ; Limnology
    Repository Name: Aquatic Commons
    Type: Monograph or Serial Issue , NonPeerReviewed
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