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  • Organic Chemistry  (3,406)
  • ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION  (2,591)
  • 1980-1984  (5,997)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174182 , JPL-PUB-84-68 , NAS 1.26:174182 , DOE/SF-11592/1
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  • 2
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The MHD power generation experiments were conducted in a high field strength cryomagnet which was adapted from an existing facility. In its original construction, it consisted of 12 high purity aluminum coils pool cooled in a bath of liquid neon. In this configuration, a peak field of 15 tesla was produced. For the present experiments, the center four coils were removed and a 23 cm diameter transverse warm bore tube was inserted to allow the placement of the MHD experiment between the remaining eight coils. In this configuration, a peak field of 6 tesla should be obtainable. The time duration of the experiment is limited by the neon supply which allows on the order of 1 minute of total operating time followed by an 18-hour reliquefaction period. As a result, the experiments are run in a pulsed mode. The run duration for the data presented here was 5 sec. The magnetic field profile along the MHD duct is shown. Since the working fluid is in essence superheated steam, it is easily water quenched at the exit of the diffuser and the components are designed vacuum tight so that the exhaust pipe and demister an be pumped down to simulate the vacuum of outer space.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: R and D Associates Proc. of the AFOSR Spec. Conf. on Prime-Power for High Energy Space Systems, Vol. 1; 10 p
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  • 3
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The phototron, a photoelectric device that converts light to radio frequency energy, is described. It is a vacuum tube, free electron, device that is mechanically similar to a reflex klystron with the hot filament cathode replaced by a large area photocathode. The device can operate either with an external voltage source used to accelerate the photoelectrons or with zero bias voltage; in which case the photokinetic energy of the electrons sustains the R.F. oscillations in the tuned R.F. circuit. One basic design of the phototron was tested. Frequencies as high as about 1 GHz and an overall efficiency of about 1% in the biased mode were obtained. In the unbiased mode, the frequencies of operation and efficiences are considerably lower. Success with test model suggests that considerable improvements are possible through design refinements. One such design refinement is the reduction of the length of the electron flight path.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: R and D Associates Proc. of the AFOSR Spec. Conf. on Prime-Power for High Energy Space Systems, Vol. 2; 17 p
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The autothermal reforming process for conversion of various hydrocarbons to hydrogen and the use of monolithic catalyst beds in the steam reforming of n-hexane are described.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-169134 , JPL-PUB-82-37-PT-1/PT-2 , NAS 1.26:169134 , DOE/ET-11326/1-PT-1/PT-2
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Novel solar cell designs and materials with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are researched. Laboratory demonstrations of solar cells of greater than 30% efficiency under concentrated sunlight and thin film solar cells with one sun efficiencies of 17 to 20% are sought. These demonstrations are necessary intermediate steps towards the realization of very high efficiency, multi-bandgap, thin-film solar cells. Conversion efficiencies above 30% could be achieved by a cascade multijunction cell consisting of a high bandgap (1.7 eV) cell coupled optically and electrically on top of a lower bandgap (1.1 eV) cell. Recent improvements in peak currents of this interconnect are quite promising. However, this cell structure poses difficult problems for materials fabrication as a result of the combined requirements of choice of bandgaps, low defect density material, and high doping densities. Recent improvements in the quality of materials and newly proposed cell structures which may simplify fabrication are significant steps in the development of the multijunction concentrator solar cell.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Space Photovoltaic Res. and Technol. 1983; p 118-119
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  • 6
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: ASME PAPER 84-AES-7
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2357
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Data measurements made on the NASA MOD-OA 200-kw wind-turbine generator (WTG) installed on a utility grid form the basis for an overall performance analysis. Fuel displacement/-savings, dynamic interactions, and WTG excitation (reactive-power) control effects are studied. Continuous recording of a large number of electrical and mechanical variables on FM magnetic tape permit evaluation and correlation of phenomena over a bandwidth of at least 20 Hz. Because the wind-power penetration reached peaks of 60 percent, the impact of wind fluctuation and wind-turbine/diesel-utility interaction is evaluated in a worst-case scenario. The speed-governor dynamics of the diesel units exhibited an underdamped response, and the utility operation procedures were not altered to optimize overall WTG/utility performance. Primary findings over the data collection period are: a calculated 6.7-percent reduction in fuel consumption while generating 11 percent of the total electrical energy; acceptable system voltage and frequency fluctuations with WTG connected; and applicability of WTG excitation schemes using voltage, power, or VARS as the controlled variable.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The criteria is defined for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. The purpose of the audit is twofold: to see if the application is meeting its stated objectives and to measure the application's progress in terms of the National Photovoltaic Program's goals of performance, cost, reliability, safety, and socio-environmental acceptance. The information obtained from an audit will be used to assess the status of an application and to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations on the future conduct of the application. Those aspects are covered of a site audit necessary to produce a systematic method for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data to measure the success of an application. A sequence of audit events and guidelines for obtaining the required information is presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:183321 , JPL-5250-3-VOL-6-REV-A , NASA-CR-183321
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA-0153/1 , NAS 1.26:174734 , NASA-CR-174734
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Power system applications of optical systems, primarily using fiber optics, are reviewed. The first section reviews fibers as components of communication systems. The second section deals with fiber sensors for power systems, reviewing the many ways light sources and fibers can be combined to make measurements. Methods of measuring electric field gradient are discussed. Optical data processing is the subject of the third section, which begins by reviewing some widely different examples and concludes by outlining some potential applications in power systems: fault location in transformers, optical switching for light fired thyristors and fault detection based on the inherent symmetry of most power apparatus. The fourth and final section is concerned with using optical fibers to transmit power to electric equipment in a high voltage situation, potentially replacing expensive high voltage low power transformers. JPL has designed small photodiodes specifically for this purpose, and fabricated and tested several samples. This work is described.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:176831 , DOE/ET-29372/4 , NASA-CR-176831 , JPL-PUBL-84-28
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174723 , DOE/NASA/0310-1 , NAS 1.26:174723
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design and cost aspects of a fixed pitch, 400 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) concept are presented. Improvements in reliability and cost reductions were achieved with fixed pitch operation and by incorporating recent advances in WTG technology. The specifications for this WTG concept were as follows: (1) A fixed pitch, continuous wooden rotor was to be provided by the Gougeon Bros. Co. (2) An 8 leg hyperboloid tower that showed promise as a low cost structure was to be used. (3) Only commercially available components and parts that could be easily fabricated were to be considered. (4) Design features deemed desirable based on recent NASA research efforts were to be incorporated. Detailed costs and weight estimates were prepared for the second machine and a wind farm of 12 WTG's. The calculated cost of energy for the fixed pitch, twelve unit windfarm is 11.5 cents/kW hr not including the cost of land and access roads. The study shows feasibility of fixed pitch, intermediate power WTG operation.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA/0006-1 , NAS 1.26:174877 , NASA-CR-174877
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A redesign of the initial (Group I) Mobile Solar Block V module was done and documented. Manufacturing experience and accelerated test data from Group I formed the basis for the redesign. Ten Block V Group II modules were submitted for evaluation and the results are presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DRD-SE-1 , DRL-189 , NAS 1.26:175689 , NASA-CR-175689 , DOE/JPL-956335-1 , JPL-9950-977
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of high-efficiency low-cost crystalline silicon ribbon and thih-film solar cells for the energy national photovoltaics program was examined. The findings of an issue study conducted are presented. The collected data identified the status of the technology, future research needs, and problems experienced. The potentials of present research activities to meet the Federal/industry long-term technical goal of achieving 15 cents per kilowatt-hour levelized PV energy cost are assessed. Recommendations for future research needs related to crystalline silicon ribbon and thin-film technologies for flat-plate collectors are also included.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-175654 , JPL-PUBL-84-95 , NAS 1.26:175654 , DOE/ET-20356/21
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Batteries for use with Emergency locator transmitters are discussed. Types of batteries, real-time activation considerations, encapsulation of cells in a battery pack, cold storage to extend shelf life, and general requirements are among the topics covered.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: RTCA/DO-188 , NAS 1.15:87415 , NASA-TM-87415
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A thermal-stress analysis of a wind turbine blade made of wood composite material is reported. First, the governing partial differential equation on heat conduction is derived, then, a finite element procedure using variational approach is developed for the solution of the governing equation. Thus, the temperature distribution throughout the blade is determined. Next, based on the temperature distribution, a finite element procedure using potential energy approach is applied to determine the thermal-stress distribution. A set of results is obtained through the use of a computer, which is considered to be satisfactory. All computer programs are contained in the report.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174794 , NASA-CR-174794 , DOE/NASA/0373-1
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-PUBL-84-77 , DOE/JPL-1060-79 , NASA-CR-174263 , NAS 1.26:174263
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Physical examination of surfaces undergoing natural outdoor soiling suggests that soil matter accumulates in up to three distinct layers. The first layer involves strong chemical attachment or strong chemisorption of soil matter on the primary surface. The second layer is physical, consisting of a highly organized arrangement of soil creating a gradation in surface energy from a high associated with the energetic first layer to the lowest possible state on the outer surfce of the second layer. The lowest possible energy state is dictated by the physical nature of the regional atmospheric soiling materials. These first two layers are resistant to removal by rain. The third layer constitutes a settling of loose soil matter, accumulating in dry periods and being removed during rainy periods. Theories and evidence suggest that surfaces that should be naturally resistant to the formation of the first two-resistant layers should be hard, smooth, hydrophobic, free of first-period elements, and have the lowest possible surface energy. These characteristics, evolving as requirements for low-soiling surfaces, suggest that surfaces or surface coatings should be of fluorocarbon chemistry. Evidence for the three-soil-layer concept, and data on the positive performance of candidate fluorocarbon coatings on glass and transparent plastic films after 28 months of outdoor exposure, are presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-1012-102 , JPL-PUBL-84-72 , NAS 1.26:174274 , NASA-CR-174274
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Key design issues of the regenerative fuel cell system concept were studied and a design definition of an alkaline electrolyte based engineering model system or low Earth orbit missions was completed. Definition of key design issues for a regenerative fuel cell system include gaseous reactant storage, shared heat exchangers and high pressure pumps. A power flow diagram for the 75 kW initial space station and the impact of different regenerative fuel cell modular sizes on the total 5 year to orbit weight and volume are determined. System characteristics, an isometric drawing, component sizes and mass and energy balances are determined for the 10 kW engineering model system. An open loop regenerative fuel cell concept is considered for integration of the energy storage system with the life support system of the space station. Technical problems and their solutions, pacing technologies and required developments and demonstrations for the regenerative fuel cell system are defined.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: LSI-TR-376-30 , NAS 1.26:174801 , NASA-CR-174801
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  • 21
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174732 , NAS 1.26:174732 , DOE/NASA/0290-1
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174108 , NASA-CR-174108 , JPL-5105-141 , DOE/JPL-1060-78 , JPL-PUB-84-76
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A 1-MW wellhead generator was tested in 1980, 1981, and 1982 by Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand at Cerro Prieto, Cesano, and Broadlands, respectively. The total flow helical screw expander portable power plant, Model 76-1, had been built for the U.S. Government and field-tested in Utah, USA, in 1978 and 1979. The expander had oversized internal clearances designed for self-cleaning operation on fluids that deposit adherent scale normally detrimental to the utiliation of liquid dominated fields. Conditions with which the expander was tested included inlet pressures of 64 to 220 psia, inlet qualities of 0% to 100%, exhaust pressures of 3.1 to 40 psia, electrial loads of idle and 110 to 933 kW, electrical frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz, male rotor speeds of 2500 to 4000 rpm, and fluid characteristics to 310,000 ppm total dissolved solids and noncondensables to 38 wt % of the vapor. Some testing was done on-grid. Typical expander isentropic efficiency was 40% to 50% with the clearances not closed, and 5 percentage points or more higher with the clearances partly closed. The expander efficiency increased approximately logarithmically with shaft power for most operations, while inlet quality, speed, and pressure ratio across the machine had only small effects. These findings are all in agreement with the Utah test results.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174161 , JPL-PUB-84-29 , DOE/ET-37116/2 , NASA-CR-174161
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The optical characteristics of a paraboloidal solar concentrator are analyzed using the intercept factor curve (a format for image data) to describe the results of a mathematical model and to represent reduced data from experimental testing. This procedure makes it possible not only to test an assembled concentrator, but also to evaluate single optical panels or to conduct non-solar tests of an assembled concentrator. The use of three-dimensional ray tracing computer programs to calculate the mathematical model is described. These ray tracing programs can include any type of optical configuration from simple paraboloids to array of spherical facets and can be adapted to microcomputers or larger computers, which can graphically display real-time comparison of calculated and measured data.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-PUB-84-75 , NAS 1.26:174109 , NASA-CR-174109 , JPL-5105-140 , DOE/JPL-1060-77
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174638 , NAS 1.26:174638 , DOE/NASA/0017-1
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed distributed mathematical model of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack have been developed, with the FORTRAN computer program, for analyzing the temperature distribution in the stack and the associated current density distribution on the cell plates. Energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses in the stack were combined to develop the model. Several reasonable assumptions were made to solve this mathematical model by means of the finite differences numerical method.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174722 , NASA-CR-174722 , DOE/NASA/0017-4
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Assessing the performance of a MOD-OA horizontal axis wind turbine connected to an isolated diesel utility, a comprehensive data measurement program was conducted on the Block Island Power Company installation on Block Island, Rhode Island. The detailed results of that program focusing on three principal areas of (1) fuel displacement (savings), (2) dynamic interaction between the diesel utility and the wind turbine, (3) effects of three models of wind turbine reactive power control are presented. The approximate two month duration of the data acquisition program conducted in the winter months (February into April 1982) revealed performance during periods of highest wind energy penetration and hence severity of operation. Even under such conditions fuel savings were significant resulting in a fuel reduction of 6.7% while the MOD-OA was generating 10.7% of the total electrical energy. Also, electrical disturbance and interactive effects were of an acceptable level.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: AST-84-1808-VOL-2 , DOE/NASA/0354-2 , NASA-CR-168319 , NAS 1.26:168319
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  • 28
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Seven low cost multi-100 kW planar solar array modules were fabricated and tested. Two different designs were used, demonstrating advanced solar array construction practices. Both module types utilized second generation gridded back cells featuring high efficiency and IR transparency. A silicon dioxide AR coating optimized for transmission at gamma = 1.7 microns was applied to the back surface. Two interconnect types, a single sheet printed circuit and a roll type, with alternate approaches to increasing transparency and reducing cost were designed and fabricated. Hinge stress and electrical power optimization were also examined. Two point designs were studied. The first design used a coilage longeron mast and is autonomously deployable. The second design used a Stac Beam for high natural frequency response and required astronaut assistance and assembly on orbit. It was conclusively demonstrated that planar arrays are the most cost effective design for use on the space station or other high power applications.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: LMSC-D973431 , NAS 1.26:171119 , NASA-CR-171119
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Primary results are summarized for a three-part study involving the effects of connecting a MOD-OA wind turbine generator to an isolated diesel power system. The MOD-OA installation considered was the third of four experimental nominal 200 kW wind turbines connected to various utilities under the Federal Wind Energy Program and was characterized by the highest wind energy penetration levels of four sites. The study analyses address: fuel displacement, dynamic interaction, and three modes of reactive power control. These analyses all have as their basis the results of the data acquisition program conducted on Block Island, Rhode Island.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:168318 , NASA-CR-168318 , AST-84-1808 , DOE/NASA/0354-1
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173752 , DOE/CS-66001/4 , JPL-PUB-84-27 , NASA-CR-173752
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cells is summarized. The preparation, heat treatment, and characterization of carbon composites used as bipolar separator plates are described. Characterization included resistivity, porosity, and electrochemical corrosion. High density glassy carbon/graphite composites performed well in long-term fuel cell endurance tests. Platinum alloy cathode catalysts and low-loaded platinum electrodes were evaluated in 25 sq cm cells. Although the alloys displayed an initial improvement, some of this improvement diminished after a few thousand hours of testing. Low platinum loading (0.12 mg/sq cm anodes and 0.3 mg/sq cm cathodes) performed nearly as well as twice this loading. A selectively wetproofed anode backing paper was tested in a 5 by 15 inch three-cell stack. This material may provide for acid volume expansion, acid storage, and acid lateral distribution.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174660 , NAS 1.26:174660 , DOE/NASA/0205-8
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: One of the primary obstacles to the application of vaccination in developing countries is the lack of refrigerated storage. Vaccines exposed to elevated temperatures suffer a permanent loss of potency. Photovoltaic (PV) powered refrigerator/freezer (R/F) units could surmount the problem of refrigeration in remote areas where no reliable commercial power supply is available. The performance measurements of two different models of PV powered R/F units for medical use are presented. Qualification testing consisted of four major procedures: no-load pull down, ice making, steady-state (maintenance), and holdover. Both R/F units met the major World Health Organization (WHO) requirements. However, the testing performed does not provide complete characterization of the two units; such information could be derived only from further extensive test procedures.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:168181 , NASA-CR-168181
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  • 33
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:171780 , NASA-CR-171780 , D180-27951-1
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This study provides a broad based overview of selected areas relevant to the development of a comprehensive Southern California Edison (SCE) advanced cogeneration project. The areas studied are: (1) Cogeneration potential in the SCE service territory; (2) Advanced cogeneration technologies; and (3) Existing cogeneration computer models. An estimated 3700 MW sub E could potentially be generated from existing industries in the Southern California Edison service territory using cogeneration technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2600 MW sub E and advanced technology could provide 1100 MW sub E. The manufacturing sector (SIC Codes 20-39) was found to have the highest average potential for current cogeneration technology. The mining sector (SIC Codes 10-14) was found to have the highest potential for advanced technology.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173467 , NASA-CR-173467 , JPL-PUB-83-67
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-PUB-83-40A , NAS 1.26:173454 , NASA-CR-173454
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cogeneration computer simulation models to recommend the most desirable models or their components for use by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) in evaluating potential cogeneration projects was assessed. Existing cogeneration modeling capabilities are described, preferred models are identified, and an approach to the development of a code which will best satisfy SCE requirements is recommended. Five models (CELCAP, COGEN 2, CPA, DEUS, and OASIS) are recommended for further consideration.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-173453 , JPL-PUB-83-59 , NAS 1.26:173453
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA/0241-12 , NAS 1.26:168309 , NASA-CR-168309
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: E-1845 , NASA-TM-83504 , DOE/NASA/51044-33 , NAS 1.15:83504
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test are addressed. The Active Magnetic Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) cell design was characterized and the effects of specific mission parameters on cell life were demonstrated.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: WQEC/C-83-428 , NAS 1.26:173357 , NASA-CR-173357
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells were identified and evaluated. Candidates considered included all possibilities except grid connected electric utility applications, on site total energy systems, industrial cogeneration, opportunistic use of waste hydrogen, space and military applications, and applications smaller than 10 kW. Applications identified were screened, with the most promising subjected to technical and economic evaluation using a fuel cell and conventional power system data base developed in the study. The most promising applications appear to be the underground mine locomotive and the railroad locomotive. Also interesting are power for robotic submersibles and Arctic villages. The mine locomotive is particularly attractive since it is expected that the fuel cell could command a very high price and still be competitive with the conventionally used battery system. The railroad locomotive's attractiveness results from the (smaller) premium price which the fuel cell could command over the conventional diesel electric system based on its superior fuel efficiency, and on the large size of this market and the accompanying opportunities for manufacturing economy.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:168203 , NASA-CR-168203 , ADL-88036 , DOE/NASA/0291-1
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:170974 , MCR-83-645 , NASA-CR-170974
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Gasifiers, heat transfer, gas stability, quench, water-gas shift reaction, reforming-methanation, other catalytic reactions, compressors and expanders, acid-gas removal, the fuel cell, and catalytic combustors are described. System pressure drops, efficiency of rotating power equipment, heat exchangers, chemical reactions, steam systems, and the fuel cell subsystems are discussed.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173157 , NASA-CR-173157
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Potential benefits of integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) units were evaluated for a reference utility system by comparing long range expansion plans using IGCC units and gas turbine peakers with a plan using only state of the art steam turbine units and gas turbine peakers. Also evaluated was the importance of the benefits of individual IGCC unit characteristics, particularly unit efficiency, unit equivalent forced outage rate, and unit size. A range of IGCC units was analyzed, including cases achievable with state of the art gas turbines and cases assuming advanced gas turbine technology. All utility system expansion plans that used IGCC units showed substantial savings compared with the base expansion plan using the steam turbine units.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.60:2172 , E-1465 , NASA-TP-2172
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173118 , JPL-PUB-83-14-VOL-2 , NASA-CR-173118 , DOE/JPL-1060-60-VOL-2
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A novel integration concept for a coal-fueled coal gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell power plant was studied. Effort focused on determining the efficiency potential of the concept, design, and development requirements of the processes in order to achieve the efficiency. The concept incorporates a methane producing catalytic gasifier of the type previously under development by Exxon Research and Development Corp., a reforming molten carbonate fuel cell power section of the type currently under development by United Technologies Corp., and a gasifier-fuel cell recycle loop. The concept utilizes the fuel cell waste heat, in the form of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, to generate additional fuel in the coal gasifier, thereby eliminating the use of both an O2 plant and a stream bottoming cycle from the power plant. The concept has the potential for achieving coal-pile-to-busbar efficiencies of 50-59%, depending on the process configuration and degree of process configuration and degree of process development requirements. This is significantly higher than any previously reported gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell system.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173104 , JPL-9950-871 , FCR-5208 , NASA-CR-173104
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Enery Cost Analysis Program (NECAP) is a powerful computerized method to determine and to minimize building energy consumption. The program calculates hourly heat gain or losses taking into account the building thermal resistance and mass, using hourly weather and a "response factor' method. Internal temperatures are allowed to vary in accordance with thermostat settings and equipment capacity. A simplified input procedure and numerous other technical improvements are presented. This Users Manual describes the program and provides examples.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.15:83238 , NASA-TM-83238
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-168230 , HAC-E8179 , NAS 1.26:168230
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: E-1681 , NASA-TM-83403 , DOE/NASA/17088-4 , NAS 1.15:83403
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Techniques for reducing the chances of lightning damage to wind turbines are discussed. The methods of providing a ground for a lightning strike are discussed. Then details are given on ways to protect electronic systems, generating and power equipment, blades, and mechanical components from direct and nearby lightning strikes.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-168229 , NAS 1.26:168229 , DOE/NASA/0007-1
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The likely facets of a nationwide phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant commercial system are described. The beneficial and adverse environmental impacts produced by the system are assessed. Eleven specific system activities are characterized and evaluated. Also included is a review of fuel cell technology and a description of DOE's National Fuel Cell Program. Based on current and reasonably foreseeable PAFC characteristics, no environmental or energy impact factor was identified that would significantly inhibit the commercialization of PAFC power plant technology.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA/2701-3 , ATR-83(3813-07)-1ND , NASA-CR-168131 , NAS 1.26:168131
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new and unique approach to improving photovoltaic conversion efficiency, the reflective multiband gap solar cell concept, was examined. This concept uses back surface reflectors and light trapping with several physically separated cells of different bandgaps to make more effective use of energy from different portions of the solar spectrum. Preliminary tests performed under General Dynamics Independent Research and Development (IRAD) funding have demonstrated the capability for achieving in excess of 20% conversion efficiency with aluminum gallium arsenide and silicon. This study analyzed the ultimate potential for high conversion efficiency with 2, 3, 4, and 5 different bandgap materials, determined the appropriate bandgaps needed to achieve this optimized efficiency, and identified potential problems or constraints. The analysis indicated that an improvement in efficiency of better than 40% could be attained in this multibandgap approach, compared to a single bandgap converter under the same assumptions. Increased absorption loss on the back surface reflector was found to incur a minimal penalty on efficiency for two and three bandgap systems. Current models for bulk absorption losses in 3-5 materials were found to be inadequate for explaining laboratory observed transmission losses. Recommendations included the continued development of high bandgap back surface reflector cells and basic research on semiconductor absorption mechanisms.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: GDC-SP-83-041 , NASA-CR-168186 , NAS 1.26:168186
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Laboratory tests performed to characterize candidate encapsulation materials with respect to changes in their physical and chemical properties caused by photothermal aging are described. Several key material properties relating directly to material degradation and deterioration of performance were identified and were monitored as functions of aging conditions and time. A status report on accelerated testing activities is provided and experimental data are presented. It will be updated periodically as more data become available.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-1012/86 , NASA-CR-172989 , JPL-PUB-83-32 , NAS 1.26:172989
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  • 53
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:172961 , JPL-9950-813 , NASA-CR-172961
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The conceptual design of a ground-based microwave power transmission system is described. This system is intended to supply electrical power via an air link to a high-altitude (21 km) powered platform. The platform must be equipped with the required instrumentation (RECTENNA) to convert the RF energy to dc power.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: PT-6052 , NASA-CR-168344 , NAS 1.26:168344
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Conditions were determined in a continuous-flow, premixing-prevaporizing duct at which autoignition occurred. Test conditions were representative of an advanced, regenerative-cycle, automotive gas turbine. The test conditions inlet air temperatures from 600 to 1250 K (a vitiated preheater was used), pressures from 170 to 600 kPa, air velocities of 10 to 30 m/sec, equivalence ratios from 0.3 to 1.0, mixing lengths from 10 to 60 cm, and residence times of 2 to 100 ms. The fuel was diesel number 2. The duct was insulated and had an inside diameter of 12 cm. Three different fuel injection systems were used: One was a single simplex pressure atomizer, and the other two were multiple-source injectors. The data obtained with the simplex and one of the multiple-source injectors agreed satisfactorily with the references and correlated with an Arrenhius expression. The data obtained with the other multiple source injector, which used multiple cones to improve the fuel-air distribution, did not correlate well with residence time.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: E-1334 , NASA-TM-82938 , NAS 1.15:82938 , DOE/NASA/51040-45
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Standard descriptions for solar thermal power plants are established and uniform costing methodologies for nondevelopmental balance of plant (BOP) items are developed. The descriptions and methodologies developed are applicable to the major systems. These systems include the central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough, hemispherical bowl, and solar pond. The standard plant is defined in terms of four categories comprising (1) solar energy collection, (2) power conversion, (3) energy storage, and (4) balance of plant. Each of these categories is described in terms of the type and function of components and/or subsystems within the category. A detailed description is given for the BOP category. BOP contains a number of nondevelopmental items that are common to all solar thermal systems. A standard methodology for determining the costs of these nondevelopmental BOP items is given. The methodology is presented in the form of cost equations involving cost factors such as unit costs. A set of baseline values for the normalized cost factors is also given.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-1060-59 , NAS 1.26:170293 , REPT-5106-21 , JPL-PUB-83-4 , NASA-CR-170293
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.15:83036 , NASA-TM-83036 , DOE/NASA/51044-29 , E-1479
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A parametric analysis of closed cycle MHD power plants was performed which studied the technical feasibility, associated capital cost, and cost of electricity for the direct combustion of coal or coal derived fuel. Three reference plants, differing primarily in the method of coal conversion utilized, were defined. Reference Plant 1 used direct coal fired combustion while Reference Plants 2 and 3 employed on site integrated gasifiers. Reference Plant 2 used a pressurized gasifier while Reference Plant 3 used a ""state of the art' atmospheric gasifier. Thirty plant configurations were considered by using parametric variations from the Reference Plants. Parametric variations include the type of coal (Montana Rosebud or Illinois No. 6), clean up systems (hot or cold gas clean up), on or two stage atmospheric or pressurized direct fired coal combustors, and six different gasifier systems. Plant sizes ranged from 100 to 1000 MWe. Overall plant performance was calculated using two methodologies. In one task, the channel performance was assumed and the MHD topping cycle efficiencies were based on the assumed values. A second task involved rigorous calculations of channel performance (enthalpy extraction, isentropic efficiency and generator output) that verified the original (task one) assumptions. Closed cycle MHD capital costs were estimated for the task one plants; task two cost estimates were made for the channel and magnet only.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:165472 , DOE/NASA/0136-1 , NASA-CR-165472
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Static vibration and flutter analysis of a straight elastic axis blade was performed based on a finite element method solution. The total potential energy functional was formulated according to linear beam theory. The inertia and aerodynamic loads were formulated according to the blade absolute acceleration and absolute velocity vectors. In vibration analysis, the direction of motion of the blade during the first out-of-lane and first in-plane modes was examined; numerical results involve NASA/DOE Mod-0, McCauley propeller, north wind turbine and flat plate behavior. In flutter analysis, comparison cases were examined involving several references. Vibration analysis of a nonstraight elastic axis blade based on a finite element method solution was performed in a similar manner with the straight elastic axis blade, since it was recognized that a curved blade can be approximated by an assembly of a sufficient number of straight blade elements at different inclinations with respect to common system of axes. Numerical results involve comparison between the behavior of a straight and a curved cantilever beam during the lowest two in-plane and out-of-plane modes.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA/3303-2 , NAS 1.26:168107 , MIT-ARSL-TR-197-3 , NASA-CR-168107
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Semiconductor photoelectrochemical reactions are investigated. A model of the charge transport processes in the semiconductor, based on semiconductor device theory, is presented. It incorporates the nonlinear processes characterizing the diffusion and reaction of charge carriers in the semiconductor. The model is used to study conditions limiting useful energy conversion, specifically the saturation of current flow due to high light intensity. Numerical results describing charge distributions in the semiconductor and its effects on the electrolyte are obtained. Experimental results include: an estimate rate at which a semiconductor photoelectrode is capable of converting electromagnetic energy into chemical energy; the effect of cell temperature on the efficiency; a method for determining the point of zero zeta potential for macroscopic semiconductor samples; a technique using platinized titanium dioxide powders and ultraviolet radiation to produce chlorine, bromine, and iodine from solutions containing their respective ions; the photoelectrochemical properties of a class of layered compounds called transition metal thiophosphates; and a technique used to produce high conversion efficiency from laser radiation to chemical energy.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-TP-2088 , NAS 1.60:2088 , L-15495
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The technology of an inorganic-organic (I/O) separator, which demonstrated improved flexibility, reduced cost, production feasibility and improved cycle life was developed. Substrates to replace asbestos and waterbased separator coatings to replace the solvent based coatings were investigated. An improved fuel cell grade asbestos sheet was developed and a large scale production capability for the solvent based I/O separator was demonstrated. A cellulose based substrate and a nonwoven polypropylene fiber substrate were evaluated as replacements for the asbestos. Both the cellulose and polypropylene substrates were coated with solvent based and water based coatings to produce a modified I/O separator. The solvent based coatings were modified to produce aqueous separator coatings with acceptable separator properties. A single ply fuel cell grade asbestos with a binder (BTA) was produced. It has shown to be an acceptable substrate for the solvent and water based separator coatings, an acceptable absorber for alkaline cells, and an acceptable matrix for alkaline fuel cells. The original solvent based separator (K19W1), using asbestos as a substrate, was prepared.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: E-1453 , NAS 1.15:83018 , NASA-TM-83018
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A nickel cadmium battery design which can offer better thermal management, higher energy density and much lower cost than the state-of-the-art is emphasized. A toroidal Ni/Cd cell concept is described. It was critically reviewed and used to develop two cell designs for practical implementation. One is a double swaged and the other a swaged welded configuration.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:169945 , NASA-CR-169945
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  • 63
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The technical feasibility of a solar thermal collector to provide process steam in an industrial environment was determined. The form of the experiment was an industrial field test.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: K05-01-82-FR , NAS 1.26:169901 , NASA-CR-169901
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The new high-energy lithium/sulfur dioxide primary electrochemical cell, having a number of advantages, has received considerable attention as a power source in the past few years. With greater experience and improved design by the manufacturers, this system can be used in a safe manner provided the guidelines for use and safety precautions described herein are followed. In addition to a description of cell design and appropriate definitions, there is a safety precautions checklist provided to guide the user. Specific safety procedures for marking, handling, transportation, and disposal are also given, as is a suggested series of tests, to assure manufacturer conformance to requirements.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-RP-1099 , NAS 1.61:1099
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several economic analyses had indicated that large-diameter, multiple ingot growth using a single crucible with melt replenishment would be required for Cz growth to be economically viable. Based on the results of these analyses, two liquid and two solid feed melt replenishment approaches were initiated. The sequential solid feed melt replenishment approach, which demonstrated elements of technical feasibility is described in detail in this paper. Growth results of multiple ingots (10-cm-diameter, totaling 100 kg; and 15-cm-diameter, totaling 150 kg weight per crucible) are presented. Solar cells were fabricated and analyzed to evaluate the effects of structure and chemical purities as a result of multiple growth. The results indicate that, with semiconductor-grade silicon, feedstock impurity build-up does not seem to degrade cell performance. For polycrystalline cells, the average efficiencies are 15 to 25% lower than those of single crystalline cells. Concerns regarding single crystal yields, crucible quality and growth speed are indicated, and present status and future research thrusts are also discussed.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-5101-207 , DOE/JPL-1012-70 , JPL-PUB-82-35 , NASA-CR-169661 , NAS 1.26:169661
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Statistically significant quantitative structural imperfection measurements were made on samples from ubiquitous crystalline process (UCP) Ingot 5848 - 13 C. Important trends were noticed between the measured data, cell efficiency, and diffusion length. Grain boundary substructure appears to have an important effect on the conversion efficiency of solar cells from Semix material. Quantitative microscopy measurements give statistically significant information compared to other microanalytical techniques. A surface preparation technique to obtain proper contrast of structural defects suitable for QTM analysis was perfected.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-955676-2 , NASA-CR-169617 , NAS 1.26:169617 , MRI-290
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The evaluation of potentially useful low cost encapsulation materials is discussed. The goal is to identify, evaluate, test and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost effective, long life solar cell modules. Technical investigations concerned the development of advanced cure chemistries for lamination type pottants; the continued evaluation of soil resistant surface treatment, and the results of an accelerated aging test program for the comparison of material stabilities. New compounds were evaluated for efficiency in curing both ethylene/vinyl acetate and ethylene/methyl acrylate pottants intended for vacuum bag lamination of solar cells. Two component aliphatic urethane casting syrups were evaluated for suitability as solar module pottants on the basis of optical, physical and fabrication characteristics.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-954527-82/23 , NASA-CR-169636 , NAS 1.26:169636 , JPL-9950-744
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:169662 , NASA-CR-169662 , JPL-PUB-82-69
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The interface issues between the intermediate-size Power Conditioning Subsystem (PCS) and the utility are considered. A literature review yielded facts about the status of identified issues.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-169664 , JPL-PUB-82-63 , NAS 1.26:169664
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  • 70
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations likely to be used in residential, intermediate, and large-scale applications were identified and developed. The National Electrical Code and Building Codes were reviewed with respect to present provisions which may be considered to affect the design of photovoltaic modules. Limited testing, primarily in the roof fire resistance field was conducted. Additional studies and further investigations led to the development of a proposed standard for safety for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Additional work covered the initial investigation of conceptual approaches and temporary deployment, for concept verification purposes, of a differential dc ground-fault detection circuit suitable as a part of a photovoltaic array safety system.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-169641 , DOE/JPL-955392-1 , NAS 1.26:169641
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Technologies that will enable the private sector to manufacture and widely use photovoltaic systems for the generation of electricity in residential, commercial, industrial, and government applications at a cost per watt that is competitive with other means is investigated. Silicon refinement processes, advanced silicon sheet growth techniques, solar cell development, encapsulation, automated fabrication process technology, advanced module/array design, and module/array test and evaluation techniques are developed.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-1012-76 , JPL-5101-221 , NASA-CR-169518 , JPL-PUB-82-79 , NAS 1.26:169518
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Agricultural sector PV market assessments conducted in the Phillippines, Nigeria, Mexico, Morocco, and Colombia are extrapolated worldwide. The types of applications evaluated are those requiring less than 15 kW of power and operate in a stand alone mode. The major conclusions were as follows: PV will be competitive in applications requiring 2 to 3 kW of power prior to 1983; by 1986 PV system competitiveness will extend to applications requiring 4 to 6 kW of power, due to capital constraints, the private sector market may be restricted to applications requiring less than about 2 kW of power; the ultimate purchase of larger systems will be governments, either through direct purchase or loans from development banks. Though fragmented, a significant agriculture sector market for PV exists; however, the market for PV in telecommunications, signalling, rural services, and TV will be larger. Major market related factors influencing the potential for U.S. PV Sales are: lack of awareness; high first costs; shortage of long term capital; competition from German, French and Japanese companies who have government support; and low fuel prices in capital surplus countries. Strategies that may aid in overcoming some of these problems are: setting up of a trade association aimed at overcoming problems due to lack of awareness, innovative financing schemes such as lease arrangements, and designing products to match current user needs as opposed to attempting to change consumer behavior.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-165541 , DOE/NASA/0180-6 , NAS 1.26:165541
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design, tooling, fabrication, quality control, and testing phases carried out to date, as well as testing still planned are described. Differences from the 150 foot blade which were introduced for cost and manufacturing improvement purposes are discussed as well as the lightning protection system installed in the blades. Actual costs and manhours expended for Blade No. 2 are provided as a base, along with a projection of costs for the blade in production.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:167987 , DOE/NASA/0131-1 , RR-1685 , NASA-CR-167987
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This program was directed primarily to the development of the negative (Cr3+/Cr2+) electrode for the NASA chromous/ferric Redox battery. The investigation of the effects of substrate processing and gold/lead catalyzation parameters on electrochemical performance were continued. In addition, the effects of reactant cross-mixing, acidity level, and temperature were examined for both Redox couples. Finally, the performance of optimized electrodes was tested in system hardware (1/3 square foot single cell). The major findings are discussed: (1) The recommended processing temperature for the carbon felt, as a substrate for the negative electrode, is 1650 to 1750 C, (2) The recommended gold catalyzation procedure is essentially the published NASA procedure (NASA TM-82724, Nov. 1981) based on deposition from aqueous methanol solution, with the imposition of a few controls such as temperature (25 C) and precatalyzation pH of the felt (7), (3) Experimental observations of the gold catalyzation process and subsequent electron microscopy indicate that the gold is deposited from the colloidal state, induced by contact of the solution with the carbon felt, (4) Electrodeposited lead appears to be present as a thin uniform layer over the entire surface of the carbon fibers, rather than an discrete particles, and (5) Cross-mixing of reactants (Fe-2+ in negative electrode solution or Cr-3+ in the positive electrode solution) did not appear to produce significant interference at either electrode.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174724 , NASA-CR-174724 , DOE/NASA/0262-1
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  • 75
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The ultrathin silicon solar cell has progressed to where it is a serious candidate for future light weight or radiation tolerant spacecraft. The ultrasonic method of producing welds was found to be satisfactory. These ultrathin cells could be handled without breakage in a semiautomated welding machine. This is a prototype of a machine capable of production rates sufficiently large to support spacecraft array assembly needs. For comparative purposes, this project also welded a variety of cells with thicknesses up to 0.23 mm as well as the 0.07 mm ultrathin cells. There was no electrical degradation in any cells. The mechanical pull strength of welds on the thick cells was excellent when using a large welding force. The mechanical strength of welds on thin cells was less since only a small welding force could be used without cracking these cells. Even so, the strength of welds on thin cells appears adequate for array application. The ability of such welds to survive multiyear, near Earth orbit thermal cycles needs to be demonstrated.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-176116 , JPL-9950-885 , NAS 1.26:176116
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The purpose of this study is to assess the relative economic potentials of concenrating and two-axis tracking flat-plate photovoltaic arrays for central-station applications in the mid-1990's. Specific objectives of this study are to provide information on concentrator photovoltaic collector probabilistic price and efficiency levels to illustrate critical areas of R&D for concentrator cells and collectors, and to compare concentrator and flat-plate PV price and efficiency alternatives for several locations, based on their implied costs of energy. To deal with the uncertainties surrounding research and development activities in general, a probabilistic assessment of commercially achievable concentrator photovoltaic collector efficiencies and prices (at the factory loading dock) is performed. The results of this projection of concentrator photovoltaic technology are then compared with a previous flat-plate module price analysis (performed early in 1983). To focus this analysis on specific collector alternatives and their implied energy costs for different locations, similar two-axis tracking designs are assumed for both concentrator and flat-plate options.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-5230-15 , JPL-PUB-85-16 , NASA-CR-175889 , DOE/ET-20356/22 , NAS 1.26:175889
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:175772 , NASA-CR-175772
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The flat-plate solar cell array program which increases the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules used for terrestrial energy applications is discussed. The current-voltage response characteristics of the solar cells encapsulated in the modules degrade with service time and this degradation places a limitation on the useful lifetime of the modules. The most desirable flat-plate array system involves solar cells consisting of highly polarizable materials with similar electrochemical potentials where the cells are encapsulated in polymers in which ionic concentrations and mobilities are negligibly small. Another possible mechanism limiting the service lifetime of the photovoltaic modules is the gradual loss of the electrical insulation characteristics of the polymer pottant due to water absorption or due to polymer degradation from light or heat effects. The mechanical properties of various polymer pottant materials and of electrochemical corrosion mechanisms in solar cell material are as follows: (1) electrical and ionic resistivity; (2) water absorption kinetics and water solubility limits; and (3) corrosion characterization of various metallization systems used in solar cell construction.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-9950-971 , DOE/JPL-956766-02 , QR-2 , NAS 1.26:175699 , NASA-CR-175699 ,