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  • ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION  (5,030)
  • 1995-1999  (59)
  • 1980-1984  (2,591)
  • 1975-1979  (2,380)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Solar cells at potentials positive with respect to a surrounding plasma collect electrons. Current is collected by the exposed high voltage surfaces: the interconnects and the sides of the solar cells. This current is a drain on the array power that can be significant for high-power arrays. In addition, this current influences the current balance that determines the floating potential of the spacecraft. One of the objectives of the Air Force (PL/GPS) PASP Plus (Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics) experiment is an improved understanding fo parasitic current collection. We have done computer modeling of parasitic current collection and have examined current collection flight data from the first year of operations. Prior to the flight we did computer modeling to improve our understanding of the physical processes that control parasitic current collection. At high potentials, the current rapidly rises due to a phenomenon called snapover. Under snapover conditions, the equilibrium potential distribution across the dielectric surface is such that part of the area is at potentials greater than the first crossover of the secondary yield curve. Therefore, each incident electron generates more than one secondary electron. The net effect is that the high potential area and the collecting area increase. We did two-dimensional calculations for the various geometries to be flown. The calculations span the space of anticipated plasma conditions, applied potential, and material parameters. We used the calculations and early flight data to develop an analytic formula for the dependence of the current on the primary problem variables. The analytic formula was incorporated into the EPSAT computer code. EPSAT allows us to easily extend the results to other conditions. PASP Plus is the principal experiment integrated onto the Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiments (APEX) satellite bus. The experiment is testing twelve different solar array designs. Parasitic current collection is being measured for eight of the designs under various operational and environment conditions. We examined the current collected as a function of the various parameters for the six non-concentrator designs. The results are similar to those obtained in previous experiments and predicted by the calculations. We are using the flight data to validate the analytic formula developed. The formula can be used to quantify the parasitic current collected. Anticipating the parasitic current value allows the spacecraft designer to include this interaction when developing the design.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 40
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Improvements to GaAs solar array performance, from the use on solar cell coverslides of several reflecting coatings that reject unusable portions of the solar spectrum, are quantified. Blue-red-rejection (BRR) coverslides provide both infrared reflection (IRR) and ultraviolet rejection (UVR). BRR coverslides were compared to conventional antireflection (AR) and ultraviolet (UV) coated coverslides. A 2% improvement in peak-power output, relative to that from Ar-coated coverslides, is seen for cells utilizing BRR coverslides with the widest bandpass. Coverslide BRR-filter bandpass width and covered-solar-cell short-circuit current is a function of incident light angle and the observed narrower-bandpass filters are more sensitive to change in angle from the normal than are wide-bandpass filters. The first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce solar array operating temperature, has indicated that all multilayer coatings on coverslides and solar cells will experience degradation from the space environment (UV and/or electrons). Five types of coverslide coatings, designed for GaAs solar cells, were tested as part of a NASA-sponsored space-flight qualification for BRR, multi-layer-coated, coverslides. The reponse to the different radiations varied with the coatings. The extent of degradation and its consequences on the solar cell electrical characteristics depend upon the coatings and the radiation. In some cases, an improved optical coupling was observed during long-term UV exposure to the optical stack. The benefits of multi-layered solar cell optics may depend upon both the duration and the radiation environment of a mission.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 37
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The first commercial communications satellite with gallium-arsenide on germanium (GaAs/Ge) solar arrays is scheduled for launch in December 1995. The spacecraft, named MEASAT, was built by hughes Space and Telecommunications company for Binariang Satellite Systems of Malaysia. The solar cell assemblies consisted of large area GaAs/Ge cells supplied by Spectrolab Inc. with infrared reflecting (IRR) coverglass supplied by Pilkington Space Technology. A comprehensive characterization program was performed on the GaAs/Ge solar cell assemblies used on the MEASAT array. This program served two functions; first to establish the database needed to accurately predict on-orbit performance under a variety of conditions; and second, to demonstrate the ability of the solar cell assemblies to withstand all mission environments while still providing the required power at end-of-life. characterization testing included measurement of electrical performance parameters as a function of radiation exposure, temperature, and angle of incident light; reverse bias stability; optical and thermal properties; mechanical strength tests, panel fabrication, humidity and thermal cycling environmental tests. The results provided a complete database enabling the design of the MEASAT solar array, and demonstrated that the GaAs/Ge cells meet the spacecraft requirements at end-of-life.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 34
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 36
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: High-efficiency, heteroepitaxial (HE) InP solar cells, grown on GaAs, Si or Ge substrates, are desirable for their mechanically strong, light-weight and radiation-hard properties. However, dislocations, caused by lattice mismatch, currently limit the performance of the HE cells. This occurs through shunting paths across the active photovoltaic junction and by the formation of deep levels. In previous work we have demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of dislocations in specially designed HE InP test structures. In this work, we present the first report of successful hydrogen passivation in actual InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in HE n+n InP cell structures from as-grown values of approximately 10(exp 15)/cm(exp -3), down to 1-2 x 10(exp 13)/cm(exp -3). The deep levels in the p-type base region of the cell structure match those of our earlier p-type test structures, which were attributed to dislocations or related point defect complexes. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 10 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and no change in the forward biased series resistance of the cell structure which indicates complete reactivation of the n+ emitter. Furthermore, electrochemical C-V profiling indicates greatly enhanced passivation depth, and hence hydrogen diffusion, for heteroepitaxial structures when compared with identically processed homoepitaxial n+p InP structures. An analysis of hydrogen diffusion in dislocated InP will be discussed, along with comparisons of passivation effectiveness for n+p versus p+n heteroepitaxial cell configurations. Preliminary hydrogen-passivated HE InP cell results will also be presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 21
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: This proprietary technology is based on AstroPower's electrostatic bonding and innovative silicon solar cell processing techniques. Electrostatic bonding allows silicon wafers to be permanently attached to a thermally matched glass superstrate and then thinned to final thicknesses less than 25 micron. These devices are based on the features of a thin, light-trapping silicon solar cell: high voltage, high current, light weight (high specific power) and high radiation resistance. Monolithic interconnection allows the fabrication costs on a per watt basis to be roughly independent of the array size, power or voltage, therefore, the cost effectiveness to manufacture solar cell arrays with output powers ranging from milliwatts up to four watts and output voltages ranging from 5 to 500 volts will be similar. This compares favorably to conventionally manufactured, commercial solar cell arrays, where handling of small parts is very labor intensive and costly. In this way, a wide variety of product specifications can be met using the same fabrication techniques. Prototype solar cells have demonstrated efficiencies greater than 11%. An open-circuit voltage of 5.4 volts, fill factor of 65%, and short-circuit current density of 28 mA/sq cm at AM1.5 illumination are typical. Future efforts are being directed to optimization of the solar cell operating characteristics as well as production processing. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. These features make this proprietary technology an excellent candidate for a large number of consumer products.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 19
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: As part of a continuing program to determine the space radiation resistance of InP/ln(0.53)Ga(0.47)As tandem solar cells, n/p In(0.53)Ga(0. 47)As solar cells fabricated by RTI were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons and with 3 MeV protons. The cells were grown with a 3 micron n-lnP window layer to mimic the top cell in the tandem cell configuration for both AMO solar absorption and radiation effects. The results have been plotted against 'displacement damage dose' which is the product of the nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) and the particle fluence. A characteristic radiation damage curve can then be obtained for predicting the effect of all particles and energies. AMO, 1 sun solar illumination IV measurements were performed on the irradiated InGaAs solar cells and a characteristic radiation degradation curve was obtained using the solar cell conversion efficiency as the model parameter. Also presented are data comparing the radiation response of both n/p and p/n (fabricated by NREL) InGaAs solar cells as a function of base doping concentration. For the solar cell efficiency, the radiation degradation was found to be independent of the sample polarity for the same base doping concentration.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 16
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Indium phosphide (InP) solar cells are being made on silicon (Si) wafers (InP/Si) to take advantage of both the radiation-hardness properties of the InP solar cell and the light weight and low cost of Si wafers compared to InP or germanium (Ge) wafers. The InP/Si cell application is for long duration and/or high radiation orbit space missions. InP/Si cells have higher absolute efficiency after a high radiation dose than gallium arsenide (GaAs) or silicon (Si) solar cells. In this work, base electron diffusion lengths in the N/P cell are extracted from measured AM0 short-circuit photocurrent at various irradiation levels out to an equivalent 1 MeV fluence of 1017 1 MeV electrons/sq cm for a 1 sq cm 12% BOL InP/Si cell. These values are then checked for consistency by comparing measured Voc data with a theoretical Voc model that includes a dark current term that depends on the extracted diffusion lengths.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 15
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: When determining the best solar cell technology for a particular space flight mission, accurate prediction of solar cell performance in a space radiation environment is essential. The current methodology used to make such predictions requires extensive experimental data measured under both electron and proton irradiation. Due to the rising cost of accelerators and irradiation facilities, such extensive data sets are expensive to obtain. Moreover, with the rapid development of novel cell designs, the necessary data are often not available. Therefore, a method for predicting cell degradation based on limited data is needed. Such a method has been developed at the Naval Research Laboratory based on damage correlation using 'displacement damage dose' which is the product of the non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) and the particle fluence. Displacement damage dose is a direct analog of the ionization dose used to correlate the effects of ionizing radiations. In this method, the performance of a solar cell in a complex radiation environment can be predicted from data on a single proton energy and two electron energies, or one proton energy, one electron energy, and Co(exp 60) gammas. This method has been used to accurately predict the extensive data set measured by Anspaugh on GaAs/Ge solar cells under a wide range of electron and proton energies. In this paper, the method is applied to InP solar cells using data measured under 1 MeV electron and 3 MeV proton irradiations, and the calculations are shown to agree well with the measured data. In addition to providing accurate damage predictions, this method also provides a basis for quantitative comparisons of the performance of different cell technologies. The performance of the present InP cells is compared to that published for GaAs/Ge cells. The results show InP to be inherently more resistant to displacement energy deposition than GaAs/Ge.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 14
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: In this paper we report the successful fabrication of large area, monolithic triple junction, n on p, GaInP2/GaAs/Ge cells. The highest open circuit voltage and cell efficiency (cell area: 4.078 sq cm) were measured at 2.573 V and 23.3%, respectively, under 1 sun, AMO illumination. To our knowledge, this is the highest single crystal, monolithic, two terminal triple junction cell efficiency demonstrated. In addition, excellent uniformity across a 3 inch diameter Ge substrates has also been achieved. An average cell efficiency of 22.8% across the 3 inch diameter wafer has been measured. We have also successfully fabricated welded cell-interconnect-cover (CIC) assemblies using these triple junction devices. The highest CIC efficiency was 23.2% (bare cell efficiency was 23.3%). The average efficiency for 25 CICs was 21.8%, which is very comparable to the 22.0% average bare cell efficiency before they were fabricated into the CICs. Finally, we have measured temperature coefficient and 1 MeV electron irradiation data. These will be presented in the paper.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 9
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The design and operation of a salt-gradient solar pond power plant at the Salton Sea presents problems not encountered at small research ponds that were built in the United States. The specific characteristics of the Salton Sea site and the desire to construct the pond using the local clay as a sealant represent major deviations from previous solar pond experience. The site-specific research in support of the plant design is described. The research activity included validation of the spectrophotometric light transmission measurement technique, a search for options for clarifying the turbid and colored water of the Salton Sea, development of water clarification specifications in terms common to industry practice, quantification of gas production from microbiological reactions in the ground, a determination of the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the permeation of the local clays, and a preliminary evaluation of material corrosion.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174182 , JPL-PUB-84-68 , NAS 1.26:174182 , DOE/SF-11592/1
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  • 12
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The MHD power generation experiments were conducted in a high field strength cryomagnet which was adapted from an existing facility. In its original construction, it consisted of 12 high purity aluminum coils pool cooled in a bath of liquid neon. In this configuration, a peak field of 15 tesla was produced. For the present experiments, the center four coils were removed and a 23 cm diameter transverse warm bore tube was inserted to allow the placement of the MHD experiment between the remaining eight coils. In this configuration, a peak field of 6 tesla should be obtainable. The time duration of the experiment is limited by the neon supply which allows on the order of 1 minute of total operating time followed by an 18-hour reliquefaction period. As a result, the experiments are run in a pulsed mode. The run duration for the data presented here was 5 sec. The magnetic field profile along the MHD duct is shown. Since the working fluid is in essence superheated steam, it is easily water quenched at the exit of the diffuser and the components are designed vacuum tight so that the exhaust pipe and demister an be pumped down to simulate the vacuum of outer space.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: R and D Associates Proc. of the AFOSR Spec. Conf. on Prime-Power for High Energy Space Systems, Vol. 1; 10 p
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  • 13
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The phototron, a photoelectric device that converts light to radio frequency energy, is described. It is a vacuum tube, free electron, device that is mechanically similar to a reflex klystron with the hot filament cathode replaced by a large area photocathode. The device can operate either with an external voltage source used to accelerate the photoelectrons or with zero bias voltage; in which case the photokinetic energy of the electrons sustains the R.F. oscillations in the tuned R.F. circuit. One basic design of the phototron was tested. Frequencies as high as about 1 GHz and an overall efficiency of about 1% in the biased mode were obtained. In the unbiased mode, the frequencies of operation and efficiences are considerably lower. Success with test model suggests that considerable improvements are possible through design refinements. One such design refinement is the reduction of the length of the electron flight path.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: R and D Associates Proc. of the AFOSR Spec. Conf. on Prime-Power for High Energy Space Systems, Vol. 2; 17 p
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The autothermal reforming process for conversion of various hydrocarbons to hydrogen and the use of monolithic catalyst beds in the steam reforming of n-hexane are described.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-169134 , JPL-PUB-82-37-PT-1/PT-2 , NAS 1.26:169134 , DOE/ET-11326/1-PT-1/PT-2
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) experiment was developed by the Air Force's Phillips Laboratory with support from NASA's Lewis Research Center. It was launched on the Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics EXperiments (APEX) satellite on August 3, 1994 into a 70 degree inclination, 363 km by 2550 km elliptical orbit. This orbit allows the investigation of space plasma effects on high-voltage operation (leakage current at positive voltages and arcing at negative voltages) in the perigee region. PASP Plus is testing twelve solar arrays. There are four planar Si arrays: an old standard type (used as a reference), the large-cell Space Station Freedom (SSF) array, a thin 'APSA' array, and an amorphous Si array. Next are three GaAs on Ge planar arrays and three new material planar arrays, including InP and two multijunction types. Finally, there are two concentrator arrays: a reflective-focusing Mini-Cassegrainian and a Fresnel-lens focusing Mini-Dome. PASP Plus's diagnostic sensors include: Langmuir probe to measure plasma density, an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) to measure the 30 eV to 30 KeV electron/ion spectra and determine vehicle negative potential during positive biasing, and a transient pulse monitor (TPM) to characterize the arcs that occur during the negative biasing. Through positive biasing of its test arrays, PASP Plus investigated the snapover phenomenon, which took place over the range of +100 to +300 V. It was found that array configurations where the interconnects are shielded from the space plasma (i.e., the concentrators or arrays with 'wrap-through' connectors) have lower leakage current. The concentrators exhibited negligible leakage current over the whole range up to +500 V. In the case of two similar GaAs on Ge arrays, the one with 'wrap-through' connectors had lower leakage current than the one with conventional interconnects. Through negative biasing, PASP Plus investigated the arcing rates of its test arrays. The standard Si array, with its old construction (exposed rough-surface interconnects), arced significantly over a wide voltage and plasma-density range. The other arrays arced at very low rates, mostly at voltages greater than -350 V and plasma densities near or greater than 10(exp 5)/cm(exp -3). AS expected according to theory, arcing was more prevalent when array temperatures were cold (based on biasing in eclipse).
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 41
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The PASP-Plus (Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics) program is a photovoltaic experiment which is flying on the Air Force satellite APEX (Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronics Experiments). The satellite was launched on August 3, 1994 with a Pegasus low-cost launch vehicle. There are two other small experiments on APEX, however PASP-Plus is the largest, uses the most power, and accounts for the largest portion of the data requirements. The satellite is in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 2552 km and a perigee of 363 km. The inclination is 70 degrees. The PASP-Plus experiment consists of twelve photovoltaic panels containing a total of sixteen separate cell modules. Two of the modules are concentrator modules, while the rest are planar. There are several different solar cell types flying on PASP-Plus including silicon, GaAs on germanium substrates, InP, amorphous silicon, and three multi-bandgap cells. The purpose of this paper is to present some of the data from the first year of the PASP-Plus flight. Cell performance and module thermal performance will be discussed as well as other relevant data.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 3
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The experimental performance of a multijunction monolithic In(0.53)Ga(0. 47)As power converter under blackbody irradiation is reported. Eight InGaAs PN junctions grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating wafer were monolithically integrated in series to boost the approximately 0.4 V photovoltage per typical InGaAs junction to over 3 volts for the 1 sq cm chip. This chip was originally designed and characterized for free-space 1.3 micron laser power beaming. This is the first report of such a multijunction TPV. This is not a traditional tandem cell in which the junctions are stacked vertically. The junctions are each about 1mm long by 1 cm wide and are laterally connected across the 1 sq cm device area. This multijunction design has the potential for lower I(sup 2)R power loss since the smaller PN junction area limits the current to one-eighth that of the equivalent surface area. In essence, the current is traded for voltage to avoid the I(sup 2)R loss, analogous to the way power utilities avoid I(sup 2)P loss in high-tension power lines, by transforming the high current, low voltage generated at a power plant into a high voltage at a low current before transmitting the power over great distances.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 32
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Progress is reported with respect to the development of ultra-lightweight, high performance, thin, light trapped GaAs solar cells for advanced space power systems. Conversion efficiencies of over 17.7% have been demonstrated for a 3 micron thick, 1 sq cm silicone bonded solar cell. This results in a specific power of over 1020 W/kg. Device parameters were 1.011 V open circuit voltage, 80% fill factor, and a short-circuit current density of 29.5 mA/sq cm . In addition to silicone bonding, the use of electrostatic bonding to attach the coverglass support to the front surface enables an ultra-thin, all back contact design that survives processing temperatures greater than 750 C. This also results in a 10% reduction of the cell weight for a potential specific power of 1270 W/kg. All back contact, ultra-thin, electrostatically bonded GaAs solar cell prototypes have been completed demonstrating an open circuit voltage of 1 volt for a cell base thickness of 1 micron with a 0.5 micron emitter. This technology will result in a revolutionary improvement in survivability, performance, and manufacturability of lightweight GaAs solar cell products for future Earth-orbiting science and space exploration missions. The thin, electrostatically bonded, all back contact GaAs device technology has multiple uses for specialty high performance solar cells and other optoelectronic devices.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 24
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Multi-junction solar cells are attractive for space applications because they can be designed to convert a larger fraction of AMO into electrical power at a lower cost than single-junction cells. The performance of multi-junction cells is much more sensitive to the spectral irradiance of the illuminating source than single-junction cells. The design of high efficiency multi-junction cells for space applications requires matching the optoelectronic properties of the junctions to AMO spectral irradiance. Unlike single-junction cells, it is not possible to carry out quantum efficiency measurements using only a monochromatic probe beam and determining the cell short-circuit current assuming linearity of the quantum efficiency. Additionally, current-voltage characteristics can not be calculated from measurements under non-AMO light sources using spectral-correction methods. There are reports in the literature on characterizing the performance of multi junction cells by measuring and convoluting the quantum efficiency of each junction with the spectral irradiance; the technique is of limited value for the characterization of cell performance under AMO power-generating conditions. We report the results of research to develop instrumentation and techniques for characterizing multi junction solar cells for space . An integrated system is described which consists of a standard lamp, spectral radiometer, dual-source solar simulator, and personal computer based current-voltage and quantum efficiency equipment. The spectral radiometer is calibrated regularly using the tungsten-halogen standard lamp which has a calibration based on NIST scales. The solar simulator produces the light bias beam for current-voltage and cell quantum efficiency measurements. The calibrated spectral radiometer is used to 'fit' the spectral irradiance of the dual-source solar simulator to WRL AMO data. The quantum efficiency apparatus includes a monochromatic probe beam for measuring the absolute cell quantum efficiency at various voltage biases, including the voltage bias corresponding to the maximum-power point under AMO light bias. The details of the procedures to 'fit' the spectral irradiance to AMO will be discussed. An assessment of the role of the accuracy of the 'fit' of the spectral irradiance and probe beam intensity on measured cell characteristics will be presented. quantum efficiencies were measured with both spectral light bias and AMO light bias; the measurements show striking differences. Spectral irradiances were convoluted with cell quantum efficiencies to calculate cell currents as function of voltage. The calculated currents compare with measured currents at the 1% level. Measurements on a variety of multi-junction cells will be presented. The dependence of defects in junctions on cell quantum efficiencies measured under light and voltage bias conditions will be presented. Comments will be made on issues related to standards for calibration, and limitations of the instrumentation and techniques. Expeditious development of multi-junction solar cell technology for space presents challenges for cell characterization in the laboratory.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 25
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Photovoltaic linear concentrator arrays can benefit from high performance solar cell technologies being developed at AstroPower. Specifically, these are the integration of thin GaAs solar cell and epitaxial lateral overgrowth technologies with the application of monolithically interconnected solar cell (MISC) techniques. This MISC array has several advantages which make it ideal for space concentrator systems. These are high system voltage, reliable low cost monolithically formed interconnections, design flexibility, costs that are independent of array voltage, and low power loss from shorts, opens, and impact damage. This concentrator solar cell will incorporate the benefits of light trapping by growing the device active layers over a low-cost, simple, PECVD deposited silicon/silicon dioxide Bragg reflector. The high voltage-low current output results in minimal 12R losses while properly designing the device allows for minimal shading and resistance losses. It is possible to obtain open circuit voltages as high as 67 volts/cm of solar cell length with existing technology. The projected power density for the high performance device is 5 kW/m for an AMO efficiency of 26% at 1 5X. Concentrator solar cell arrays are necessary to meet the power requirements of specific mission platforms and can supply high voltage power for electric propulsion systems. It is anticipated that the high efficiency, GaAs monolithically interconnected linear concentrator solar cell array will enjoy widespread application for space based solar power needs. Additional applications include remote man-portable or ultra-light unmanned air vehicle (UAV) power supplies where high power per area, high radiation hardness and a high bus voltage or low bus current are important. The monolithic approach has a number of inherent advantages, including reduced cost per interconnect and increased reliability of array connections. There is also a high potential for a large number of consumer products. Dual-use applications can include battery chargers and remote power supplies for consumer electronics products such as portable telephones/beepers, portable radios, CD players, dashboard radar detectors, remote walkway lighting, etc.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 20
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  • 21
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The first long-term (3000 hours) UV testing of unirradiated and 1 MeV electron-irradiated GaAs solar cells, with multilayer-coated coverslides to reduce solar array operating temperature, has produced some unexpected and important results. Two results, independent of the coverslide coatings, are of particular importance in terms of the predictability of GaAs solar-array lifetime in space: ( 1) The GaAs/Ge solar cells used for this series of tests displayed a much higher radiation degradation than that predicted based on JPL Solar Cell Radiation Handbook data. Covered cells degraded more in Isc than did bare cells. Short-term illumination at 60 C did not produce significant recovery (-1%) of the radiation damage. (2) However, electron radiation damage to these GaAs solar celIs anneals at 40 C when exposed to approximately 1 sun AM0 UV light sources for extended periods. The effect appears to be roughly linear with time (-1% of lsc per 1000 UVSH), is large (greater than or equal to 3%), and has not yet saturated (at 3000 hours). This photo-recovery of radiation damage to GaAs solar cells is a new effect and potentially important to the spacecraft community. The figure compares the effects of extended UV on irradiated and unirradiated GaAs solar cells with INTELSAT-6 Si cells. The effect and its generality, the extent of and conditions for photo-recovery, and the implications of such recovery for missions in radiation environments have not yet been determined.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 17
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: An analysis embodied in a PC computer program is presented which quantitatively demonstrates how the availability of radiation hard solar cells can minimize the cost of a global satellite communication system. The chief distinction between the currently proposed systems, such as Iridium Odyssey and Ellipsat, is the number of satellites employed and their operating altitudes. Analysis of the major costs associated with implementing these systems shows that operation within the earth's radiation belts can reduce the total system cost by as much as a factor of two, so long as radiation hard components including solar cells, can be used. A detailed evaluation of several types of planar solar cells is given, including commercially available Si and GaAs/Ge cells, and InP/Si cells which are under development. The computer program calculates the end of life (EOL) power density of solar arrays taking into account the cell geometry, coverglass thickness, support frame, electrical interconnects, etc. The EOL power density can be determined for any altitude from low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) and for equatorial to polar planes of inclination. The mission duration can be varied over the entire range planned for the proposed satellite systems. An algorithm is included in the program for determining the degradation of cell efficiency for different cell technologies due to proton and electron irradiation. The program can be used to determine the optimum configuration for any cell technology for a particular orbit and for a specified mission life. Several examples of applying the program are presented, in which it is shown that the EOL power density of different technologies can vary by an order of magnitude for certain missions. Therefore, although a relatively radiation soft technology can be made to provide the required EOL power by simply increasing the size of the array, the impact on the total system budget could be unacceptable, due to increased launch and hardware costs. In aggregate these factors can account for more than a 10% increase in the total system cost. Since the estimated total costs of proposed global coverage systems range from $1 Billion to $9 Billion, the availability of radiation hard solar cells could make a decisive difference in the selection of a particular constellation architecture.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Proceedings of the 14th Space Photovoltaic Research and Technology Conference (SPRAT 14); p 12
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Advanced materials play an important role in electrochemical energy devices such as batteries, fuel cells, and electrochemical capacitors. They are being used as both electrodes and electrolytes. Sol-gel processing is a versatile solution technique used in fabrication of ceramic materials with tailored stoichiometry, microstructure, and properties. The application of sol-gel processing in the fabrication of advanced electrochemical energy materials will be presented. The potentials of sol-gel derived materials for electrochemical energy applications will be discussed along with some examples of successful applications. Sol-gel derived metal oxide electrode materials such as V2O5 cathodes have been demonstrated in solid-slate thin film batteries; solid electrolytes materials such as beta-alumina for advanced secondary batteries had been prepared by the sol-gel technique long time ago; and high surface area transition metal compounds for capacitive energy storage applications can also be synthesized with this method.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts; p 37
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  • 24
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Energy storage and production in space requires rugged, reliable hardware which minimizes weight, volume, and maintenance while maximizing power output and usable energy storage. These systems generally consist of photovoltaic solar arrays which operate during sunlight cycles to provide system power and regenerate fuel (hydrogen) via water electrolysis; during dark cycles, hydrogen is converted by the fuel cell into system. The currently preferred configuration uses two separate systems (fuel cell and electrolyzer) in conjunction with photovoltaic cells. Fuel cell/electrolyzer system simplicity, reliability, and power-to-weight and power-to-volume ratios could be greatly improved if both power production (fuel cell) and power storage (electrolysis) functions can be integrated into a single unit. The Technology Management, Inc. (TMI), solid oxide fuel cell-based system offers the opportunity to both integrate fuel cell and electrolyzer functions into one unit and potentially simplify system requirements. Based an the TMI solid oxide fuel cell (SOPC) technology, the TMI integrated fuel cell/electrolyzer utilizes innovative gas storage and operational concepts and operates like a rechargeable 'hydrogen-oxygen battery'. Preliminary research has been completed on improved H2/H2O electrode (SOFC anode/electrolyzer cathode) materials for solid oxide, regenerative fuel cells. Improved H2/H2O electrode materials showed improved cell performance in both fuel cell and electrolysis modes in reversible cell tests. ln reversible fuel cell/electrolyzer mode, regenerative fuel cell efficiencies (ratio of power out (fuel cell mode) to power in (electrolyzer model)) improved from 50 percent (using conventional electrode materials) to over 80 percent. The new materials will allow the TMI SOFC system to operate as both the electrolyzer and fuel cell in a single unit. Preliminary system designs have also been developed which indicate the technical feasibility of using the TMI SOFC technology for space applications with high energy storage efficiencies and high specific energy. Development of small space systems would also have potential dual-use, terrestrial applications.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts; p 25
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A difficulty encountered in designing a unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell lies in the incompatibility of electrode structures and electrocatalyst materials optimized for either of the two functions (fuel cell or electrolyzer) with the needs of the other function. This difficulty is compounded in previous regenerative fuel cell designs by the fact that water, which is needed for proton conduction in the PEM during both modes of operation, is the reactant supplied to the anode in the electrolyzer mode of operation and the product formed at the cathode in the fuel cell mode. Drawbacks associated with existing regenerative fuel cells have been addressed in work performed at Lynntech. In a first innovation, electrodes function either as oxidation electrodes (hydrogen ionization or oxygen evolution) or as reduction electrodes (oxygen reduction or hydrogen evolution) in the fuel cell and electrolyzer modes, respectively. Control of liquid water within the regenerative fuel cell has been brought about by a second innovation. A novel PEM has been developed with internal channels that permit the direct access of water along the length of the membrane. Lateral diffusion of water along the polymer chains of the PEM provides the water needed at electrode/PEM interfaces. Fabrication of the novel unitized regenerative fuel cell and results obtained on testing it will be presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center, Space Electrochemical Research and Technology. Abstracts; p 21
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Novel solar cell designs and materials with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies are researched. Laboratory demonstrations of solar cells of greater than 30% efficiency under concentrated sunlight and thin film solar cells with one sun efficiencies of 17 to 20% are sought. These demonstrations are necessary intermediate steps towards the realization of very high efficiency, multi-bandgap, thin-film solar cells. Conversion efficiencies above 30% could be achieved by a cascade multijunction cell consisting of a high bandgap (1.7 eV) cell coupled optically and electrically on top of a lower bandgap (1.1 eV) cell. Recent improvements in peak currents of this interconnect are quite promising. However, this cell structure poses difficult problems for materials fabrication as a result of the combined requirements of choice of bandgaps, low defect density material, and high doping densities. Recent improvements in the quality of materials and newly proposed cell structures which may simplify fabrication are significant steps in the development of the multijunction concentrator solar cell.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA. Lewis Research Center Space Photovoltaic Res. and Technol. 1983; p 118-119
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A data base on developed and commercially available power conversion system components for Rankine and Brayton cycle engines, which have potential application to solar thermal power-generating systems is presented. The status of the Stirling engine is discussed.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-TM-79027 , E-9822 , DOE/NASA/1060-78/1
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  • 28
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: ASME PAPER 84-AES-7
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: A method is presented for predicting the broadband noise spectra of large horizontal axis wind turbine generators. It includes contributions from such noise sources as the inflow turbulence to the rotor, the interactions between the turbulent boundary layers on the blade surfaces with their trailing edges and the wake due to a blunt trailing edge. The method is partly empirical and is based on acoustic measurements of large wind turbines and airfoil models. The predicted frequency spectra are compared with measured data from several machines including the MOD-OA, the MOD-2, the WTS-4 and the U.S. Wind-power Inc. machine. Also included is a broadband noise prediction for the proposed MOD-5B. The significance of the effects of machine size, power output, trailing edge bluntness and distance to the receiver is illustrated. Good agreement is obtained between the predicted and measured far field noise spectra.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 84-2357
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: Data measurements made on the NASA MOD-OA 200-kw wind-turbine generator (WTG) installed on a utility grid form the basis for an overall performance analysis. Fuel displacement/-savings, dynamic interactions, and WTG excitation (reactive-power) control effects are studied. Continuous recording of a large number of electrical and mechanical variables on FM magnetic tape permit evaluation and correlation of phenomena over a bandwidth of at least 20 Hz. Because the wind-power penetration reached peaks of 60 percent, the impact of wind fluctuation and wind-turbine/diesel-utility interaction is evaluated in a worst-case scenario. The speed-governor dynamics of the diesel units exhibited an underdamped response, and the utility operation procedures were not altered to optimize overall WTG/utility performance. Primary findings over the data collection period are: a calculated 6.7-percent reduction in fuel consumption while generating 11 percent of the total electrical energy; acceptable system voltage and frequency fluctuations with WTG connected; and applicability of WTG excitation schemes using voltage, power, or VARS as the controlled variable.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Guidelines are provided to the Field Centers for organization, scheduling, project and cost control, and performance in the areas of project management and operations planning for Photovoltaics Test and Applications. These guidelines may be used in organizing a T and A Project Team for system design/test, site construction and operation, and as the basis for evaluating T and A proposals. The attributes are described for project management and operations planning to be used by the Field Centers. Specifically, all project management and operational issues affecting costs, schedules and performance of photovoltaic systems are addressed. Photovoltaic tests and applications include residential, intermediate load center, central station, and stand-alone systems. The sub-categories of system maturity considered are: Initial System Evaluation Experiments (ISEE); System Readiness Experiments (SRE); and Commercial Readiness Demonstration Projects (CRDP).
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-183316 , NAS 1.26:183316 , JPL-5250-3-VOL-1
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The criteria is defined for auditing photovoltaic system applications and experiments. The purpose of the audit is twofold: to see if the application is meeting its stated objectives and to measure the application's progress in terms of the National Photovoltaic Program's goals of performance, cost, reliability, safety, and socio-environmental acceptance. The information obtained from an audit will be used to assess the status of an application and to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations on the future conduct of the application. Those aspects are covered of a site audit necessary to produce a systematic method for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data to measure the success of an application. A sequence of audit events and guidelines for obtaining the required information is presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:183321 , JPL-5250-3-VOL-6-REV-A , NASA-CR-183321
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Guidelines are provided for the organization, preparation and conduct of program reviews for photovoltaic applications. These criteria apply to all photovoltaic applications. They include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Conceptual design review; (2) Preliminary design review; (3) Critical design review; and (4) Operational readiness review. Contract goal's and objectives are met through program monitoring for cost, schedule, and performance for both managerial and technical elements for all PV applications activities.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:183319 , JPL-5250-3-VOL-4 , NASA-CR-183319
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator covering work performed between July 1980 and June 1984 is discussed. The report is divided into four volumes: Volume 1 summarizes the entire MOD-5A program, Volume 2 discusses the conceptual and preliminary design phases, Volume 3 describes the final design of the MOD-5A, and Volume 4 contains the drawings and specifications developed for the final design. Volume 1, the Executive Summary, summarizes all phases of the MOD-5A program. The performance and cost of energy generated by the MOD-5A are presented. Each subsystem - the rotor, drivetrain, nacelle, tower and foundation, power generation, and control and instrumentation subsystems - is described briefly. The early phases of the MOD-5A program, during which the design was analyzed and optimized, and new technologies and materials were developed, are discussed. Manufacturing, quality assurance, and safety plans are presented. The volume concludes with an index of volumes 2 and 3.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA-0153/1 , NAS 1.26:174734 , NASA-CR-174734
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Power system applications of optical systems, primarily using fiber optics, are reviewed. The first section reviews fibers as components of communication systems. The second section deals with fiber sensors for power systems, reviewing the many ways light sources and fibers can be combined to make measurements. Methods of measuring electric field gradient are discussed. Optical data processing is the subject of the third section, which begins by reviewing some widely different examples and concludes by outlining some potential applications in power systems: fault location in transformers, optical switching for light fired thyristors and fault detection based on the inherent symmetry of most power apparatus. The fourth and final section is concerned with using optical fibers to transmit power to electric equipment in a high voltage situation, potentially replacing expensive high voltage low power transformers. JPL has designed small photodiodes specifically for this purpose, and fabricated and tested several samples. This work is described.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:176831 , DOE/ET-29372/4 , NASA-CR-176831 , JPL-PUBL-84-28
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174723 , DOE/NASA/0310-1 , NAS 1.26:174723
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The design and cost aspects of a fixed pitch, 400 kW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) concept are presented. Improvements in reliability and cost reductions were achieved with fixed pitch operation and by incorporating recent advances in WTG technology. The specifications for this WTG concept were as follows: (1) A fixed pitch, continuous wooden rotor was to be provided by the Gougeon Bros. Co. (2) An 8 leg hyperboloid tower that showed promise as a low cost structure was to be used. (3) Only commercially available components and parts that could be easily fabricated were to be considered. (4) Design features deemed desirable based on recent NASA research efforts were to be incorporated. Detailed costs and weight estimates were prepared for the second machine and a wind farm of 12 WTG's. The calculated cost of energy for the fixed pitch, twelve unit windfarm is 11.5 cents/kW hr not including the cost of land and access roads. The study shows feasibility of fixed pitch, intermediate power WTG operation.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA/0006-1 , NAS 1.26:174877 , NASA-CR-174877
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A redesign of the initial (Group I) Mobile Solar Block V module was done and documented. Manufacturing experience and accelerated test data from Group I formed the basis for the redesign. Ten Block V Group II modules were submitted for evaluation and the results are presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DRD-SE-1 , DRL-189 , NAS 1.26:175689 , NASA-CR-175689 , DOE/JPL-956335-1 , JPL-9950-977
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of high-efficiency low-cost crystalline silicon ribbon and thih-film solar cells for the energy national photovoltaics program was examined. The findings of an issue study conducted are presented. The collected data identified the status of the technology, future research needs, and problems experienced. The potentials of present research activities to meet the Federal/industry long-term technical goal of achieving 15 cents per kilowatt-hour levelized PV energy cost are assessed. Recommendations for future research needs related to crystalline silicon ribbon and thin-film technologies for flat-plate collectors are also included.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-175654 , JPL-PUBL-84-95 , NAS 1.26:175654 , DOE/ET-20356/21
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Batteries for use with Emergency locator transmitters are discussed. Types of batteries, real-time activation considerations, encapsulation of cells in a battery pack, cold storage to extend shelf life, and general requirements are among the topics covered.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: RTCA/DO-188 , NAS 1.15:87415 , NASA-TM-87415
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A thermal-stress analysis of a wind turbine blade made of wood composite material is reported. First, the governing partial differential equation on heat conduction is derived, then, a finite element procedure using variational approach is developed for the solution of the governing equation. Thus, the temperature distribution throughout the blade is determined. Next, based on the temperature distribution, a finite element procedure using potential energy approach is applied to determine the thermal-stress distribution. A set of results is obtained through the use of a computer, which is considered to be satisfactory. All computer programs are contained in the report.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174794 , NASA-CR-174794 , DOE/NASA/0373-1
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-PUBL-84-77 , DOE/JPL-1060-79 , NASA-CR-174263 , NAS 1.26:174263
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Physical examination of surfaces undergoing natural outdoor soiling suggests that soil matter accumulates in up to three distinct layers. The first layer involves strong chemical attachment or strong chemisorption of soil matter on the primary surface. The second layer is physical, consisting of a highly organized arrangement of soil creating a gradation in surface energy from a high associated with the energetic first layer to the lowest possible state on the outer surfce of the second layer. The lowest possible energy state is dictated by the physical nature of the regional atmospheric soiling materials. These first two layers are resistant to removal by rain. The third layer constitutes a settling of loose soil matter, accumulating in dry periods and being removed during rainy periods. Theories and evidence suggest that surfaces that should be naturally resistant to the formation of the first two-resistant layers should be hard, smooth, hydrophobic, free of first-period elements, and have the lowest possible surface energy. These characteristics, evolving as requirements for low-soiling surfaces, suggest that surfaces or surface coatings should be of fluorocarbon chemistry. Evidence for the three-soil-layer concept, and data on the positive performance of candidate fluorocarbon coatings on glass and transparent plastic films after 28 months of outdoor exposure, are presented.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-1012-102 , JPL-PUBL-84-72 , NAS 1.26:174274 , NASA-CR-174274
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Key design issues of the regenerative fuel cell system concept were studied and a design definition of an alkaline electrolyte based engineering model system or low Earth orbit missions was completed. Definition of key design issues for a regenerative fuel cell system include gaseous reactant storage, shared heat exchangers and high pressure pumps. A power flow diagram for the 75 kW initial space station and the impact of different regenerative fuel cell modular sizes on the total 5 year to orbit weight and volume are determined. System characteristics, an isometric drawing, component sizes and mass and energy balances are determined for the 10 kW engineering model system. An open loop regenerative fuel cell concept is considered for integration of the energy storage system with the life support system of the space station. Technical problems and their solutions, pacing technologies and required developments and demonstrations for the regenerative fuel cell system are defined.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: LSI-TR-376-30 , NAS 1.26:174801 , NASA-CR-174801
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  • 45
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The first phase of a planned multiphase program to develop a Phosphoric is addressed. This report describes the efforts performed that culminated in the: (1) Establishment of the preliminary design requirements and system conceptual design for the nominally rated 375 kW PAFC module and is interfacing power plant systems; (2) Establishment of PAFC component and stack performance, endurance, and design parameter data needed for design verification for power plant application; (3) Improvement of the existing PAFC materials data base and establishment of materials specifications and process procedes for the cell components; and (4) Testing of 122 subscale cell atmospheric test for 110,000 cumulative test hours, 12 subscale cell pressurized tests for 15,000 cumulative test hours, and 12 pressurized stack test for 10,000 cumulative test hours.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174732 , NAS 1.26:174732 , DOE/NASA/0290-1
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Software for data archiving and data display was developed for use on a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/34A minicomputer for use with the JPL-designed flux mapper. The flux mapper is a two-dimensional, high radiant energy scanning device designed to measure radiant flux energies expected at the focal point of solar parabolic dish concentrators. Interfacing to the DEC equipment was accomplished by standard RS-232C serial lines. The design of the software was dicated by design constraints of the flux-mapper controller. Early attemps at data acquisition from the flux-mapper controller were not without difficulty. Time and personnel limitations result in an alternative method of data recording at the test site with subsequent analysis accomplished at a data evaluation location at some later time. Software for plotting was also written to better visualize the flux patterns. Recommendations for future alternative development are discussed. A listing of the programs used in the anaysis is included in an appendix.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174108 , NASA-CR-174108 , JPL-5105-141 , DOE/JPL-1060-78 , JPL-PUB-84-76
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A 1-MW wellhead generator was tested in 1980, 1981, and 1982 by Mexico, Italy, and New Zealand at Cerro Prieto, Cesano, and Broadlands, respectively. The total flow helical screw expander portable power plant, Model 76-1, had been built for the U.S. Government and field-tested in Utah, USA, in 1978 and 1979. The expander had oversized internal clearances designed for self-cleaning operation on fluids that deposit adherent scale normally detrimental to the utiliation of liquid dominated fields. Conditions with which the expander was tested included inlet pressures of 64 to 220 psia, inlet qualities of 0% to 100%, exhaust pressures of 3.1 to 40 psia, electrial loads of idle and 110 to 933 kW, electrical frequencies of 50 and 60 Hz, male rotor speeds of 2500 to 4000 rpm, and fluid characteristics to 310,000 ppm total dissolved solids and noncondensables to 38 wt % of the vapor. Some testing was done on-grid. Typical expander isentropic efficiency was 40% to 50% with the clearances not closed, and 5 percentage points or more higher with the clearances partly closed. The expander efficiency increased approximately logarithmically with shaft power for most operations, while inlet quality, speed, and pressure ratio across the machine had only small effects. These findings are all in agreement with the Utah test results.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174161 , JPL-PUB-84-29 , DOE/ET-37116/2 , NASA-CR-174161
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The optical characteristics of a paraboloidal solar concentrator are analyzed using the intercept factor curve (a format for image data) to describe the results of a mathematical model and to represent reduced data from experimental testing. This procedure makes it possible not only to test an assembled concentrator, but also to evaluate single optical panels or to conduct non-solar tests of an assembled concentrator. The use of three-dimensional ray tracing computer programs to calculate the mathematical model is described. These ray tracing programs can include any type of optical configuration from simple paraboloids to array of spherical facets and can be adapted to microcomputers or larger computers, which can graphically display real-time comparison of calculated and measured data.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-PUB-84-75 , NAS 1.26:174109 , NASA-CR-174109 , JPL-5105-140 , DOE/JPL-1060-77
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174638 , NAS 1.26:174638 , DOE/NASA/0017-1
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A detailed distributed mathematical model of phosphoric acid fuel cell stack have been developed, with the FORTRAN computer program, for analyzing the temperature distribution in the stack and the associated current density distribution on the cell plates. Energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses in the stack were combined to develop the model. Several reasonable assumptions were made to solve this mathematical model by means of the finite differences numerical method.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:174722 , NASA-CR-174722 , DOE/NASA/0017-4
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Assessing the performance of a MOD-OA horizontal axis wind turbine connected to an isolated diesel utility, a comprehensive data measurement program was conducted on the Block Island Power Company installation on Block Island, Rhode Island. The detailed results of that program focusing on three principal areas of (1) fuel displacement (savings), (2) dynamic interaction between the diesel utility and the wind turbine, (3) effects of three models of wind turbine reactive power control are presented. The approximate two month duration of the data acquisition program conducted in the winter months (February into April 1982) revealed performance during periods of highest wind energy penetration and hence severity of operation. Even under such conditions fuel savings were significant resulting in a fuel reduction of 6.7% while the MOD-OA was generating 10.7% of the total electrical energy. Also, electrical disturbance and interactive effects were of an acceptable level.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: AST-84-1808-VOL-2 , DOE/NASA/0354-2 , NASA-CR-168319 , NAS 1.26:168319
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  • 52
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Seven low cost multi-100 kW planar solar array modules were fabricated and tested. Two different designs were used, demonstrating advanced solar array construction practices. Both module types utilized second generation gridded back cells featuring high efficiency and IR transparency. A silicon dioxide AR coating optimized for transmission at gamma = 1.7 microns was applied to the back surface. Two interconnect types, a single sheet printed circuit and a roll type, with alternate approaches to increasing transparency and reducing cost were designed and fabricated. Hinge stress and electrical power optimization were also examined. Two point designs were studied. The first design used a coilage longeron mast and is autonomously deployable. The second design used a Stac Beam for high natural frequency response and required astronaut assistance and assembly on orbit. It was conclusively demonstrated that planar arrays are the most cost effective design for use on the space station or other high power applications.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: LMSC-D973431 , NAS 1.26:171119 , NASA-CR-171119
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Primary results are summarized for a three-part study involving the effects of connecting a MOD-OA wind turbine generator to an isolated diesel power system. The MOD-OA installation considered was the third of four experimental nominal 200 kW wind turbines connected to various utilities under the Federal Wind Energy Program and was characterized by the highest wind energy penetration levels of four sites. The study analyses address: fuel displacement, dynamic interaction, and three modes of reactive power control. These analyses all have as their basis the results of the data acquisition program conducted on Block Island, Rhode Island.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:168318 , NASA-CR-168318 , AST-84-1808 , DOE/NASA/0354-1
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173752 , DOE/CS-66001/4 , JPL-PUB-84-27 , NASA-CR-173752
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The technology development for phosphoric acid fuel cells is summarized. The preparation, heat treatment, and characterization of carbon composites used as bipolar separator plates are described. Characterization included resistivity, porosity, and electrochemical corrosion. High density glassy carbon/graphite composites performed well in long-term fuel cell endurance tests. Platinum alloy cathode catalysts and low-loaded platinum electrodes were evaluated in 25 sq cm cells. Although the alloys displayed an initial improvement, some of this improvement diminished after a few thousand hours of testing. Low platinum loading (0.12 mg/sq cm anodes and 0.3 mg/sq cm cathodes) performed nearly as well as twice this loading. A selectively wetproofed anode backing paper was tested in a 5 by 15 inch three-cell stack. This material may provide for acid volume expansion, acid storage, and acid lateral distribution.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-174660 , NAS 1.26:174660 , DOE/NASA/0205-8
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: One of the primary obstacles to the application of vaccination in developing countries is the lack of refrigerated storage. Vaccines exposed to elevated temperatures suffer a permanent loss of potency. Photovoltaic (PV) powered refrigerator/freezer (R/F) units could surmount the problem of refrigeration in remote areas where no reliable commercial power supply is available. The performance measurements of two different models of PV powered R/F units for medical use are presented. Qualification testing consisted of four major procedures: no-load pull down, ice making, steady-state (maintenance), and holdover. Both R/F units met the major World Health Organization (WHO) requirements. However, the testing performed does not provide complete characterization of the two units; such information could be derived only from further extensive test procedures.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:168181 , NASA-CR-168181
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  • 57
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:171780 , NASA-CR-171780 , D180-27951-1
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This study provides a broad based overview of selected areas relevant to the development of a comprehensive Southern California Edison (SCE) advanced cogeneration project. The areas studied are: (1) Cogeneration potential in the SCE service territory; (2) Advanced cogeneration technologies; and (3) Existing cogeneration computer models. An estimated 3700 MW sub E could potentially be generated from existing industries in the Southern California Edison service territory using cogeneration technology. Of this total, current technology could provide 2600 MW sub E and advanced technology could provide 1100 MW sub E. The manufacturing sector (SIC Codes 20-39) was found to have the highest average potential for current cogeneration technology. The mining sector (SIC Codes 10-14) was found to have the highest potential for advanced technology.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173467 , NASA-CR-173467 , JPL-PUB-83-67
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The consumption of electricity, natural gas, or fuel oil was surveyed. The potential electricity that could be generated in the SCE service territory using cogeneration technology was estimated. It was found that an estimated 3700 MWe could potentially be generated in Southern California using cogenerated technology. It is suggested that current technology could provide 2600 MWe and advanced technology could provide 1100 MWe. Approximately 1600 MWt is considered not feasible to produce electricity with either current or advanced cogeneration technology.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: JPL-PUB-83-40A , NAS 1.26:173454 , NASA-CR-173454
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cogeneration computer simulation models to recommend the most desirable models or their components for use by the Southern California Edison Company (SCE) in evaluating potential cogeneration projects was assessed. Existing cogeneration modeling capabilities are described, preferred models are identified, and an approach to the development of a code which will best satisfy SCE requirements is recommended. Five models (CELCAP, COGEN 2, CPA, DEUS, and OASIS) are recommended for further consideration.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-173453 , JPL-PUB-83-59 , NAS 1.26:173453
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The best HVAC (heating, ventilating and air conditioning) subsystem to interface with the Engelhard fuel cell system for application in commercial buildings was determined. To accomplish this objective, the effects of several system and site specific parameters on the economic feasibility of fuel cell/HVAC systems were investigated. An energy flow diagram of a fuel cell/HVAC system is shown. The fuel cell system provides electricity for an electric water chiller and for domestic electric needs. Supplemental electricity is purchased from the utility if needed. An excess of electricity generated by the fuel cell system can be sold to the utility. The fuel cell system also provides thermal energy which can be used for absorption cooling, space heating and domestic hot water. Thermal storage can be incorporated into the system. Thermal energy is also provided by an auxiliary boiler if needed to supplement the fuel cell system output. Fuel cell/HVAC systems were analyzed with the TRACE computer program.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA/0241-12 , NAS 1.26:168309 , NASA-CR-168309
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Propulsion technology development for electric vehicles is summarized. Analytical studies, technology evaluation, and the development of technology for motors, controllers, transmissions, and complete propulsion systems are included.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: E-1845 , NASA-TM-83504 , DOE/NASA/51044-33 , NAS 1.15:83504
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Cells found to have electrolyte leakage, internal shorts, low capacity, or inability of any cell to recover its open circuit voltage above 1.150 volts during the internal short test are addressed. The Active Magnetic Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) cell design was characterized and the effects of specific mission parameters on cell life were demonstrated.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: WQEC/C-83-428 , NAS 1.26:173357 , NASA-CR-173357
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: New applications for phosphoric acid fuel cells were identified and evaluated. Candidates considered included all possibilities except grid connected electric utility applications, on site total energy systems, industrial cogeneration, opportunistic use of waste hydrogen, space and military applications, and applications smaller than 10 kW. Applications identified were screened, with the most promising subjected to technical and economic evaluation using a fuel cell and conventional power system data base developed in the study. The most promising applications appear to be the underground mine locomotive and the railroad locomotive. Also interesting are power for robotic submersibles and Arctic villages. The mine locomotive is particularly attractive since it is expected that the fuel cell could command a very high price and still be competitive with the conventionally used battery system. The railroad locomotive's attractiveness results from the (smaller) premium price which the fuel cell could command over the conventional diesel electric system based on its superior fuel efficiency, and on the large size of this market and the accompanying opportunities for manufacturing economy.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:168203 , NASA-CR-168203 , ADL-88036 , DOE/NASA/0291-1
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Generic power-system elements and their potential faults are identified. Automation functions and their resulting benefits are defined and automation functions between power subsystem, central spacecraft computer, and ground flight-support personnel are partitioned. All automation activities were categorized as data handling, monitoring, routine control, fault handling, planning and operations, or anomaly handling. Incorporation of all these classes of tasks, except for anomaly handling, in power subsystem hardware and software was concluded to be mandatory to meet the design and operational requirements of the space station. The key drivers are long mission lifetime, modular growth, high-performance flexibility, a need to accommodate different electrical user-load equipment, onorbit assembly/maintenance/servicing, and potentially large number of power subsystem components. A significant effort in algorithm development and validation is essential in meeting the 1987 technology readiness date for the space station.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:170974 , MCR-83-645 , NASA-CR-170974
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Gasifiers, heat transfer, gas stability, quench, water-gas shift reaction, reforming-methanation, other catalytic reactions, compressors and expanders, acid-gas removal, the fuel cell, and catalytic combustors are described. System pressure drops, efficiency of rotating power equipment, heat exchangers, chemical reactions, steam systems, and the fuel cell subsystems are discussed.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173157 , NASA-CR-173157
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Potential benefits of integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) units were evaluated for a reference utility system by comparing long range expansion plans using IGCC units and gas turbine peakers with a plan using only state of the art steam turbine units and gas turbine peakers. Also evaluated was the importance of the benefits of individual IGCC unit characteristics, particularly unit efficiency, unit equivalent forced outage rate, and unit size. A range of IGCC units was analyzed, including cases achievable with state of the art gas turbines and cases assuming advanced gas turbine technology. All utility system expansion plans that used IGCC units showed substantial savings compared with the base expansion plan using the steam turbine units.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.60:2172 , E-1465 , NASA-TP-2172
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. Three fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. Solar thermal technology research and development (R&D) is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), depending on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest. Analysis is also provided regarding two federal incentives currently in use: The Federal Business Energy Tax Credit and direct R&D funding.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173118 , JPL-PUB-83-14-VOL-2 , NASA-CR-173118 , DOE/JPL-1060-60-VOL-2
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A novel integration concept for a coal-fueled coal gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell power plant was studied. Effort focused on determining the efficiency potential of the concept, design, and development requirements of the processes in order to achieve the efficiency. The concept incorporates a methane producing catalytic gasifier of the type previously under development by Exxon Research and Development Corp., a reforming molten carbonate fuel cell power section of the type currently under development by United Technologies Corp., and a gasifier-fuel cell recycle loop. The concept utilizes the fuel cell waste heat, in the form of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, to generate additional fuel in the coal gasifier, thereby eliminating the use of both an O2 plant and a stream bottoming cycle from the power plant. The concept has the potential for achieving coal-pile-to-busbar efficiencies of 50-59%, depending on the process configuration and degree of process configuration and degree of process development requirements. This is significantly higher than any previously reported gasifier-molten carbonate fuel cell system.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173104 , JPL-9950-871 , FCR-5208 , NASA-CR-173104
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Enery Cost Analysis Program (NECAP) is a powerful computerized method to determine and to minimize building energy consumption. The program calculates hourly heat gain or losses taking into account the building thermal resistance and mass, using hourly weather and a "response factor' method. Internal temperatures are allowed to vary in accordance with thermostat settings and equipment capacity. A simplified input procedure and numerous other technical improvements are presented. This Users Manual describes the program and provides examples.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.15:83238 , NASA-TM-83238
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The final hardware and system qualification phase of a two part stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) system development is covered. The final design incorporated modular, power blocks capable of expanding incrementally from 320 watts to twenty kilowatts (PK). The basic power unit (PU) was nominally rated 1.28 kWp. The controls units, power collection buses and main lugs, electrical protection subsystems, power switching, and load management circuits are housed in a common control enclosure. Photo-voltaic modules are electrically connected in a horizontal daisy-chain method via Amp Solarlok plugs mating with compatible connectors installed on the back side of each photovoltaic module. A pair of channel rails accommodate the mounting of the modules into a frameless panel support structure. Foundations are of a unique planter (tub-like) configuration to allow for world-wide deployment without restriction as to types of soil. One battery string capable of supplying approximately 240 ampere hours nominal of carryover power is specified for each basic power unit. Load prioritization and shedding circuits are included to protect critical loads and selectively shed and defer lower priority or noncritical power demands. The baseline system, operating at approximately 2 1/2 PUs (3.2 kW pk.) was installed and deployed. Qualification was successfully complete in March 1983; since that time, the demonstration system has logged approximately 3000 hours of continuous operation under load without major incident.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-168230 , HAC-E8179 , NAS 1.26:168230
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The economic competitiveness of fuel cell onsite integrated energy systems (OS/IES) in residential and commercial buildings is examined. The analysis is carried out for three different buildings with each building assumed to be at three geographic locations spanning a range of climatic conditions. Numerous design options and operating strategies are evaluated and two economic criteria are used to measure economic performance. In general the results show that fuel cell OS/IES's are competitive in most regions of the country if the OS/IES is properly designed. The preferred design is grid connected, makes effective use of the fuel cell's thermal output, and has a fuel cell powerplant sized for the building's base electrical load.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: E-1681 , NASA-TM-83403 , DOE/NASA/17088-4 , NAS 1.15:83403
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Techniques for reducing the chances of lightning damage to wind turbines are discussed. The methods of providing a ground for a lightning strike are discussed. Then details are given on ways to protect electronic systems, generating and power equipment, blades, and mechanical components from direct and nearby lightning strikes.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NASA-CR-168229 , NAS 1.26:168229 , DOE/NASA/0007-1
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The likely facets of a nationwide phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant commercial system are described. The beneficial and adverse environmental impacts produced by the system are assessed. Eleven specific system activities are characterized and evaluated. Also included is a review of fuel cell technology and a description of DOE's National Fuel Cell Program. Based on current and reasonably foreseeable PAFC characteristics, no environmental or energy impact factor was identified that would significantly inhibit the commercialization of PAFC power plant technology.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/NASA/2701-3 , ATR-83(3813-07)-1ND , NASA-CR-168131 , NAS 1.26:168131
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A new and unique approach to improving photovoltaic conversion efficiency, the reflective multiband gap solar cell concept, was examined. This concept uses back surface reflectors and light trapping with several physically separated cells of different bandgaps to make more effective use of energy from different portions of the solar spectrum. Preliminary tests performed under General Dynamics Independent Research and Development (IRAD) funding have demonstrated the capability for achieving in excess of 20% conversion efficiency with aluminum gallium arsenide and silicon. This study analyzed the ultimate potential for high conversion efficiency with 2, 3, 4, and 5 different bandgap materials, determined the appropriate bandgaps needed to achieve this optimized efficiency, and identified potential problems or constraints. The analysis indicated that an improvement in efficiency of better than 40% could be attained in this multibandgap approach, compared to a single bandgap converter under the same assumptions. Increased absorption loss on the back surface reflector was found to incur a minimal penalty on efficiency for two and three bandgap systems. Current models for bulk absorption losses in 3-5 materials were found to be inadequate for explaining laboratory observed transmission losses. Recommendations included the continued development of high bandgap back surface reflector cells and basic research on semiconductor absorption mechanisms.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: GDC-SP-83-041 , NASA-CR-168186 , NAS 1.26:168186
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Laboratory tests performed to characterize candidate encapsulation materials with respect to changes in their physical and chemical properties caused by photothermal aging are described. Several key material properties relating directly to material degradation and deterioration of performance were identified and were monitored as functions of aging conditions and time. A status report on accelerated testing activities is provided and experimental data are presented. It will be updated periodically as more data become available.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: DOE/JPL-1012/86 , NASA-CR-172989 , JPL-PUB-83-32 , NAS 1.26:172989
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  • 77
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: NAS 1.26:172961 , JPL-9950-813 , NASA-CR-172961
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The conceptual design of a ground-based microwave power transmission system is described. This system is intended to supply electrical power via an air link to a high-altitude (21 km) powered platform. The platform must be equipped with the required instrumentation (RECTENNA) to convert the RF energy to dc power.
    Keywords: ENERGY PRODUCTION AND CONVERSION
    Type: PT-6052 , NASA-CR-168344 , NAS 1.26:168344
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  • 79