ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
Filter
  • Inorganic Chemistry  (3,506)
  • EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING  (3,276)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (2,672)
  • 1980-1984  (9,454)
Collection
Keywords
Publisher
Years
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Research activities performed on MAGSAT scalar data over South America, Central America, and the adjacent marine areas are summarized. The geologic utility of magnetic anomalies detected by satellite is demonstrated by focusing on the spherical-Earth interpretation of scalar MAGSAT data in combination with ancillary geological and geophysical data to obtain lithospheric models for these regions related to their contemporary crustal dynamics processes, geologic history, current volcanism seismicity and natural resources.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10126 , NASA-CR-172801 , NAS 1.26:172801
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Extrapolation of impact cratering rates derived from Canada and Europe suggests that in the cratonic regions of Australia, India, Africa, and Brazil, 14-15 impact craters 20 km diameter should have formed during the last 120 my, and survived erosional erasure. In fact, in these areas, only 2 craters are known that approximately qualify: (1) Gosses Bluff, 22 km, 130 + or - 6 my old, and; Strangways, 24 km and 150 + or - 70 my old. It is therefore likely that about a dozen relatively large and preserved impact craters await discovery in these less explored cratons. A larger number of younger and smaller craters must also exist. An informal search is reported for impact craters using photographs obtained by Shuttle astronauts. Photographs taken with the 250 mm lens on Hassalblad cameras have a resolution of 25 m and cover a nominal area of 50x60 sq km. A larger format Linhof camera with similar resolution but 4 times larger area was flown March 1984, and will fly again in the future. Shuttle imagery has numerous advantages in looking for impact craters and for other types of Earth observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper describes Landsat-4 sensors, spacecraft disturbances, and the methodology used to correct Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The discussion includes system requirements, mathematical modeling, in-orbit angular motion measurement, Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) data analysis, and scan system correction. Emphasis is given to the cause and effect of the electromechanical disturbances beginning with the scan mirror and its interaction and sensitivity to externally and self-generated disturbances. Ground-testing results are compared with those obtained in orbit.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IAF PAPER 84-117
    Format: text
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objectives of this investigation are to evaluate and monitor the radiometric integrity of the LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal infrared channel (Band 6) data to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Efforts this period have concentrated on underflight data collection. Two successful flights were made on September 18 and October 6. The radiosonde data for these flights have been obtained.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-177173 , NAS 1.26:177173 , QR-8
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Raw digital data, as received from the LANDSAT spacecraft, cannot generate images that meet specifications. Radiometric corrections must be made to compensate for aging and for differences in sensitivity among the instrument sensors. Geometric corrections must be made to compensate for off-nadir look angle, and to calculate spacecraft drift from its prescribed path. Corrections must also be made for look-angle jitter caused by vibrations induced by spacecraft equipment. The major components of the LANDSAT ground segment and their functions are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-177174 , SSD-84SDS4266-VOL-2 , NAS 1.26:177174
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E86-10010 , NAS 1.26:171894 , LARS-TR-042382 , NASA-CR-171894
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RSL-TR-360F , E85-10099 , NAS 1.26:171864 , NASA-CR-171864
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radar discriminability of geolian features and their geological setting as imaged by the SIR-A experiment is examined. The Gran Desierto and Pincate volcanio field of Sonora, Mexico was used to analyze the radar characteristics of the interplay of aeolian features and volcano terrain. The area in the Gran Desierto covers 4000 sq. km. and contains sand dunes of several forms. The Pincate volcanio field covers more than 2.000 sq. km. and consists primarily of basaltic lavas. Margins of the field, especially on the western and northern sides, include several maar and maar-like craters; thus obtaining information on their radar characteristics for comparison with impact craters.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JPL-9950-1026 , NASA-CR-175711 , NAS 1.26:175711
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JPL-9950-984 , NASA-CR-175456 , NAS 1.26:175456
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171842 , E85-10081 , LARS-TR-111284 , NAS 1.26:171842
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A valuable input to crop growth and yield models would be estimates of current crop condition. If multispectral reflectance indicates crop condition, then remote sensing may provide an additional tool for crop assessment. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on the spectral reflectance and agronomic characteristics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were determined through field experiments. Spectral reflectance was measured during the 1979 and 1980 growing seasons with a spectroradiometer. Agronomic data included total leaf N concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration, stage of development, leaf area index (LAI), plant moisture, and fresh and dry phytomass. Nitrogen deficiency caused increased visible, reduced near infrared, and increased middle infrared reflectance. These changes were related to lower levels of chlorophyll and reduced leaf area in the N-deficient plots. Green LAI, an important descriptor of wheat canopies, could be reliably estimated with multispectral data. The potential of remote sensing in distinguishing stressed from healthy crops is demonstrated. Evidence suggests multispectral imagery may be useful for monitoring crop condition.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LARS-TR-111484 , NASA-CR-171843 , E85-10080 , NAS 1.26:171843
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data acquired with the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7 satellite for a six-week period including the 1983 MIZEX in Fram Strait were analyzed with the use of a previously developed procedure for calculating sea ice concentration, multiyear fraction, and ice temperature. These calculations can compared with independent observations made on the surface and from aircraft in order to check the validity of the calculations based on SMMR data. The calculation of multiyear fraction, which was known earlier to be invalid near the melting point of sea ice, was of particular interest during this period. The indication of multiyear ice was found to disappear a number of times, presumably corresponding to freeze/thaw cycles which occurred in this time period. Both grid-print maps and grey-scale images of total sea ice concentration and multiyear sea ice fraction for the entire period are included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86170 , NASA-TM-86170
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 13
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analytical and programming support is to be provided to characterize the potential of the LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) digital imagery for scientific investigations in the Earth sciences and in terrestrial physics. In addition, technical support to define lower atmospheric and terrestrial surface experiments for the space station and technical support to the Research Optical Sensor (ROS) study scientist for advanced studies in remote sensing are to be provided. Eleven radiometric calibration and correction programs are described. Coherent noise and bright target saturation correction are discussed along with image processing on the LAS/VAX and Hp-300/IDIMS. An image of San Francisco, California from TM band 2 is presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174227 , E85-10053 , NASA-CR-174227
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The relationship between forest clearing, biophysical factors (e.g, ecological zones, slope gradient, soils), and transportation network in Costa Rica was analyzed. The location of forested areas at four reference datas (1940, 1950, 1961, and 1977) as derived from aerial photography and LANDSAT MSS data was digitilized and entered into a geographically-referenced data base. Ecological zones as protrayed by the Holdridge Life Zone Ecology System, and the location of roads and railways were also digitized from maps of the entire country as input to the data base. Information on slope gradient and soils was digitized from maps of a 21,000 square kilometer area. The total area of forest cleared over four decades are related to biophysical factors was analyzed within the data base and deforestation rates and trends were tabulated. The relatiohship between forest clearing and ecological zone and the influence of topography, sils, and transportation network are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10051 , NSTL/ERL-230 , NAS 1.15:87405 , NASA-TM-87405
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 15
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In order that sub-lithospheric density variations be revealed with the geoid, the regional geoid anomalies associated with bathymetric variations must first be removed. Spectral techniques were used to generate a synthetic geoid by filtering the residual bathymetry assuming an Airy-type isostatic compensation model. An unbiased estimated of the admittances show that for region under study, no single compensation mechanism will explain all of the power in the geoid. Nevertheless, because topographic features are mainly coherent with the geoid, to first order an isostationally compensated lithosphere cut by major E-W fracture zones accounts for most of the power in the high degree and other SEASAT geoid in the Pacific.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174155 , NASA-CR-174155
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spectral properties of ice soil mixtures are reviewed. Water ice has an absorption coefficient which varies by several orders of magnitude in the visual and near infrared, and has several prominent overtone absorptions. Different wavelengths can be used to probe to different depths in the surface as well as for different mineral impurity concentrations. Empirical and/or theoretical models might be used to derive characteristics grain size of the ice or of the impurity minerals and to derive abundance of the ice and rock or soil components. Quantitative analysis of remotely obtained reflectance spectra can only be performed by using absorption features in the spectra of ice and soil, and not by broadband response. It is suggested that this might be done by special selection of several narrow band filters in the near infrared which will adequately define the ice absorptions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174087 , PGD-PUB-369 , NASA-CR-174087 , Inter. Conf. on Permafrost; Honolulu, HI; United States
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85623 , NASA-TM-85623 , E84-10186
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10183 , NAS 1.15:85620 , NASA-TM-85620
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of the absolute radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper, as determined during pre-launch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere, are presented. Detailed results for the best calibration of the protoflight TM are given, as well as summaries of other tests performed on the sensor. The dynamic range of the TM is within a few per cent of that required in all bands, except bands 1 and 3. Three detectors failed to pass the minimum SNR specified for their respective bands: band 5, channel 3 (dead), band 2, and channels 2 and 4 (noisy or slow response). Estimates of the absolute calibration accuracy for the TM show that the detectors are typically calibrated to 5% absolute error for the reflective bands; 10% full-scale accuracy was specified. Ten tests performed to transfer the detector absolute calibration to the internal calibrator show a 5% range at full scale in the transfer calibration; however, in two cases band 5 showed a 10% and a 7% difference.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85600 , E84-10180 , NASA-TM-85600
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85599 , E84-10179 , NASA-TM-85599
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 21
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of images of a portion of a TM frame of Lake Ontario are presented. The top left frame is the TM Band 6 image, the top right image is a conventional contrast stretched image. The bottom left image is a Band 5 to Band 3 ratio image. This image is used to generate a primitive land cover classificaton. Each land cover (Water, Urban, Forest, Agriculture) is assigned a Band 6 emissivity value. The ratio image is then combined with the Band 6 image and atmospheric propagation data to generate the bottom right image. This image represents a display of data whose digital count can be directly related to estimated surface temperature. The resolution appears higher because the process cell is the size of the TM shortwave pixels.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:173854 , QR-7 , NASA-CR-173854 , E84-10175
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 22
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: All user and programmer information required for using the correlation area method (CAM) program is presented. This program combines measurements of hydrologic variables from all measurement technologies to produce estimated areal mean values. The method accounts for sampling geometries and measurement accuracies and provides a measure of the accuracy of the estimated mean areal value.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10172 , NAS 1.26:175270 , NASA-CR-175270
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85597 , E84-10056 , NASA-TM-85597
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dealiased SEASAT SEASAT A Scatterometer System SASS vector winds obtained during the Gulf Of Alaska SEASAT Experiment GOASEX program are processed to obtain superobservations centered on a one degree by one degree grid. The grid. The results provide values for the combined effects of mesoscale variability and communication noise on the individual SASS winds. These superobservations winds are then processed further to obtain estimates of synoptic scale vector winds stress fields, the horizontal divergence of the wind, the curl of the wind stress and the vertical velocity at 200 m above the sea surface, each with appropriate standard deviations of the estimates for each grid point value. They also explain the concentration of water vapor, liquid water and precipitation found by means of the SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer at fronts and occlusions in terms of strong warm, moist air advection in the warm air sector accompanied by convergence in the friction layer. Their quality is far superior to that of analyses based on conventional data, which are shown to yield many inconsistencies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:3810 , E84-10169 , NASA-CR-3810
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simple method was developed for improved prescription of seasonal surface characteristics and parameterization of land-surface processes in climate models. This method, developed for the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model II (GISS GCM II), maintains the spatial variability of fine-resolution land-cover data while restricting to 8 the number of vegetation types handled in the model. This was achieved by: redefining the large number of vegetation classes in the 1 deg x 1 deg resolution Matthews (1983) vegetation data base as percentages of 8 simple types; deriving roughness length, field capacity, masking depth and seasonal, spectral reflectivity for the 8 types; and aggregating these surface features from the 1 deg x 1 deg resolution to coarser model resolutions, e.g., 8 deg latitude x 10 deg longitude or 4 deg latitude x 5 deg longitude.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86096 , NASA-TM-86096
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The geometric accuray of LANDSAT TM raw data of Toulouse (France) raw data of Mississippi, and preprocessed data of Mississippi was examined using a CDC computer. Analog images were restituted on the VIZIR SEP device. The methods used for line to line and band to band registration are based on automatic correlation techniques and are widely used in automated image to image registration at CNES. Causes of intraband and interband misregistration are identified and statistics are given for both line to line and band to band misregistration.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:173882 , E84-10187 , NASA-CR-173882
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10184 , NASA-TM-85621 , NAS 1.15:85621
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10181 , NASA-TM-85601 , NAS 1.15:85601
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer compatible tapes (CCTs) of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) digital image products are compared and reviewed. The following tape formats are discussed: (1) raw band-sequential data (CCT-BT); (2) calibrated data (CCT-AT); and (3) geometrically resampled data (CCT-PT). Each format represents different steps in the process of producing fully corrected TM data. The CCT-BT images are uncorrected radiometrically or geometrically, CCT-AT data are radiometrically calibrated, and CCT-PT images are both radiometrically and geometrically corrected.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85598 , NASA-TM-85598 , E84-10178
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from the MAGSAT spacecraft for November 1979 through April 1980 and from 91 magnetic observatories for 1978 through 1982 are used to derive a spherical harmonic model of the Earth's main magnetic field and its secular variation. Constant coefficients are determined through degree and order 13 and secular variation coefficients through degree and order 10. The first degree external terms and corresponding induced internal terms are given as a function of Dst. Preliminary modeling using separate data sets at dawn and dusk local time showed that the dusk data contains a substantial field contribution from the equatorial electrojet current. The final data set is selected first from dawn data and then augmented by dusk data to achieve a good geographic data distribution for each of three time periods: (1) November/December, 1979; (2) January/February; 1980; (3) March/April, 1980. A correction for the effects of the equatorial electrojet is applied to the dusk data utilized. The solution included calculation of fixed biases, or anomalies, for the observation data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86133 , NASA-TM-86133 , E84-10170
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnitude of plant-to-plant variability of leaf area of corn plants selected from uniform plots was examined and four representative methods for measuring leaf area index (LAI) were evaluated. The number of plants required and the relative costs for each sampling method were calculated to detect 10, 20, and 50% differences in LAI using 0.05 and 0.01 tests of significance and a 90% probability of success (beta = 0.1). The natural variability of leaf area per corn plant was nearly 10%. Additional variability or experimental error may be introduced by the measurement technique employed and by nonuniformity within the plot. Direct measurement of leaf area with an electronic area meter had the lowest CV, required that the fewest plants be sampled, but required approximately the same amount of time as the leaf area/weight ratio method to detect comparable differences. Indirect methods based on measurements of length and width of leaves required more plants but less total time than the direct method. Unless the coefficients for converting length and width to area are verified frequently, the indirect methods may be biased. When true differences in LAI among treatments exceed 50% of mean, all four methods are equal. The method of choice depends on the resources available, the differences to be detected, and what additional information, such as leaf weight or stalk weight, is also desired.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:171792 , NASA-CR-171792 , E84-10162 , LARS-TR-030784
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Knowledge of when critical crop stages occur and how the environment affects them should provide useful information for crop management decisions and crop production models. Two sources of data were evaluated for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity of corn (Zea mays L.). Initial evaluations were conducted using data of an adapted corn hybrid grown on a Typic Agriaquoll at the Purdue University Agronomy Farm. The second phase extended the analyses to large areas using data acquired by the Statistical Reporting Service of USDA for crop reporting districts (CRD) in Indiana and Iowa. Several thermal models were compared to calendar days for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity. Mixed models which used a combination of thermal units to predict silking and days after silking to predict physiological maturity were also evaluated. At the Agronomy Farm the models were calibrated and tested on the same data. The thermal models were significantly less biased and more accurate than calendar days for predicting dates of silking. Differences among the thermal models were small. Significant improvements in both bias and accuracy were observed when the mixed models were used to predict dates of physiological maturity. The results indicate that statistical data for CRD can be used to evaluate models developed at agricultural experiment stations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10160 , NAS 1.26:171790 , LARS-TR-021584 , NASA-CR-171790
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of SEASAT repeat orbits over a sequence of best Low center positions is simulated by using the Seatrak satellite calculator. These Low centers are, upon appropriate interpolation to hourly positions, Located at various times during the + or - 3 hour assimilation cycle. Error analysis for a sample of best cyclone center positions taken from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans reveals a minimum average error of 1.1 deg of Longitude and a standard deviation of 0.9 deg of Longitude. The magnitude of the average error seems to suggest that by utilizing the + or - 3 hour window in the assimilation cycle, the quality of the SASS data is degraded to the Level of the background. A further consequence of this assimilation scheme is the effect which is manifested as a result of the blending of two or more more juxtaposed vector winds, generally possessing different properties (vector quantity and time). The outcome of this is to reduce gradients in the wind field and to deform isobaric and frontal patterns of the intial field.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10129 , NASA-CR-3799 , NAS 1.26:3799
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Enviropod camera system is detailed in this handbook which contains a step-by-step guide for mission planning, flights, film processing, indexing, and documentation. Information regarding Enviropod equipment and specifications is included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172798 , CRSC-84-1 , E84-10123 , NAS 1.26:172798
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 35
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Previously experienced data collection problems were successfully resolved. A limited effort, directed at improved methods of display of TM Band 6 data, has concentrated on implementation of intensity hue and saturation displays using the Band 6 data to control hue. These displays tend to give the appearance of high resolution thermal data and make whole scene thermal interpretation easier by color coding thermal data in a manner that aids visual interpretation. More quantitative efforts were directed at utilizing the reflected bands to define land cover classes and then modifying the thermal displays using long wave optical properties associated with cover type.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-173489 , QR-6 , NAS 1.26:173489 , E84-10119
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 36
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JSC-18907 , NASA-CR-173373 , E84-10104 , NAS 1.26:173373 , YM-N4-04455
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of 17 cover types (13 forest types or tree species and 4 nonforest cover types) in Michigan are discussed as well as their interpretation from medium scale color infrared photography. The occurrence of each type is described by region and site requirements. Those attributes of a tree or stand which are helpful when attempting to interpret the type from a vertical perspective are discussed as well as common crown types. The identification of the forest type or tree species by using image characteristics (size, shape, shadow, color, texture, pattern, or association) is discussed. Ground photographs and sketches of individual trees are included. Stereograms of typical stands are available.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10097 , NAS 1.26:173346 , NASA-CR-173346
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 38
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10105 , NASA-CR-173374 , JSC-18908 , YM-N4-04456 , NAS 1.26:173374
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Evaluation of information contained in data from the visible and near-IR channels of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS for five agricultural scenes shows that the TM provides a significant advance in information gathering capability as expressed in terms of bits per pixel or bits per unit area. The six reflective channels of the TM acquire 18 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 48 bits, while the four MSS channels acquire 10 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 28 bits. Thus the TM and MSS are equally efficient in gathering information (18/48 to approximately 10/28), contrary to the expected tendency toward lower efficiency as spatial resolution is improved and spectral channels are added to an observing system. The TM thermal IR data appear to be of interest mainly for mapping water bodies, which do not change temperature during the day, for assessing surface moisture, and for monitoring thermal features associated with human activity.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:173231 , NASA-CR-173231 , E84-10081
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) is the first spacecraft instrument devoted to the measurement of ocean color. Although instruments on other satellites have sensed ocean color, their spectral bands, spatial resolution, and dynamic range were optimized for geographical or meteorological use. In the CZCS, every parameter is optimized for use over water to the exclusion of any other type of sensing. The signal-to-noise ratios in the spectral channels sensing reflected solar radiance are higher than those required in the past. These ratios need to be high because the ocean is such a poor reflecting surface that the majority of the signal seen by the reflected energy channels at spacecraft altitudes is backscattered solar radiation from the atmosphere rather than reflected solar energy from the ocean. The CZCS is a conventional multichannel scanning radiometer utilizing a rotating plane mirror at a 45 deg angle to the optic axis of a Cassegrain telescope. The mirror scans 360 deg; however, only 80 deg of data centered on the spacecraft nadir is collected for ocean color measurements. Spatial resolution at spacecraft nadir is 825x825 m with some degradation at the edges of the scan swath. The useful swath width from a spacecraft altitude of 955 km is 1600 km.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-180755 , NAS 1.26:180755
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An extension of the TM tasseled cap transformation to reflectance factor data is presented, and the basic concepts underlying the tasseled cap transformations are described. The ratio of TM bands 5 and 7, and TM tasseled cap wetness, are both shown to offer promise of direct detection of available soil moisture. Some effects of organic matter and other soil characteristics or constituents on TM tasseled cap spectral response are also considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10082 , NASA-CR-171857 , ERIM-160300-101-F , NAS 1.26:171857
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In order to test the idea that auxin action on root growth may be mediated by H(+) movement, the correlation of auxin action on growth and H(+) movement in roots was examined along with changes in H(+) efflux patterns associated with the asymmetric growth which occurs during gravitropism. The effects of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (AbA) on growth, H(+) secretion, and gravitropism in roots were compared. Results show a close correlation existent between H(+) efflux and growth in maize roots. In intact roots there is strong H(+) efflux from the elongation zone. Growth-promoting concentrations of IAA stimulate H(+) efflux. During gravitropism the H(+) efflux from the elongation zone becomes asymmetric; the evidence indicates that auxin redistribution contributes to the development of acid efflux asymmetry. That AbA stimulates root growth is reflected in its ability to stimulate H(+) efflux from apical root segments.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174355 , NAS 1.26:174355 , NAS 1.174355
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 43
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radiation emitted from dry and wet snowpack in the microwave region (1 to 100 GHz) is discussed and related to ground observations. Results from theoretical model calculations match the brightness temperatures obtained by truck mounted, airborne and spaceborne microwave sensor systems. Snow wetness and internal layer structure complicate the snow parameter retrieval algorithm. Further understanding of electromagnetic interaction with snowpack may eventually provide a technique to probe the internal snow properties
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-86177 , NAS 1.15:86177 , E85-10065
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 44
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Eleven thematic mapper (TM) radiometric calibration programs were tested and evaluated in support of the task to characterize the potential of LANDSAT TM digital imagery for scientific investigations in the Earth sciences and terrestrial physics. Three software errors related to integer overflow, divide by zero, and nonexist file group were found and solved. Raw, calibrated, and corrected image groups that were created and stored on the Barker2 disk are enumerated. Black and white pixel print files were created for various subscenes of a San Francisco scene (ID 40392-18152). The development of linear regression software is discussed. The output of the software and its function are described. Future work in TM radiometric calibration, image processing, and software development is outlined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10044 , NAS 1.26:174221 , NASA-CR-174221
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Procedures followed in developing a test case geographic information system derived primarily from remotely sensed data for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) in northern Utah are outlined. The North Cache SCD faces serious problems regarding water allocation, flood and geologic hazards, urban encroachment into prime farmland, soil erosion, and wildlife habitat. Four fundamental data planes were initially entered into the geo-referenced data base: (1) land use/land cover information for the agricultural and built-up areas of the valley obtained from various forms of aerial photography; (2) vegetation/land cover in mountains classified digitally from LANDSAT; (3) geomorphic terrain units derived from aerial photography and soil maps; and (4) digital terrain maps obtained from DMA digital data. The land use/vegetation/land cover information from manual photographic and LANDSAT interpretation were joined digitally into a single data plane with an integrated legend, and segmented into quadrangle units. These were merged with the digitized geomorphic units and the digital terrain data using a Prime 400 minicomputer. All data planes were geo-referenced to a UTM coordinate grid.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10047 , NASA-CR-174223 , NAS 1.26:174223
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: LANDSAT MSS digital data were utilized to identify vegetation types in an area of Battle Mountain SE in northern Nevada. Ways in which terrain data may improve spectral classification were investigated. The basic data set was a CCT of LANDSAT scene 82233617450, dated 15 June 1981. Seventeen ecotypic classifications were identified in the study area on the basis of field investigations. The percent cover by life form and non-living material for the 17 classes is summarized along with the percent cover by species for the 17 classes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174220 , E85-10043 , NASA-CR-174220 , CRSC-84-7
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 47
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Earth science applications of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery are discussed. Prospective research themes are defined in a general sense in relation to the technical measurement capabilities of the TM and the various types of Earth information that can potentially be derived from multispectral TM imagery. An overview of the system developed to acquire and reduce TM data is presented. The technical capabilities of this system are presented in detail. The orbital performance of the TM sensor is described, based upon the analysis of LANDSAT 4 and 5 TM data collected to date.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10003 , NASA-TM-86149 , NAS 1.15:86149
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Backscatter measurements at upwind and crosswind are simulated for five incidence angles by means of the SASS-1 model function. The effects of communication noise and attitude errors are simulated by Monte Carlo methods, and the winds are recovered by both the Sum of Square (SOS) algorithm and a Maximum Likelihood Estimater (MLE). The SOS algorithm is shown to fail for light enough winds at all incidence angles and to fail to show areas of calm because backscatter estimates that were negative or that produced incorrect values of K sub p greater than one were discarded. The MLE performs well for all input backscatter estimates and returns calm when both are negative. The use of the SOS algorithm is shown to have introduced errors in the SASS-1 model function that, in part, cancel out the errors that result from using it, but that also cause disagreement with other data sources such as the AAFE circle flight data at light winds. Implications for future scatterometer systems are given.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:3839 , NASA-CR-3839
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: When comparing previous satellite magnetometer missions (such as MAGSAT) with proposed new programs (for example, Geopotential Research Mission, GRM) it is important to quantify the difference in scientific information obtained. The ability to resolve separate magnetic blocks (simulating geological units) is used as a parameter for evaluating the expected geologic information from each mission. The effect of satellite orbital altitude on the ability to resolve two magnetic blocks with varying separations is evaluated and quantified. A systematic, nonlinear, relationship exists between resolution and distance between magnetic blocks as a function of orbital altitude. The proposed GRM would provide an order-of-magnitude greater anomaly resolution than the earlier MAGSAT mission for widely separated bodies. The resolution achieved at any particular altitude varies depending on the location of the bodies and orientation.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86134 , E84-10191 , NASA-TM-86134
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of papers which deal with radiometric characterization of the TM sensor is presented. Spectral characteristics are summarized. The geometric accuracy of TM are also examined. Aspects of prelaunch and post launch sensor performance, ground processing techniques, and error correction are also investigated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-85622 , E84-10185 , NAS 1.15:85622
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Prelaunch and postlaunch internal calibrator, image, and background data is to characterize the radiometric performance of the LANDSAT-4 TM and to recommend improved procedures for radiometric calibration. All but two channels (band 2, channel 4; band 5, channel 3) behave normally. Gain changes relative to a postlaunch reference for channels within a band vary within 0.5 percent as a group. Instrument gain for channels in the cold focal plane oscillates. Noise in background and image data ranges from 0.5 to 1.7 counts. Average differences in forward and reverse image data indicate a need for separate calibration processing of forward and reverse scans. Precision is improved by increasing the pulse integration width from 31 to 41 minor frames, depending on the band.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10182 , NAS 1.15:85602 , NASA-TM-85602
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of the thematic mapper (TM) and multispectral scanner (MSS) sensors on LANDSATs 4 and 5 affecting their spatial responses are described, and functions defining the response of the system to an arbitrary input spatial pattern are derived, i.e., transfer functions (TF) and line spread functions (LSF). These design LSF's and TF's were modified based on prelaunch component and system measurements to provide improved estimates. Prelaunch estimates of LSF/FT's are compared to in-orbit estimates. For the MSS instruments, only limited prelaunch scan direction square-wave response (SWR) data were available. Design estimates were modified by convolving in Gaussian blur till the derived LSF/TF's produced SWR's comparable to the measurements. The two MSS instruments were comparable at their temperatures of best focus; separate calculations were performed for bands 1 and 3, band 2 and band 4. The pre-sample nadir effective instantaneous field's of view (EIFOV's) based on the .5 modulation transfer function (MTF) criteria vary from 70 to 75 meters in the track direction and 79 to 82 meters in the scan direction. For the TM instruments more extensive prelaunch measurements were available. Bands 1 to 4, 5 and 7, and 6 were handled separately as were the two instruments. Derived MTF's indicate nadir pre-sample EIFOV's of 32 to 33 meter track (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 36 meter scan (bands 1 to 5, 7) and 1245 meter track (band 6) and 141 meter scan (band 6) for both TM's.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10171 , NASA-TM-86130 , NAS 1.15:86130
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An experiment of a factorial design was conducted to test the effects on classification accuracy of land cover types due to the improved spatial, spectral and radiometric characteristics of the Thematic Mapper (TM) in comparison to the Multispectral Scanner (MSS). High altitude aircraft scanner data from the Airborne Thematic Mapper instrument was acquired over central California in August, 1983 and used to simulate Thematic Mapper data as well as all combinations of the three characteristics for eight data sets in all. Results for the training sites (field center pixels) showed better classification accuracies for MSS spatial resolution, TM spectral bands and TM radiometry in order of importance.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85995 , NASA-TM-85995 , A-9836
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The orbit adjust maneuvers performed to raise the LANDSAT 5 spacecraft to mission altitude, synchronize it with the required groundtrack, and properly phase the spacecraft with LANDSAT-4 to provide an 8 day full Earth coverage cycle are described. Maneuver planning and evaluation procedures, data and analysis results for all maneuvers performed to date, the frozen orbit concept, and the phasing requirement between LANDSAT-4 and LANDSAT-5 are also examined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10155 , CSC/TM-84/6075 , NASA-CR-175250 , NAS 1.26:175250
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Work with digital data of Oklahoma, Colorado, Wyoming, Utah and California demonstrate that the increased spectral refinement and spatial resolution of TM over MSS data greatly increase the value of the data to petroleum exploration in roles ranging from logistic planning to direct detection of phenomena related to microseepage of hydrocarbons. The value of the spatial content versus the spectral content of the data increases as soil and vegetation cover increase. The structural detail visible in the imagery can contribute to exploration at the prospect level. Examination of the variance/covariance matrix suggests that a combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 displays the most information for most areas.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10154 , NAS 1.26:173666 , REPT-1459 , NASA-CR-173666
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The total amount of water available to plants that is held against gravity in a soil is usually estimated as the amount present at -0.03 MPa average water potential minus the amount present at -1.5 MPa water potential. This value, designated available water-holding capacity (AWHC), is a very important soil characteristic that is strongly and positively correlated to the inherent productivity of soils. In various applications, including assessing soil moisture status over large areas, it is necessary to group soil types or series as to their productivity. Current methods to classify AWHC of soils consider only total capacity of soil profiles and thus may group together soils which differ greatly in AWHC as a function of depth in the profile. A general approach for evaluating quantitatively the multidimensional nature of AWHC in soils is described. Data for 902 soil profiles, representing 184 soil series, in Indiana were obtained from the Soil Characterization Laboratory at Purdue University. The AWHC for each of ten 150-mm layers in each soil was established, based on soil texture and parent material. A multivariate clustering procedure was used to classify each soil profile into one of 4, 8, or 12 classes based upon ten-dimensional AWHC values. The optimum number of classes depends on the range of AWHC in the population of oil profiles analyzed and on the sensitivity of a crop to differences in distribution of water within the soil profile.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:171791 , NASA-CR-171791 , E84-10161 , LARS-TR-011584
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Floe size can be measured by several properties p- for instance, area or mean caliper diameter. Two definitions of floe size distribution seem particularly useful. F(p), the fraction of area covered by floes no smaller than p; and N(p), the number of floes per unit area no smaller than p. Several summertime distributions measured are a graph, their slopes range from -1.7 to -2.5. The variance of an estimate is also calculated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-175155 , E84-10132 , NAS 1.26:175155
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Global data bases of vegetation, land use, and land cover were compiled at a 1 deg latitude x 1 deg longitude resolution, drawing on approximately 100 published sources complemented by a large collection of satellite imagery. Six datasets prepared and archived at NCAR are described: a vegetation data set (VEGTYPE) representing natural (pre-agricultural) vegetation based on the UNESCO classification system; a cultivation intensity data set (CULTINT) defining the areal extent (expressed as %) of presently cultivated land in the 1 x 1 cells; and four integrated surface-albedo data sets (January, April, July, October) for snow-free conditions except for permanently snow-covered continental ice, incorporating natural vegetation and cultivation characteristics from the vegetation and cultivation-intensity data sets. Non-zero data are included for permanent land only, including continental ice. Documentation of the data-tape format as well as descriptions and regional maps of the individual data sets are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86107 , E84-10133 , NASA-TM-86107
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 59
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A comprehensive, experimental study of the predictability of the polar motion using a homogeneous BIH (Bureau International de l'Heure) data set is presented. Based on knowledge of the physics of the annual and the Chandler wobbles, the numerical model for the polar motion is constructed by allowing the wobble periods to vary. Using an optimum base length of 6 years for prediction, this floating-period model, equipped with a non-linear least-squares estimator, is found to yield polar motion predictions accurate from 0.012 to 0.024 inches depending on the prediction length up to one year, corresponding to a predictability of 91-83%. This represents a considerable improvement over the conventional fixed-period predictor, which does not respond to variations in the apparent wobble periods. The superiority of the floating-period predictor to other predictors based on critically different numerical models is also demonstrated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86095 , NASA-TM-86095
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 60
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Multivariate statistical analysis and imaging processing techniques are being applied to the study of arid/semiarid environments, with emphasis on desertification. Field level indicators of land-soil biota degradation are being sifted out with staging up to the low aircraft reconnaissance level, to LANDSAT TM & MSS, and even to the AVHRR level. Three completed projects are reviewed: riparian habitat on the Humboldt River floodplain, Salt Lake County Urban expansion detection, and salinization/desertification detection in the delta area. Beginning projects summarized include: comparative condition of rangeland in Rush Valley; modeling a GIS/remote sensing data base for Cache County; universal soil loss equation applied to Pinyon-Juniper; relating MSS to ground radiometry near Battle Mountain; and riparian habitat mapping on Mary's River, Nevada.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172800 , NAS 1.26:172800 , E84-10125
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The verification of a multi-sensor aircraft system developed to study soil moisture applications is discussed. This system consisted of a three beam push broom L band microwave radiometer, a thermal infrared scanner, a multispectral scanner, video and photographic cameras and an onboard navigational instrument. Ten flights were made of agricultural sites in Maryland and Delaware with little or no vegetation cover. Comparisons of aircraft and ground measurements showed that the system was reliable and consistent. Time series analysis of microwave and evaporation data showed a strong similarity that indicates a potential direction for future research.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10084 , NASA-TM-86068 , NAS 1.15:86068
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 62
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: YM-N4-04453 , NAS 1.26:173371 , E84-10102 , NASA-CR-173371 , JSC-18905
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Radar images from the SEASAT synthetic aperture radar (SAR) produced unusually high returns from corn and sorghum fields, which seem to indicate a correlation between nodal separation in the stalk and the wavelength of the radar. These images also show no difference in return from standing or harvested corn. Further investigation using images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) substantiated these observations and showed a degradation of the high return with time after harvest. From portions of corn and sweet sorghum stalks that were sampled to measure stalk water content, it was determined that near and after maturity the water becomes more concentrated in the stalk nodes. The stalk then becomes a linear sequence of alternating dielectrics as opposed to a long slender cylinder with uniform dielectric properties.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-86066 , E84-10085 , NAS 1.15:86066
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The high degree and order geoid field in the Pacific is a superposition of fracture zone anomalies and hot-spot swell anomalies. A two-dimensional spectral analysis of this field reveals a very strong north-south wavenumber contribution with a dominant wavelength of about 2000 km, a much smaller contribution from east-west wavenumbers, and negligible contributions from other directions. One dimensional profiles were taken in order to appreciate the magnitudes of the north-south and east-west components. A calculated geoid anomaly using an idealized fracture zone model contains just about the same amount of power in the 2350 km band wavelength as does the north-south profile of the SEASAT geoid field. In an attempt to correlate plate age with geoid anomalies, a digitized age map of the Pacific was used to generate a synthetic geoid, which was subtracted from SEASAT. This procedure produces a residual geoid in which the fracture zone anomalies appear to be diminished, if not removed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174581 , NASA-CR-174581 , E84-10052
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Numerous mathematical models of the interaction of radiation with vegetation canopies have been developed over the last two decades. However, data with which to exercise and validate these models are scarce. During three days in the summer of 1980, experiments are conducted with the objective of gaining insight about the effects of solar illumination and view angles on soybean canopy reflectance. In concert with these experiment, extensive measurements of the soybean canopies are obtained. This document is a compilation of the bidirectional reflectance factors, agronomic, characteristics, canopy geometry, and leaf, stem, and pod optical properties of the soybean canopies. These data sets should be suitable for use with most vegetation canopy reflectance models.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171895 , E86-10005 , NAS 1.26:171895 , LARS-TR-071584
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 66
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Techniques for gathering data by remote sensors on satellites utilized for sea ice research are summarized. Measurement of brightness temperatures by a passive microwave imager converted to maps of total sea ice concentration and to the areal fractions covered by first year and multiyear ice are described. Several ancillary observations, especially by means of automatic data buoys and submarines equipped with upward looking sonars, are needed to improve the validation and interpretation of satellite data. The design and performance characteristics of the Navy's Special Sensor Microwave Imager, expected to be in orbit in late 1985, are described. It is recommended that data from that instrument be processed to a form suitable for research applications and archived in a readily accessible form. The sea ice data products required for research purposes are described and recommendations for their archival and distribution to the scientific community are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:175570 , NASA-CR-175570
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The primary goal of the project was to provide ground truth and manual interpretation of data from an experimental flight of the Airborne Infrared Spectrometer (AIS) for a naturally vegetated test site. Two field visits were made; one trip to note snow conditions and temporally related vegetation states at the time of the sensor overpass, and a second trip following acquisition of prints of the AIS images for field interpretation. Unfortunately, the ability to interpret the imagery was limited by the quality of the imagery due to the experimental nature of the sensor.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174440 , NAS 1.26:174440 , JPL-9950-956
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 68
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: LANDSAT 4 and 5, launched in 1982 and 1984, not only carried the Thematic Mapper, but were redesigned to handle the increased data rates associated with it, and to communicate that data to Earth via geosynchronous orbiting Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TDRS). The TM development program is summarized. A brief historical perspective is presented of the evolution of design requirements and hardware development. The basic performance parameters that serve as sensor design guidelines are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10078 , NAS 1.26:174405 , NASA-CR-174405
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The feasibility of using LANDSAT MSS (multispectral scanner) data to identify and map cover types for rangeland, and to determine comparative condition of the ecotypes was assessed. A supporting objective is to assess the utility of various forms of aerial photography in the process. If rangelands can be efficiently mapped with Landsat data, as supported by appropriate aerial photography and field data, then uniform standards of cover classification and condition may be applied across the rangelands of the state. Further, a foundation may be established for long-term monitoring of range trend, using the same satellite system over time.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10072 , NASA-CR-174399 , NAS 1.26:174399 , CRSC-84-9
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A basic geographic information system (GIS) for the North Cache Soil Conservation District (SCD) was sought for selected resource problems. Since the resource management issues in the North Cache SCD are very complex, it is not feasible in the initial phase to generate all the physical, socioeconomic, and political baseline data needed for resolving all management issues. A selection of critical varables becomes essential. Thus, there are foud specific objectives: (1) assess resource management needs and determine which resource factors ae most fundamental for building a beginning data base; (2) evaluate the variety of data gathering and analysis techniques for the resource factors selected; (3) incorporate the resulting data into a useful and efficient digital data base; and (4) demonstrate the application of the data base to selected real world resoource management issues.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CRSC-84-8 , E85-10073 , NAS 1.26:174400 , NASA-CR-174400
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The motion of discontinuity; electric potential and current structure of the event; energy source and flow; wave-particle interactions; and particle acceleration are addressed using wave, electron, ion mass spectrometer, dc electric field, and magnetic field observation from the Isee-1, NOAA-6, and the 1976-059 geostationary satellite.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:87434 , NASA-TM-87434 , DRI-2-84
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 72
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The nature of the orbit error and its effect on the sea surface heights calculated with satellite altimetry are explained. The elementary concepts of celestial mechanics required to follow a general discussion of the problem are included. Consideration of errors in the orbits of satellites with precisely repeating ground tracks (SEASAT, TOPEX, ERS-1, POSEIDON, amongst past and future altimeter satellites) are detailed. The theoretical conclusions are illustrated with the numerical results of computer simulations. The nature of the errors in this type of orbits is such that this error can be filtered out by using height differences along repeating (overlapping) passes. This makes them particularly valuable for the study and monitoring of changes in the sea surface, such as tides. Elements of tidal theory, showing how these principles can be combined with those pertinent to the orbit error to make direct maps of the tides using altimetry are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-86180 , NAS 1.15:86180 , E85-10066
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A method to determine simultaneously the rainfall rate and the normalized backscattering cross section of the surface was evaluated. The method is based on the mirror reflected power, p sub m which corresponds to the portion of the incident power scattered from the surface to the precipitation, intercepted by the precipitation, and again returned to the surface where it is scattered a final time back to the antenna. Two approximations are obtained for P sub m depending on whether the field of view at the surface is either much greater or much less than the height of the reflection layer. Since the dependence of P sub m on the backscattering cross section of the surface differs in the two cases, two algorithms are given by which the path averaged rain rate and normalized cross section are deduced. The detectability of P sub m, the relative strength of other contributions to the return power arriving simultaneous with P sub m, and the validity of the approximations used in deriving P sub m are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-86167 , NAS 1.15:86167
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The calibration of the Flight 1 Model Thematic Mapper is discussed. Spectral response, scan profile, coherent noise, line spread profiles and white light leaks, square wave response, radiometric calibration, and commands and telemetry are specifically addressed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174231 , E85-10059 , HS236-9060-VOL-1 , NAS 1.26:174231
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Most models of crop growth and yield require an estimate of canopy leaf area index (LAI) or absorption of radiation. Relationships between photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by corn canopies and the spectral reflectance of the canopies were investigated. Reflectance factor data were acquired with a LANDSAT MSS band radiometer. From planting to silking, the three spectrally predicted vegetation indices examined were associated with more than 95% of the variability in absorbed PAR. The relationships developed between absorbed PAR and the three indices were evaluated with reflectance factor data acquired from corn canopies planted in 1979 through 1982. Seasonal cumulations of measured LAI and each of the three indices were associated with greater than 50% of the variation in final grain yields from the test years. Seasonal cumulations of daily absorbed PAR were associated with up to 73% of the variation in final grain yields. Absorbed PAR, cumulated through the growing season, is a better indicator of yield than cumulated leaf area index. Absorbed PAR may be estimated reliably from spectral reflectance data of crop canopies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171822 , NAS 1.26:171822 , LARS-TR-062984 , E85-10041
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10042 , LARS-TR-061584 , NAS 1.26:171818 , NASA-CR-171818
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Comparisons of the spectral response for incomplete (well-defined row structure) and complete (overlapping row structure) canopies of soybeans indicated a greater dependence on Sun and view geometry for the incomplete canopies. Red and near-IR reflectance for the incomplete canopy decreased as solar zenith angle increased for a nadir view angle until the soil between the plant rows was completely shaded. Thereafter for increasing solar zenith angle, the red reflectance leveled off and the near-IR reflectance increased. A 'hot spot' effect was evident for the red and near-IR reflectance factors. The 'hot spot' effect was more pronounced for the red band based on relative reflectance value changes. The ratios of off-nadir to nadir acquired data reveal that off-nadir red band reflectance factors more closely approximated straightdown measurements for time periods away from solar noon. Normalized difference generally approximated straightdown measurements during the middle portion of the day.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LARS-TR-073184 , NASA-CR-171821 , E85-10040 , NAS 1.26:171821
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 78