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  • EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING  (3,276)
  • 1980-1984  (3,276)
  • 1925-1929
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Years
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: The purpose of the handbook is to update the various snowcover interpretation techniques, document the snow mapping techniques used in the various ASVT study areas, and describe the ways snowcover data have been applied to runoff prediction. Through documentation in handbook form, the methodology developed in the Snow Mapping ASVT can be applied to other areas.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1829 , NAS 1.60:1829 , REPT-81F0067-VOL-8
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Ground surveys and aerial observations were used to monitor rapidly changing moisture conditions in the Salt-Verde watershed. Repetitive satellite snow cover observations greatly reduce the necessity for routine aerial snow reconnaissance flights over the mountains. High resolution, multispectral imagery provided by LANDSAT satellite series enabled rapid and accurate mapping of snow-cover distributions for small- to medium-sized subwatersheds; however, the imagery provided only one observation every 9 days of about a third of the watershed. Low resolution imagery acquired by the ITOSa dn SMS/GOES meteorological satellite series provides the daily synoptic observation necessary to monitor the rapid changes in snow-covered area in the entire watershed. Short term runoff volumes can be predicted from daily sequential snow cover observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1823 , NAS 1.60:1823 , REPT-81F0061-VOL-2
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-03-12
    Description: Both LANDSAT and NOAA satellite data were used in improving snowmelt runoff forecasts. When the satellite snow cover data were tested in both empirical seasonal runoff estimation and short term modeling approaches, a definite potential for reducing forecast error was evident. A cost benefit analysis run in conjunction with the snow mapping indicated a $36.5 million annual benefit accruing from a one percent improvement in forecast accuracy using the snow cover data for the western United States. The annual cost of employing the system would be $505,000. The snow mapping has proven that satellite snow cover data can be used to reduce snowmelt runoff forecast error in a cost effective manner once all operational satellite data are available within 72 hours after acquisition. Executive summaries of the individual snow mapping projects are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TP-1822 , NAS 1.60:1822 , REPT-81F0060-VOL-1
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10100 , NASA-CR-175615 , NAS 1.26:175615
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Research activities performed on MAGSAT scalar data over South America, Central America, and the adjacent marine areas are summarized. The geologic utility of magnetic anomalies detected by satellite is demonstrated by focusing on the spherical-Earth interpretation of scalar MAGSAT data in combination with ancillary geological and geophysical data to obtain lithospheric models for these regions related to their contemporary crustal dynamics processes, geologic history, current volcanism seismicity and natural resources.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10126 , NASA-CR-172801 , NAS 1.26:172801
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Extrapolation of impact cratering rates derived from Canada and Europe suggests that in the cratonic regions of Australia, India, Africa, and Brazil, 14-15 impact craters 20 km diameter should have formed during the last 120 my, and survived erosional erasure. In fact, in these areas, only 2 craters are known that approximately qualify: (1) Gosses Bluff, 22 km, 130 + or - 6 my old, and; Strangways, 24 km and 150 + or - 70 my old. It is therefore likely that about a dozen relatively large and preserved impact craters await discovery in these less explored cratons. A larger number of younger and smaller craters must also exist. An informal search is reported for impact craters using photographs obtained by Shuttle astronauts. Photographs taken with the 250 mm lens on Hassalblad cameras have a resolution of 25 m and cover a nominal area of 50x60 sq km. A larger format Linhof camera with similar resolution but 4 times larger area was flown March 1984, and will fly again in the future. Shuttle imagery has numerous advantages in looking for impact craters and for other types of Earth observations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Institute The 47th Ann. Meteoritical Soc. Meeting; 1 p
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Hydrology moels are reviewed in order to provide information for evaluating the use of remote sensing capabilities. Strategies for using remotely sensed data in hydrology moels are also discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10082 , NASA-CR-173232 , CP-G204249 , NAS 1.26:173232
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  • 8
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The merits, shortcomings, and future outlook of thermal IR remote sensing are appraised from a philosophical and speculative point of view in the light of the HCMM experiments. Two key questions stemming from HCMM addressed are: thermal remote sensing from space platforms now on a solid foundation in terms of demonstrated applications of real utility as well as theory, and where should NASA's research be focused in thermal remote sensing and are the potential applications sufficient to justify inclusion of thermal sensors in later generations of Earth resources satellites.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Anthology; p 237-244
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  • 9
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: A gallery of what might be called the ""Best of HCMM'' imagery is presented. These 100 images, consisting mainly of Day-VIS, Day-IR, and Night-IR scenes plus a few thermal inertia images, were selected from the collection accrued in the Missions Utilization Office (Code 902) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. They were selected because of both their pictorial quality and their information or interest content. Nearly all the images are the computer processed and contrast stretched products routinely produced by the image processing facility at GSFC. Several LANDSAT images, special HCMM images made by HCMM investigators, and maps round out the input.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Anthology; p 63-168
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  • 10
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The remote sensing of temperature is performed by sensing radiation emitted from solids, liquids, and gases in the thermal infrared region of the spectrum, in which thermal emission is dominant over reflected solar energy. For Earth resources applications, thermal sensing of solids and liquids is performed in two ""windows'' of the atmosphere where atmospheric absorption and emission are at a minimum. Temperature measurement, intrinsic thermal properties, factors in interpreting thermal data, the use of thermal inertia, and the measurements obtained by the heat capacity mapping radiometer are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) Anthology; p 7-14
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  • 11
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    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Radar observations of snowpacks were made at test sites in Kansas, South Dakota, and Colorado using truck mounted scatterometers covering the 1 to 18 GHz frequency range and the atmospheric window frequency of 35 GHz. Experiments were conducted as a function of snow depth, wetness, and surface roughness. The acquired data were used to model the backscattering coefficient in terms of snow and underlying soil parameters. The results indicate that the radar return (1) increase with increasing water equivalent; (2) decrease with increasing wetness; (3) is sensitive to the snow surface roughness only when the snow is wet;(4) is sensitive to the state (frozen or thawed) of the underlying soil if the snow is dry; and (5) is repetitive from one site to another and from one season to the next. Additionally, the measurements indicate the multifrequency observation or day-night observations may potentially provide the means for monitoring snow water equivalent, snow wetness, and the soil state.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Microwave Remote Sensing of Snowpack Properties; p 131-146
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: A one dimensional model for studying the thermal dynamics of cooling lakes was developed and verified. The model is essentially a set of partial differential equations which are solved by finite difference methods. The model includes the effects of variation of area with depth, surface heating due to solar radiation absorbed at the upper layer, and internal heating due to the transmission of solar radiation to the sub-surface layers. The exchange of mechanical energy between the lake and the atmosphere is included through the coupling of thermal diffusivity and wind speed. The effects of discharge and intake by power plants are also included. The numerical model was calibrated by applying it to Cayuga Lake. The model was then verified through a long term simulation using Lake Keowee data base. The comparison between measured and predicted vertical temperature profiles for the nine years is good. The physical limnology of Lake Keowee is presented through a set of graphical representations of the measured data base.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-165623-VOL-2 , TR-43-4-VOL-2
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  • 13
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-154634 , E80-10246 , KSC-TR-51-3
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: This paper describes Landsat-4 sensors, spacecraft disturbances, and the methodology used to correct Thematic Mapper (TM) images. The discussion includes system requirements, mathematical modeling, in-orbit angular motion measurement, Fast Fourier Transformer (FFT) data analysis, and scan system correction. Emphasis is given to the cause and effect of the electromechanical disturbances beginning with the scan mirror and its interaction and sensitivity to externally and self-generated disturbances. Ground-testing results are compared with those obtained in orbit.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: IAF PAPER 84-117
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-173945 , NAS 1.26:173945 , INPE-2852-PRE/392
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  • 16
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: There are no author-identified significant results in this report.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-154634-SUMM , E80-10247 , KSC-TR-51-3-SUMM
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  • 17
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The objectives of this investigation are to evaluate and monitor the radiometric integrity of the LANDSAT-D Thematic Mapper (TM) thermal infrared channel (Band 6) data to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Efforts this period have concentrated on underflight data collection. Two successful flights were made on September 18 and October 6. The radiosonde data for these flights have been obtained.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-177173 , NAS 1.26:177173 , QR-8
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  • 18
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Raw digital data, as received from the LANDSAT spacecraft, cannot generate images that meet specifications. Radiometric corrections must be made to compensate for aging and for differences in sensitivity among the instrument sensors. Geometric corrections must be made to compensate for off-nadir look angle, and to calculate spacecraft drift from its prescribed path. Corrections must also be made for look-angle jitter caused by vibrations induced by spacecraft equipment. The major components of the LANDSAT ground segment and their functions are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-177174 , SSD-84SDS4266-VOL-2 , NAS 1.26:177174
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were gathered by NASA/ERL over a portion of the lower Ohio River and the middle Mississippi River valleys on April 11, 1982. CIR imagery accompanied the 10 and 30 meter resolution TMS data sets. This area is somewhat unique archeologically as there exists a concentration of sites with major features such as mounds, earthworks, and villages. It was the primary purpose of this study to determine the utility of TMS data in identifying signatures which are distinctly archeological. TMS data were processed using the NASA/ERL software package ELAS. No signatures that were distinctly archeological were detected, due in large part to the complexity of the land cover and land use practices. However, as more sophisticated classification techniques were employed, the classes which were related to archeological features were narrowed. TMS data could certainly be of assistance to a trained archeologist/interpreter in narrowing an area which has to be field-surveyed as anomalous features can be recognized within a particular environmental context.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E86-10021 , NASA-CR-176435 , NAS 1.26:176435
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Understanding of the relationships between the optical, spectral characteristics and important biological-physical parameters of earth-surface features can best be obtained by carefully controlled studies over fields and plots where complete data describing the condition of targets are attainable and where frequent, timely spectral measurement can be obtained. Development of a vegetation and soils field research data base was initiated in 1972 at Purdue University's Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing and expanded in the fall of 1974 by NASA as part of LACIE. Since then, over 250,000 truck-mounted and helicopter-borne spectrometer/multiband radiometer observations have been obtained of more than 50 soil series and 20 species of crops, grasses, and trees. These data are supplemented by an extensive set of biophysical and meteorological data acquired during each mission. The field research data form one of the most complete and best-documented data sets acquired for agricultural remote sensing research. Thus, they are well-suited to serve as a data base for research to: (1) quantiatively determine the relationships of spectral and biophysical characteristics of vegetation, (2) define future sensor systems, and (3) develop advanced data analysis techniques.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E86-10010 , NAS 1.26:171894 , LARS-TR-042382 , NASA-CR-171894
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ECON-82-175 , NAS 1.26:176337 , E86-10008 , NASA-CR-176337
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  • 22
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    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The utility of shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) data was evaluated in several geological and environmental contexts. For the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri, SIR-A data were of little use in mapping structural features, because of generally uniform returns. For western Illinois, little was to be gained in terms of identifying land use categories by examining differences between overlapping passes. For southern Australia (Koonamore Station), information ion vegetation types that was not obtainable from LANDSAT MSS data alone was obtained. Specifically, high SIR-A returns in the Australian site were found to correlate with locations where shrubs increase surface roughness appreciably. The Australian study site results demonstrate the synergy of acquiring spectral reflectance and radar data over the same location and time. Such data are especially important in that region, since grazing animals have substantially altered and are continuing to alter the distribution of shrublands, grasslands, and soil exposures. Periodic, synoptic acquisition of MSS and SAR data would be of use in monitoring the dynamics of land-cover change in this environment.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-175785 , NAS 1.26:175785
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experimental measurements of canopy attenuation at 10.2 GHz (X-band) for canopies of wheat and soybeans, experimental observations of the effect upon the microwave backscattering coefficient (sigma) of free water in a vegetation canopy, and experimental measurements of sigma (10.2 GHz, 50 deg, VV and VH polarization) of 30 agricultural fields over the growing season of each crop are discussed. The measurements of the canopy attenuation through wheat independently determined the attenuation resulting from the wheat heads and that from the stalks. An experiment conducted to simulate the effects of rain or dew on sigma showed that sigma increases by about 3 dB as a result of spraying a vegetation canopy with water. The temporal observations of sigma for the 30 agricultural fields (10 each of wheat, corn, and soybeans) indicated fields of the same crop type exhibits similar temporal patterns. Models previously reported were tested using these multitemporal sigma data, and a new model for each crop type was developed and tested. The new models proved to be superior to the previous ones.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RSL-TR-360F , E85-10099 , NAS 1.26:171864 , NASA-CR-171864
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radar discriminability of geolian features and their geological setting as imaged by the SIR-A experiment is examined. The Gran Desierto and Pincate volcanio field of Sonora, Mexico was used to analyze the radar characteristics of the interplay of aeolian features and volcano terrain. The area in the Gran Desierto covers 4000 sq. km. and contains sand dunes of several forms. The Pincate volcanio field covers more than 2.000 sq. km. and consists primarily of basaltic lavas. Margins of the field, especially on the western and northern sides, include several maar and maar-like craters; thus obtaining information on their radar characteristics for comparison with impact craters.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JPL-9950-1026 , NASA-CR-175711 , NAS 1.26:175711
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JPL-9950-984 , NASA-CR-175456 , NAS 1.26:175456
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The quantity of radiation potentially available for photosynthesis that is captured by the crop is best described as absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Absorbed PAR (APAR) is the difference between descending and ascending fluxes. The four components of APAR were measured above and within two planting densities of corn (Zea mays L.) and several methods of measuring and estimating APAR were examined. A line quantum sensor that spatially averages the photosynthetic photon flux density provided a rapid and portable method of measuring APAR. PAR reflectance from the soil (Typic Argiaquoll) surface decreased from 10% to less than 1% of the incoming PAR as the canopy cover increased. PAR reflectance from the canopy decreased to less than 3% at maximum vegetative cover. Intercepted PAR (1 - transmitted PAR) generally overestimated absorbed PAR by less than 4% throughout most of the growing season. Thus intercepted PAR appears to be a reasonable estimate of absorbed PAR.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171842 , E85-10081 , LARS-TR-111284 , NAS 1.26:171842
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A valuable input to crop growth and yield models would be estimates of current crop condition. If multispectral reflectance indicates crop condition, then remote sensing may provide an additional tool for crop assessment. The effects of nitrogen fertilization on the spectral reflectance and agronomic characteristics of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were determined through field experiments. Spectral reflectance was measured during the 1979 and 1980 growing seasons with a spectroradiometer. Agronomic data included total leaf N concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration, stage of development, leaf area index (LAI), plant moisture, and fresh and dry phytomass. Nitrogen deficiency caused increased visible, reduced near infrared, and increased middle infrared reflectance. These changes were related to lower levels of chlorophyll and reduced leaf area in the N-deficient plots. Green LAI, an important descriptor of wheat canopies, could be reliably estimated with multispectral data. The potential of remote sensing in distinguishing stressed from healthy crops is demonstrated. Evidence suggests multispectral imagery may be useful for monitoring crop condition.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LARS-TR-111484 , NASA-CR-171843 , E85-10080 , NAS 1.26:171843
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data acquired with the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7 satellite for a six-week period including the 1983 MIZEX in Fram Strait were analyzed with the use of a previously developed procedure for calculating sea ice concentration, multiyear fraction, and ice temperature. These calculations can compared with independent observations made on the surface and from aircraft in order to check the validity of the calculations based on SMMR data. The calculation of multiyear fraction, which was known earlier to be invalid near the melting point of sea ice, was of particular interest during this period. The indication of multiyear ice was found to disappear a number of times, presumably corresponding to freeze/thaw cycles which occurred in this time period. Both grid-print maps and grey-scale images of total sea ice concentration and multiyear sea ice fraction for the entire period are included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86170 , NASA-TM-86170
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  • 29
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    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The various systems of the Thematic Mapper are reviewed and a comparison of measured and specified performance is given. Test methodologies are described. The specific instrument systems discussed include the power supply assembly, scan mirror, electronics module, focal plane assembly, radiometer, and radiation cooler.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174232 , NAS 1.26:174232 , E85-10060
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  • 30
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Analytical and programming support is to be provided to characterize the potential of the LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) digital imagery for scientific investigations in the Earth sciences and in terrestrial physics. In addition, technical support to define lower atmospheric and terrestrial surface experiments for the space station and technical support to the Research Optical Sensor (ROS) study scientist for advanced studies in remote sensing are to be provided. Eleven radiometric calibration and correction programs are described. Coherent noise and bright target saturation correction are discussed along with image processing on the LAS/VAX and Hp-300/IDIMS. An image of San Francisco, California from TM band 2 is presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174227 , E85-10053 , NASA-CR-174227
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The relationship between forest clearing, biophysical factors (e.g, ecological zones, slope gradient, soils), and transportation network in Costa Rica was analyzed. The location of forested areas at four reference datas (1940, 1950, 1961, and 1977) as derived from aerial photography and LANDSAT MSS data was digitilized and entered into a geographically-referenced data base. Ecological zones as protrayed by the Holdridge Life Zone Ecology System, and the location of roads and railways were also digitized from maps of the entire country as input to the data base. Information on slope gradient and soils was digitized from maps of a 21,000 square kilometer area. The total area of forest cleared over four decades are related to biophysical factors was analyzed within the data base and deforestation rates and trends were tabulated. The relatiohship between forest clearing and ecological zone and the influence of topography, sils, and transportation network are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10051 , NSTL/ERL-230 , NAS 1.15:87405 , NASA-TM-87405
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  • 32
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In order that sub-lithospheric density variations be revealed with the geoid, the regional geoid anomalies associated with bathymetric variations must first be removed. Spectral techniques were used to generate a synthetic geoid by filtering the residual bathymetry assuming an Airy-type isostatic compensation model. An unbiased estimated of the admittances show that for region under study, no single compensation mechanism will explain all of the power in the geoid. Nevertheless, because topographic features are mainly coherent with the geoid, to first order an isostationally compensated lithosphere cut by major E-W fracture zones accounts for most of the power in the high degree and other SEASAT geoid in the Pacific.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174155 , NASA-CR-174155
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spectral properties of ice soil mixtures are reviewed. Water ice has an absorption coefficient which varies by several orders of magnitude in the visual and near infrared, and has several prominent overtone absorptions. Different wavelengths can be used to probe to different depths in the surface as well as for different mineral impurity concentrations. Empirical and/or theoretical models might be used to derive characteristics grain size of the ice or of the impurity minerals and to derive abundance of the ice and rock or soil components. Quantitative analysis of remotely obtained reflectance spectra can only be performed by using absorption features in the spectra of ice and soil, and not by broadband response. It is suggested that this might be done by special selection of several narrow band filters in the near infrared which will adequately define the ice absorptions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174087 , PGD-PUB-369 , NASA-CR-174087 , Inter. Conf. on Permafrost; Honolulu, HI; United States
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A common scientific methodology and terminology is outlined for characterizing the radiometry of both TM sensors. The magnitude of the most significant sources of radiometric variability are discussed and methods are recommended for achieving the exceptional potential inherent in the radiometric precision and accuracy of the TM sensors.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85623 , NASA-TM-85623 , E84-10186
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The image characteristics of digital data generated by LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) are discussed. Digital data from the TM resides in tape files at various stages of image processing. Within each image data file, the image lines are blocked by a factor of either 5 for a computer compatible tape CCT-BT, or 4 for a CCT-AT and CCT-PT; in each format, the image file has a different format. Nominal geometric corrections which provide proper geodetic relationships between different parts of the image are available only for the CCT-PT. It is concluded that detector 3 of band 5 on the TM does not respond; this channel of data needs replacement. The empty bin phenomenon in CCT-AT images results from integer truncations of mixed-mode arithmetric operations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10183 , NAS 1.15:85620 , NASA-TM-85620
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results of the absolute radiometric calibration of the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper, as determined during pre-launch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere, are presented. Detailed results for the best calibration of the protoflight TM are given, as well as summaries of other tests performed on the sensor. The dynamic range of the TM is within a few per cent of that required in all bands, except bands 1 and 3. Three detectors failed to pass the minimum SNR specified for their respective bands: band 5, channel 3 (dead), band 2, and channels 2 and 4 (noisy or slow response). Estimates of the absolute calibration accuracy for the TM show that the detectors are typically calibrated to 5% absolute error for the reflective bands; 10% full-scale accuracy was specified. Ten tests performed to transfer the detector absolute calibration to the internal calibrator show a 5% range at full scale in the transfer calibration; however, in two cases band 5 showed a 10% and a 7% difference.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85600 , E84-10180 , NASA-TM-85600
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Raw thematic mapper (TM) calibration data from pre-launch tests and in-orbit acquisitions from LANDSAT 4 and 5 satellites are analyzed to assess the radiometric characteristics of the TM sensor. A software program called TM radiometric and algorithmic performance program (TRAPP) was used for the majority of analyses. Radiometric uncertainty in the final TM image originates from: (1) scene variability (solar irradiance and atmospheric scattering); (2) optical and electrical variability of the sensor; and (3) variability introduced during image processing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85599 , E84-10179 , NASA-TM-85599
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  • 38
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of images of a portion of a TM frame of Lake Ontario are presented. The top left frame is the TM Band 6 image, the top right image is a conventional contrast stretched image. The bottom left image is a Band 5 to Band 3 ratio image. This image is used to generate a primitive land cover classificaton. Each land cover (Water, Urban, Forest, Agriculture) is assigned a Band 6 emissivity value. The ratio image is then combined with the Band 6 image and atmospheric propagation data to generate the bottom right image. This image represents a display of data whose digital count can be directly related to estimated surface temperature. The resolution appears higher because the process cell is the size of the TM shortwave pixels.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:173854 , QR-7 , NASA-CR-173854 , E84-10175
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: All user and programmer information required for using the correlation area method (CAM) program is presented. This program combines measurements of hydrologic variables from all measurement technologies to produce estimated areal mean values. The method accounts for sampling geometries and measurement accuracies and provides a measure of the accuracy of the estimated mean areal value.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10172 , NAS 1.26:175270 , NASA-CR-175270
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radiometric subsystem of NASA's LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor is described. Special emphasis is placed on the internal calibrator (IC) pulse shapes and timing cycle. The procedures for the absolute radiometric calibration of the TM channels with a 122-centimeter integrating sphere and the transfer of radiometric calibration from the channels to the IC are reviewed. The use of the IC to calibrate TM data in the ground processing system consists of pulse integration, pulse averaging, IC state identification, linear regression analysis, and histogram equalization. An overview of the SCROUNGE-era (before August 1983) method is presented. Procedural differences between SCROUNGE and the TIPS-era (after July 1983) and the implications of these differences are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85597 , E84-10056 , NASA-TM-85597
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dealiased SEASAT SEASAT A Scatterometer System SASS vector winds obtained during the Gulf Of Alaska SEASAT Experiment GOASEX program are processed to obtain superobservations centered on a one degree by one degree grid. The grid. The results provide values for the combined effects of mesoscale variability and communication noise on the individual SASS winds. These superobservations winds are then processed further to obtain estimates of synoptic scale vector winds stress fields, the horizontal divergence of the wind, the curl of the wind stress and the vertical velocity at 200 m above the sea surface, each with appropriate standard deviations of the estimates for each grid point value. They also explain the concentration of water vapor, liquid water and precipitation found by means of the SMMR Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer at fronts and occlusions in terms of strong warm, moist air advection in the warm air sector accompanied by convergence in the friction layer. Their quality is far superior to that of analyses based on conventional data, which are shown to yield many inconsistencies.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:3810 , E84-10169 , NASA-CR-3810
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simple method was developed for improved prescription of seasonal surface characteristics and parameterization of land-surface processes in climate models. This method, developed for the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model II (GISS GCM II), maintains the spatial variability of fine-resolution land-cover data while restricting to 8 the number of vegetation types handled in the model. This was achieved by: redefining the large number of vegetation classes in the 1 deg x 1 deg resolution Matthews (1983) vegetation data base as percentages of 8 simple types; deriving roughness length, field capacity, masking depth and seasonal, spectral reflectivity for the 8 types; and aggregating these surface features from the 1 deg x 1 deg resolution to coarser model resolutions, e.g., 8 deg latitude x 10 deg longitude or 4 deg latitude x 5 deg longitude.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86096 , NASA-TM-86096
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The geometric accuray of LANDSAT TM raw data of Toulouse (France) raw data of Mississippi, and preprocessed data of Mississippi was examined using a CDC computer. Analog images were restituted on the VIZIR SEP device. The methods used for line to line and band to band registration are based on automatic correlation techniques and are widely used in automated image to image registration at CNES. Causes of intraband and interband misregistration are identified and statistics are given for both line to line and band to band misregistration.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:173882 , E84-10187 , NASA-CR-173882
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spectral coverage characteristics of the two thematic mapper instruments were determined by analyses of spectral measurements of the optics, filters, and detectors. The following results are presented: (1) band 2 and 3 flatness was slightly below specification, and band 7 flatness was below specification; (2) band 5 upper-band edge was higher than specifications; (3) band 2 band edges were shifted upward about 9 nm relative to nominal; and (4) band 4, 5, and 7 lower band edges were 16 to 18 nm higher then nominal.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10184 , NASA-TM-85621 , NAS 1.15:85621
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Results are summarized and analyzed from several prelaunch tests with a 122 cm integrating sphere used as part of the absolute radiometric calibration experiments for the protoflight TM sensor carried on the LANDSAT-4 satellite. The calibration procedure is presented and the radiometric sensitivity of the TM is assessed. The internal calibrator and dynamic range after calibration are considered. Tables show dynamic range after ground processing, spectral radiance to digital number and digital number to spectral radiance values for TM bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and for channel 4 of band 6.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10181 , NASA-TM-85601 , NAS 1.15:85601
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer compatible tapes (CCTs) of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) digital image products are compared and reviewed. The following tape formats are discussed: (1) raw band-sequential data (CCT-BT); (2) calibrated data (CCT-AT); and (3) geometrically resampled data (CCT-PT). Each format represents different steps in the process of producing fully corrected TM data. The CCT-BT images are uncorrected radiometrically or geometrically, CCT-AT data are radiometrically calibrated, and CCT-PT images are both radiometrically and geometrically corrected.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85598 , NASA-TM-85598 , E84-10178
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from the MAGSAT spacecraft for November 1979 through April 1980 and from 91 magnetic observatories for 1978 through 1982 are used to derive a spherical harmonic model of the Earth's main magnetic field and its secular variation. Constant coefficients are determined through degree and order 13 and secular variation coefficients through degree and order 10. The first degree external terms and corresponding induced internal terms are given as a function of Dst. Preliminary modeling using separate data sets at dawn and dusk local time showed that the dusk data contains a substantial field contribution from the equatorial electrojet current. The final data set is selected first from dawn data and then augmented by dusk data to achieve a good geographic data distribution for each of three time periods: (1) November/December, 1979; (2) January/February; 1980; (3) March/April, 1980. A correction for the effects of the equatorial electrojet is applied to the dusk data utilized. The solution included calculation of fixed biases, or anomalies, for the observation data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:86133 , NASA-TM-86133 , E84-10170
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of experiments in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the Nimbus G satellite Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) were conducted. Absorption and scattering measurement data were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Available optical models were used in turn to calculate subsurface reflectances for expected concentrations of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended minerals. Multiple nonlinear regression techniques were used to derive CZCS water quality prediction equations from Great Lakes simulation data. An existing atmospheric model was combined with a water model to provide the necessary simulation data for evaluation of the preliminary CZCS algorithms. A CZCS scanner model was developed which accounts for image distorting scanner and satellite motions. This model was used in turn to generate mapping polynomials that define the transformation from the original image to one configured in a polyconic projection. Four computer programs (FORTRAN IV) for image transformation are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ERIM-150000-11-F , NASA-CR-173511 , NAS 1.26:173511
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The magnitude of plant-to-plant variability of leaf area of corn plants selected from uniform plots was examined and four representative methods for measuring leaf area index (LAI) were evaluated. The number of plants required and the relative costs for each sampling method were calculated to detect 10, 20, and 50% differences in LAI using 0.05 and 0.01 tests of significance and a 90% probability of success (beta = 0.1). The natural variability of leaf area per corn plant was nearly 10%. Additional variability or experimental error may be introduced by the measurement technique employed and by nonuniformity within the plot. Direct measurement of leaf area with an electronic area meter had the lowest CV, required that the fewest plants be sampled, but required approximately the same amount of time as the leaf area/weight ratio method to detect comparable differences. Indirect methods based on measurements of length and width of leaves required more plants but less total time than the direct method. Unless the coefficients for converting length and width to area are verified frequently, the indirect methods may be biased. When true differences in LAI among treatments exceed 50% of mean, all four methods are equal. The method of choice depends on the resources available, the differences to be detected, and what additional information, such as leaf weight or stalk weight, is also desired.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:171792 , NASA-CR-171792 , E84-10162 , LARS-TR-030784
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Knowledge of when critical crop stages occur and how the environment affects them should provide useful information for crop management decisions and crop production models. Two sources of data were evaluated for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity of corn (Zea mays L.). Initial evaluations were conducted using data of an adapted corn hybrid grown on a Typic Agriaquoll at the Purdue University Agronomy Farm. The second phase extended the analyses to large areas using data acquired by the Statistical Reporting Service of USDA for crop reporting districts (CRD) in Indiana and Iowa. Several thermal models were compared to calendar days for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity. Mixed models which used a combination of thermal units to predict silking and days after silking to predict physiological maturity were also evaluated. At the Agronomy Farm the models were calibrated and tested on the same data. The thermal models were significantly less biased and more accurate than calendar days for predicting dates of silking. Differences among the thermal models were small. Significant improvements in both bias and accuracy were observed when the mixed models were used to predict dates of physiological maturity. The results indicate that statistical data for CRD can be used to evaluate models developed at agricultural experiment stations.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10160 , NAS 1.26:171790 , LARS-TR-021584 , NASA-CR-171790
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A series of SEASAT repeat orbits over a sequence of best Low center positions is simulated by using the Seatrak satellite calculator. These Low centers are, upon appropriate interpolation to hourly positions, Located at various times during the + or - 3 hour assimilation cycle. Error analysis for a sample of best cyclone center positions taken from the Atlantic and Pacific oceans reveals a minimum average error of 1.1 deg of Longitude and a standard deviation of 0.9 deg of Longitude. The magnitude of the average error seems to suggest that by utilizing the + or - 3 hour window in the assimilation cycle, the quality of the SASS data is degraded to the Level of the background. A further consequence of this assimilation scheme is the effect which is manifested as a result of the blending of two or more more juxtaposed vector winds, generally possessing different properties (vector quantity and time). The outcome of this is to reduce gradients in the wind field and to deform isobaric and frontal patterns of the intial field.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10129 , NASA-CR-3799 , NAS 1.26:3799
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Enviropod camera system is detailed in this handbook which contains a step-by-step guide for mission planning, flights, film processing, indexing, and documentation. Information regarding Enviropod equipment and specifications is included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172798 , CRSC-84-1 , E84-10123 , NAS 1.26:172798
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A map inventory of the major habitat types existing along the Humbolt River riparian zone in Nevada is described. Through aerialphotography, 16 riparian habitats are mapped that describe the ecological relationships between soil and vegetation types, flooding and soil erosion, and the various management practices employed to date. The specific land and water management techniques and their impact on the environment are considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10116 , CRSC-83-3 , NASA-CR-173486 , NAS 1.26:173486
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  • 54
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Previously experienced data collection problems were successfully resolved. A limited effort, directed at improved methods of display of TM Band 6 data, has concentrated on implementation of intensity hue and saturation displays using the Band 6 data to control hue. These displays tend to give the appearance of high resolution thermal data and make whole scene thermal interpretation easier by color coding thermal data in a manner that aids visual interpretation. More quantitative efforts were directed at utilizing the reflected bands to define land cover classes and then modifying the thermal displays using long wave optical properties associated with cover type.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-173489 , QR-6 , NAS 1.26:173489 , E84-10119
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The interception of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was evaluated relative to greenness and normalized difference (MSS 7-5/7+5) for five planting dates of wheat for 1978-79 and 1979-80 in Phoenix. Intercepted PAR was calculated from a model driven by leaf area index and stage of growth. Linear relationships were found between greenness and normalized difference with a separate model representing growth and senescence of the crop. Normalized difference was a significantly better model and would be easier to apply than the empirically derived greenness parameter. For the leaf area growth portion of the season the model between PAR interception and normalized difference was the same over years, however, for the leaf senescence the models showed more variability due to the lack of data on measured interception in sparse canopies. Normalized difference could be used to estimate PAR interception directly for crop growth models.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171758 , CONTRIB-82-559-J , SR-M2-04342 , NAS 1.26:171758 , E84-10109
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  • 56
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JSC-18907 , NASA-CR-173373 , E84-10104 , NAS 1.26:173373 , YM-N4-04455
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The characteristics of 17 cover types (13 forest types or tree species and 4 nonforest cover types) in Michigan are discussed as well as their interpretation from medium scale color infrared photography. The occurrence of each type is described by region and site requirements. Those attributes of a tree or stand which are helpful when attempting to interpret the type from a vertical perspective are discussed as well as common crown types. The identification of the forest type or tree species by using image characteristics (size, shape, shadow, color, texture, pattern, or association) is discussed. Ground photographs and sketches of individual trees are included. Stereograms of typical stands are available.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10097 , NAS 1.26:173346 , NASA-CR-173346
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  • 58
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10105 , NASA-CR-173374 , JSC-18908 , YM-N4-04456 , NAS 1.26:173374
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Evaluation of information contained in data from the visible and near-IR channels of LANDSAT 4 TM and MSS for five agricultural scenes shows that the TM provides a significant advance in information gathering capability as expressed in terms of bits per pixel or bits per unit area. The six reflective channels of the TM acquire 18 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 48 bits, while the four MSS channels acquire 10 bits of information per pixel out of a possible 28 bits. Thus the TM and MSS are equally efficient in gathering information (18/48 to approximately 10/28), contrary to the expected tendency toward lower efficiency as spatial resolution is improved and spectral channels are added to an observing system. The TM thermal IR data appear to be of interest mainly for mapping water bodies, which do not change temperature during the day, for assessing surface moisture, and for monitoring thermal features associated with human activity.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:173231 , NASA-CR-173231 , E84-10081
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10080 , NASA-CR-173230 , NAS 1.26:173230
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An initial analysis of LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper (TM) data for the delineation and classification of agricultural, forested wetland, and urban land covers was conducted. A study area in Poinsett County, Arkansas was used to evaluate a classification of agricultural lands derived from multitemporal LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data in comparison with a classification of TM data for the same area. Data over Reelfoot Lake in northwestern Tennessee were utilized to evaluate the TM for delineating forested wetland species. A classification of the study area was assessed for accuracy in discriminating five forested wetland categories. Finally, the TM data were used to identify urban features within a small city. A computer generated classification of Union City, Tennessee was analyzed for accuracy in delineating urban land covers. An evaluation of digitally enhanced TM data using principal components analysis to facilitate photointerpretation of urban features was also performed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-85499 , NAS 1.15:85499 , NSTL/ERL-215 , E84-10073
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The correlation of canopy closure with the signal response of individual thematic mapper simulator (TMS) bands for selected forest sites in the San Juan National Forest, Colorado was investigated. Ground truth consisted of a photointerpreted determination of percent canopy closure of 0 to 100 percent for 32 sites. The sites selected were situated on plateaus at an elevation of approximately 3 km with slope or = 10 percent. The predominant tree species were ponderosa pine and aspen. The mean TMS response per band per site was calculated from data acquired by aircraft during mid-September, 1981. A correlation analysis of TMS response vs. canopy closure resulted in the following correlation coefficients for bands 1 through 7, respectively: -0.757, -0.663, -0.666, -0.088, -0.797, -0.763. Two model regressions were applied to the TMS data set to create a map of predicted percent forest canopy closure for the study area. Results indicated percent predictive accuracies of 71, 74, and 57 for percent canopy closure classes of 0-25, 25-75, and 75-100, respectively.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: DC-Y3-04440 , NASA-TM-85516 , E84-10066 , NSTL/ERL-212 , NAS 1.15:85516
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of the interaction of the sensor point spread function with a heterogeneous scene consisting of elements giving rise to different spectral radiant intensities cause errors in multitemporal signatures due to fractional pixel repositioning errors. In the case of a heterogeneous scene, the repositioning accuracy between acquisitions could affect the radiometric output in any band and could affect the spectral distribution of radiance between bands. Error caused by within-band and between-band variations in radiance with time could be compounded by resampling along and between scan lines during processing. The magnitude of both error sources depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the scene.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174587 , NAS 1.26:174587 , E84-10035
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  • 64
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Satellite data collected over Lake Ontario were processed to observed surface temperature values. This involved computing apparent radiance values for each point where surface temperatures were known from averaged digital count values. These radiance values were then converted by using the LOWTRAN 5A atmospheric propagation model. This model was modified by incorporating a spectral response function for the LANDSAT band 6 sensors. A downwelled radiance term derived from LOWTRAN was included to account for reflected sky radiance. A blackbody equivalent source radiance was computed. Measured temperatures were plotted against the predicted temperature. The RMS error between the data sets is 0.51K.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174582 , E84-10054 , NAS 1.26:174582 , QR-5
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174615 , E84-10048 , NASA-CR-174615
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Experiments were conducted to evaluate aircraft remote sensing techniques for hydrology in a wide range of physiographic and climatic regions using several sensor platforms. The data were collected in late 1978 and during 1979 in two humid areas--Taylor Creek, Fla., and Little River, Ga. Soil moisture measurements and climatic observations are presented as well as the remote sensing data collected using thermal infrared, passive microwave, and active microwave systems.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ARR-NE-13 , NAS 1.15:85468 , NASA-TM-85468 , E84-10010
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data for classifying land cover and monitoring of vegetation dynamics over an extremely large area is demonstrated for the continent of Africa. Data from 17 imaging periods of 21 consecutive days each were composited by a technique sensitive to the in situ green-leaf biomass to provide cloud-free imagery for the whole continent. Virtually cloud-free images were obtainable even for equatorial areas. Seasonal variation in the density and extent of green leaf vegetation corresponded to the patterns of rainfall associated with the inter-tropical convergence zone. Regional variations, such as the 1982 drought in east Africa, were also observed. Integration of the weekly satellite data with respect to time produced a remotely sensed assessment of biological activity based upon density and duration of green-leaf biomass. Two of the 21-day composited data sets were used to produce a general land cover classification. The resultant land cover distributions correspond well to those of existing maps.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85060 , NASA-TM-85060
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Comparisons of low level L-band brightness temperature (TB) and thermal infrared (TIR) data as well as the following data sets: soil map and land cover data; direct soil moisture measurement; and a computer generated contour map were statistically evaluated using regression analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Regression analysis of footprint data shows that statistical groupings of ground variables (soil features and land cover) hold promise for qualitative assessment of soil moisture and for reducing variance within the sampling space. Dry conditions appear to be more conductive to producing meaningful statistics than wet conditions. Regression analysis using field averaged TB and TIR data did not approach the higher sq R values obtained using within-field variations. The linear discriminant analysis indicates some capacity to distinguish categories with the results being somewhat better on a field basis than a footprint basis.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RSI-SDSU-83-05 , E83-10422 , NASA-CR-173054 , NAS 1.26:173054
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172923 , E83-10379 , NAS 1.26:172923 , YM-13-04419
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Integrated Resource Inventory for Southcentral Alaska (INTRISCA) Project comprised an integrated set of activities related to the land use planning and resource management requirements of the participating agencies within the southcentral region of Alaska. One subproject involved generating a region-wide land cover inventory of use to all participating agencies. Toward this end, participants first obtained a broad overview of the entire region and identified reasonable expectations of a LANDSAT-based land cover inventory through evaluation of an earlier classification generated during the Alaska Water Level B Study. Classification of more recent LANDSAT data was then undertaken by INTRISCA participants. The latter classification produced a land cover data set that was more specifically related to individual agency needs, concurrently providing a comprehensive training experience for Alaska agency personnel. Other subprojects employed multi-level analysis techniques ranging from refinement of the region-wide classification and photointerpretation, to digital edge enhancement and integration of land cover data into a geographic information system (GIS).
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:166514 , NASA-CR-166514
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An optimal design based on the criterion of minimum mean square representation error using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion was developed to represent the spectral response functions from a stratum based upon a stochastic process scene model. From the overall pattern recognition system perspective, the effect of the representation accuracy on a typical performance criterion (the probability of correct classification) is investigated. The optimum sensor design provides a standard against which practical (suboptimum) operational sensors can be compared. An example design is provided and its performance is illustrated. Although developed primarily for the purpose of sensor design, the procedure has potential for making important contributions to scene understanding. Spectral channels which have narrow bandwidths relative to current sensor systems may be necessary to provide adequate spectral representation and improved classification performance.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: SR-P1-04163 , NAS 1.26:171663 , NASA-CR-171663 , E83-10337
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A generalized three dimensional perspective software capability was developed within the framework of a low cost computer oriented geographically based information system using the Earth Resources Laboratory Applications Software (ELAS) operating subsystem. This perspective software capability, developed primarily to support data display requirements at the NASA/NSTL Earth Resources Laboratory, provides a means of displaying three dimensional feature space object data in two dimensional picture plane coordinates and makes it possible to overlay different types of information on perspective drawings to better understand the relationship of physical features. An example topographic data base is constructed and is used as the basic input to the plotting module. Examples are shown which illustrate oblique viewing angles that convey spatial concepts and relationships represented by the topographic data planes.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NSTL/ERL-195 , NAS 1.15:85392 , E83-10359 , NASA-TM-85392
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thermal-infrared data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission satellite were used to map the spatial distribution of diurnal surface temperatures and to estimate mean annual soil temperatures (MAST) and annual surface temperature amplitudes (AMP) in semi-arid east central Utah. Diurnal data with minimal snow and cloud cover were selected for five dates throughout a yearly period and geometrically co-registered. Rubber-sheet stretching was aided by the WARP program which allowed preview of image transformations. Daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures were averaged to generation average daily temperature (ADT) data set for each of the five dates. Five ADT values for each pixel were used to fit a sine curve describing the theoretical annual surface temperature response as defined by a solution of a one-dimensinal heat flow equation. Linearization of the equation produced estimates of MAST and AMP plus associated confidence statistics. MAST values were grouped into classes and displayed on a color video screen. Diurnal surface temperatures and MAST were primarily correlated with elevation.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172882 , NAS 1.26:172882 , E83-10355
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An overview of the LANDSAT system is provided along with information to assist prospective users in establishing whether imagery for their areas of interest is available and how to obtain such imagery. Spectral bands, spatial resolution, and digital data are explained as well as worldwide reference system indexing and the identification number assigned to images. The sizes and scales of standard black and white imagery and of false color composite imagery are listed. The format is given for computer compatible tapes and standard enhanced imagery is described. Other information available to users include LANDSAT index maps, catalogs of available imagery, a schedule of overpass dates, and a list of product prices.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:172881 , E83-10354 , NASA-CR-172881
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Techniques and software developed to characterize the Washington, D.C. scene were improved and are being systematically applied to an Imperial Valley, CA scene. Digital elevation files are being acquired. One hundred seventy-two tiepoints were located in the Imperial Valley scene. They were digitized from USGS maps to determine their lat-long coordinates. A least squares fit is currently being performed between line-sample image data and the lat-long positions of the tiepoints. Thematic mapper scanner sweeps were determined for the Imperial Valley P-data. VICAR jobs are currently under way to analyze sample-direction offsets between sweeps in the data, as well as band to band registration offsets. Tiepoint location is about to begin in the Harrisburg, PA scene.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172907 , NAS 1.26:172907 , E83-10338
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computer program that simulates the flow of heat and moisture in soils is described. The space-time dependence of temperature and moisture content is described by a set of diffusion-type partial differential equations. The simulator uses a predictor/corrector to numerically integrate them, giving wetness and temperature profiles as a function of time. The simulator was used to generate solutions to diffusion-type partial differential equations for which analytical solutions are known. These equations include both constant and variable diffusivities, and both flux and constant concentration boundary conditions. In all cases, the simulated and analytic solutions agreed to within the error bounds which were imposed on the integrator. Simulations of heat and moisture flow under actual field conditions were also performed. Ground truth data were used for the boundary conditions and soil transport properties. The qualitative agreement between simulated and measured profiles is an indication that the model equations are reasonably accurate representations of the physical processes involved.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:82121 , E83-10342 , NASA-TM-82121 , SM-G1-04086
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The water use and solar energy conversion efficiencies of two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L., vars, Centurk and Newton) planted at three densities, were examined during a growing season. Water use, based on soil moisture depletion, was the lowest under the light, and the highest under the heavy planting densities of both cultivars. Water use efficiency of medium and heavy planting densities were greater than the light planting densities in both cultivars. The canopy radiation extinction coefficients of both cultivars increased with increases in planting density. Efficiency of operation interception of photosynthetically active radiation by both cultivars improved from the time of jointing until anthesis, and then decreased during senescence. The efficiency of the conversion of intercepted radiation to dry matter (biochemical efficiency) decreased throughout the growing season both cultivars. The interception, biochemical, and photosynthetic efficiencies improved as planting density increased.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10329 , NAS 1.26:171659 , SR-M2-04343 , CONTRIB-82-555-J , NASA-CR-171659
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The digital MSS data were utilized to devise quantitative indices which correlate with apparently stable and seral aspen forests. The extent to which a two-date LANDSAT MSS analysis may permit the delineation of different categories of aspen/conifer forest mix was explored. Multitemporal analyses of MSS data led to the identification of early, early to mid, mid to late, and late seral stages of aspen/conifer forest mixing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CRSC-83-1 , NASA-CR-170382 , NAS 1.26:170382 , E83-10324
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  • 79
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Under AgRISTARS management, ground data were collected at 20 agricultural sites within Australia during the crop year 1981-82. The data collection activity is summarized. Specifically, the following information is provided: discussion of data procedures, methods, and products; crop production results; photographs of the Australia agriculture scene, map sheets of segments, LANDSAT full frames, and aerial photographs of data collection areas; and summarizations of district agronomist reports.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:171632 , IT-L2-04381-VOL-1 , E83-10317 , JSC-18584-VOL-1 , NASA-CR-171632 , LEMSCO-18650-VOL-1
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