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  • EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING  (500)
  • 1980-1984  (500)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1983  (500)
Collection
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  • 1980-1984  (500)
  • 1925-1929
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  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E85-10100 , NASA-CR-175615 , NAS 1.26:175615
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-27
    Description: The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-173945 , NAS 1.26:173945 , INPE-2852-PRE/392
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS) data were gathered by NASA/ERL over a portion of the lower Ohio River and the middle Mississippi River valleys on April 11, 1982. CIR imagery accompanied the 10 and 30 meter resolution TMS data sets. This area is somewhat unique archeologically as there exists a concentration of sites with major features such as mounds, earthworks, and villages. It was the primary purpose of this study to determine the utility of TMS data in identifying signatures which are distinctly archeological. TMS data were processed using the NASA/ERL software package ELAS. No signatures that were distinctly archeological were detected, due in large part to the complexity of the land cover and land use practices. However, as more sophisticated classification techniques were employed, the classes which were related to archeological features were narrowed. TMS data could certainly be of assistance to a trained archeologist/interpreter in narrowing an area which has to be field-surveyed as anomalous features can be recognized within a particular environmental context.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E86-10021 , NASA-CR-176435 , NAS 1.26:176435
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In September 1982 the Secretary of Commerce was authorized (by Title II of H.R. 5890 of the 97th Congress) to plan and provide for the management and operation of the civil land remote sensing satellite systems, to provide for user fees, and to plan for the transfer of the ownership and operation of future civil operational land remote sensing satellite systems to the private sector. As part of the planning for transfer, a number of approaches were to be compared including wholly private ownership and operation of the system by an entity competitively selected, mixed government/private ownership and operation, and a legislatively-chartered privately-owned corporation. The results of an analysis and comparison of a limited number of financial and organizational approaches for either transfer of the ownership and operation of the civil operational land remote sensing program to the private sector or government retention are presented.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: ECON-82-175 , NAS 1.26:176337 , E86-10008 , NASA-CR-176337
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  • 5
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The utility of shuttle imaging radar (SIR-A) data was evaluated in several geological and environmental contexts. For the Ozark Plateau of southern Missouri, SIR-A data were of little use in mapping structural features, because of generally uniform returns. For western Illinois, little was to be gained in terms of identifying land use categories by examining differences between overlapping passes. For southern Australia (Koonamore Station), information ion vegetation types that was not obtainable from LANDSAT MSS data alone was obtained. Specifically, high SIR-A returns in the Australian site were found to correlate with locations where shrubs increase surface roughness appreciably. The Australian study site results demonstrate the synergy of acquiring spectral reflectance and radar data over the same location and time. Such data are especially important in that region, since grazing animals have substantially altered and are continuing to alter the distribution of shrublands, grasslands, and soil exposures. Periodic, synoptic acquisition of MSS and SAR data would be of use in monitoring the dynamics of land-cover change in this environment.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-175785 , NAS 1.26:175785
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A map inventory of the major habitat types existing along the Humbolt River riparian zone in Nevada is described. Through aerialphotography, 16 riparian habitats are mapped that describe the ecological relationships between soil and vegetation types, flooding and soil erosion, and the various management practices employed to date. The specific land and water management techniques and their impact on the environment are considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10116 , CRSC-83-3 , NASA-CR-173486 , NAS 1.26:173486
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10080 , NASA-CR-173230 , NAS 1.26:173230
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The correlation of canopy closure with the signal response of individual thematic mapper simulator (TMS) bands for selected forest sites in the San Juan National Forest, Colorado was investigated. Ground truth consisted of a photointerpreted determination of percent canopy closure of 0 to 100 percent for 32 sites. The sites selected were situated on plateaus at an elevation of approximately 3 km with slope or = 10 percent. The predominant tree species were ponderosa pine and aspen. The mean TMS response per band per site was calculated from data acquired by aircraft during mid-September, 1981. A correlation analysis of TMS response vs. canopy closure resulted in the following correlation coefficients for bands 1 through 7, respectively: -0.757, -0.663, -0.666, -0.088, -0.797, -0.763. Two model regressions were applied to the TMS data set to create a map of predicted percent forest canopy closure for the study area. Results indicated percent predictive accuracies of 71, 74, and 57 for percent canopy closure classes of 0-25, 25-75, and 75-100, respectively.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: DC-Y3-04440 , NASA-TM-85516 , E84-10066 , NSTL/ERL-212 , NAS 1.15:85516
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of the interaction of the sensor point spread function with a heterogeneous scene consisting of elements giving rise to different spectral radiant intensities cause errors in multitemporal signatures due to fractional pixel repositioning errors. In the case of a heterogeneous scene, the repositioning accuracy between acquisitions could affect the radiometric output in any band and could affect the spectral distribution of radiance between bands. Error caused by within-band and between-band variations in radiance with time could be compounded by resampling along and between scan lines during processing. The magnitude of both error sources depends on the degree of heterogeneity of the scene.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174587 , NAS 1.26:174587 , E84-10035
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Satellite data collected over Lake Ontario were processed to observed surface temperature values. This involved computing apparent radiance values for each point where surface temperatures were known from averaged digital count values. These radiance values were then converted by using the LOWTRAN 5A atmospheric propagation model. This model was modified by incorporating a spectral response function for the LANDSAT band 6 sensors. A downwelled radiance term derived from LOWTRAN was included to account for reflected sky radiance. A blackbody equivalent source radiance was computed. Measured temperatures were plotted against the predicted temperature. The RMS error between the data sets is 0.51K.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174582 , E84-10054 , NAS 1.26:174582 , QR-5
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A set of photo interpretation keys is presented to provide a structured approach to the identification of land cover/use categories as specified in the Michigan Resource Inventory Act. The designated categories are urban and; built up lands; agricultural lands; forest land; nonforested land; water bodies; wetlands; and barren land. The keys were developed for use with medium scale (1:20,000 to 1:24,000) color infrared aerial photography. Although each key is generalized in that it relies only upon the most distinguishing photo characteristics in separating the various land cover/use categories, additional interpretation characteristics, distinguishing features and background material are given.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174615 , E84-10048 , NASA-CR-174615
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The use of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data for classifying land cover and monitoring of vegetation dynamics over an extremely large area is demonstrated for the continent of Africa. Data from 17 imaging periods of 21 consecutive days each were composited by a technique sensitive to the in situ green-leaf biomass to provide cloud-free imagery for the whole continent. Virtually cloud-free images were obtainable even for equatorial areas. Seasonal variation in the density and extent of green leaf vegetation corresponded to the patterns of rainfall associated with the inter-tropical convergence zone. Regional variations, such as the 1982 drought in east Africa, were also observed. Integration of the weekly satellite data with respect to time produced a remotely sensed assessment of biological activity based upon density and duration of green-leaf biomass. Two of the 21-day composited data sets were used to produce a general land cover classification. The resultant land cover distributions correspond well to those of existing maps.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85060 , NASA-TM-85060
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Comparisons of low level L-band brightness temperature (TB) and thermal infrared (TIR) data as well as the following data sets: soil map and land cover data; direct soil moisture measurement; and a computer generated contour map were statistically evaluated using regression analysis and linear discriminant analysis. Regression analysis of footprint data shows that statistical groupings of ground variables (soil features and land cover) hold promise for qualitative assessment of soil moisture and for reducing variance within the sampling space. Dry conditions appear to be more conductive to producing meaningful statistics than wet conditions. Regression analysis using field averaged TB and TIR data did not approach the higher sq R values obtained using within-field variations. The linear discriminant analysis indicates some capacity to distinguish categories with the results being somewhat better on a field basis than a footprint basis.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RSI-SDSU-83-05 , E83-10422 , NASA-CR-173054 , NAS 1.26:173054
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A comparison was made among the CEAS crop reporting district (CRD), agrophysical unit (APU), and state level multiple regression yield models for corn and soybeans in Iowa and barley and spring wheat in North Dakota. The best predictions were made by the state model for North Dakota spring wheat, by the APU models for barley, by the CRD models for Iowa soybeans, and by APU covariance models for Iowa corn. Because of this lack of consistency of model performance, CRD models would be recommended due to the availability of the data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172923 , E83-10379 , NAS 1.26:172923 , YM-13-04419
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Thermal-infrared data from the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission satellite were used to map the spatial distribution of diurnal surface temperatures and to estimate mean annual soil temperatures (MAST) and annual surface temperature amplitudes (AMP) in semi-arid east central Utah. Diurnal data with minimal snow and cloud cover were selected for five dates throughout a yearly period and geometrically co-registered. Rubber-sheet stretching was aided by the WARP program which allowed preview of image transformations. Daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures were averaged to generation average daily temperature (ADT) data set for each of the five dates. Five ADT values for each pixel were used to fit a sine curve describing the theoretical annual surface temperature response as defined by a solution of a one-dimensinal heat flow equation. Linearization of the equation produced estimates of MAST and AMP plus associated confidence statistics. MAST values were grouped into classes and displayed on a color video screen. Diurnal surface temperatures and MAST were primarily correlated with elevation.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172882 , NAS 1.26:172882 , E83-10355
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Techniques and software developed to characterize the Washington, D.C. scene were improved and are being systematically applied to an Imperial Valley, CA scene. Digital elevation files are being acquired. One hundred seventy-two tiepoints were located in the Imperial Valley scene. They were digitized from USGS maps to determine their lat-long coordinates. A least squares fit is currently being performed between line-sample image data and the lat-long positions of the tiepoints. Thematic mapper scanner sweeps were determined for the Imperial Valley P-data. VICAR jobs are currently under way to analyze sample-direction offsets between sweeps in the data, as well as band to band registration offsets. Tiepoint location is about to begin in the Harrisburg, PA scene.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172907 , NAS 1.26:172907 , E83-10338
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The digital MSS data were utilized to devise quantitative indices which correlate with apparently stable and seral aspen forests. The extent to which a two-date LANDSAT MSS analysis may permit the delineation of different categories of aspen/conifer forest mix was explored. Multitemporal analyses of MSS data led to the identification of early, early to mid, mid to late, and late seral stages of aspen/conifer forest mixing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CRSC-83-1 , NASA-CR-170382 , NAS 1.26:170382 , E83-10324
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  • 18
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The LANDSAT 4 to ground station interface is described in detail. The radiometric specifications, internal calibration, sensor output format, and data processing constants for the multispectral scanner and the thematic mapper are discussed. The mission payload telemetry, onboard computer telemetry, and engineering telemetry formats are described. In addition, the telemetry time signals and the onboard clock resetting procedure are addressed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10292 , NAS 1.15:85310 , NASA-TM-85310 , GSFC-435-D-400-REV-6
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An algorithm for the remote detection of chlorophyll a in the ocean was tested during a Nantucket Shoals experiment conducted by NASA. A set of Multichannel Ocean Color Sensor (MOCS) data selected from one flight for each of the two altitudes flown was used to calibrate the algorithm for chlorophyll a concentration. The equations were then applied to all unsaturated MOCS data collected during the 8-day experiment to generate contour maps of chlorophyll a concentration over the shoals. One additional flight was conducted away from the shoals both on and off the Continental Shelf. Although no solar elevation or environmental corrections were made to the original conversions, the equations in these tests determined chlorophyll a concentrations to an accuracy better than 1.0 micron g/L despite the fact that the solar elevation varied between 20 deg and 56 deg during the data collection periods of the experiments.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.60:2164 , NASA-TP-2164 , L-15573
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effect of pressure on the infrared spectra of H2O and D2O ice VII was studied at room temperature and pressures between 2 and 15 GPa with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and a diamond anvil high pressure cell. Two librational modes, one bending mode, and various overtone bands are well resolved. The stretching modes, nu sub 1 and nu sub 3 are poorly resolved due to overlap with diamond window absorption. Differences between the spectra of H2O and D2O are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-170300 , NAS 1.26:170300
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A soil plant atmosphere model for corn (Zea mays L.) together with the scaling theory for soil hydraulic heterogeneity are used to study the sensitivity of spatial variation of canopy temperature to field averaged soil texture and crop rooting characteristics. The soil plant atmosphere model explicitly solves a continuity equation for water flux resulting from root water uptake, changes in plant water storage and transpirational flux. Dynamical equations for root zone soil water potential and the plant water storage models the progressive drying of soil, and day time dehydration and night time hydration of the crop. The statistic of scaling parameter which describes the spatial variation of soil hydraulic conductivity and matric potential is assumed to be independent of soil texture class. The field averaged soil hydraulic characteristics are chosen to be representative of loamy sand and clay loam soils. Two rooting characteristics are chosen, one shallow and the other deep rooted. The simulation shows that the range of canopy temperatures in the clayey soil is less than 1K, but for the sandy soil the range is about 2.5 and 5.0 K, respectively, for the shallow and deep rooted crops.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:84981 , NASA-TM-84981
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  • 22
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Information on the format of the film product and type of film used for the LANDSAT-4 scrounge processed thematic mapper data is presented. Image gray scale, annotation field, and general layout are described.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10224 , NAS 1.15:85263 , NASA-TM-85263
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  • 23
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A monolithic self-scanned linear detector array was developed for remote sensing in the 1.1- 2.4-micron spectral region. A high-density IRCCD test chip was fabricated to verify new design approaches required for the detector array. The driving factors in the Schottky barrier IRCCD (Pdsub2Si) process development are the attainment of detector yield, uniformity, adequate quantum efficiency, and lowest possible dark current consistent with radiometric accuracy. A dual-band module was designed that consists of two linear detector arrays. The sensor architecture places the floating diffusion output structure in the middle of the chip, away from the butt edges. A focal plane package was conceptualized and includes a polycrystalline silicon substrate carrying a two-layer, thick-film interconnecting conductor pattern and five epoxy-mounted modules. A polycrystalline silicon cover encloses the modules and bond wires, and serves as a radiation and EMI shield, thermal conductor, and contamination seal.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:175284 , NASA-CR-175284
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A model approach for identifying ecological range sites was applied to high elevation sagebrush-dominated rangelands on Parker Mountain, in south-central Utah. The approach utilizes map information derived from both high altitude color infrared photography and LANDSAT digital data, integrated with soils, geological, and precipitation maps. Identification of the ecological range site for a given area requires an evaluation of all relevant environmental factors which combine to give that site the potential to produce characteristic types and amounts of vegetation. A table is presented which allows the user to determine ecological range site based upon an integrated use of the maps which were prepared. The advantages of identifying ecological range sites through an integrated photo interpretation/LANDSAT analysis are discussed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174226 , E85-10050 , NAS 1.26:174226
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A boiled-down version of major legal principles affecting the admissibility of data and products from remote sensing devices is presented. It is suggested that enhancements or classifications of digital data (from scanning devices or from digitized aerial photography) be proffered as evidence in a fashion similar to the manner in which maps from photogrammetric techniques are introduced as evidence. Every effort should be made to illucidate the processes by which digital data are analytically treated or manipulated. Remote sensing expert witnesses should be practiced in providing concise and clear explanations of both data and methods. Special emphasis should be placed on being prepared to provide a detailed accounting of steps taken to calibrate and verify spectral characteristics with ground truth.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174224 , E85-10048 , NASA-CR-174224
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Problems and directions for large scale geographic information system development were reviewed and the general problems associated with automated geographic information systems and spatial data handling were addressed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-166563 , NAS 1.26:166563
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The TM multispectral scanner system was calibrated in an absolute manner before launch. To determine the temporal changes of the absolute radiometric calibration of the entire system, spectroradiometric measurements of the ground and the atmosphere were made simultaneously with TM collections over White Sands, New Mexico. By entering the measured values in an atmospheric radiative transfer program, the radiance levels of the in four of the spectral bands of the TM were determined. Tables show values for the reflectance of snow at White Sands measured by a modular 8 channel radiometer, and values for exoatmospheric irradiance within the TM passbands, calculated for the Earth-Sun distance using a solar radiometer.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174611 , E84-10044 , NASA-CR-174611
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The initial objectives of analyses of the MSS data are two-fold: (1) to evaluate the geodetic accuracy of CCT-P data of the test sites; and (2) to improve the geodetic accuracy by additional processing if the original data either do not meet pre-launch specifications or mapping requirements. The location of 45 ground control points (GCP) digitized from 35 U.S. Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale quadrangles (UTM coordinates) were identified in terms of pixel and scan line values. These 46 points are used to establish UTM position error vector distributions in the scene. As an initial check on the geometric reliability of the MSS data, 28 well-distributed GCPs were input to a program which compares the scaled image distances between all possible point pairs with the corresponding map distances and computes the distance differences; that is, the relative positional errors. The relative errors obtained from initial computations averaged about +/- 200 m. These errors could result from a number of sources, including misidentification of GCP locations, UTM coordinate errors introduced by the map digitizing process or errors resulting from data acquisition and geometric processing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174592 , NAS 1.26:174592 , E84-10040
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Simultaneous data acquisition by the LANDSAT 4 thematic mapper and the multispectral scanner permits the comparison of the two types of image data with respect to engineering performance and data applications. Progress in the evaluation of information content of matching scenes in agricultural areas is briefly reported.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174586 , E84-10034 , NASA-CR-174586 , PR-4
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  • 30
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Pairs of HCMM day-night thermal infrared (IR) data were selected to examine patterns of surface temperature and thermal inertia (TI) of peninsular Florida. GOES and NOAA-6 thermal IR, as well as National Climatic Center temperatures and rainfall, were also used. The HCMM apparent thermal inertia (ATI) images closely correspond to the General Soil Map of Florida, based on soil drainage classes. Areas with low ATI overlay well-drained soils, such as deep sands and drained organic soils. Areas with high ATI overlay areas with wetlands and bodies of water. The HCMM ATI images also correspond well with GOES-detected winter nocturnal cold-prone areas. Use of HCMM data with Carlson's energy balance model shows both high moisture availability (MA) and high thermal inertia (TI) of wetland-type surfaces and low MA and low TI of upland, well-drained soils. Since soil areas with low TI develop higher temperatures during the day, then antecedent patterns of highest maximum daytime surface temperature can also be used to predict nocturnal cold-prone areas in Florida.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174543 , NAS 1.26:174543 , E84-10016
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The increased number of carefully selected narrow spectral bands and the increased spatial resolution of thematic mapper data over previously available satellite data contribute greatly to geologic exploration, both by providing spectral information that permits lithologic differentiation and recognition of alteration and spatial information that reveals structure. As vegetation and soil cover increase, the value of spectral components of TM data decreases relative to the value of the spatial component of the data. However, even in vegetated areas, the greater spectral breadth and discrimination of TM data permits improved recognition and mapping of spatial elements of the terrain. As our understanding of the spectral manifestations of the responses of soils and vegetation to unusual chemical environments increases, the value of spectral components of TM data to exploration will greatly improve in covered areas.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10021 , NAS 1.26:174551 , NASA-CR-174551
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  • 32
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: As remote sensing increasingly becomes more of an operational tool in the field of snow management and snow hydrology, there is need for some degree of standardization of ""snowpack ground truth'' techniques. This manual provides a first step in standardizing these procedures and was prepared to meet the needs of remote sensing researchers in planning missions requiring ground truth as well as those providing the ground truth. Focus is on ground truth for remote sensors primarily operating in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum; nevertheless, the manual should be of value to other types of sensor programs. This first edition of ground truth procedures must be updated as new or modified techniques are developed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:170584 , NASA-CR-170584
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from an additional 50 satellite-to-satellite tracking (SST) passes were combined with earlier measurements of the high degree and order (n, m, 12) gravity in the central Pacific. A composite map was produced which shows good agreement with conventional GEM models. Data from the SEASAT altimeter was reduced and found to agree well with both the SST and the GEM fields. The maps are dominated especially in the east, by a pattern of roughly east-west anomalies with a transverse wavelength of about 2000 km. Further comparison with regional bathymetric data shows a remarkably close correlation with plate age. Each anomaly band is framed by those major fracture zones having large offsets. The regular spacing of these fractures seems to account for the fabric in the gravity fields. Other anomalies are accounted for by hot spots. The source of part of these anomalies is in the lithosphere itself. The possible plume size and ascent velocity necessary to supply deep mantle material to the upper mantel without complete thermal equilibration is considered.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:170593 , NASA-CR-170593 , E84-10025
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  • 34
    facet.materialart.
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Multiple altitude TM thermal infrared images were analyzed and the observed radiance values were computed. The data obtained represent an experimental relation between preceived radiance and altitude. A LOWTRAB approach was tested which incorporates a modification to the path radiance model. This modification assumes that the scattering out of the optical path is equal in magnitude and direction to the scattering into the path. The radiance observed at altitude by an aircraft sensor was used as input to the model. Expected radiance as a function of altitude was then computed down to the ground. The results were not very satisfactory because of somewhat large errors in temperature and because of the difference in the shape of the modeled and experimental curves.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10012 , QR-4 , NAS 1.26:174527 , NASA-CR-174527
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  • 35
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Computer modelled atmospheric transmittance and path radiance values were compared with empirical values derived from aircraft underflight data. Aircraft thermal infrared imagery and calibration data were available on two dates as were corresponding atmospheric radiosonde data. The radiosonde data were used as input to the LOWTRAN 5A code. The aircraft data were calibrated and utilized to generate analogous measurements. The results of the analysis indicate that there is a tendancy for the LOWTRAN model to underestimate atmospheric path radiance and overestimate atmospheric transmittance.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174516 , E84-10001 , NASA-CR-174516 , QR-3
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A technique is described for obtaining passive microwave measurements from space with high spatial resolution for remote sensing applications. The technique involves measuring the product of the signal from pairs of antennas at many different antenna spacings, thereby mapping the correlation function of antenna voltage. The intensity of radiation at the source can be obtained from the Fourier transform of this correlation function. Theory is presented to show how the technique can be applied to large extended sources such as the Earth when observed from space. Details are presented for a system with uniformly spaced measurements.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85033 , NASA-TM-85033
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Comparisons between LANDSAT MSS imagery, and aircraft and space radar imagery from different geologic environments in the United States, Panama, Colombia, and New Guinea demonstrate the interdependence of radar system geometry and terrain configuration for optimum retrieval of geologic information. Illustrations suggest that in the case of space radars (SIR-A in particular), the ability to acquire multiple look-angle/look-direction radar images of a given area is more valuable for landform mapping than further improvements in spatial resolution. Radar look-angle is concluded to be one of the most important system parameters of a space radar designed to be used for geologic reconnaissance mapping. The optimum set of system parameters must be determined for imaging different classes of landform features and tailoring the look-angle to local topography.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-173121 , NAS 1.26:173121 , ARSL-TR-83-2 , JPL-9950-874
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of decreasing spatial resolution from 6 1/4 miles square to 50 miles square are described. The effects of increases in cell size is studied on; the mean and variance of spectral data; spatial trends; and vegetative index numbers. Information content changes on cadastral, vegetal, soil, water and physiographic information are summarized.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LEMSCO-19352 , E83-10427 , NASA-CR-171689 , NAS 1.26:171689 , JSC-18879 , EW-L3-04415
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  • 39
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A quarterly listing of documents issued and placed in the AgRISTARS tracking system is provided. The technical publications are arranged by type of documents. The reference AgRISTARS document number, title and date of publication, the issuing organization, and the National Technical Information Service reference number is given.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E84-10030 , NASA-CR-171704 , LEMSCO-19557 , AP-L3-04416 , NAS 1.26:171704 , JSC-18887
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: LANDSAT thematic mapper P-data of Washington, D.C., Harrisburg, PA, and Salton Sea, CA were analyzed to determine magnitudes and causes of error in the geometric conformity of the data to known earth-surface geometry. Several tests of data geometry were performed. Intra-band and inter-band correlation and registration were investigated, exclusive of map-based ground truth. Specifically, the magnitudes and statistical trends of pixel offsets between a single band's mirror scans (due to processing procedures) were computed, and the inter-band integrity of registration was analyzed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174546 , NAS 1.26:174546 , E84-10022
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Reflectance calculations of soybeans and corn crops at two times during the growing season indicate that the high sensitivity of the thematic mapper mid-infrared band to exposed bare soil between soybean rows is most likely responsible for early season spectral discrimination of corn and soybean crops by this band.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-174523 , E84-10008 , ERIM-166500-1-L , NAS 1.26:174523
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of the cloud indicator index (CII) for use with METSAT's advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) is described. The CII is very effective at identification of clouds. Also, explored are different solar correction and standard techniques and the impact of these corrections have on the information content of AVHRR data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-171682 , LEMSCO-19199 , EW-L3-04402 , JSC-18606 , E83-10400 , NAS 1.26:171682
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The continuous similarity model of evaporation is described. In it, evaporation is conceptualized as a two stage process. For an initially moist soil, evaporation is first climate limited, but later it becomes soil limited. During the latter stage, the evaporation rate is termed evaporability, and mathematically it is inversely proportional to the evaporation deficit. A functional approximation of the moisture distribution within the soil column is also included in the model. The model was tested using data from four experiments conducted near Phoenix, Arizona; and there was excellent agreement between the simulated and observed evaporation. The model also predicted the time of transition to the soil limited stage reasonably well. For one of the experiments, a third stage of evaporation, when vapor diffusion predominates, was observed. The occurrence of this stage was related to the decrease in moisture at the surface of the soil. The continuous similarity model does not account for vapor flow. The results show that climate, through the potential evaporation rate, has a strong influence on the time of transition to the soil limited stage. After this transition, however, bulk evaporation is independent of climate until the effects of vapor flow within the soil predominate.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:173056 , NASA-CR-173056 , E83-10426 , CP-53-04417
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The status of a project to inventory state natural resources information systems is summarized. All tasks accomplished are described, and tasks remaining to be completed are outlined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:166509 , NASA-CR-166509 , E83-10408
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: JSC-18602 , NAS 1.26:171674 , LEMSCO-18629 , IT-L3-04398 , E83-10404 , NASA-CR-171674
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The progress of an investigation to quantify the increased information content of thematic mapper (TM) data as compared to that from the LANDSAT 4 multispectral scanner (MSS) is reported. Two night infrared images were examined and compared with Heat Capacity Mapping Mission data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172938 , PR-3 , E83-10396 , NAS 1.26:172938
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: References relevant to remote sensing of water quality were compiled, organized, and cross-referenced. The following general categories were included: (1) optical properties and measurement of water characteristics; (2) interpretation of water characteristics by remote sensing, including color, transparency, suspended or dissolved inorganic matter, biological materials, and temperature; (3) application of remote sensing for water quality monitoring; (4) application of remote sensing according to water body type; and (5) manipulation, processing and interpretation of remote sensing digital water data.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85077 , NASA-TM-85077
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LEMSCO-18629 , NAS 1.26:171675 , JSC-18602 , NASA-CR-171675 , IT-L3-04398 , E83-10406
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  • 49
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The data management procedures for tiepoint registration, pre and post processing, and "ICD116' are described. With each procedure description, the pertinent execs are listed and purposes defined. An example run of each of the 32 execs is included with user inputs identified.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: LEMSCO-19428 , E83-10401 , NAS 1.26:171688 , JSC-18886 , NASA-CR-171688 , SR-L3-04430
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Rectangular blocks of pixels from one band image were statistically correlated against blocks centered on identical pixels from a second band image. The block pairs were shifted in pixel increments both vertically and horizontally with respect to each other and the correlation coefficient to the maximum correlation was taken as the best estimate of registration error for each block pair. For the band combinations of the Arkansas scene studied, the misregistration of TM spectral bands within the noncooled focal plane lie well within the 0.2 pixel target specification. Misregistration between the middle IR bands is well within this specification also. The thermal IR band has an apparent misregistration with TM band 7 of approximately 3 pixels in each direction. The TM band 3 has a misregistration of approximately 0.2 pixel in the across-scan direction and 0.5 pixel in the along-scan direction, with both TM bands 5 and 7.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10397 , NASA-TM-85257 , NAS 1.15:85257
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  • 51
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The approach used to develop the internal capabilities of local governments to handle and evaluate LANDSAT data included remote sensing training, development of a low-cost digital image processing system, and technical assistance. Cost sharing, program management and coordination, and networking were also employed to address problems related to land use, water resources, environmental assessment, and air quality as experienced by urban planners. Local experiences gained in Atlanta, Georgia; Henrico County, Virginia; Oklahoma City; Oklahoma; and San Jose, California are described. Policy recommendations formulated for transferring remote sensing technologies to local governments are included.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-172892 , NAS 1.26:172892 , E83-10364
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Lithospheric flexure seaward of deep ocean trenches in SEASAT altimeter observations of the marine geoid. In fact, mechanical models of lithospheric flexure can be tested directly on the SEASAT altimeter data. A simple elastic model was used for the oceanic lithosphere and, after least squares adjustments, estimates of model parameters were recovered including Outer Rise (OR) amplitude, OR wavelength, and effective lithospheric thickness. Effective lithospheric thickness was recovered for five regions: the Mariana, the Kuril, the Philippine, the Aleutian and the Middle America OR. These results support the suggestion of Bodine et al. (1981) that effective thickness, T, increased with age of lithosphere in approximate accord with the relation T approximately equals x age to the 1/2 power where C approximately equals 4 km x my to the -1/2 power. Altimetric results agree more closely with this relation than do published results based on bathymetric data. The close agreement with the thickness-age relation suggests that there is no longer any need to assume that significant horizontal compression acts across the Kuril, Marianas and Izo-Bonin trenches. This thickness-age relation implies that flexural strength of the oceanic lithosphere is temperature controlled.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10353 , NASA-TM-85046 , NAS 1.15:85046
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A computationally efficient means for calculating texture measurements from digital images by use of the co-occurrence technique is presented. The calculation of the statistical descriptors of image texture and a solution that circumvents the need for calculating and storing a co-occurrence matrix are discussed. The results show that existing efficient algorithms for calculating sums, sums of squares, and cross products can be used to compute complex co-occurrence relationships directly from the digital image input.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:85022 , NASA-TM-85022
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A data set was assembled which consolidates the LANDSAT spectral data, ground truth observation data, and analyst cloud screening data for 28 spring small grain segments collected during the 1980 crop year.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10311 , JSC-18593 , SR-L3-04392 , NAS 1.26:171633 , LEMSCO-19023 , NASA-CR-171633
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Effects of an optically thin plane-parallel scattering atmosphere on radiometric imaging from the zenith of a specific surface-type are analyzed. The surface model was previously developed to describe arid steppe, where the sparse vegetation forms dark vertical protrusions from the bright soil-plane. The analysis is in terms of the surface reflectivity to the zenith r sub p for the direct beam, which is formulated as r sub p = r sub i exp (-s tan theta sub 0), where v sub i is the Lambert law reflectivity of the soil, the protrusions parameters s is the projection on a vertical plane of protrusions per unit area and theta sub 0 is the zenith angle. The surface reflectivity r sub p is approximately equal to that for the global irradiance (which is directly measured in the field) only for a narrow range of the solar zenith angles. The effects of the atmosphere when imaging large uniform areas of this type are comparable to those in imaging a Lambert surface with a reflectivity r sub p. Thus, the effects can be approximated by those in the case of a dark Lambert surface (analyzed previously), inasmuch as r sub p is smaller than the soil reflectivity r sub i for any off-zenith illumination. The surface becomes effectively darker with increasing solar zenith angle. Adjacency effects of a reflection from one area and scattering in the instantaneous field of view (object pixel) are analyzed as cross radiance and cross irradiance.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-84999 , NAS 1.15:84999
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An introduction to the overall AgRISTARS program is presented along with a general statement on progress, and separate summaries of the activities of each of the eight projects. Emphasis is on technical highlights. Organizational and management information on AgRISTARS is included along with a complete bibliography of publications and reports.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-85250 , E83-10318 , NAS 1.15:85250 , AP-J2-0393
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  • 57
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Community workshops, field visits, telephone surveys, and other research reveals that professionals at the substate level are interested in and open to consideration of LANDSAT as a planning and resource management tool, but are at the same time skeptical about some of the inherent problems with LANDSAT such as cost, resolution, frequency of coverage, and data continuity. The principal requirements for increasing the utilization of LANDSAT by potential substate users were identified and documented. Without a committment from the Federal Government for increased substrate utilization and the availability of trained professionals to meet the needs of a largely new user community, substrate activity is likely to remain at a minimum. Well conceived and well executed demonstration projects could play a critical role is shaping the technology's ability to be more sensitive to substate user needs and interests as well as validating the effectiveness of this data to a skeptical audience.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:170258 , NASA-CR-170258 , E83-10254
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A soil-plant-atmosphere model for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), together with clear sky weather data for several days, is used to study the relationship between canopy temperature and root-zone soil water potential. Considering the empirical dependence of stomatal resistance on insolation, air temperature and leaf water potential, a continuity equation for water flux in the soil-plant-atmosphere system is solved for the leaf water potential. The transpirational flux is calculated using Monteith's combination equation, while the canopy temperature is calculated from the energy balance equation. The simulation shows that, at high soil water potentials, canopy temperature is determined primarily by air and dew point temperatures. These results agree with an empirically derived linear regression equation relating canopy-air temperature differential to air vapor pressure deficit. The model predictions of leaf water potential are also in agreement with observations, indicating that measurements of canopy temperature together with a knowledge of air and dew point temperatures can provide a reliable estimate of the root-zone soil water potential.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-84990 , NAS 1.15:84990
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The ability to measure the radar scattering coefficient of ice with a helicopter or surface spectrometer was extended into the 4-8 GHz spectral region. The scattering coefficient was measured at Mould Bay, N.W.T., over a frequency range from 4 to 18 GHz for both summer and fall conditions. Scatter from fresh water ice in the St. Lawrence River and from numerous seasonal sea-ice types along the coast of Newfoundland were also measured. The C-band (near 5 GHz) scattering cross section for different types of ice shows poorer contrast than the scattering coefficient at higher frequencies, but better contrast than the negligible value found at L-band (1.5 GHz). At frequencies above 4 GHz the contrast in scattering coefficient between the different ice types is much less in summer than in other seasons; at most times of year the scattering is much stronger from multiyear than from other ice types, but in early summer it is actually slightly weaker than that from first year ice.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RSL-TR-524 , NASA-CR-170302 , NAS 1.26:170302
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Geometric accuracy specifications for LANDSAT 4 are reviewed and the processing concepts which form the basis of NASA's thematic mapper geometric correction system are summarized for both the flight and ground segments. The flight segment includes the thematic mapper instrument, attitude measurement devices, attitude control, and ephemeris processing. For geometric correction the ground segment uses mirror scan correction data, payload correction data, and control point information to determine where TM detector samples fall on output map projection systems. Then the raw imagery is reformatted and resampled to produce image samples on a selected output projection grid system.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: E83-10206 , NASA-CR-170052 , NAS 1.26:170052
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: While digital terrain grids are now in wide use, accurate delineation of drainage basins from these data is difficult to efficiently automate. A recursive order N solution to this problem is presented. The algorithm is fast because no point in the basin is checked more than once, and no points outside the basin are considered. Two applications for terrain analysis and one for remote sensing are given to illustrate the method, on a basin with high relief in the Sierra Nevada. This technique for automated basin delineation will enhance the utility of digital terrain analysis for hydrologic modeling and remote sensing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.15:84984 , NASA-TM-84984
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The along-line one dimensional FFT algorithm was successfully used to test band-to-band, swath-to-swath, and inter-swath registration of a Washington, D.C. scene. Analysis of the tabulated and plotted results of the MSS and TM P-data shows that a slow spacecraft roll condition of under one hertz exists in this scene. Characteristics of the data for both instruments are listed.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:170078 , E83-10220 , NASA-CR-170078
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  • 63
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-175214 , NAS 1.26:175214
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The utility of methods for generating TM RLUTS which can improve the quality of the resultant images was investigated. The TM-CCT-ADDS tape was changed to account for a different collection window for the calibration data. Several scenes of Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana and the Grand Bahamas were analyzed to evaluate the radiometric corrections operationally applied to the image data and to investigate several techniques for reducing striping in the images. Printer plots for the TM shutter data were produced and detector statistics were compiled and plotted. These statistics included various combinations of the average shutter counts for each scan before and after DC restore for forward and reverse scans. Results show that striping is caused by the detectors becoming saturated when they view a bright cloud and depress the DC restore level.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:175179 , NASA-CR-175179 , E84-10086
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  • 65
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The focused parabolic antenna has far field pattern characteristics in the radiating near field region. Therefore, it can provide fine resolutions in the across range dimensions. The technique of focusing the parabolic antenna is discussed and applied to a 2-1/2 foot parabolic antenna at X-band. The results of the pattern measurements at various ranges from 2.8 m to 5 m are provided.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RSL-TM-587-1 , NAS 1.26:173304 , NASA-CR-173304
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Extensions and applications of a second order land surface parameterization, proposed by Andreou and Eagleson are developed. Procedures for evaluating the near surface storage depth used in one cell land surface parameterizations are suggested and tested by using the model. Sensitivity analysis to the key soil parameters is performed. A case study involving comparison with an "exact" numerical model and another simplified parameterization, under very dry climatic conditions and for two different soil types, is also incorporated.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:175144 , NASA-CR-175144 , MIT-290 , MIT-R83-8
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ground-gathered data and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data from 1981 were analyzed to produce a classification of Kansas land areas into specific types called land covers. The land covers included rangeland, forest, residential, commercial/industrial, and various types of water. The analysis produced two outputs: acreage estimates with measures of precision, and map-type or photo products of the classification which can be overlaid on maps at specific scales. State-level acreage estimates were obtained and substate-level land cover classification overlays and estimates were generated for selected geographical areas. These products were found to be of potential use in managing land and water resources.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-85518 , NSTL/ERL-225 , NAS 1.15:85518 , E84-10068 , DC-Y3-04441
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The principal objectives of the UK SATMaP program are to determine thematic mapper (TM) performance with particular reference to spatial resolution properties and geometric characteristics of the data. So far, analysis is restricted to images from the U.S. and concentrates on spectra and radiometric properties. The results indicate that the data are inherently three dimensional compared with the two dimensional character of MSS data. Preliminary classification results indicate the importance of the near infrared band (TM 4), at least one middle infrared band (TM 5 or TM 6) and at least one of the visible bands (preferably either TM 3 or TM 1). The thermal infrared also appears to have discriminatory ability despite its coarser spatial resolution. For band 4 the forward and reverse scans show somewhat different spectral responses in one scene but this effect is absent in the other analyzed. From examination of the histograms it would appear that the full 8-bit quantization is not being effectively utilized for all the bands.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174590 , E84-10038 , NASA-CR-174590
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  • 69
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The geometric and radiometric characteristics of thematic mapper data through analysis of linear features in the data are investigated. The particular aspects considered are: (1) thematic mapper ground IFOV; (2) radiometric contrast between linear features and background; (3) precision of system geometric correction; (4) band-to-band registration; and (5) potential utility of TM data for linear feature detection especially as compared to MSS data. It is shown that TM data may be used to estimate TM pixel size and to illustrate band-band mis-registration. Further, the geometry and radiometry of the data are sufficiently precise to allow accurate estimation of the widths of linear features. In optimum conditions features one quarter of a pixel in width may be accurately measured. These results have considerable potential for applications for hydrological and topographic mapping.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174589 , NASA-CR-174589 , E84-10037
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data from test tapes from the United States (specifically the August Arkansas scene) and the first tape of the UK test site which came from ESRIN are analyzed. Methods for estimating spatial resolution are discussed and some preliminary results are included. The characteristics of the ESRIN data are examined and the utility of the various spectral bands of the thematic mapper for land cover mapping are outlined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:174517 , E84-10002 , NASA-CR-174517
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  • 71
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The preparation of land use maps of Salt Lake County, Utah from high altitude color infrared photography is described. The primary purpose of the maps is to aid in the assessment of the effects of urban development on the agricultural land base and water resources. The first stage of map production was to determine the categories of land use/land cover and the mapping unit detail. The highest level of interpretive detail was given to the land use categories found in the agricultural or urbanized portions of the county; these areas are of primary interest with regard to the consumptive use of water from surface streams and wells. A slightly lower level of mapping detail was given to wetland environments; areas to which water is not purposely diverted by man but which have a high consumptive rate of water use. Photos were interpreted on the basis of color, tone, texture, and pattern, together with features of the topographic, hydrologic, and ecological context.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: CRSC-83-2 , E84-10015 , NAS 1.26:174530 , NASA-CR-174530
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  • 72
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Available models of bulk evaporation from a bare-surfaced soil are difficult to apply to field conditions where evaporation is complicated by two main factors: rate-limiting climatic conditions and redistribution of soil moisture following infiltration. Both factors are included in the "desorptivity model', wherein the evaporation rate during the second stage (the soil-limiting stage) of evaporation is related to the desorptivity parameter, A. Analytical approximations for A are presented. The approximations are independent of the surface soil moisture. However, calculations using the approximations indicate that both soil texture and soil moisture content at depth significantly affect A. Because the moisture content at depth decreases in time during redistribution, it follows that the A parameter also changes with time. Consequently, a method to calculate a representative value of A was developed. When applied to field data, the desorptivity model estimated cumulative evaporation well. The model is easy to calculate, but its usefulness is limited because it requires an independent estimate of the time of transition between the first and second stages of evaporation. The model shows that bulk evaporation after the transition to the second stage is largely independent of climatic conditions.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-CR-173053 , CP-53-04416 , NAS 1.26:173053 , E83-10421
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  • 73
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Research performed in the accuracy assessment of remotely sensed data is updated and reviewed. The use of discrete multivariate analysis techniques for the assessment of error matrices, the use of computer simulation for assessing various sampling strategies, and an investigation of spatial autocorrelation techniques are examined.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: RRR-83-1 , E84-10029 , USDAES-83-NFAP-327 , RR-U3-04435 , NAS 1.26:171703 , NASA-CR-171703
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  • 74
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: In passive microwave remote sensing of the earth, a theoretical model that utilizes the radiative transfer equations was developed to account for the volume scattering effects of the vegetation canopy. Vegetation canopies such as alfalfa, sorghum, and corn are simulated by a layer of ellipsoidal scatterers and cylindrical structures. The ellipsoidal scatterers represent the leaves of vegetation and are randomly positioned and oriented. The orientation of ellipsoids is characterized by a probability density function of Eulerian angles of rotation. The cylindrical structures represent the stalks of vegetation and their radii are assumed to be much smaller than their lengths. The underlying soil is represented by a half-space medium with a homogeneous permittivity and uniform temperature profile. The radiative transfer quations are solved by a numerical method using a Gaussian quadrature formula to compute both the vertical and horizontal polarized brightness temperature as a function of observation angle. The theory was applied to the interpretation of experimental data obtained from sorghum covered fields near College Station, Texas.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: SM-T3-04436 , RSC-139 , NASA-CR-173051 , E83-10415 , NAS 1.26:173051
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  • 75
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    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The scientific and technological objectives of the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) Project are reviewed. Information regarding the implementation philosophy and approach, and the relationship of the project to the overall SIR program is also provided.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:172988 , NASA-CR-172988 , JPL-PUB-83-47
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  • 76
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Effects of an imposed (excised) leaf orientation, differing species and differing venation patterns on reflectance measurements in the LANDSAT-4 thematic mapper (TM) channels TM3 (0.63 to 0.69 microns), TM4 (0.76 to 0.90 microns), and TM5 (1.55 to 1.75 microns) were investigated. Orientation of leaves (random vs. systematic placement) was found to affect measurements in the TM4 channel, but not the TM3 and TM5 measurements. Venation caused no significant changes for any band. Azimuth of incident radiation was not a significant main effect, but in conjunction with changes in orientation, angle did have a significant effect on reflectance values in TM3, TM4 and TM5. Specific differences were highly significant (P f or = 0.006) in all but one borderline (P F or = 0.0222) case for TM5. For spectral examination of excised leaves, the sampling arrangement of the leaves should as closely approximate in situ positioning as possible (with respect to remote sensing instrumentation). This dictates a random rather than aligned arrangement.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-85076 , E83-10424 , NAS 1.15:85076
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  • 77
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A multitemporal LANDSAT spectral data set was created. The data set is over five 5 nm-by-6 nm areas over Argentina and contains by field, the spectral data, vegetation type and cloud cover information.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NAS 1.26:171683 , LEMSCO-19539 , NASA-CR-171683 , E83-10407 , SR-L3-04426 , JSC-18884
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Backscattering measurements were acquired with airborne scatterometers over a site in Cass County, North Dakota on four days in the 1981 crop growing season. Data were acquired at three frequencies (L-, C- and Ku-bands), two polarizations (like and cross) and ten incidence angles (5 degrees to 50 degrees in 5 degree steps). Crop separability is studied in an hierarchical fashion. A two-class separability measure is defined, which compares within-class to between-class variability, to determine crop separability. The scatterometer channels with the best potential for crop separability are determined, based on this separability measure. Higher frequencies are more useful for discriminating small grains, while lower frequencies tend to separate non-small grains better. Some crops are more separable when row direction is taken into account. The effect of pixel purity is to increase the separability between all crops while not changing the order of useful scatterometer channels. Crude estimates of separability errors are calculated based on these analyses. These results are useful in selecting the parameters of active microwave systems in agricultural remote sensing.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: SR-L3-04428 , LEMSCO-19422 , NAS 1.26:171673 , E83-10403 , NASA-CR-171673 , NSC-18885
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  • 79
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The spatial radiance distribution of a ground target must be known to a resolution at least four to five times greater than that of the system under test when measuring a satellite sensor's modulation transfer function. Calibr