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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 10 (1988), S. 154-157 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Drug utilization ; Hospitals ; Methods ; Prescriptions, drug ; Quality control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The impact of drug utilization review on quality control is outlined. Special attention is given to a drug utilization review at the individual patient level for which the methodology for implementation and maintenance are described, with special emphasis on the cyclic character of the process.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 12 (1990), S. 247-251 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Children ; Drug utilization ; Epidemiologic methods ; Greece ; Sick role
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The way in which drugs are used is a result of structural factors, such as the pharmaceutical market and the system of professional health care, and of ideological ones, such as definitions of health and sickness, and perceptions about drugs and symbolic meanings attached to them. The foundations for ideological factors related to drug use are suspected to be created in childhood through personal and culturally shaped experiences related to health and sickness, with implications for adult health and illness behaviour. It is therefore important to explore the perceptions that children themselves have of medications, including the role that they play in children's ideas about therapeutic measures to be taken when they are sick. Sixty healthy Greek children, aged six and seven years, were individually interviewed about drawings they had made depicting themselves the last time they had been sick or not felt well. The content of their narratives was analysed for references to medications according to words which they used (e.g., by general description, by type of medication, by brand name), the spontaneity of their responses, attitudes expressed about the necessity of drugs for recovery, and descriptions of the process of being sick (ideas of causation, necessary behavioural changes, therapeutic measuresetc.). Almost half of the children depicted and described themselves as alone while sick, often feeling isolated or denied access to regular activity; medications were seen as a way to resume normal activities and responsibilities. Illness was described as sudden in its onset, and a distinction was made between serious illness, which requires both a change in behaviour and the use of medication, and a ‘light’ illness, which does not. Alternatives or supplements to medication were stated by almost all the children (e.g., teas, soups, boiled rice) as part of their therapeutical regimen. The findings are discussed with respect to the context of Greek culture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Behavior ; Children ; Czechoslovakia ; Drug utilization ; Epidemiologic methods ; Pregnancy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Files with prescription data were used to assess possible behavioural changes in children, whose mothers used benzodiazepines or neuroleptic drugs during the second half of their pregnancy. Prescriptions, bearing the identification number of women resident in one district of Prague, filed in pharmacies during 1974 and the first three months of 1975 represent the first part of the data. During 1984, children born in the appropriate earlier period were searched and linked with the earlier prescription data. A group of 68 children with possible exposure to neuroleptics and a group of 15 children possibly exposed to diazepam during the second half of their intrauterine development were found. Two groups of 55 and 7 children, respectively, born of mothers without exposure to these drugs, were chosen as controls. The teachers of classes attended by these children were addressed by a letter and asked to evaluate their behaviour at school. This was done by means of a form containing analogue scales evaluating different features of behaviour. Each child was compared with its control. The statistical evaluation with Student's t-test, regression analysis and analysis of variance did not reveal any significant difference between both groups and their controls.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Drug utilization ; Epidemiological methods ; Lactation ; Pregnancy ; Prenatal care
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In this study the use of prescribed drugs before, during and after pregnancy is described. The study is based on data obtained from pharmacy records of 1,948 women who delivered a live-born infant. Different measures to evaluate drug exposure are used. During the nine months of pregnancy 86% of the women used on average 4.2 prescriptions. During the course of pregnancy the use of gastro-intestinal and blood-forming drugs increased, whereas the use of cardiovascular, antiphlogistic and central nervous system drugs decreased. Anti-emetics were predominantly used in the first trimester, and antacids in the last trimester, whereas laxatives were especially used after delivery. The percentage of women who used a treatment for vaginal infections increased from 2 to 7 during pregnancy. Most of the women (73%) received one or more iron prescriptions during the course of pregnancy, however, the prescribed daily dose was low (prescribed daily dose/defined daily dose=0.6). At least 1% of the women filled a new prescription for anticonceptives in the first trimester of pregnancy. Most likely, our data reflect the general prescribing pattern for Dutch pregnant women who delivered a live-born baby. Therefore, they form a good and detailed base for further studies, for instance, on the exposure to drugs with known or suspected risks or on the use of drugs in patients with chronic concomitant diseases. Such studies may lead to recommendations that may improve prescribing behaviour.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Drug utilization ; Epidemiologic methods ; Neoplasm ; Pharmacoepidemiology ; Pharmacy records ; Questionnaires ; Validity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Information on chronic drug use at any time in the past was collected with a self-administered questionnaire as part of a prospective cohort study on diet, other life-style factors and cancer among subjects aged 55–69 years. The validity of the questionnaire information on drug use was evaluated among 207 subjects by comparing it to pharmacy records of dispensed drugs. The comparison could be made for the 2.5-year period preceding the questionnaire administration. Since the study subjects did not mention prescription drugs that were not dispensed by their pharmacy, indicating no errors of commission, the analyses were focused on the estimation of sensitivity of drug recall and its correlates. Questionnaire recall of drug use amounted overall to 61.2% of drugs prescribed to the subjects for at least 6 months. Drug recall decreased with increasing age and with increasing number of prescribed chronic use of drugs per subject. No difference in recall was observed between men and women. Recall tended to improve with increasing duration of use and varied with type of drug. When only long-term drug use at the time of questionnaire administration was considered, overall recall of drug use was 68.8%.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 12 (1990), S. 60-65 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Aged ; Data collection ; Drug utilization ; England ; Pharmacists ; Physicians
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A random sample of 805 people aged 65 or more were interviewed in their homes in England about the drugs they were taking, and about their experiences with and views about the way drugs were prescribed. Assessments by a pharmacologist and pharmacists identified inappropriate prescribing and labelling and revealed the extent of elderly people's knowledge of their drugs. Information obtained from general practitioners, with the consent of the elderly people, showed that over a third of the elderly people were taking prescribed drugs of which their physician was unaware, but over four-fifths of the drugs reported by both patients and physicians were thought by both groups to be taken appropriately or as prescribed. The processes and problems of drug utilization and drug prescribing are demonstrated by approaching both patients and physicians and further illuminated by the expertise of pharmacologist and pharmacist.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Antibiotics ; Anti-inflammatory agents ; Curaçao ; Drug utilization ; Netherlands Antilles ; Psychotropic drugs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The drug use on Curaçao was evaluated with the help of the prescription forms of twelve community pharmacies at Curaçao over a period of three months. The emphasis of the study was on three therapeutic groups: the systemic antibiotics, the psycholeptics and the anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs. Within the group of systemic antibiotics broad-spectrum antibiotics were very frequently prescribed compared with the small-spectrum penicillins. The consumption of psycholeptics, particularly benzodiazepines, on Curaçao is remarkably low in comparison with drug utilization data of Denmark and the Netherlands. In contrast, the number of defined daily doses per 1,000 persons per day of antirheumatic drugs is higher compared with data from these two countries. Within the analysed groups, large differences occur between the two most important kinds of insurance,i.c., the poor people (PP) and social insurance bank (SVB) insurance. The PP-insured patients consume in the case of antibiotics and antirheumatic drugs almost twice as many and in the case of psycholeptics even five times as many as the SVB-insured patients do. A few calculations of prices prove that the extra amount of drugs consumed by PP-insured has important financial consequences.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Adrenal cortex hormones ; Adrenergic beta receptor agonists ; Adrenergic beta receptor blockaders ; Contra-indications ; Dosage regimens ; Drug interactions ; Drug therapy ; Drug utilization ; Lung diseases, obstructive ; Quality control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract This study presents the results of an analysis of the pharmacy records of 778 patients with asthma or chronic obstructive lung diseases. The high percentage of patients taking oral corticosteroids was striking. Inhaledβ-agonists for use as needed have been prescribed to only a minority of patients using these agents. Only half of the patients onβ-agonists used inhaled corticosteroids prophylactically. Drug interactions capable of causing changes in plasma theophylline concentrations appeared in only a small number of patients. The results from studies like the one presented here can provide valuable data to be used for further discussion between physicians and pharmacists about rational drug therapy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 15 (1993), S. 171-172 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Data collection ; Drug utilization ; Ovulation induction ; Pharmacoepidemiology ; Pharmacy records ; Pregnancy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Attitude ; Cooperative behavior ; Drug labelling ; Drug utilization ; Information sources ; Patient education ; Pregnancy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In this study the need for information about drugs among pregnant women and the use of available sources was explored. The women participating in this study were well aware of the risks of the use of drugs. Health professionals were considered to be important sources of information and they should therefore use up-to-date information concerning this topic. Health professionals should also bear in mind in their counseling activities that the beliefs of pregnant women on the safety and need of drugs might lead to reasoned non-compliance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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