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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Chloroquine ; Citric acid ; Drug stability ; Parabens ; Preservatives, pharmaceutical ; Sorbic acid ; Syrup
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In Third World countries chloroquine phosphate syrup is frequently prepared with chloroform as a preservative. Because of the toxic side effects of chloroform the suitability of a number of possible alternatives were investigated. If the chloroquine phosphate syrup is prepared as such, the combination of sorbic acid (1.5 g/l) and citric acid (2 g/l) is preferred. If, however, the chloroquine phosphate syrup is prepared from a stock solution of simple syrup, the relatively low pH may be undesirable, because it may negatively affect the stability or solubility of other medicinal compounds. For a stock solution of simple syrup the combination of methyl paraben (1.8 g/l) and propyl paraben (0.2 g/l) is preferred. Good care must be taken that a layer of condense water cannot be formed.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Anthracyclines ; Chromatography high pressure liquid ; Cyclodextrins ; Drug stability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of cyclodextrins on the stability of six anthracyclines in acidic medium at 50°C has been investigated using a stability-indicating high pressure liquid Chromatographic method. The influences of various parameters, such as the structure of cyclodextrins (α-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin, dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin and γ-cyclodextrin) and anthracyclines, cyclodextrin concentration, the pH and the presence of a co-solvent, are investigated. Lineweaver-Burk plots were used to calculate the stability constants of the various inclusion complexes as well as the rate constants for degradation of the anthracycline guest molecules in the complexes with the host cyclodextrins. Anthracyclines complexate only with γ-cyclodextrin to a substantial extent. On complexation the stability of the guest molecule increases, however, the degradation pattern does not alter. The influence of the pH on the degradation of the included molecule is identical to that of the free drug. Addition of co-solvents, such as acetonitrile, causes decomposition of the complex.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 10 (1988), S. 217-220 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Contamination, microbial ; Drug stability ; Gamma rays ; Senna ; Sennosides ; Sterilization ; Tea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of different doses of gamma irradiation on senna leaves was studied. No changes in sennoside content and composition were observed after irradiation with 25 kGy. It was demonstrated that a minimum dose of 10 kGy was necessary to obtain a product of good microbiological quality. Cold maceration of senna leaves has to be discouraged, because of unavoidable microbial growth. Hot extraction is the method of choice for tea preparation. The rationale of gamma irradiation is discussed.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pharmacy world & science 10 (1988), S. 246-253 
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Content uniformity ; Drug compounding ; Drug packaging ; Drug stability ; Drug storage ; Glyceryl-trinitrate ; Tablets
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The physical stability of one type of stabilized molded and three types of compressed nitroglycerin tablets was studied. The evaporation rate of nitroglycerin was controlled by its vapour pressure and by the matrix effect of the dosage forms. The four products showed different vapour pressures and matrix effects. In time nitroglycerin escapes from the outmost layers of the tablets; the dosage form in which the drug showed the lowest vapour pressure (the stabilized molded tablet) was found to be the most stable one. However, from the time when the drug had escaped from the outmost layers of the dosage form, the matrix effect became dominant. When nitroglycerin tablets were stored in tightly closed containers at room temperature potency loss was minimal. Even when the bottles were opened regularly this did not result in a significant loss of the drug. Measures are suggested to minimize drug evaporation.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Chemistry, analytical ; Chromatography, high pressure liquid ; Decomposition products ; Drug stability ; Ophthalmic solutions ; Pilocarpine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A rapid high-resolution high pressure liquid chromatographic method was developed for assaying pilocarpine. Pilocarpine in ophthalmic solutions decomposes fairly rapidly to give isopilocarpine, pilocarpic acid and isopilocarpic acid. The quality of an ophthalmic solution can be assessed by assaying these decomposition products. Existing high pressure liquid chromatographic methods suffer from long analysis times and poor resolution. The new method uses as the mobile phase 6 ml/l of triethylamine in water (pH 2.3, adjusted with 85% phosphoric acid) at a flow of 1.5 ml/min and as the stationary phase a C18-silica 125×4,6 mm column. 2-Amino-1phenyl-1,3-propanediol is used as an internal standard. Complete separation was obtained within 8 min. Pilocarpine eye drops were stored under different conditions and then analysed for decomposition products. During heat treatment, decomposition to isopilocarpine predominated over decomposition to pilocarpic or isopilocarpic acid. However, when stored at room temperature or in a refrigerator, formation of pilocarpic acid clearly prevailed. Thus, from assessment of decomposition products, the cause of decomposition can be established.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Adsorption ; Drug stability ; Parenteral nutrition ; Somatostatin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The stability of somatostatin, added to a total parenteral nutrition formula, in glass containers and in plastic ethylene vinyl acetate containers was investigated. The somatostatin concentration decreased immediately from 3μg/ml to 0.3–0.6μg/ml after addition to the emulsion. In spite of this rapid decrease, somatostatin concentrations remained stable with values of 0.4–0.7μg/ml during the follow-up period (24 h). These findings could be explained assuming adsorption to the surface of the container.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Chromatography, high pressure ; liquid ; Compatibility ; Daunorubicin ; Doxorubicin ; Drug stability ; Epirubicin ; Infusions ; Pirarubicin ; Polyvinyl chloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A rapid isocratic technique was developed for the analysis of four anthracyclines (doxorubicin, epirubicin, daunorubicin and pirarubicin) in parenteral solutions using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and a C18 Hypersil ODS column. The availability and compatibility of these drugs from solutions infused via PVC infusion bags through PVC administration sets have been examined. No significant drug loss was observed during simulated infusions (n=4) for 24 h using PVC infusion bags and administration sets. No significant difference was found between infusion solutions (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl), except for pirarubicin. The reconstitution of pirarubicin in 0.9% NaCl was impossible, because we observed a precipitation of the compound in solution. The stability of the drugs was also studied in solution, in PVC bags after storage at 4°C with protection from light. The results show the stability of doxorubicin, epirubicin and daunorubicin during 7 days of storage to be satisfactory, irrespective of the infusion solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). In the case of pirarubicin, the stability of the drug was satisfactory during 5 days of storage in 5% glucose, but beyond, we observed a degradation of the compound with formation of doxorubicin in the infusion solution.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Chemistry, analytical ; Chromatography, high pressure liquid ; Drug stability ; Pharmacokinetics ; Vinblastine ; Vincristine ; Vindesine ; Vinzolidine ; Adjuvants, immunologie ; Anti-inflammatory agents ; Azadirachta indica A. Juss ; Chemistry, analytical ; Pharmacognosy ; Anaesthesia, epidural ; Anaesthesia, intrathecal ; Bupivacaine ; Hemostasis ; Antioxidants ; Butylated hydroxyanisole ; Butylated hydroxytoluene ; Food additives ; Metabolism ; Neoplasms ; Toxicology ; Bronchodilator agents ; Isozymes ; Milrinone ; Phosphodiesterase ; Sulmazole
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Drug stability ; Glass ; Infusion pumps ; Polyethylene ; Polyvinyl chloride ; Sufentanil
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The stability of sufentanil citrate (100 ml, 5μg/ml) in an admixture with sodium chloride 0.9% injection was investigated when filled in a portable pump reservoir with PVC wall, a glass container and a polyethylene container, at 32°C, 4°C and −20°C for up to 21 days. No change in colour was visually observed in any of the samples during the 21-day storage period. A slight precipitation was noticed in three out of nine portable pump reservoirs, one at each storage temperature. There was a slight rise in pH at each storage temperature in all samples. There was approximately 13% loss of sufentanil citrate in the portable pump reservoirs stored at 32°C during 2 days and 60% loss after 21 days, due to absorption of sufentanil citrate in the reservoir wall. No loss of sufentanil citrate could be detected in the portable pump reservoirs when stored at −20°C and 4°C. However, a serious inhomogeneity of the sufentanil citrate solution occurred after thawing at room temperature in the portable pump reservoirs which had been kept at −20°C. The homogeneity could be restored by shaking for approximately 10 min. There was no change in the sufentanil citrate concentrations in the glass containers and polyethylene containers stored at the three temperatures. The portable pump reservoirs stored at 32°C also showed a significant loss of vehicle due to evaporation (1.0±0.1 ml a week). This could not be detected in any of the other samples.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-739X
    Keywords: Biological availability ; Drug administration routes ; Drug stability ; Lipophilicity ; Liposomes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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