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  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Palynology ; Pollen ; Spores ; Zonation ; Dinoflagellates ; Water fern macrofossils ; Palaeoclimate ; Cretaceous ; Sudan
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A palynological investigation of 164 samples from 18 water wells in northern Kordofan, Sudan, enabled the recognition of five informal zones based on pollen and spore assemblages ranging in age from Albian to Maastrichtian. The youngest (late Campanian-Maastrichtian) assemblages are restricted to the Bagbag Basin, whereas Albian-Cenomanian (to Turonian) sediments are widespread to the east and west of the Bagbag area. Impressions of Salvinia floating leaves from outcrops of the upper Hamrat el Wuz Formation, western part of the study area, are among the oldest occurrences of this water fern and indicate a Campanian-Maastrichtian age for these sediments. The vertical distribution of hygrophilous (pteridophytic spores) versus xerophilous (ephedroids and possibly small, weakly sculptured tricolporates) elements in the palynofloras suggests widespread moist or even aquatic habitats in the Albian-Cenomanian and Campanian-Maastrichtian. A shift towards drier conditions occurred in the late Cenomanian-Turonian. Throughout the Cretaceous, however, there may have been extensive arid/semiarid areas of non-deposition and seasonally dry periods. Some characteristics of the local palynofloras are attributed to its inner continental position. Rare Albian-Cenomanian and Campanian-Maastrichtian dinoflagellates could be interpreted as lacustrine phytoplankton rather than as evidence for marine influence.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Serbomacedonian ; Rhodope ; Deformation ; Cretaceous ; Tertiary ; extension ; Exhumation ; Moesian ; Shear-sense
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The kinematic pattern and associated metamorphism of the predominant ductile deformation and the subsequent deformational stages of the Serbomacedonian metamorphic rocks and granitoids are presented in terms of peri-Tethyan tectonics. A systematic record of structural and metamorphic data gives evidence of a main top-to-ENE to ESE ductile flow of Cretaceous age (120–90 Ma) associated with a crustal stretching and unroofing. A subordinate WSW to WNW antithetic sense of movement of the tectonic top is observed in places. The associated metamorphic conditions are estimated at 4.5–7.5 kbar and 510–580  °C. During Eocene to Miocene times these fabrics were successively deformed by low-angle extensional De ductile shear zones with top-to-NE and SW sense of movement and brittle shear zones of similar kinematic pattern, suggesting a transition from ductile to brittle deformation. De deformation was accompanied during its later stages by NW/SE-directed shortening. We also discuss the relation of this Cretaceous–Tertiary deformation of the Serbomacedonian metamorphic rocks with the Eocene to Miocene ductile, top-to-southwestward crustal shear of the adjacent Rhodope crystalline rocks. We regard the Serbomacedonian and the Rhodope metamorphic rocks to represent related metamorphic provinces, the most recent exhumation and cooling history of which is bracketed between the Eocene and Neogene.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Rudist bivalves ; Cretaceous ; Stable isotopes ; Sclerochronology ; Palaeotemperatures
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Isotopic (δ13C, δ18O) and elemental (Mg, Sr, Mn, Fe) compositions were analysed in sclerochronological profiles of several shells of late Cretaceous rudist bivalves from Greece, Turkey, Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula. The preservation of original compositions of low-Mg calcite of outer shell layers is indicated by constant and high Sr, generally low Fe and Mn, and the preservation of fibrous-prismatic ultrastructures. Cyclic variations in δ18O and Mg are interpreted to reflect seasonal temperature/salinity cycles and, thus, annual growth increments. In shells of Torreites, amplitudes of correlated δ13C and δ18O cycles cannot be related to reasonable palaeotemperatures or salinity. This isotopic pattern reflects vital fractionations of an extent which is unknown from modern bivalves. In contrast, almost identical ranges and amplitudes of δ18O cycles are observed in 13 shells of five species from Santonian-Campanian localities in central Greece and northern Turkey, suggesting that seasonal variations in environmental conditions were recorded without significant vital fractionations. The effect of seasonal salinity changes on δ18O of the shells is evaluated, and mean palaeotemperatures are constrained within the range of 30–32.5  °C. The annual range of temperature was estimated to be 7  °C, assuming a constant salinity. This agrees with other isotopic proxies of Late Cretaceous palaeotemperatures, and with global circulation models which predict higher low-latitude sea-surface temperatures than the present ones.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Cretaceous ; Sakhalin Basin ; continental margin ; subsidence ; sedimentation ; stratigraphy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The marine sedimentary formations of the Middle Albian to Maastrichtian in the Cretaceous Sakhalin Basin (CSB) were investigated. These successions of strata consist of interbedded sandy, clayey and calcareous rocks which are underlain by heterogeneous metamorphosed (up to greenschist facies) Paleozoic to Mesozoic (pre-Aptian) rocks. The studied sections display several different facies reflecting geological settings ranging from an inner shelf to a continental slope. Three depositional complexes bound by regional subaerial unconformities are recognized within the marine successions. Since the Albian, the CSB has been a rapidly subsiding marginal part of the Okhotsk Sea plate. The Naiba Valley succession, corresponding to a sublittoral zone, shows extremely high sedimentation rates up to 190 m/Ma. The stratigraphic distribution of lithofacies indicates that the CSB became shallower from the Middle Albian to the Maastrichtian.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Cretaceous ; Jurassic ; Gondwana ; Madagascar ; Somalia ; sea-level changes ; sedimentary cycles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary history of northern Somalia and the Morondava Basin of south-western Madagascar have been studied. Both regions display an independent facial development; however, a comparison of the sequential evolution of the Mesozoic sedimentary successions in these two presently widely separated areas reveals a surprisingly high level of similarity, which probably reflects major events during the disintegration of Eastern Gondwana during the Jurassic and Cretaceous. Although in Jurassic times the onset of transgressions and regressions in both areas compares well with eustatic development, major deviations in combination with the tectonic activities of different degrees are observed in the Early and Late Cretaceous synchronously in both regions. Transgressions are observed in Toarcian, Bajocian (not dated in northern Somalia), Callovian, Valanginian (Madagascar only), Aptian and Campanian times. Tectonism is noted before the Aptian and Campanian transgressions in northern Somalia and the Morondava Basin of south-western Madagascar.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Iran ; palaeomagnetism ; Triassic ; Cretaceous ; Central Iran ; geotectonics ; palaeoreconstruction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract New pole positions for Triassic and Cretaceous times have been obtained from volcanic and sedimentary sequences in Central Iran. These new results confirm the general trend of the Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP) of the Central-East-Iran microplate (CEIM) from the Triassic through the Tertiary as published by Soffel and Förster (1983, 1984). Two new palaeopoles for the Triassic of the CEIM have been obtained; limestones and tuffs from the Nakhlak region yield a mean direction of 094.0°/25.0°, N=12, k=4.1,α 95=24.7°, after bedding correction, corresponding to a palaeopole position of 310.8°E; 3.9°S, and volcanic rocks from the Sirjan regions yield a mean direction of 114.5°/35.1°, N=44, k=45.9,α 95=3.2° after bedding correction and a palaeopole position of 295.8°E; 10.3°N. Combining these with the two previously published results yields a new palaeopole position of 317.5°E; 12.7°N, for the Triassic of the CEIM, thus confirming that large counterclockwise rotations of the CEIM have occurred since the Triassic time. New results have also been obtained from Cretaceous limestones from the Saghand region of the CEIM. The mean direction of 340.7°/26.3°, N=33, k=44.3,α 95=3.8°, and the corresponding palaeopole position of 283.1°E; 64.4°N, is in agreement with previously determined Cretaceous palaeopole positions of the CEIM. Furthermore, results have also been obtained from Triassic dolomite, limestone, sandstone and siltstone from the Natanz region, which is located to the west of the CEIM. A total of 161 specimens from 44 cores taken at five sites gave a mean direction of the five sites at 033.3°/25.1°, N=5, k=69.0,α 95=9.3° and a palaeopole position of 167.2°E; 53.7°N. They pass the positive fold test of McElhinny (1964) on the level of 99% confidence. This pole position is in fairly good agreement with the mean Triassic pole position of the Turan Plate (149°E; 49°N). It indicates that the area of Natanz has not undergone the large counterclockwise rotation relative to the Turan plate since the Triassic, which has been shown for the CEIM. A Triassic palaeogeographic reconstruction of Iran, Arabia (Gondwana) and the Turan Plate (Eurasia) is also presented.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Key words Calcareous dinoflagellates ; Cretaceous ; Tertiary ; K/T boundary ; Eocene–Oligocene boundary ; Climatic change ; South Atlantic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The evolution of calcareous dinoflagellate communities has been investigated for the latest Cretaceous to earliest Neogene interval of the mid-latitude South Atlantic. In doing so, the response of calcareous dinoflagellates to Cenozoic climatic change has been addressed for the first time. Trends in species composition and distribution patterns of wall types indicate significant changes which correlate with major palaeoenvironmental modifications. A first major shift concerning the relative abundance of species and wall types occurred across the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary. The associations remained stable during the entire Paleocene and Eocene. Only in the late Eocene did a dramatic decrease in temperature cause a slight diversification. A second major shift in the abundance patterns occurred across the Eocene–Oligocene boundary. The early Miocene warming is possibly reflected in the distinct increase in relative abundance of one species. The assemblages of calcareous dinoflagellates evidently react to major climatic changes during the Cenozoic. These poorly investigated organisms may thus provide an important contribution to the understanding of earth's palaeoclimatic evolution.
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