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  • Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling  (333)
  • 1980-1984  (333)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1980  (333)
Collection
Publisher
Years
  • 1980-1984  (333)
  • 1925-1929
Year
  • 1
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Orbital mapping analysis, based on EHT and CNDO/2 semiempirical molecular orbitals, has been used to survey the thermal, disrotatory, ring-opening isomerizations of bicyclo[2.2.0]hexa-2,5-dienes (Dewar benzenes), bicyclo[2.1.0]pent-2-enes, and bicyclo[2.1.0]pent-2-en-5-yl ions to their planar isomers. Results indicate that isoelectronic substitution (CH replaced by C-, O+, N, NH+, etc.) in the molecular framework may favor allowed thermal reactions in some cases, in contrast to the disallowed reaction predicted for the parent hydrocarbons.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 36-45 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The variable-size simplex optimization method is used to reparametrize the I + A and β parameters of an INDO approximation to the perturbed Hartree-Fock calculation of 13C chemical shifts in hydrocarbons. The absolute shifts for 39 nuclei in a set of molecules containing up to four carbons are reproduced within a standard error of 9.9 ppm for an unconstrained optimization and to a standard error of 10.0 ppm for an optimization constrained to yield gross atomic charges in agreement with double-zeta ab initio calculations.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 69-75 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The use of modified virtual orbitals is studied in a systematic conventional CI procedure which offers considerable potential in regard to convergence and extension to larger systems. The method is applied to the HCN molecule by using 37 basis functions, and analysis of energy expectation values, together with the one-electron density, yields some insight into the physical content of CI wavefunctions.
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  • 4
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 76-80 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Empirical force field calculations were performed on hexamethylbenzene to elucidate the internal motions of the methyl groups. When the benzene ring is constrained to be planar (as in solid-phase studies), the methyl groups undergo a geared, disrotatory motion. When this constraint is relaxed, results are force field dependent. Calculated barriers are in good agreement with experimentally determined values.
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  • 5
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 88-93 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The total energies and one-electron energies for first- and second-row atoms were calculated by using the Hartree-Fock and the Hartree-Fock-Slater Hamiltonian with Xα orbitals, ui(αexp); α was parametrized from EHFS(αexp) = Eexp. The EHF(αexp) total energies are always higher than the Hartree-Fock energies for the atoms. The relation of the calculated ionization potential to the experimental ionization potential depends on the α used to define ui(α), αexp, or αHF.
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  • 6
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 99-109 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A study is reported of the accuracy with which the geometries of pyranose and methyl pyranoside molecules are predicted by molecular mechanics. Calculations of the conformational energies of the model compounds dihydroxymethane, methoxymethanol, and dimethoxymethane, made with the program MMI, produced results that compare well with previous ab initio molecular orbital calculations. This indicates that MMI gives a satisfactory account of the energetic and conformational aspects of the anomeric effect, a conclusion further supported by calculations on 2-methoxytetrahydropyran. The prediction of the observed preferred conformations of the primary alcohol group in aldohexopyranoses appears to be less satisfactory. MMI-CARB, a version of MMI with changes in some of the equilibrium C—O bond lengths of the program, has been used to calculate the geometries of 13 pyranose and methyl pyranoside molecules, the crystal structures of which have been studied by neutron diffraction. When the C—C—O—H torsion angles are constrained to approximately the values observed in the crystal structures, good agreement is obtained between the theoretical and experimental molecular geometries. The rms deviation for C—C and C—O bonds, excluding those significantly affected by thermal motion in the crystal structure determinations, is 0.005 Å. Corresponding figures for the valence angles that do not involve hydrogen atoms and for the ring torsion angles are 1.2° and 2.0°, respectively. The Cremer and Pople puckering parameters for the pyranose rings are reproduced within 0.026 Å in Q and 5.4° in θ.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been carried out for the neutrals X—NH2, X—OH, and X—F and the anions X—NH- and X—O- with substituents X = Li, BeH, BH2, CH3, NH2, OH, and F. All structures have been fully optimized with the 4-31G basis set which is found to perform considerably better than the minimal STO-3G basis in predicting the lengths of strongly polar bonds. A quantitative analysis of interactions between the directly bonded groups, utilizing energy changes in hydrogenation reactions, is presented and rationalized with the aid of perturbation molecular orbital theory. Favorable interactions occur when electron-donor groups bond to electron-acceptor groups. This applies to both σ and π interactions, the relative importance of which depends on the particular substituents.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Several “core-deficient” small Gaussian basis sets were constructed and analyzed in terms of the balance requirements of functions that contribute predominantly to the core. Variations in the conformational energy barriers and geometrical parameters for ammonia and ethane, calculated with these basis sets, were analyzed with a gradient technique. A scheme for the reduction of the size of molecular basis sets is proposed.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: An algorithm is developed for generating and characterizing carcinogenic catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons. The bay regions in these structures are identified by a technique that we developed at Johns Hopkins. Using the three-digit code proposed by Balaban, and the concept of ring adjacency matrix expounded here, we generate catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons in the computer and identify the number of potentially carcinogenic bay regions in each of them. The results of computer generation agree with the combinatorial enumeration of Harary and Read. All structures containing up to five rings and some with six rings and the number of bay regions in these are presented. Computer results for the structures and bay regions of all seven-, eight-, and nine-membered unbranched catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons and the number of bays are available from the authors.
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  • 10
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 129-133 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: MNDO and MINDO/3 calculations were used to study the photochemical formation, thermal rearrangements, and dissociation of bicyclo[2.1.0]pentenone. The “forbidden” thermal conversion to cyclopentadienone requires little activation, which accounts for the low kinetic stability of bicyclo[2.1.0]pentenone. The theoretical results seem to be compatible with the available experimental evidence for the tri-tert-butyl-substituted systems and suggest an explanation for observed differences in reactivity.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A conformational study was carried out on the three ring-opened structures of triplet methyloxirane with a minimal Gaussian basis set, within the unrestricted Hartree-Fock framework. For the two structures energy surfaces E(θ1, θ2) were generated, where θ1 measures the methyl rotation and θ2 is associated with the torsion about the other C—C bond. For the third structure an energy hypersurface E(θ1, θ2, θ3) was generated, where energy was a function of methyl rotation θ1 and two nonequivalent C—O rotations θ2 and θ3. Analysis of the surfaces revealed the locations and relative energies of the critical points (minima, saddle points, and maxima). The overall stereochemical finding was that these ring-opened triplet C3H6O species possessed rather flexible structures.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The transition states for fragmentation of dihydroxycarbene [C(OH)2] to H2 and CO2 and for the rearrangement of this carbene to formic acid were located by ab initio calculations. The relative energies of the transition states were determined at several levels of theory and the basis set dependence of the energies is discussed. At the best level of theory; using a basis set of double-zeta quality augmented by polarization functions and with the inclusion of extensive CI, we found that the transition state for fragmentation was considerably higher in energy than that for rearrangement. This finding is at variance with the predictions of the Woodward--Hoffmann rules because fragmentation represents an “allowed” reaction, whereas rearrangement is “forbidden.” In conformity with the Woodward-Hoffman rules, the transition state for rearrangement was found to be close in energy to H· + ·CO2H. The even higher energy of the transition state for concerted fragmentation to H2 and CO2 is attributed to the need for the latter fragment to remain substantially bent in order to permit H2 formation while maintaining a modicum of OH bonding. Difficulties in locating the transition state for concerted fragmentation are discussed and a new method for finding transition states is proposed.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) SCF-MO calculations on the doublet reaction surface for the addition of methylidyne (CH) to ethylene (C2H4) using the standard extrapolation techniques of the GAUSSIAN 70 program show erratic behavior. On the other hand, the potential energy surface calculated without extrapolation of the density matrix and by using the final density matrix of a neighboring point as the initial guess for the density matrix for the new point gave a smooth potential curve without any kinks or erratic pattern. Therefore, the density extrapolation technique should be used with particular caution in UHF calculations.
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  • 14
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 185-188 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: High-quality SCF-MO calculations yield a barrier to internal rotation of 1.70 kJ mole-1 for Ge2H6. A new contraction scheme is reported for Dunning's larger Ge basis set. Geometry optimization, although carried out, is unimportant in this particular calculation. Wavefunctions and properties are reported for GeH4 and the staggered and eclipsed conformers of Ge2H6. The magnitude of the calculated barrier is more physically reasonable than those deduced from experimental data. Comparisons are made across the two series X2H6 and CH3XH3.
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  • 15
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
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  • 16
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 199-203 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Open (1) and cyclic (2) singlet forms of CO3 were investigated by means of ab initio calculations. At the highest level of theory employed, MP2/6-31G* (which includes the effects of electron correlation), 2 was indicated to be much more stable than 1 and thermodynamically stable toward dissociation into CO2 and O(3P). The open form 1 has a long O—O bond and can be regarded as a weak dative complex between CO2 and a singlet oxygen atom.
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  • 17
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 229-232 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Cahn-Ingold-Prelog (C—I—P) rules 1 and 2 (material differences) have been expressed in the formal logic of a high-level computer language (FORTRAN IV) on a laboratory minicomputer (PDP 11/40) by the program CHIRAL. An oversight in the C—I—P formalism in the treatment of rings was treated on an ad hoc basis; the problem has been expressed simply in terms of elementary graph theory in a way consistent with and similar to chemical notation. An example of the operation of CHIRAL is provided and the internal procedures discussed.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The optical activity of conjugated dienes is investigated by means of ab initio SCF-CI calculations. The computed electronic spectrum of trans-1,3-butadiene is shown to be in good agreement with the results of more rigorous calculations of the valence transitions and in satisfactory agreement with experiment. The optical rotatory strengths of the lower electronic transitions of twisted 1,3-butadiene as a function of dihedral angle are presented and simulated CD spectra are produced. The N → V1 (π2 → π3*) transition is predicted to have a positive rotational strength for all dihedral angles that correspond to a right-handed twist of the chromophore, in accord with the empirically deduced “diene rule” although for a twist angle of 60°, the rotatory strength is calculated to be almost zero. The role of the orientation of allylic bonds is investigated in the model system 1-butene in which the rotational strength of the π → π* transition as a function of rotation about the 2,3 bond is determined. The effect of allylic bond disposition in dienes on the optical activity of the long-wavelength π2 → π3* transition is simulated by use of the exciton coupling model of Harada and Nakanishi in which two 1-butene molecules with suitable geometries are coupled via interactions of the electric dipole transition moments of their π → π* transitions. The model systems 1,3-butadiene and 1-butene are used to rationalize the apparently anomalous optical activity of (-)-α-phellandrene and (-)-β-phellandrene, both of which should have a diene chromophore with a right-handed twist in their most stable conformers and so should be dextrorotatory. The experimental CD spectrum of α-phellandrene is determined at several temperatures down to -180°C. The observed variation of the apparent rotational strength of the N → V1 transition is in good agreement with that predicted by use of the exciton coupling model.
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  • 19
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 261-265 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A molecular packing analysis of the hydrogen-bonded layer structure of maleic hydrazide shows that even in such a structure, the van der Waals energy is the dominant component of the lattice energy. The hydrogen-bond energy of the observed structure is greater than that for alternative structures based on a different mode of hydrogen bonding, and this makes the observed more stable.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Calculations at the STO-3G and 4-31G levels have been carried out on propylamine and ethylmethylamine, using geometries determined by molecular mechanics by allowing complete molecular relaxation in all degrees of freedom except for torsion about the central bond, and at 30° increments for the latter. It was found that a butanelike potential exists in each case. From 0° (cis) to 360° in order, the 4-31G values for the energy extrema are 5.92, 0.12, 3.88, 0.00, 3.94, and 0.51 kcal/mole for propylamine (with the nitrogen lone pair gauche to carbon), and 7.06, 1.45, 3.44, 0.0, 2.87, and 1.44 kcal/mole for ethylmethylamine.
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  • 21
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 266-274 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Two algorithms for the local energy minimization of the structure of macromolecules in the presence of constraints are proposed. They are a combination of the method of steepest descents and the method of conjugate gradients with the procedure SHAKE, by which distance constraints can be satisfied. The two algorithms are tested by applying them to a small protein, the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), and compared with the penalty function method for conserving constraints. The efficiency of the proposed methods depends on the level of interdependence of the constraints. For bond-length constraints, the use of SHAKE is superior to the penalty function method. However, when bond-angle constraints are included, SHAKE is more efficient only if the curvature of the penalty function is considerably greater than that of the potential function being minimized. The results indicate that with bond-length constraints the minimization behavior is similar to that without constraints. However, the simultaneous application of bond-length and bond-angle constraints appears to confine the molecule to a very limited part of configuration space, very different from the part covered by an unconstrained minimization. This conclusion calls into question energy minimizations of protein systems in which only the dihedral angles are allowed to vary.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: VE-PPP, CNDO/2, and CNDO/s-CI methods have been used to investigate the electronic spectrum and structure of benzaldehyde. Electronic charge distributions and bond orders in the ground and lowest excited singlet π* ← π and π* ← n states of the molecule have been studied. The molecule has been shown to be nonplanar in the lowest π* ← n excited singlet state, in agreement with the conclusions drawn from the study of vibrational spectra. Dipole moments in both excited states have been shown to be larger than the ground-state value. Thus, the ambiguity in the experimental result for the π* ← π n excited singlet state dipole moment has been resolved. It has been shown that the n orbital is mainly localized on the CHO group. Furthermore, charge distributions, dipole moments, and molecular geometries are shown to be very different in the excited singlet π* ← π and π* ← n states.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Equilibrium geometries, force constants, barriers to linearity, charge distributions, dipole moments, and electron spin density of HOO, HOS, HSO, and HSS radicals are calculated by CNDO/2 and INDO methods using respectively the original and some recently introduced scheme of parametrization. Three sets of calculations, namely, CNDO/2(sp), CNDO/2(spd), and INDO, are performed, and the results are compared with the ab initio and experimental values, wherever available. A good agreement is obtained for geometry in the case of CNDO/2 (sp) and INDO calculations. The performance of CNDO/2 (spd) calculations in this regard is quite unreliable. The stretching force constants are considerably overestimated by all the methods, while the bending force constants are in reasonable agreement with the ab initio values. With respect to dipole moments, the CNDO/2 values are in better agreement with the ab initio results than the INDO values. In all the cases, the dipole moment vector directions are in complete disagreement with the ab initio predictions.
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  • 24
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 368-372 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Prediction of the known crystal structure of cyclic-L-Ser(O-t-Bu)-β-Ala-Gly-L-β-Asp(OMe) has been attempted by establishing the low-energy conformations of the isolated molecule by conformational analysis, and then regarding each of these as a rigid molecule, by establishing the favorable crystal packing arrangements by molecular packing analysis. The theoretical model closest to the observed structure was one of the lowest-energy solutions and was recognized as essentially correct by reference to the x-ray data. The limitations of the model follow from the fact that the side chain conformations are somewhat affected by packing interactions.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Ab initio calculations with full geometry optimization have been carried out on the planar cCc, cTc, tTc, tCt, tTt, and cCt conformers of β-hydroxyacrolein using the 4-21G basis set, and on the cCc and cCt conformers using the 4-31G basis set. The hydrogen-bonded cCc conformer is the most stable and the cCt conformer the least stable, with the other conformers following the above sequence. β-Hydroxy substitution has scarcely any influence on the geometry of the trans-acrolein structure, whereas the geometry of the cis-acrolein structure shows significant changes which depend on whether the O—H group is cis or trans with respect to the CHO group about the C=C bond. The ΔET values for cis → trans isomerization about the C—C bond in cCt and cTc support the hypothesis that these changes in geometry are the result of a destabilizing interaction in cCt and a stabilizing interaction in cTc. The geometry of the hydrogen-bonded structure cCc sets it apart from all the other conformers: it has by far the longest C=C, the longest C=O, the longest O—H, the shortest C—C, and the shortest C—O. Its formation from cCt involves a lengthening of C=C, C=O, and O—H and a shortening of C—C and C—O, indicating a delocalization of charge within the ring. 4-21G calculations have also been made for a distorted cCt structure that has the same bond lengths and angles as the equilibrium cCc structure, and the distortion energy, cCt (equm. geom.) → cCt (distorted geom.), is found to be +13.1 kJ mole-1. Taking the energy of this distorted cCt structure as the baseline, the hydrogen-bonding energy in cCc is found to be  - 80.3 kJ mole-1.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A characterization of atomic environments based on counting random walks in a molecular skeleton is outlined. To each atom in a molecule a sequence of integers w1, w2, w3,…, wn is assigned, where wi represents the number of self-returning walks of length k, the length being defined by the number of bonds traversed. Properties of the derived atom codes are discussed. The codes display an impressive diversity and are superior to atomic codes based on enumeration of self-avoiding walks (or paths) in discriminating atomic environments. In certain cases the codes of individual atoms are not unique and the same codes appear in different molecules or even within the same molecule. The occurrence of the nonunique codes can be related to special structural situations, associated with the occurrence of isospectral graphs. These isospectral graphs which have atoms with identical codes can generate additional isospectral structures by attaching any arbitrary group to such points. If nonequivalent atoms of a single molecule have identical random walk codes, substitution at the singular points alternatively will produce isospectral graphs. Examples of such situations are given.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The hydrogen-bonded complex between nitric acid and ammonia molecules has been studied by the ab initio molecular orbital method using the 4-31G basis set. The calculated interaction energy for the complex (ΔE = -91.4 kJ mole-1) indicates that one is dealing with the strongest “nonionic” H-bonded complex considered hitherto by theoretical methods. Other properties of the hydrogen-bonded complex such as geometrical parameters, dipole moment, amount of charge transfer, and stretching force constants of the O—H and (OH)… N bonds are calculated and discussed.
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  • 28
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    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
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  • 29
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 30-35 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A number of cyclobutane derivatives containing one or more double bonds in endo- or exocyclic positions have been studied by the molecular mechanics method within the context of the MM2 force field. Generally speaking, the structures and energies of these compounds are well calculated in cases in which they are known experimentally and are predicted in others. Examples are shown of the use of the moments of inertia of molecules, which are known from microwave studies, in conjunction with molecular mechanics calculations to yield better structures than could be obtained by either method alone. Compounds examined include cyclobutene, methylenecyclobutane, Dewar benzene, and related compounds.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A topological model which provides a unifying framework for chemical reactions and molecular structure is proposed. Such basic concepts as overlap, orthogonality, reaction continuity, reaction reversibility, and orbital correspondence are incorporated into the model in a logical fashion. A chemical reaction pathway is regarded as a function that transforms a reactant topological space into its equivalent product space. The unique character usually ascribed to reactants, products, and their wavefunctions is superfluous. The model also allows considerable approximation of the wavefunctions and the reaction pathway without affecting the overall result. A simple orbital mapping technique consistent with the model which traces the transformation of orbitals using intermolecular overlaps of the orbitals is also proposed. The suitability of a given pathway (“allowed” or “forbidden”) can be deduced explicitly without invoking symmetry (or other) rules and without resorting to detailed calculation of reaction energy surfaces. The validity of the mapping procedure has been confirmed by several thermal electrocyclic reactions: the ring-opening isomerizations of substituted cyclopropyl cations, cyclopropyl anion, cyclopropanone, cyclobutene, benzocyclobutene, Dewar benzenes, and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. Orbital mapping with EHT and CNDO/2 MOs correctly predicts the reaction stereochemistry (conrotatory or disrotatory) in every case.
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  • 31
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
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    Notes: Four minimal Gaussian basis sets are generated for the second-row atoms Li through Ne. The first one, MINI-1, consists of a 3-term contraction of primitive Gaussian-type orbitals for 1s, 2s, and 2p atomic orbitals. The convenient shorthand notation would be (3,3) for Li—Be and (3,3/3) for B—Ne. The second one, MINI-2, can be represented by (3,3/4) for B—Ne. In the same way, MINI-3 is described as (4,3) for Li—Be, and MINI-3 and MINI-4 are represented by (4,3/3) and (4,3/4) for B—Ne, respectively. Although the four basis sets are the minimal type, they give the valence shell orbital energies which are close to those of DZ. These four and other sets derived from them are tested for the hetero- and homodiatomic molecules and some organic molecules. They are found to give the orbital energies that agree well with those given by extended calculations. Atomization energies and other spectroscopic constants are also calculated and compared with those of extended calculations. The results clearly indicate that the present basis sets can be used very effectively in the molecular calculations.
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  • 32
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: MINDO/3 calculations have been carried out for a series of branched chain alkanes in order to assess effects of branching on calculated geometries and heats of formation (ΔHf). With vicinal branching, MINDO/3 calculates the central C—C bond to be too long. Bond angles are also found to be distorted. Errors in calculated heats of formation are large when geminal branching is present and significant with vicinal branching. Branching error corrections for ΔHf have been derived and applied to a separate series of branched acyclic and cyclic compounds. For the test sample, application of the branching error corrections gave calculated structures of acyclic branched hydrocarbons with heats of formation having an average absolute error of 1.3 kcal/mole rather than 17.3 kcal/mole before correction. Cyclic branched hydrocarbons are shown to be less well corrected. Calculations of heats of reaction have also been carried out for some isomerization and cyclization reactions using the MINDO/3 and MNDO methods. It is clear from the comparisons that MNDO calculations give less severe errors for highly branched compounds but the errors are still substantial. For prediction of heats of reaction, the error-corrected calculations are shown to be superior to the “raw” calculations obtained by MINDO/3 or MNDO.
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  • 33
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 257-260 
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Graphite is the limiting case of an infinite aromatic hydrocarbon, and as such is an important benchmark in force-field calculations. Using experimentally determined physical properties for graphite, a force-field parameter set was developed for molecular mechanics calculations with unsaturated hydrocarbons and is described and discussed.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The results of ab initio “supermolecule” calculations of the charge transfer between formamide and methylglyoxal, ethylglyoxal, and dimethylglyoxal are compared for several different relative conformations of the constituent molecules. The charge transfer properties of ethylglyoxal were found to be quite different to those of the other two glyoxals.
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  • 35
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 285-287 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Calculations at the STO-3G and 4-31G levels have been carried out on propanol and ethyl methyl ether, with geometries obtained from molecular mechanics calcualations. Full relaxation was allowed in all degrees of freedom except for the torsion about the central bond, which was varied at 30° increments. A butane-type potential was found, the maximum and minimum values of energy are from 0° to 180° 5.55, 0.00, 4.02, and 0.00 kcal/mole for propanol, and 8.35, 2.74, 3.31, and 0.00 kcal/mole for ethyl methyl ether (4-31G).
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  • 36
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
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  • 37
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The range of conformational states of the phosphate groups observed in the published crystal structure of tRNAPhe is used as the basis for theoretical studies on the effect of conformation on the electrostatic potentials of these moieties. Deductions concerning the influence of these effects on the potential of a complete tRNAPhe macromolecule are presented.
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  • 38
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The numerical description of functionality allows a rigorous generation of all reactions from one structure (or partial structure) to another. The minimum number of steps required can be calculated and this “reaction distance” used to guide computer generation of sequences to converge on the target structure. A computer algorithm is described for efficient generation of all shortest synthetic routes between two given molecules as starting material and product. The program is seen as a prototype of a complete synthesis design program.
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  • 39
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 341-347 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: CNDO/S calculations are carried out on 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene (I), 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (II), all-cis-1,3,5,7-cyclononatetraene (III), and all-cis-1,4,7-cyclononatriene (IV), for which π-σ separability is a questionable matter. When disparate choices are available for the geometries, preferences are based on the agreement between calculated and experimental spectra. The microwave structure for I and an unsymmetrical conformation for III are suggested. In the electronic spectra, conjugative contributions are assigned to the lowest-energy weak band, while an ethylenic nature is to be attributed to the intense band in the range of 6 eV. The possibility of through-space π interactions is examined qualitatively. An appreciable degree of such interaction is shown by IV.
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  • 40
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Ab initio molecular orbital theory is used to examine the effect of substituents on bond lengths in mono- and disubstituted methanes. The relative importance of electrostatic and orbital interaction terms are assessed. The results suggest that for substituents (X) which show powerful σ effects and weak π interactions (e.g., F), the changes in bond length are due primarily to the electrostatic component except in some disubstituted methanes in which case the change in the hyperconjugative ability of the C - X bond is also important. On the other hand, substituents X which show weak σ effects but powerful π interactions (e.g., NH2) affect bond lengths primarily through hyperconjugative interaction of a filled or vacant π-type orbital on X with the adjacent bonds.
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  • 41
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The geometries and energies of beryllium clusters up to Be5 are examined using ab initio molecular orbital theory. Allowances are made for electron correlation with Møller - Plesset perturbation theory to fourth order. Correlation is found to have a dramatic effect on the relative energies of the several structures examined for Be4 and Be5. Furthermore, the effect of d-type basis functions on the correlation energy results in an increased binding energy for the clusters. Be2 is only weakly bound. For Be3, the best estimate of the binding energy is 6 kcal/mole for the singlet equilateral triangle. Be4 is tetrahedral in its ground state and the estimated binding is 56 kcal/mole. The best structure for Be5 is a singlet trigonal bipyramid, and the binding energy is 88 kcal/mole at the highest level of theory used.
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  • 42
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 348-357 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Electron density maps for the heterocycles thiophene, furan, and pyrrole are determined from ab initio 4-31G wavefunctions. The charge distributions in these molecules are analyzed in terms of the total molecular density and difference density maps and their profiles. The atomiclike core, especially the L core of sulfur, is found to play an important role, via its polarization and interaction, in determining the extent and direction of valence density transfer from the carbon to the heteroatom. The changes in the charge distributions that occur in the immediate vicinity of the heteroatoms and the relation of density quantities to binding and antibinding characteristics are discussed. The quantum topological features of the molecular charge distributions of the three heterocycles are analyzed and discussed and the different bonding situations, e.g., ring strain, ionic and covalent binding, etc., are compared in a model-independent way.
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  • 43
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 358-367 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The localized molecular orbitals (LMOs) of thiophene, furan, and pyrrole are derived from ab initio 4-31G wavefunctions using Boys' criteria for localization. From the transferability point of view, these LMOs are classified as (i) completely different and nontransferable LMOs (these are the lone-pair orbitals on O and N on one hand and those on S on the other hand), (ii) chemically similar lone pairs and inner shells on O and N (of furan and pyrrole, respectively), and (iii) chemically equivalent C—C, C=C, and C—H LMOs in the three heterocycles. The sp3 hybridization of the L core of sulfur, its appreciable polarization, and considerable involvement in bonding in the C—S bond region have been discussed. The present investigation indicates the limitation of the application of semiempirical MO methods to molecules that contain second-row atoms due to both the appreciable core - valence and π-σ interactions involving such atoms. Qualitative investigation of aromaticity and reactivity of the studied heterocycles agrees satisfactorily with experimental observations and shows that conclusions drawn based solely on static factor considerations (charge distribution in the noninteracting molecules) might very well be misleading and such factors determine the ease rather than the final orientation of the substituent.
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  • 44
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The results of ab initio “supermolecule” calculations of the charge transfer between formamide and the enol forms of methylglyoxal, ethylglyoxal, dimethylglyoxal, and propenylglyoxal are compared for several different conformations of the constituent molecules. The enols were found to be poorer electron acceptors than their respective keto isomers.
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  • 45
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: By means of the ΔSCF and transition operator (TO) methods based on a recently developed INDO extension to the first transition metal series, the first ionization potentials of benzene - chromium tricarbonyl (I), cyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (II), the iron - tricarbonyl complexes with trimethylenemethane (III), and cyclobutadiene (IV) have been calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the electronic structure of I to IV can be rationalized by Hoffmann's fragment approach in both the ground state and the cationic hole states. Within the series I - IV there are remarkable energy differences in the ground state for MOs derived from the 1a1 and 1e orbitals of the M(CO)3 fragment. The observation that only one band is associated with the ionization events from MOs predominantly localized at the metal site is traced back to large relaxation effects. In the cationic hole states the split of the M(CO)3 fragment orbitals 1a1 and 1e is minute in all four compounds.
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  • 46
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Current efforts to determine the nature of the interactions that influence protein folding involve, among other things, minimization of an appropriate empirical conformational energy function (ECEPP, Emprical Conformational Energy Program for Peptides) to obtain the native structure. Because of the prohibitive cost of such a massive computational project, either on a conventional large-scale machine at a self-supporting installation or on a dedicated minicomputer, an alternative computer hardware system has been developed to aid in the conformational analysis of proteins. It consists of a Floating Point Systems AP-120B array processor and a Prime 350 minicomputer host. A version of ECEPP has been adapted to run on the AP-120B. The data structures and algorithms chosen for this version reflect the highly unusual parallel architecture of this machine. Benchmark comparisons with BPTI (Bovine Pancreatic Trypsin Inhibitor), a protein of 58 residues and a known structure, have been carried out on this system as well as on an IBM 370/168. They show a significant advantage in speed for the AP-120B/Prime 350 system as well as a substantially lower cost. An energy minimization of BPTI with 154 variable dihedral angles is reported, an effort heretofore prohibited by the computer costs involved.
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  • 47
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 59-63 
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Previous attempts to determine the strengths of multiple metal-metal bonds are reviewed. Estimates of 73 and 97 kcal/mole for the Mo—Mo bond energies in Mo2Cl84- and Mo2(O2CH)4, respectively, are obtained by combining the known experimental bond energy in Mo2 (96.5 ± 5 kcal/mole) with the results of SCF-Xα-SW calculations on Mo2, Mo2Cl84-, and Mo2(O2CH)4. Possible errors in the estimates are discussed. It is noted that the quadruple bonds in the complexes are predicted stronger per component than the sextuple bond in the diatomic.
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  • 48
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 64-68 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A recently developed ab initio pseudopotential molecular orbital approach was applied to the Te42+ ion, a system outside the practical reach of conventional all-electron treatments. Computations were carried out with a minimal STO-4G basis set. Results account reasonably well for the observed optical absorption spectrum and suggest the origin of a hitherto unassigned weak band. Ground-state properties, which included the structure, force field, and vibrational frequencies, were also investigated. Treated as a free, gas-phase ion, tetratellurium (II) yielded a bond length 0.05 Å shorter than the experimental value for the ion in a crystal lattice. Placement of static, point-charge counterions in the Te42+ coordination sphere increased the bond length to a value 0.005 Å longer than derived by experiment. Calculations on neutral, cyclic Te4 provided a theoretical single-bond reference length 0.09 Å longer than that obtained for the ion in a counterion environment. Comparisons between observed and calculated frequencies suggest an assignment of the vibrational spectrum different from the provisional assignment in the literature.
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 94-98 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: Ab initio molecular orbital calculations have been used to determine the structure of protonated ozone. Four stable minima were found on the O3H+ singlet potential energy surface. Three forms correspond to ozone protonated at the central oxygen (C2v) or at the terminal oxygen (two Cs isomers, E and Z). The fourth isomer (Cs) is a derivative of trioxirane. The most stable structure is the planar E form I. The proton affinity of ozone (to give I) is given as 123.6 kcal/mole (MP2/6-31G*//4-31G). The energy difference between I and protonated trioxirane VI is greater than that between ozone and trioxirane.
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 81-87 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The electron projection function P(x, z) = ∫ ρ(x, y, z) dy is used to evaluate charge transfer and covalency in two series of molecules, LiX and CH3X (X = Li, BeH, BH2, CH3, NH2, OH, and F), with wavefunctions derived from STO-3G, 4-31G, and, in some cases, 6-31* ab initio calculations. The precision of the method and comparison with Mulliken populations analysis are described. Particular attention is given to CH3Li which by our criteria is wholly ionic.
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
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  • 52
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 111-117 
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A molecular mechanical force field for fluorinated ethylenes and propylenes is described. The field computes geometries, dipole moments, and energy differences between isomers and rotamers. Component analysis indicates that “classical” strains alone (skeletal, nonbonded, electrostatic) cannot account for energy relationships. The discussion is supplemented by a semiempirical quantum chemical comparison of cis- and trans-FCH=CHF and of gauche- and anti-FCH2CH2F.
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The geometry, harmonic and anharmonic force fields, and fundamental vibrational frequencies of cis- and trans-thiolformic acid are studied ab initio in the 4-31G basis set. An extensive comparison is made between changes in diagonal and off-diagonal quadratic and cubic force constants and diagonal stretching quartic constants in going from the chain to the ring structure in thiolformic acid and formic acid. The changes in the force constants are indicative of a much weaker interaction in the trans conformer between S—H and O=C, compared with O-H and O=C, in keeping with the weaker hydrogenbonding property of the S—H group in general.
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  • 54
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    Journal of Computational Chemistry 1 (1980), S. 181-184 
    ISSN: 0192-8651
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The energies of four different conformations for n-butane were calculated by the ab initio method using an STO-3G basis set. Fully relaxed molecular geometries obtained from molecular mechanics (MM2) were used. The two energy minima [anti (C2h), gauche (C2)] and the two maxima (C2, C2v) had the following relative energies: 0.0, 0.88, 3.56, 5.99 kcal/mole. These are approximate Hartree-Fock numbers. It is estimated that inclusion of electron correlation in the calculation would lower the last number to about 5.1 kcal/mole while leaving the first three values essentially unchanged.
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  • 55
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: A MINDO/3 study of homoaromaticity in the 3-cyclobutenyl cation and the Mobius 3-cyclobutenyl anion has been used to evaluate cationic and anionic homoaromaticity quantitatively. π Homodelocalization energies of the two are found equal in isostructural planar comparisons. In planar optimized structures, the homodelocalization energy of the cation is slightly (about 4 kcal) greater than that of the anion, a consequence of the greater 1,3 distance in the latter. Full optimization produces a highly puckered and further stabilized cation, but engenders no change in the Mobius anion. The total stabilization of the cation relative to the anion is 13 kcal, in accord with the generalization that cationic homoaromaticity is more potent than the anionic variety. The fully optimized cation is revealed to actually have a much smaller π homodelocalization energy than the optimized anion, in contrast to the order of overall stabilities. σ-Nonclassical effects, which are stabilizing in the cation but destabilizing in the Mobius anion, provide the rationale for the above.
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  • 56
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    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Biochemistry
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science
    Notes: The energies of various conformations have been calculated by molecular mechanics for cis and trans isomers of 2,4,7,9-tetraoxabicyclo[4.4.0] decane and 3,5,8,10-tetraoxabicyclo[5.3.0]decane and their methyl derivatives. These molecules are models for reaction products from formaldehyde and the tetrols, pentitols, and hexitols. The conformational equilibria were analyzed for the cis-bicyclo [4.4.0] and cis-bicyclo[5.3.0] systems and compared with available experimental data. The thermodynamic stability of bicyclo[4.4.0] products was found to be higher than that of bicyclo[5.3.0] derivatives in the gas phase in every case studied. Discrepancies with experimental data that exist in a few cases can be ascribed to solvent effects.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The many-body perturbation theory is reformulated within the dielectric function method presented in the preceding paper [12]. The self-energy effects are explicitly considered. These corrections turn out to be important and are calculated to the same level of approximation as the corresponding local-field terms. The method is at the moment applicable to π-electron systems within the zero differential overlap approximation. Explicit calculations of the excitation energies for the benzene molecule, using different parametrizations, are presented. Comparison is made with the results obtained in the random phase approximation (RPA) and other schemes.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The matrix elements of the transition dipolar momentum IR have been computed between the low-lying states associated to the Lyman-α transition. The orthogonalization of the involved electronic states (obtained by the CIPSI method) has been performed and led to a better value for the asymptotic behavior of the {Ar(3p5, 4s) + H+} configuration. Position of the satellites in the red and blue wing of the line are deduced from the potential-energy curves in the frame of the quasistatic theory.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The many-body Green's function method is applied to the vertical ionization potential of the hydrogen molecule. The ionization potential is calculated iteratively by expanding the self-energy part up to third order. The effects of higher-order correlation corrections and nondiagonal self-energy elements on the solutions of the Dyson equation are examined with some techniques and approximations, by means of which a Koopmans' defect of 97.7% of the accurate value is obtained.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A comparison between the construction of symmetry-correlation diagrams and the perturbation method for studying chemical reactions is carried out. The perturbation method consists of decomposing the system Hamiltonian H into a sum, H = H0 + H′. Various symmetry correlation schemes appearing in the literature may be explained by the nonuniqueness of the decomposition scheme. All symmetry selection rules may be viewed as the varieties. By examining the symmetry-correlation diagrams, processes under investigation may be called “forbidden” or “allowed,” depending on the topological feature. Of particular importance is the topology associated with the “avoided crossing.” By making the comparison, we can establish the correspondence of the two methods and conclude that the perturbation order furnishes the origin of the “forbiddenness” of a process.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The total dipole moments, molecular energies, and π-electron densities for the linear and orthogonal pyrrole⃛acetonitrile hydrogen-bonded complexes were studied in the ab initio valence bond framework using the minimal STO-3G basis set. That the orthogonal conformation, although slightly less stable than the other, is predominant as observed in carbon tetrachloride, can be explained by its relatively high symmetry number.
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    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The electronic structures of both the ground and excited states of ozone (O3) are investigated by the ab initio unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) and UHF-natural orbital (NO) CI methods. It is found that the ab initio UHF-NO CI method provides reasonable descriptions of both the states of O3.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ab initio molecular-orbital theory has been used to study the 1,3-sigmatropic hydrogen rearrangements: propene → propene, formic acic → formic acid, and vinyl alcohol → acetaldehyde. Fully optimized structures of stable molecules and transition states have been determined using gradient procedures and the 4-31G basis set. Improved energies have been obtained using a variety of techniques with basis sets up to the size of double-ζ plus polarization (DZP) and electron correlation up to the CEPA/DZP level. Although both polarization functions and electron correlation lead to a lowering of the calculated barriers, the values remain substantial for all three rearrangements.
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    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Hückel-London theory has been applied to the calculation of the “ring currents” octopole hypersusceptibilities of a series of conjugated compounds. Our calculations have been performed using fourth-order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation technique. This is believed to be the first calculation of this kind. It is found that the values of “ring currents” hypersusceptibilities of fulvene and azulene are larger, in absolute magnitude, than the values corresponding, respectively, to benzene and naphthalene. It is found that, in most cases, the “ring currents” hypersusceptibilities are diamagnetic (negative values) for aromatic molecules and paramagnetic (positive values) for pseudoaromatic or antiaromatic compounds.
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  • 65
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Global features of potential-energy curves are drawn using minimal basis SCF-CI method. Potential-energy surfaces are drawn at points of interest. The mechanism of the chemiluminescence is discussed along with the measurement of a rate constant exploiting the phenomena.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The SCF potential surface of the ground state for NO2 was calculated by using program JAMOL 3. The McLean-Loew-Berkowitz CGTO's were used as basis functions. One of the two N—O distance R is fixed to 2.25 a.u. and the other one r and the ONO angle θ are varied from 2.25 to 5.0 a.u. and from 0° to 180°, respectively. The potential surface has the minimum around r = 2.50 a.u. and θ = 120°, where the energy is found to be -203.954 a.u.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: As is known, the Schrödinger equation for a particle in the ring-shaped potential V(r,v) = ησ2(2a0/r-a02/r2 sin2v)ε0, defined in the whole space, has been solved exactly. Here the eigenfunctions are represented in a form which is advantageous for concrete evaluations. The spin-orbit interaction energy ELS in quasirelativistic approximation is determined analytically, for the first time with a nonspherically symmetric potential. The influence of spin-orbit interaction on the eigenvalues of the spin-free problem and on the selection rules for electrical dipole transitions are investigated as well as the dependence of ELS on the position and depth of the potential minimum. The model can be useful for investigations of axial symmetric subjects like the benzene molecule or related problems and may be easily extended to a many-electron theory.
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    ISSN: 0020-7608
    Keywords: Computational Chemistry and Molecular Modeling ; Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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