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  • Competition  (161)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Key words Interspecific interactions ; Competition ; Coccinellidae ; Biological control ; Intraguild predation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Palearctic coccinellid, has established and rapidly spread throughout the United States. This quantitative examination of larval interactions between C. septempunctata and Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a Nearctic coccinellid, was conducted under controlled prey densities. Larvae of both coccinellid species are affected by a limited diet [one pea aphid per day Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Homoptera: Aphididae)] compared with an excess diet (〉20 aphids per day). Larval survival decreased from 86 to 63% in C. maculata and from 84 to 33% in C. septempunctata; mean preimaginal developmental time increased from 20.6 to 26.7 days in C. maculata, and from 18.1 to 32.0 days in C. septempunctata. Additionally, on one aphid per day, mean adult weight was reduced from 12.39 to 9.79 mg in C. maculata, and from 39.57 to 14.44 mg in C. septempunctata. Interspecific interactions, favoring C. septempunctata over C. maculata at a␣low prey density (one aphid per day), take the form of␣reduced survival of C. maculata compared with C.␣septempunctata (14 versus 66%). Reduced survival of␣C. maculata may be the result of competition for aphids or intraguild predation by C. septempunctata on C.␣maculata. No interspecific interactions (measured as effects on larval survival, preimaginal developmental time, and adult weight) were observed between larvae of these two species at a high prey density (〉20 aphids per predator per day).
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Drought ; Competition ; Facilitation ; Demography ; Cryptantha flava
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The demographic consequences of a severe drought year were examined for two experimental plantings of the herbaceous desert perennial Cryptantha flava(Boraginaceae) in northeastern Utah, United States. A total of 6680 nutlets were planted individually or in clusters of four both under shrubs and in open microhabitats within two natural populations. Survival, growth, and flowering as a function of density and microhabitat were followed for 7 years, including 1 year when precipitation just before and during the growing season was 74.5% below normal. The design permitted assessment of how intraspecific density and shrub cover affect demographic response to drought. Mortality increased and flowering decreased dramatically during drought but neither varied with density or between shrub and open microhabitats. For plants growing under shrubs, survival (at Site 1) and growth (at Site 2) varied with shrub species. Average aboveground plant size also decreased during drought. Population size hierarchies were rearranged because larger plants lost leaf rosettes while many smaller plants grew. Density and microhabitat affected plant performance in non-drought years but more often at Site 1 than at Site 2. Individuals growing alone often were more likely to flower and/or produced more inflorescences when they did flower than did individuals growing with at least one other plant. However, for 2 years, survival rates at Site 1 were higher for plants growing in clumps than for single individuals. Shrubs also had mixed effects on plant performance. In some years, survival was higher under shrubs, but at Site 1 plants in the open often were more likely to flower and/or produced more inflorescences. Thus despite severe demographic consequences of drought, the study provided no evidence that intraspecific competition, interference by shrubs, or facilitation by shrubs increases under limited soil water.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Triclads ; Leeches ; Lakes ; Food ; Competition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The triclads Polycelis tenuis and Dugesia polychroa and the glossiphoniid leeches Glossiphonia complanata and Helobdella stagnalis are abundant on the stony shores of productive British lakes. All species are food limited and there is considerable overlap in the diets of these triclads and leeches. This paper investigates interactions between the two groups using field and laboratory experiments to try to identify the mechanism of their co-existence. Triclad and leech numbers were manipulated inside experimental enclosures, mathced by controls, erected on the stony shore of an eutrophic English lake. Increasing the numbers of P. tenuis and D. polychroa prior to the reproductive season in spring resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers and body size of G. complanata and H. stagnalis compared with control populations in the summer months, and vice versa. However, increases and decreases were temporary with a readjustment of numbers and body size to control levels in the autumn after reproduction had ceased. It is suggested that increasing the numbers of either group elevated the severity of both intra- and interspecific competition for food. The “condition” of prey may, in part, determine the strength of competition, and this was examined in laboratory experiments in which different densities and ratios of P. tenuis and H. stagnalis were offered either live of recently crushed Asellus aquaticus. In monospecific controls, growth rates of P. tenuis were greater when fed on crushed than live Asellus, but there was no significant difference in the growth of H. stagnalis fed either live or crushed prey. In mixed cultures of predators, P. tenuis and H. stagnalis were the superior competitors when fed on crushed and live Asellus, respectively. However, when competitive pressure was low, at low densities of predators, the presence of H. stagnalis in mixed cultures fed on live prey was beneficial to the growth of P. tenuis. These results are explained in terms of the greater ability of triclads to detect damaged prey, leaking body fluids, due to their sophisticated chemosensory system, and the ability of leeches to capture live prey due to the presence of suckers. It is concluded that co-existence of the two groups in British lakes is assisted by the partitioning of food on a live or damaged basis.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Competition ; Phenology ; Seedling ; Spatial distribution ; Silene dioica
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary 1) A natural population of the perennial herb Silene dioica was mapped at intervals over the course of a year. The ‘space available’ to each plant was estimated by a Thiessen polygon, defined by the position of the plant's neighbours. 2) Germination and recruitment of seedlings appeared to be unrelated to the position of individuals with respect to their neighbours. 3) Various measures of plant growth were strongly correlated with polygon area in some seasons, suggesting that competition was occurring between individuals for spatially distributed resources. Plasticity allowed plants to exploit the available area, regardless of polygon shape or the number of neighbours defining a polygon. 4) In the early spring phase of seedling establishment, growth appeared to be enhanced and seedlings lived longer when they were close to neighbours. In late spring this effect was replaced by the more rapid growth of individuals in the larger polygons, i.e. with more distant neighbours. This sequence of events is consistent with the onset of competition for resources in late spring. 5) These effects were observed despite heterogeneity in the environment and variation in individual response.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Competition ; Bivalvia ; Host-selection ; Parasites ; Unionicola
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Unionicolid water mites inhabit freshwater unionid mussels during the nymphal and adult stages of their life-cycle. Regular sampling of mussels from two sites in St. Mark's River, Fl. established that each of four species of water mite (Unionicola abnormipes, U. fossulata, U. serrata and U. formosa) occurred mainly in one or two of the mussel species available at each site. The role of preference for particular mussel species during host location was assessed for the first three mite species by choice experiments, in which mites were offered different mussel species simultaneously. In five out of six experiments, mites entered normally unused mussels as often as they did normally used ones. Additionally, a sexual difference in choice was found for U. fossulata, with males preferring one mussel species and females showing no preference. One mussel species, (Anodonta imbecilis), normally unused but chosen by mite species during the lab. experiments, is inhabited exclusively by the fourth mite species, U. formosa, in the field. An experiment showed that U. formosa excludes other mite species aggressively from Anodonta imbecilis. The results illustrate the sometimes misleading nature of simple sampling data as an indication of host specificity or host preference in parasites. They suggest also that the population dynamics of some parasites might be more fruitfully compared to unrelated, free-living species than to other parasites.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Agropyron ; Artemisia ; Relative growth rate ; Competition ; Tussock grass
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Within the first few weeks after seedling emergence, Agropyron desertorum, a more competitive tussock grass, had a much higher mean relative growth rate (RGR) than Agropyron spicatum, a very similar, but less competitive species. However, beyond the early seedling stage, the two grasses had a remarkably similar whole-plant RGR in hydroponic culture and aboveground RGR in glasshouse soil, if root temperatures were above approximately 12°C. At soil temperatures between 5 and 12°C, A. desertorum exhibited a 66% greater aboveground RGR than A. spicatum (P〈0.05). Both species responded similarly to warming soil temperatures. In the field, however, tiller growth rates were generally similar. Neither species showed marked tiller elongation until a couple of weeks after snowmelt, by which time soil temperatures, at least to a depth of 10 cm, were above 12°C for a significant portion of the day. Aboveground biomass accumulation over a three-year period indicated that both grasses had similar potential growth rates whereas Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, a common neighbor planted in the same plots, had a much greater potential growth rate. The greater competitive ability of adult A. desertorum, as compared to A. spicatum, cannot be attributed to appreciable differences in potential growth rates.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Pollination ; Stigma closure ; Competition ; Delphinium ; Ipomopsis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Previous experiments showed that the sympatric herbs Delphinium nelsonii and Ipomopsis aggregata compete for hummingbird pollination and that deleterious effects of the former species on seed set of the latter involve interspecific pollen transfer. However, seed set was not reduced when pollen of both species was applied simultaneously to I. aggregata stigmas. Hence a competitive effect may require arrival of foreign pollen before conspecific pollen. To explore this possibility we subjected I. aggregata flowers to a “competition” treatment in which they received D. nelsonii pollen 6 h before I. aggregata pollen, or to a “control” in which they received only the conspecific pollen. Foreign pollen precedence decreased mean seed set by almost 50%, which is consistent with effects observed in previous experiments. Reduced seed set can be explained by the fact that foreign pollen often caused stigma lobes to close together within 1.5–6 h, reducing subsequent receptivity. Stigma closure was also elicited by conspecific pollen, but not by mechanical stimulation, and was influenced by size of the pollen load and identity of the plant being pollinated.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Drosera ; Competition ; Food niches ; Carnivorous plants ; Niche segregation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In 1984 a quantitative field study was made on two sympatric species of sundew, Drosera rotundifolia and Drosera intermedia, growing in a small silting-up bog in southern Germany. Both species differ in individual size and abundance but have nearly the same total biomass. Their association along a transect was strongly negative and also the vertical distribution was quite different. D. rotundifolia grows in significantly higher parts of the bog than D. intermedia. The composition of arthropod prey fauna proved to be markedly different in both species. For instance, Collembola were found more frequently on D. rotundifolia, winged insects on D. intermedia. The reasons for these differences are probably different microhabitats and different shapes of the plants. Seasonal dynamics of the arthropod populations affect their share in the composition of prey.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 72 (1987), S. 233-247 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Pagurus ; Competition ; Resource partioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Competition for empty gastropod shells in a group of three sympatric hermit crabs (Pagurus hirsutiusculus, Pagurus granosimanus, and Pagurus beringanus) was studied in the San Juan Archipelago, Washington State. Estimates of the competitive effects of each species on the others' shell supplies were derived using field data on shell utilization and the results of laboratory experiments to determine rates of acquisition and exchange of shells and preferences for different shell species. Each species experienced approximately an order of magnitude more intraspecific competition than interspecific competition for empty shells. This resulted from differences in preference for shell shapes, shell size use, and habitat use between P. hirsutiusculus and P. granosimanus, and largely from differences in habitat use between P. beringanus and the other two species. Experiments involving the release and recensusing of marked empty shells were used to estimate competitive effects more directly for the interaction between P. hirsutiusculus and P. granosimanus. Results were consistent with the estimates derived from data on resource partitioning. Possible causes of the low levels of interspecific competition are discussed, and results are compared with studies of other organisms that estimated both inter- and intra-specific competition.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Pagurus ; Competition ; Resource partitioning
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Resource partitioning was quantified for 6 species of intertidal hermit crabs in the genus Pagurus, that occur on the outer coast of Washington. This, together with field evidence of shell shortage and with laboratory experiments to quantify the mechanism of interactions for shells, allowed estimation of the relative intensities of inter-and intraspecific competition between these species. The findings were that: (1) the magnitude of intraspecific competition was greater than any single interspecific competitive effect for all of the species; and (2) the relative proportion of intraspecific competition was greater for the middle and upper intertidal species than for the lower intertidal species. Studies at several outer coast sites supported these generalizations. Both of these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that competitive divergence has occurred in the past. The structure of the outer coast hermit crab assemblage is compared with that of the San Juan Archipelago hermit crab assemblage. Differences between the two do not seem to be the result of adaptive responses to the presence of more competing species in the former group.
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