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  • 1
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    Unknown
    Vienna: The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies (wiiw)
    Publication Date: 2019-09-21
    Description: After the EU enlargement of May 2004, the exchange of agro-food goods between the EU 15 and the new member states (NMS) has accelerated considerably. In particular the expansion of Polish exports in 2005 resulted in the highest surplus registered by the NMS 4 (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) in the past decade. Lower production costs in agriculture, especially for labour, are a fundamental cause of Poland's success to date. Despite remaining net importers, the Czech Republic and Slovakia have also slightly improved their position on the EU agro-food markets. Hungary's great ambitions - prior to EU accession - to further expand to EU markets have so far not materialized. The Hungarian setback is rooted in higher production costs, in particular in the livestock sector, and delayed preparations needed to meet European standards. Backed mostly by direct payments and by high EU internal farmgate prices for a number of products, the economic situation in agriculture in the NMS-4 has improved substantially after accession to the EU. In the years to come, price competitiveness in the NMS will erode as the slight deterioration in agricultural terms of trade visible in the past decade will continue. With ongoing integration into the EU, labour costs and land prices will be on the rise, while farmgate prices in the EU, under pressure from the WTO, will drop in the long run. Further liberalization of the agro-food markets and rising labour productivity will result in a reduction of agricultural jobs in the EU. Consequently, the production of organic foodstuffs and other labour-intensive regional specialties may become an increasingly attractive option to survive. The size and structure of farms will vary between countries depending on the different natural and climatic conditions, as well as their previous histories. It can be expected that large market-oriented farms will continue to constitute the majority in the Czech Republic and Slovakia and, to a lesser extent, in Hungary; the significance of smaller market-oriented farms is likely to dwindle. In Poland, this concentration process will ensue at a much slower pace owing to the country's completely different post-war development. Mounting WTO pressure and the growing reluctance of rich EU member states to contribute to the Brussels budget for the development of poorer countries of the Union will lead to a weakening of redistribution processes. As a result, the total amount of money available from Brussels for redistribution under the CAP will be less than today.
    Keywords: F15 ; H71 ; J33 ; J43 ; O13 ; O57 ; P32 ; Q14 ; Q15 ; Q17 ; ddc:330 ; Central and East European new EU member states ; agriculture ; food industry ; agro food trade ; EU integration ; regional development ; Common Agricultural Policy ; WTO
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
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    Unknown
    Adelaide: University of Adelaide Press
    Publication Date: 2018-09-26
    Description: Until very recently, most grape-based wine was consumed close to where it was produced, and mostly that was in Europe. Barely one-tenth of the world's wine production was exported prior to the 1970s, even counting intra-European trade. The latest wave of globalization has changed that forever. Now more than one-third of all wine consumed globally is produced in another country, and Europe's dominance of global wine trade has been greatly diminished by the surge of exports from "New World" producers. New consumers also have come onto the scene as incomes have grown, eating habits have changed and tastes have broadened. Asia in particular is emerging as a new and rapidly growing wine market - and in China that is stimulating the development of local, modern production capability that, in volume terms, already rivals that of Argentina, Australia and South Africa. This latest edition of global wine statistics therefore not only updates data to 2009 and revises past data, but also expands on earlier editions in a number of ways. For example, we now separately identify an extra eight Asian countries or customs areas (Hong Kong, India, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand) in addition to China and Japan. We also include more than 50 new tables to cover such items as excise and import taxes, per capita expenditure on wine, the share of domestic sales in off-trade, the shares of the largest firms in national markets and globally, and the most powerful wine brands globally. Given the growing interest in the health aspects of alcohol consumption, we now express it per adult as well as per capita. Perhaps the most significant addition to this latest version is a new section that provides estimates of the volume, value and hence unit value of wine production, consumption, exports and imports for four catagories: sparkling wines, and non-premium, commercial-premium and super-premium still wines.
    Keywords: ddc:380 ; Global wine markets 1961 to 2009 ; statistical compendium ; Kym Anderson ; Signe Nelgen ; Wine and wine making ; Statistics ; Wine industry ; Globalisation ; Economic aspects ; New world wine ; global wine trade ; Australian market ; South American market ; American market ; Asian market ; European market ; global wine statistics ; excise ; import tax ; domestic sales ; overseas sales ; per capita expenditure ; national markets ; wine brand ; wine brands ; unit value of wine production ; wine consumption ; exports ; imports ; non-premium wine ; commercial-premium wine ; super-premium wine
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:book
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