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  • Chemistry  (408,542)
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  • 1
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    In:  J.Oehlenschlaeger@gmx.net | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/11132 | 1240 | 2013-04-08 18:42:57 | 11132 | Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Ländliche Räume, Wald und Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: KurzfassungZahlreiche Fischereierzeugnisse aus dem Deutschen Handel wurden auf ihren Gehalt an Cholesterol hin analysiert. ZurAnalyse gelangten 38 verschiedene Dauerkonserven von acht Fischarten, 4 Produkte kalt geräucherter AtlantischerZuchtlachs in Scheiben, 10 Garnelenarten und 25 Fischstäbchenerzeugnisse von 5 Tierarten in Verbraucherpackungen. Bei den Dauerkonserven lagen die Gehalte zwischen 24 und 40 mg/100 g. Zwei Ausnahmen bildeten Sprottenkonserven mit durchschnittlich 107 mg/100 g und Oktopuskonserven mit 196 mg/100 g. Die Garnelenarten variierten zwischen 84 und 161 mg/100g. Die kalt geräucherten Lachsscheiben wiesen nur eine kleine Bandbreite im Cholesterolgehalt zwischen 38 und 43mg/100 g auf. Alle Fischstäbchen aus Magerfischen enthielten niedrige Gehalte an Cholesterol (Pangasius hypophthalmus 25, Seehecht 19, Seelachs 31 und Alaska Seehecht 28 mg/100 g), während die zwei Proben aus Tintenfischen über 100 mg/100 g lagen.AbstractNumerous fishery products from the German market have been analysed for their content of cholesterol. In total 38 different canned fishery products produced from 8 species, 4 products of sliced cold smoked Atlantic salmon, 10 species of crustacean shellfish and 25 different brands of consumer packages of fish fingers (produced from 5 species) were investigated. Canned fishery products contained amounts of cholesterol ranging from 24 to 40 mg/100 g. However, canned sprats exhibit cholesterol content as high as 107 mg/100g and canned octopus 196 mg/100 g. Crustacean shellfish was found to contain cholesterol content between 84 and 161 mg/100 g depending of species. Sliced cold smoked salmon in 200 g consumer packages showed only a little variation in cholesterol content (38-43 mg/100 g). In all fish fingers produced from lean fish species lowcholesterol content (pangasius or sutchi catfish 25, hake 19, saithe 31, and Alaska Pollack 28 mg/100 g, respectively) was found, whereas two products produced from squid exceeded 100 mg/100 g.
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute of Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung - Information on Fishery Research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Information Management ; fish products ; consumer protection ; chemical analysis ; nutrition advice ; healthy nutrition
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article
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  • 2
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    In:  hartmut.rehbein@mri.bund.de | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/11167 | 1240 | 2013-05-17 07:56:42 | 11167 | Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Bundesforschungsinstitut für Ländliche Räume, Wald und Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: To ensure the authentication of fishery products lacking biological characters, rapid species identification methods are required. Two DNA- and protein-based methods, PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction - single strand conformation polymorphism) of a 464 bp segment of the cytochrome b – gene and isoelectric focusing (IEF) of water-soluble proteins from fish fillets, were applied to identify fillets of (sub-) tropical fish species available on the European market. Among the samples analysed weretwo taxonomically identified species from the family Sciaenidae and one from Sphyraenidae. By comparison of DNA- and protein patterns of different samples, information about intra-species variability of patterns,and homogeneity of batches (e.g. fillet blocks or bags) can be obtained. PCR-SSCP and IEF may be useful for pre-checking of a large number of samples by food control laboratories.ZusammenfassungZur Sicherstellung der Authentizität von Fischerei-Erzeugnissen ohne biologische Merkmale sind schnelle Verfahren zur Speziesidentifizierung hilfreich. Zwei Methoden der DNA- bzw. Protein-Analyse wurden eingesetzt, um Filets (sub-) tropischer Fischarten, die auf dem europäischen Markt angeboten werden, zu identifizieren. Bei diesen Methoden handelt es sich um die PCR-SSCP (Polymerase-Kettenreaktion – Einzelstrang-Konformationspolymorphismus) – Analyse der PCR-Produkte und die IEF (isoelektrische Fokussierung) der wasserlöslichen Fischmuskelproteine. Unter den untersuchten Proben waren zwei taxonomisch bestimmte Arten aus der Familie Sciaenidae und eine Spezies aus der Familie Sphyraenidae. Durch Vergleich der DNA- bzw. Proteinmuster lassen sich Informationen über die intra-spezifische Variabilität solcher Muster und die Einheitlichkeit von Partien (beispielsweise Filetblöcke oder Filetbeutel) gewinnen. PCR-SSCP und IEF könnenin Laboratorien der Lebensmittelüberwachung als Vortest gerade bei hohen Probenzahlen sinnvoll eingesetzt werden.
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Federal Research Institute of Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung - Information on Fishery Research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; fish species identification ; PCR ; SSCP ; IEF ; Sciaenidae ; Sphyraenidae ; Fischarten-Identifizierung
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  • 3
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    Texas Game and Fish Commission Marine Laboratory | Rockport, TX
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14207 | 9596 | 2020-08-23 22:50:08 | 14207 | Galveston Bay Information Collection
    Publication Date: 2021-06-24
    Description: In order to obtain information on the characteristics of water and climate that prevail in Galveston Bay, East Bay, and West Bay, established stations were sampled regularly. Information derived from samples included water temperature and salinity. Additional information of this nature was derived from other bay studies. Information on river flow, air temperature and wind were derived from publications. Water temperatures were found to follow air temperatures closely. The prevailing winds in all but two months were on-shore winds. Salinities were found to vary inversely with the volume of fresh water entering the bays from the Trinity River. West Bay, due to its locations, is affected less than the other bays by fresh water from the Trinity River. Vertical and horizontal salinity gradients were found to be the normal pattern in East Bay and Galveston Bay. West Bay, with two major passes to the Gulf of Mexico and with no major source of fresh water, normally maintained higher salinities than the other bays.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Oceanography ; GBIC ; hydrography ; meteorology ; salinity gradients ; temperature ; salinity ; water sampling
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  • 4
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    South Central Environmental Center, NUS Corporation | Houston, TX
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14172 | 9596 | 2020-08-31 20:26:12 | 14172 | Galveston Bay Information Collection
    Publication Date: 2021-06-24
    Description: In May 1979, Contract No. DACW64-79-C-0037, for performance of bioassays and bioaccumulation studies, chemical analyses of sediments, seawater and elutriate materials, and appropriate statistical analyses of samples obtained from the Galveston Harbor and Sabine-Neches Waterway Channels, was awarded to NUS Corporation by the Army Corps of Engineers, Galveston District. These studies are part of a continuing evaluation of the potential environmental effects of proposed ocean disposal of dredged materials and are required for compliance with provisions of Section 103 of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (PL 92-532). This final report presents the results of dredged material evaluations for the Galveston Harbor Channel project area.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Limnology ; bioassay ; chemical analyses ; statistical analyses ; water quality
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: monograph
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    Format: 146
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  • 5
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    Texas Game and Fish Commission | Rockport, TX
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14213 | 9596 | 2020-08-23 22:33:19 | 14213 | Galveston Bay Information Collection
    Publication Date: 2021-06-24
    Description: Observations and analysis of the various features of the water of upper Galveston and Trinity Bays (Area M-2) were made using dye, thermometers, chemical tests, and other appropriate methods. Information and data were also collected from numerous publications and other sources. The distribution of marine organisms relative to pollution in the Houston Ship Channel was investigated.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Pollution ; chemical analysis ; physical properties ; water analysis ; pollution ; marine organisms ; ecological distribution ; GBIC
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  • 6
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    In:  bill.sunda@noaa.gov | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14910 | 403 | 2014-03-11 19:18:24 | 14910 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: Time series measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS), particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp), chlorophyll a (chl a), algal pigments, major nutrients, and the potential activity of DMSP lyase enzymes were made over a 2 yr period (6 March 2003 to 28 March 2005) near the mouth of the shallow, tidally mixed Newport River estuary, North Carolina, USA. DMSPp had a mean of 43 ± 20 nM (range = 10.5 to 141 nM, n = 85) and DMS a mean of 2.7 ± 1.2 nM (range = 0.9 to 7.0 nM). The mean DMS in Gallants Channel was not significantly different from that measured in the Sargasso Sea near Bermuda during a previous 3 yr time series study (2.4 ± 1.5 nM), despite there being a 43-fold higher mean chl a concentration (4.9 ± 2.4 µg l–1) at the coastal site. In winter, DMS was low and chl a was high in the surface waters of the Sargasso Sea, while the opposite was true at the coastal site. Consequently, DMS concentrations per unit algal chl a were on average 170 times higher in the Sargasso Sea than at the coastal site during the summer, but only 7 times higher during the winter. The much higher chl a-specific DMS concentrations at the oceanic site during the summer were linked to higher ratios of intracellular DMSP substrate and DMSP lyase enzyme per unit chl a. These differences in turn appear to be linked to large differences in nutrient concentrations and solar UV stress at the 2 sites and to associated differences in the composition of algal assemblages and physiological acclimation of algal cells.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Management
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    Format: 281-294
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  • 7
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    In:  milton.levin@uconn.edu | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14911 | 403 | 2014-03-10 20:01:03 | 14911 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: The immunotoxic potential of domoic acid (DA), a well-characterized neurotoxin, has not been fully investigated. Phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation were evaluated following in vitro and in vivo exposure to assay direct vs indirect effects. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of DA (2.5 µg/g b.w.) and sampled after 12, 24, or 48 hr. In a separate experiment, leukocytes and splenocytes were exposed in vitro to 0, 1, 10, or 100 µM DA. In vivo exposure resulted in a significant increase in monocyte phagocytosis (12-hr), a significant decrease in neutrophil phagocytosis (24-hr), a significant decrease in monocyte phagocytosis (48-hr), and a significant reduction in T-cell mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation (24-hr). In vitro exposure significantly reduced neutrophil and monocyte phagocytosis at 1 µM. B- and T-cell mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation were both significantly increased at 1 and 10 µM, and significantly decreased at 100 µM. Differences between in vitro and in vivo results suggest that DA may exert its immunotoxic effects both directly and indirectly. Modulation of cytosolic calcium suggests that DA exerts its effects through ionotropic glutamate subtype surface receptors at least on monocytes. This study is the first to identify DA as an immunotoxic chemical in a mammalian species.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Health
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    Format: 636-659
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  • 8
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15095 | 403 | 2014-05-28 03:30:26 | 15095 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
    Description: As nearshore fish populations decline, many commercialfishermen have shifted fishing effort to deeper continental slope habitats to target fishes for which biologicalinformation is limited. One such fishery that developed in the northeastern Pacific Ocean in the early 1980s was for the blackgill rockfish (Sebastes melanostomus), a deep-dwelling (300−800 m) species that congregates over rocky pinnacles, mainly from southern California to southernOregon. Growth zone-derived age estimates from otolith thin sections were compared to ages obtained from the radioactive disequilibria of 210Pb, in relation to its parent, 226Ra, in otolith cores of blackgill rockfish. Age estimates were validated up to 41 years, and a strong pattern of agreement supported a longevity exceeding 90years. Age and length data fitted to the von Bertalanffy growth function indicated that blackgill rockfish are slow-growing (k= 0.040 females, 0.068 males) and that females grow slower than males, but reach a greater length. Age at 50% maturity, derived from previously published length-at-maturity estimates, was 17 years for males and 21 years for females. The results of this study agree with general life history traits already recognized for many Sebastes species, such as long life, slow growth, and late age at maturation. These traits may undermine the sustainability of blackgill rockfish populations when heavy fishing pressure, such as that which occurred in the 1980s, is applied.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Management
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  • 9
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15137 | 403 | 2014-05-23 00:06:17 | 15137 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 10
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15139 | 403 | 2014-05-23 00:04:39 | 15139 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Description: Horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) are caught by commercial fishermen for use as bait in eel and whelk fisheries (Berkson and Shuster, 1999)—fisheries with an annual economic value of $13 to $17 million (Manion et al.1). Horse-shoe crabs are ecologically important, as well (Walls et al., 2002). Migratory shorebirds rely on horseshoe crab eggs for food as they journey from South American wintering grounds to Arctic breeding grounds (Clark, 1996). Horse-shoe crabs are also essential for public health (Berkson and Shuster, 1999). Biomedical companies bleed horse-shoe crabs to extract a chemical used to detect the presence of endotoxins pathogenic to humans in injectable and implantable medical devices (Novitsky, 1984; Mikkelsen, 1988). Bled horseshoe crabs are returned to the wild, subject to the possibility of postbleeding mortality. Recent concerns of overharvesting have led to conflicts among commercial fishermen, environmentalists acting on behalf of the shorebirds, and biomedical companies (Berkson and Shuster, 1999; Walls et al., 2002).
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 11
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15161 | 403 | 2014-05-29 07:19:00 | 15161 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Description: The use of strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios in otoliths is becoming a standard method to describe life history type and the chronology of migrations between freshwater and seawater habitats in teleosts (e.g. Kalish, 1990; Radtke et al., 1990; Secor, 1992; Rieman et al., 1994; Radtke, 1995; Limburg, 1995; Tzeng et al. 1997; Volk et al., 2000; Zimmerman, 2000; Zimmerman and Reeves, 2000, 2002). This method provides critical information concerning the relationship and ecology of species exhibiting phenotypic variation in migratory behavior (Kalish, 1990; Secor, 1999).Methods and procedures, however, vary among laboratories because a standard method or protocol for measurement ofSr in otoliths does not exist. In this note, we examine the variations in analytical conditions in an effort to increase precision of Sr/Ca measurements. From these findings we argue that precision can be maximized withhigher beam current (although there is specimen damage) than previously recommended by Gunn et al. (1992).
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 12
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15180 | 403 | 2014-05-29 07:50:04 | 15180 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-04
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2021-07-04
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Management
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  • 14
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15184 | 403 | 2014-05-29 07:55:35 | 15184 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-04
    Description: Otolith thermal marking is an efficient method for mass marking hatchery-reared salmon and can be used to estimate the proportion of hatchery fish captured in a mixed-stock fishery. Accuracy of the thermal pattern classification depends on the prominence of the pattern, the methods used to prepare and view the patterns, and the training and experience of the personnel who determine the presence or absence of a particular pattern. Estimating accuracy rates is problematic when no secondary marking is available and no error-free standards exist. Agreement measures, such as kappa (κ), provide a relative measure of the reliability of the determinations when independent readings by two readers are available, but the magnitude of κ can be influenced by the proportion of marked fish. If a third reader is used or if two or more groups of paired readings are examined, latent class models can provide estimates of the error rates of each reader. Applications of κ and latent class models are illustrated by a program providing contribution estimates of hatchery-reared chum and sockeye salmon in Southeast Alaska.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 15
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15195 | 403 | 2014-05-30 07:14:43 | 15195 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-04
    Description: Skeletochronological data on growth changes in humerus diameter were used to estimate the age of Hawaiian green seaturtles ranging from 28.7 to 96.0 cm straight carapace length. Two age estimation methods, correction factor and spline integration, were compared, giving age estimates ranging from 4.1 to 34.6 and from 3.3 to 49.4 yr, respectively, for the sample data. Mean growth rates of Hawaiian green seaturtles are 4–5 cm/yr in early juveniles, decline to a relatively constant rate of about 2 cm/yr by age 10 yr, then decline again to less than 1 cm/yr as turtles near age 30 yr. On average, age estimates from the two techniques differed by just a few years for juvenile turtles, but by wider margins for mature turtles. The spline-integration method models the curvilinear relationship between humerus diameter and the width of periosteal growth increments within the humerus, and offers several advantages over the correction-factor approach.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 16
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15230 | 403 | 2014-06-01 18:56:50 | 15230 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: Independent molecular markers based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA were developed to provide positive identification of istiophorid and xiphiid billfishes (marlins, spearfishes, sailfish, and swordfish). Both classes of markers were based on amplification of short segments (〈1.7 kb) of DNA by the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent digestion with informative restriction endonucleases. Candidate markers were evaluated for their ability to discriminate among the different species and the level of intraspecific variation they exhibited. The selected markers require no more than two restriction digestions to allow unambiguous identification, although it was not possible to distinguish between white marlin and striped marlin with any of the genetic characters screened in our study. Individuals collected from throughout each species’ range were surveyed with the selected markers demonstrating low levels of intraspecific character variation within species. The resulting keys provide two independent means for the forensic identification of fillets and for specific identification of early life history stages.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Management
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  • 17
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15228 | 403 | 2014-06-01 18:57:37 | 15228 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: Catch rates in the South African rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) fishery declined after 1989 in response to reduced adult somatic growth rates and a consequent reduction in recruitment to the fishable population. Although spatial and temporal trends in adult growth are well described, little is known about how juvenile growth rates have been affected. In our study, growth rates of juvenile rock lobster on Cape Town harbor wall were compared with those recorded at the same site more than 25 years prior to our study, and with those on a nearby natural nursery reef. We found that indices of somatic growth measured during 1996–97 at the harbor wall had declined significantly since 1971–72. Furthermore, growth was slower among juvenile J. lalandii at the harbor wall than those at the natural nursery reef. These results suggest that growth rates of juvenile and adult J. lalandii exhibit similar types of spatiotemporal patterns. Thus, the recent coastwide decline in adult somatic growth rates might also encompass smaller size classes.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 18
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15236 | 403 | 2014-06-01 18:54:03 | 15236 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) are migratory, long-lived, and slow maturing. They are difficult to study because they are seen rarely and their habitats range over vast stretches of the ocean. Movements of immature turtles between pelagic and coastal developmental habitats are particularly difficult to investigate because of inadequate tagging technologies and the difficulty in capturing significant numbers of turtles at sea. However, genetic markers found in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) provide a basis for predicting the origin of juvenile turtles in developmental habitats. Mixed stock analysis was used to determine which nesting populations were contributing individuals to a foraging aggregation of immature loggerhead turtles (mean 63.3 cm straight carapace length [SCL]) captured in coastal waters off Hutchinson Island, Florida. The results indicated that at least three different western Atlantic loggerhead sea turtle subpopulations contribute to this group: south Florida (69%), Mexico (20%), and northeast Florida-North Carolina (10%). The conservation and management of these immature sea turtles is complicated by their multinational genetic demographics.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Management
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  • 19
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15248 | 403 | 2014-05-30 21:15:27 | 15248 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: We used allozyme, microsatellite, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data to test for spatial and interannual genetic diversity in wall-eye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) from six spawning aggregations representing three geographic regions: Gulf of Alaska, eastern Bering Sea, and eastern Kamchatka. Interpopulation genetic diversity was evident primarily from the mtDNA and two allozyme loci (SOD-2*, MPI*). Permutation tests ˆindicated that FST values for most allozyme and microsatellite loci were not significantly greater than zero. The microsatellite results suggested that high locus polymorphism may not be a reliable indicator of power for detecting population differentiation in walleye pollock. The fact that mtDNA revealed population structure and most nuclear loci did not suggests that the effective size of most walleye pollock populations is large (genetic drift is weak) and migration is a relatively strong homogenizing force. The allozymes and mtDNA provided mostly concordant estimates of patterns of spatial genetic variation. These data showed significant genetic variation between North American and Asian populations. In addition, two spawning aggregations in the Gulf of Alaska, in Prince William Sound, and off Middleton Island, appeared genetically distinct from walleye pollock spawning in the Shelikof Strait and may merit management as a distinct stock. Finally, we found evidence of interannual genetic variation in two of three North American spawning aggregations, similar in magnitude to the spatial variation among North American walleye pol-lock. We suggest that interannual genetic variation in walleye pollock may be indicative of one or more of the following factors: highly variable reproductive success, adult philopatry, source-sink metapopulation structure, and intraannual variation (days) in spawning timing among genetically distinct but spatially identical spawning aggregates.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 20
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15239 | 403 | 2014-06-01 18:52:47 | 15239 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-05
    Description: Intergeneric hybridization between the epinepheline serranids Cephalopholis fulva and Paranthias furcifer in waters off Bermuda was investigated by using morphological and molecular characters. Putative hybrids, as well as members of each presumed parent species, were analyzed for 44 morphological characters and screened for genetic variation at 16 nuclear allozyme loci, two nuclear (n)DNA loci, and three mitochondrial (mt)DNA gene regions. Four of 16 allozyme loci, creatine kinase (CK-B*), fumarase (FH*), isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH-S*), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-B*), were unique in C. fulva and P. furcifer. Restriction fragments of two nuclear DNA intron regions, an actin gene intron and the second intron in the S7 ribosomal protein gene, also exhibited consistent differences between the two presumed parent species. Restriction fragments of three mtDNA regions—ND4, ATPase 6, and 12S/16S ribosomal RNA—were analyzed to identify maternal parentage of putative hybrids. Both morphological data and nuclear genetic data were found to be consistent with the hypothesis that the putative hybrids were the result of interbreeding between C. fulva and P. furcifer. Mean values of 38 morphological characters were different between presumed parent species, and putative hybrids were intermediate to presumed parent species for 33 of these characters. A principal component analysis of the morphological and meristic data was also consistent with hybridization between C. fulva and P. furcifer. Thirteen of 15 putative hybrids were heterozygous at all diagnostic nuclear loci, consistent with F1 hybrids. Two putative hybrids were identified as post-F1 hybrids based on homozygosity at one nuclear locus each. Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the maternal parent of all putative hybrid individuals was C. fulva. A survey of nuclear and mitochondrial loci of 57 C. fulva and 37 P. furcifer from Bermuda revealed no evidence of introgression between the parent species mediated by hybridization.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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  • 21
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15350 | 9513 | 2014-09-19 15:17:44 | 15350
    Publication Date: 2021-07-06
    Description: This study assessed the physico-chemical quality of River Ogun, Abeokuta, Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria. Four locations were chosen spatially along the water course to reflect a consideration of all possible human activities that are capable of changing the quality of river water. The water samples were collected monthly for seven consecutive months (December 2011 – June 2012) at the four sampling stations. pH, air temperature (℃), water temperature (℃), conductivity (µs/cm) and total dissolved solids (mg/L) were conducted in-situ with the use of HANNA Combo pH and EC multi meter Hi 98129 and Mercury-in-glass thermometer while dissolved oxygen (mg/L), nitrate (mg/L), phosphate (mg/L), alkalinity (mg/L) and hardness (mg/L) were determined ex-situ using standard methods. Results showed that dissolved oxygen, hydrogen ion concentration, total hardness and nitrate were above the maximum permissible limit of National Administration for Food, Drugs and Control (NAFDAC), Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON), Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), European Union (EU) and World Health Organization (WHO) for drinking water during certain months of the study period. Results also showed that water temperature and conductivity were within the permissible limits of all the standards excluding FEPA. However, total dissolved solids and alkalinity were within the permissible limits of all the standards. Adejuwon and Adelakun, (2012) also reported similar findings on Rivers Lala, Yobo and Agodo in Ewekoro local government area of Ogun state, Nigeria. Since most of the parameters measured were above the maximum permissible limits of the national and international standards, it can be concluded that the water is unfit for domestic uses, drinking and aquacultural purposes and therefore needs to be treated if it is to be used at all. The low dissolved oxygen values for the first four months was too low i.e. 〈 5 mg/L. This is most likely as a result of the amount of effluents discharged into the river. To prevent mass extinction of aquatic organisms due to anoxic conditions, proper regulations should be implemented to reduce the organic load the river receives.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Environment ; Health ; Management ; Pollution
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  • 22
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/16179 | 12051 | 2015-02-09 07:35:49 | 16179 | Society of Fisheries Technologists, India
    Publication Date: 2021-06-30
    Description: The object of this study was to determine the value of physical, bacteriological and chemical tests used to find out and compare the indices of quality of prawns stored at 0°C and at 18°C. pH value, nature of drip, the total bacterial count, presence or absence of tryptophan, trimethylamine content, glycogen, lactic acid, vitamins such as thiamin, riboflavin and niacin were estimated periodically to evaluate the quality of prawns stored at 0°C, whereas in addition to organoleptic changes, pH, bacterial count, nature of growth in peptone water, soluble protein in salt solution and loss of moisture, glycogen, lactic acid, and changes in vitamin B contents were noted periodically for prawns stored at -l8°C. Riboflavin and niacin were not affected appreciably but the retention of thiamin in prawns was very low.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; chemical properties ; quality control ; Penaeus indicus ; processing fishery products ; cold storage ; storage effects
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  • 23
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/16190 | 12051 | 2015-02-10 07:56:55 | 16190 | Society of Fisheries Technologists, India
    Publication Date: 2021-06-30
    Description: Fresh Bombay ducks and Bombay ducks dried (a) without any pre-treatment or (b) after brining with NaCl solutions of 15% and 7.5% concentrations for 18 hours were analyzed for moisture, ash, minerals, vitamins, fat, free fatty acids, peroxide value, thiobarbituric acid value, total protein, total amino nitrogen, soluble proteins and trimethylamine contents. All the dried samples were stored in (a) tightly closed tin containers or (b) polythene bags and analyzed for the above mentioned constituents every 1½ months. It was observed that brining did not exercise any marked influence on keeping properties. Organoleptic observations showed that fish stored in tin containers kept better and longer than those stored in polythene bags.
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; chemical composition ; Harpodon nehereus ; Bombay ducks ; nutritive value ; storage methods
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  • 24
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    Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium | Chauvin, LA
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/16531 | 30 | 2015-03-30 17:02:26 | 16531 | Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium (LUMCON)
    Publication Date: 2021-07-06
    Description: This report reviews some of the natural ecological processes at work within a salt marsh as they relate to a spill of natural gas condensate - a mixture of aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-hexane, benzene, toluene, and xylene. It also reviews the environmental impacts of some of the components of natural gas condensate as well as related compounds (crude oil, higher molecular weight hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarons - PAHs, linear alkyl-benzenes - LABs, etc.) on salt marsh ecosystems in southern Louisiana and elsewhere in the world. The behavior and persistence of these compounds once they have entered the environment is also considered.
    Description: A report to El Paso Energy, Inc., Houston, Texas. PDF includes front matter, 62 pages of text, 40 figures, and 9 tables.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Environment ; Pollution
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    Type: monograph
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  • 25
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    In:  Mike.Twiner@noaa.gov | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14901 | 403 | 2014-03-10 19:58:44 | 14901 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: Azaspiracids (AZA) are polyether marine toxins that accumulate in various shellfish species and have been associated with severe gastrointestinal human intoxications since 1995. This toxin class has since been reported from several countries, including Morocco and much of western Europe. A regulatory limit of 160 μg AZA/kg wholeshellfish flesh was established by the EU in order to protect human health; however, in some cases, AZA concentrations far exceed the action level. Herein we discuss recent advances on the chemistry of various AZA analogs, review the ecology of AZAs, including the putative progenitor algal species, collectively interpret the in vitro and in vivo data on the toxicology of AZAs relating to human health issues, and outline the European legislature associated with AZAs.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Fisheries ; Health
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: Ciguatoxins (CTX) are polyether neurotoxins that target voltage-gated sodium channels and are responsible for ciguatera, the most common fish-borne food poisoning in humans. This study characterizes the global transcriptional response of mouse liver to a symptomatic dose (0.26 ng/g) of the highly potent Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1). At 1 h post-exposure 2.4% of features on a 44K whole genome array were differentially expressed (p ≤ 0.0001), increasing to 5.2% at 4 h and decreasing to 1.4% by 24 h post-CTX exposure. Data were filtered (|fold change| ≥ 1.5 and p ≤ 0.0001 in at least one time point) and a trend set of 1550 genes were used for further analysis. Early gene expression was likely influenced prominently by an acute 4°C decline in core body temperature by 1 h, which resolved by 8 h following exposure. An initial downregulation of 32 different solute carriers, many involved in sodium transport, was observed. Differential gene expression in pathways involving eicosanoid biosynthesis and cholesterol homeostasis was also noted. Cytochrome P450s (Cyps) were of particular interest due to their role in xenobiotic metabolism. Twenty-seven genes, mostly members of Cyp2 and Cyp4 families, showed significant changes in expression. Many Cyps underwent an initial downregulation at 1 h but were quickly and strongly upregulated at 4 and 24 h post-exposure. In addition to Cyps, increases in several glutathione S-transferases were observed, an indication that both phase I and phase II metabolic reactions are involved in the hepatic response to CTX in mice.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Health
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  • 27
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    In:  rikk_kvitek@csumb.edu | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14907 | 403 | 2014-03-11 17:26:19 | 14907 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: Benthic food webs often derive a significant fraction of their nutrient inputs from phytoplankton in the overlying waters. If the phytoplankton include harmful algal species like Pseudo-nitzschia australis, a diatom capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), the benthic food web can become a depository for phycotoxins. We tested the general hypothesis that DA contaminates benthic organisms during local blooms of P. australis, a widespread toxin producer along the US west coast. To test for trophic transfer and uptake of DA into the benthic food web, we sampled 8 benthic species comprising 4 feeding groups: filter feeders (Emerita analoga and Urechis caupo); a predator (Citharichthys sordidus); scavengers (Nassarius fossatus and Pagurus samuelis) and deposit feeders (Neotrypaea californiensis, Dendraster excentricus and Olivella biplicata). Sampling occurred before, during and after blooms of P. australis in Monterey Bay, CA, USA during 2000 and 2001. DA was detected in all 8 species, with contamination persisting over variable time scales. Maximum DA levels in N. fossatus (674 ppm), E. analoga (278 ppm), C. sordidus (515 ppm), N. californiensis (145 ppm), P. samuelis (56 ppm), D. excentricus (15 ppm) and O. biplicata (3 ppm) coincided with P. australis blooms, while DA levels in U. caupo remained above 200 ppm (max. = 751 ppm) throughout the study period. DA in 6 species exceeded levels thought to be safe for higher level consumers (i.e. ≥20 ppm) and thus is likely to have deleterious effects on marine birds, sea lions and the endangered California sea otter, known to prey upon these benthic species.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Pollution
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    In:  cooperge@musc.edu | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14914 | 403 | 2014-03-10 17:55:40 | 14914 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-28
    Description: The Hedgehog signaling pathway is essential for embryogenesis and for tissue homeostasis in the adult. However, it may induce malignancies in a number of tissues when constitutively activated, and it may also have a role in other forms of normal and maladaptive growth. Cyclopamine, a naturally occurring steroidal alkaloid, specifically inhibits the Hedgehog pathway by binding directly to Smoothened, an important Hedgehog response element. To use cyclopamine as a tool to explore and/or inhibit the Hedgehog pathway in vivo, a substantial quantity is required, and as a practical matter cyclopamine has been effectively unavailable for usage in animals larger than mice.
    Description: Article includes 6 pages.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 29
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15043 | 403 | 2014-05-27 14:14:30 | 15043 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: Twenty-six stocks of Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.), representing evolutionary significant units (ESU), are listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and six more stocks are currently being evaluated for listing. The ecological and economic consequences of these listings are large; therefore considerable effort has been made to understand and respond to these declining populations. Until recently, Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) on the west coast increased an average of 5% to 7% per year as a result of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (Brown and Kohlman2). Pacific salmon are seasonally important prey for harbor seals (Roffe and Mate, 1984; Olesiuk, 1993); therefore quantifying and understanding the interaction between these two protected species is important for Morphobiologically sound management strategies. Because some Pacific salmonid species in a given area may be threatened or endangered, while others are relatively abundant, it is important to distinguish the species of salmonid upon which the harbor seals are preying. This study takes the first step in understanding these interactions by using molecular genetic tools for species-level identification of salmonid skeletal remains recovered from Pacific harbor seal scats.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Fisheries
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: With the global proliferation of toxic Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) species, there is a need to identify the environmental and biological factors that regulate toxin production. One such species, Karenia brevis, forms nearly annual blooms that threaten coastal regions throughout the Gulf of Mexico. This dinoflagellate produces brevetoxins, potent neurotoxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and respiratory illness in humans, as well as massive fish kills. A recent publication reported that a rapid decrease in salinity increased cellular toxin quotas in K. brevis and hypothesized that brevetoxins serve a role in osmoregulation. This finding implied that salinity shifts could significantly alter the toxic impacts of blooms. We repeated the original experiments separately in three different laboratories and found no evidence for increased brevetoxin production in response to low-salinity stress in any of the eight K. brevis strains we tested, including three used in the original study. Thus, we find no support for an osmoregulatory function of brevetoxins. The original publication also stated that there was no known cellular function for brevetoxins. However, there is increasing evidence that brevetoxins promote survival of the dinoflagellates by deterring grazing by zooplankton. Whether they have other as yet unidentified cellular functions is currently unknown.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Pollution
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  • 31
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14672 | 403 | 2014-02-26 20:33:40 | 14672 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: Dinoflagellates possess many physiological processes that appear to be under post-transcriptional control. However, the extent to which their genes are regulated post-transcriptionally remains unresolved. To gain insight into the roles of differential mRNA stability and de novo transcription in dinoflagellates, we biosynthetically labeled RNA with 4-thiouracil to isolate newly transcribed and pre-existing RNA pools in Karenia brevis. These isolated fractions were then used for analysis of global mRNA stability and de novo transcription by hybridization to a K. brevis microarray. Global K. brevis mRNA half-lives were calculated from the ratio of newly transcribed to pre-existing RNA for 7086 array features using the online software HALO (Half-life Organizer). Overall, mRNA half-lives were substantially longer than reported in other organisms studied at the global level, ranging from 42 minutes to greater than 144 h, with a median of 33 hours. Consistent with well-documented trends observed in other organisms, housekeeping processes, including energy metabolism and transport, were significantly enriched in the most highly stable messages. Shorter-lived transcripts included a higher proportion of transcriptional regulation, stress response, and other response/regulatory processes. One such family of proteins involved in post-transcriptional regulation in chloroplasts and mitochondria, the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, had dramatically shorter half-lives when compared to the arrayed transcriptome. As transcript abundances for PPR proteins were previously observed to rapidly increase in response to nutrient addition, we queried the newly synthesized RNA pools at 1 and 4 h following nitrate addition to N-depleted cultures. Transcriptome-wide there was little evidence of increases in the rate of de novo transcription during the first 4 h, relative to that in N-depleted cells, and no evidence for increased PPR protein transcription. These results lend support to the growing consensus of post-transcriptional control of gene expression in dinoflagellates.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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    NOAA/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science | Silver Spring, MD
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14678 | 403 | 2014-02-24 20:59:15 | 14678 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: This report is the second in a series from a project to assess land-based sources of pollution (LBSP) and effects in the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) in St. Thomas, USVI, and is the result of a collaborative effort between NOAA’s National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, the USVI Department of Planning and Natural Resources, the University of the Virgin Islands, and The Nature Conservancy.Passive water samplers (POCIS) were deployed in the STEER in February 2012. Developed by the US Geological Survey(USGS) as a tool to detect the presence of water solublecontaminants in the environment, POCIS samplers were deployed in the STEER at five locations. In addition to the February 2012 deployment, the results from an earlier POCIS deployment in May 2010 in Turpentine Gut, a perennial freshwater stream which drains to the STEER, are also reported.A total of 26 stormwater contaminants were detected at least once during the February 2012 deployment in the STEER. Detections were high enough to estimate ambient water concentrations for nine contaminants using USGS sampling rate values. From the May 2010 deployment in Turpentine Gut, 31 stormwater contaminants were detected, and ambient water concentrations could be estimated for 17 compounds.Ambient water concentrations were estimated for a numberof contaminants including the detergent/surfactant metabolite 4-tert-octylphenol, phthalate ester plasticizers DEHP and DEP, bromoform, personal care products including menthol, indole, n,n-diethyltoluamide (DEET), along with the animal/plant sterol cholesterol, and the plant sterol beta-sitosterol. Only DEHP appeared to have exceeded a water quality guideline for the protection of aquatic organisms.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Environment ; Pollution
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    Type: monograph
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    NOAA/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science | Silver Spring, MD
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14679 | 403 | 2014-02-24 19:16:48 | 14679 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: This report contains a chemical and biological characterization of sediments from the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER) in St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI). The STEER Management Plan (published in 2011) identified chemical contaminants and habitat loss as high or very high threats and called for a characterization of chemical contaminants as well as an assessment of their effects on natural resources. The baseline information contained in this report on chemical contaminants, toxicity and benthic infaunal community composition can be used to assess current conditions, as well as the efficacy of future restoration activities. In this phase of the project, 185 chemical contaminants, including a number of organic (e.g., hydrocarbons and pesticides) and inorganic (e.g., metals) compounds, were analyzed from 24 sites in the STEER. Sediments were also analyzed using a series of toxicity bioassays, including amphipod mortality, sea urchin fertilization impairment, and the cytochrome P450 Human Reporter Gene System (HRGS), along with a characterization of the benthic infaunal community. Higher levels of chemical contaminants were found in Mangrove Lagoon and Benner Bay in the western portion of the study area than in the eastern area. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), chlordane, zinc, copper, lead and mercury were above a NOAA sediment quality guideline at one or more sites, indicating impacts may be present in more sensitive species or life stages in the benthic environment. Copper at one site in Benner Bay, however, was above a NOAA guideline indicating that effects on benthic organisms were likely. The antifoulant boat hull ingredient tributyltin, or TBT, was found at the third highest concentration in the history of NOAA’s National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program, which monitors the Nation’s coastal and estuarine waters for chemical contaminants and bioeffects. Unfortunately, there do not appear to be any established sediment quality guidelines for TBT. Results of the bioassays indicated significant sediment toxicity in Mangrove Lagoon and Benner Bay using multiple tests. The benthic infaunal communities in Mangrove Lagoon and Benner Bay appeared severely diminished.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Environment ; Pollution
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    NOAA/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science | Charleston, SC
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14710 | 403 | 2014-02-22 22:53:38 | 14710 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
    Description: Porphyrin metabolic disruption from exposure to xenobiotic contaminants such as heavy metals, dioxins, and aromatic hydrocarbons can elicit overproduction of porphyrins. Measurement of porphyrin levels, when used in conjunction with other diagnostic assays, can help elucidate an organism’s physiological condition and provide evidence for exposure to certain toxicants. A sensitive microplate fluorometric assay has been optimized for detectingtotal porphyrin levels in detergent solubilized protein extracts from symbiotic, dinoflagellate containing cnidarian tissues. The denaturing buffer used in this modified assay contains a number of potentially interfering components (e.g., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dithiothreitol (DTT), protease inhibitors, and chlorophyll from the symbiotic zooxanthellae), which required examination and validation. Examination of buffer components were validated for use in this porphyrin assay; while the use of a specific spectrofluorometric filter (excitation 400 ± 15 nm; emission 600 ± 20 nm) minimized chlorophyll interference. The detection limit for this assay is 10 fmol of total porphyrin per μg of total soluble protein and linearity is maintained up to 5000 fmol. The ability to measure total porphyrins in a SDS protein extract now allows a single extract to be used in multiple assays. This is an advantage over classical methods, particularly when tissue samples are limiting, as is often the case with coral due to availability and collection permit restrictions.
    Description: NOAA Technical Memorandum CRCP 17
    Keywords: Biology ; Chemistry ; Fisheries
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    NOAA/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science | Charleston, SC
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14759 | 403 | 2014-02-26 21:18:00 | 14759 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Description: The mucus surface layer of corals plays a number of integral roles in their overall health and fitness. This mucopolysaccharide coating serves as vehicle to capture food, a protective barrier against physical invasions and trauma, and serves as a medium to host a community of microorganisms distinct from the surrounding seawater. In healthy corals the associated microbial communities are known to provide antibiotics that contribute to the coral’s innate immunity and function metabolic activities such as biogeochemical cycling.Culture-dependent (Ducklow and Mitchell, 1979; Ritchie, 2006) and culture-independent methods (Rohwer, et al., 2001; Rohwer et al., 2002; Sekar et al., 2006; Hansson et al., 2009; Kellogg et al., 2009) have shown that coral mucus-associated microbial communities can change with changes in the environment and health condition of the coral. These changes may suggest that changes in the microbial associates not only reflect health status but also may assist corals in acclimating to changing environmental conditions. With the increasing availability of molecular biology tools, culture-independent methods are being used more frequently for evaluating the health of the animal host. Although culture-independent methods are able to provide more in-depth insights into the constituents of the coral surface mucus layer’s microbial community, their reliability and reproducibility rely on the initial sample collection maintaining sample integrity. In general, a sample of mucus is collected from a coral colony, either by sterile syringe or swab method (Woodley, et al., 2008), and immediately placed in a cryovial. In the case of a syringe sample, the mucus is decanted into the cryovial and the sealed tube is immediately flash-frozen in a liquid nitrogen vapor shipper (a.k.a., dry shipper). Swabs with mucus are placed in a cryovial, and the end of the swab is broken off before sealing and placing the vial in the dry shipper. The samples are then sent to a laboratory for analysis. After the initial collection and preservation of the sample, the duration of the sample voyage to a recipient laboratory is often another critical part of the sampling process, as unanticipated delays may exceed the length of time a dry shipper can remain cold, or mishandling of the shipper can cause it to exhaust prematurely. In remote areas, service by international shipping companies may be non-existent, which requires the use of an alternative preservation medium. Other methods for preserving environmental samples for microbial DNA analysis include drying on various matrices (DNA cards, swabs), or placing samples in liquid preservatives (e.g., chloroform/phenol/isoamyl alcohol, TRIzol reagent, ethanol). These methodologies eliminate the need for cold storage, however, they add expense and permitting requirements for hazardous liquid components, and the retrieval of intact microbial DNA often can be inconsistent (Dawson, et al., 1998; Rissanen et al., 2010).A method to preserve coral mucus samples without cold storage or use of hazardous solvents, while maintaining microbial DNA integrity, would be an invaluable tool for coral biologists, especially those in remote areas. Saline-saturated dimethylsulfoxide-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (20% DMSO-0.25M EDTA, pH 8.0), or SSDE, is a solution that has been reported to be a means of storing tissue of marine invertebrates at ambient temperatures without significant loss of nucleic acid integrity (Dawson et al., 1998, Concepcion et al., 2007). While this methodology would be a facile and inexpensive way to transport coral tissue samples, it is unclear whether the coral microbiota DNA would be adversely affected by this storage medium either by degradation of the DNA, or a bias in the DNA recovered during the extraction process created by variations in extraction efficiencies among the various community members. Tests to determine the efficacy of SSDE as an ambient temperature storage medium for coral mucus samples are presented here.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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    In:  melissa_snover@nps.gov | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14838 | 403 | 2014-02-28 23:00:28 | 14838 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-26
    Description: Understanding the phase and timing of ontogenetic habitat shifts underlies the study of a species’ life history and population dynamics. This information is especially critical to the conservation and management of threatened and endangered species, such as the loggerhead sea turtle Caretta caretta. The early life of loggerheads consists of a terrestrial egg and hatchling stage, a posthatchlingand juvenile oceanic, pelagic feeding stage, and a juvenile neritic, primarily benthic feeding stage. In the present study, novel approaches were applied to explore the timing of the loggerhead ontogenetic shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. The most recent years of somatic growth are recorded as annual marks in humerus cross sections. A consistent growth mark pattern in benthic juvenile loggerheads was identified, with narrow growth marks in the interior of the bone transitioning to wider growth marks at the exterior, indicative of a sharp increase in growth rates at the transitional growth mark. This increase in annual growth is hypothesized to correlate with the ontogenetic shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen just interior and exteriorto the transitional growth mark, as well as stable isotopes from pelagic and benthic flora, fauna and loggerhead stomach contents, were analyzed to determine whether this transition related to a diet shift. The results clearly indicate that a dietary shift from oceanic/pelagic to neritic/benthic feeding corresponds to a transitional growth mark. The combination of stable isotope analysis with skeletochronology can elucidate the ecology of cryptic life history stages during loggerhead ontogeny.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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    Publication Date: 2021-06-26
    Description: A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) was developed by using a whole-cell antigen from a marine Brucella sp. isolated from a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The assay was designed to screen sera from multiple marine mammal species for the presence of antibodies against marine-origin Brucella. Based on comparisons with culture-confirmed cases, specificity and sensitivity for cetacean samples tested were 73% and 100%, respectively. For pinniped samples, specificity and sensitivity values were 77% and 67%, respectively. Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi; n = 28) and bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n = 48) serum samples were tested, and the results were compared with several other assays designed to detect Brucella abortus antibodies. The comparison testing revealed the marine-origin cELISA to be more sensitive than the B. abortus tests by the detection of additional positive serum samples. The newly developed cELISA is an effective serologic method for detection of the presence of antibodies against marine-origin Brucella sp. in marine mammals.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Management
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 856-862
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14858 | 403 | 2014-03-07 19:40:13 | 14858 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-26
    Description: Marine microalgae support world fisheries production and influence climate through various mechanisms. They are also responsible for harmful blooms that adversely impact coastal ecosystems and economies. Optimal growth and survival of many bloom-forming microalgae, including climatically important dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, requires the close association of specific bacterial species, but the reasons for these associations are unknown. Here, we report that several clades of Marinobacter ubiquitously found in close association with dinoflagellates and coccolithophores produce an unusual lower-affinity dicitrate siderophore, vibrioferrin (VF). Fe-VF chelates undergo photolysis at rates that are 10–20 times higher than siderophores produced by free-living marine bacteria, and unlike the latter, the VF photoproduct has no measurable affinity for iron. While both an algal-associated bacterium and a representative dinoflagellate partner, Scrippsiella trochoidea, used iron from Fe-VF chelates in the dark, in situ photolysis of the chelates in the presence of attenuated sunlight increased bacterial iron uptake by 70% and algal uptake by 〉20-fold. These results suggest that the bacteria promote algal assimilation of iron by facilitating photochemical redox cycling of this critical nutrient. Also, binary culture experiments and genomic evidence suggest that the algal cells release organic molecules that are used by the bacteria for growth. Such mutualistic sharing of iron and fixed carbon has important implications toward our understanding of the close beneficial interactions between marine bacteria and phytoplankton, and the effect of these interactions on algal blooms and climate.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Oceanography
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
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    Format: 17071-17076
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  • 39
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    In:  tony.pait@noaa.gov | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14860 | 403 | 2014-03-13 22:50:39 | 14860 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-27
    Description: Coral ( Porites astreoides ) from eight sites in southwest Puerto Rico were analyzed for approximately 150 chemical contaminants, to provide a preliminary characterization of environmental contamination in the corals, and assess the relationships between chemical contamination in corals and adjacent sediments. Overall, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) detected in the limited number of coral samples collected were comparable to concentrations found in sediments. However, the concentration of a chemical contaminant (e.g., PAHs) in the corals at a site was often different from what was found in adjacent sediments. The level of PCBs and DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) in the corals appeared higher just outside of Guanica Bay, and there was some evidence of a downstream concentration gradient for these two contaminant classes. The trace elements copper and zinc were frequently detected in Porites astreoides , and the concentrations were usually comparable to those found in adjacent sediments. Chromium was an exception in that it was not detected in any of the coral samples analyzed, although it was detected in all of the sediment samples.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Management ; Pollution
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 191-203
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  • 40
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    NOAA/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science | Silver Spring, MD
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14868 | 403 | 2014-03-06 18:57:33 | 14868 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-27
    Description: This report presents an initial characterization of chemical contamination in coral tissues (Porites astreoides) from southwest Puerto Rico. It is the second technical report from a project to characterize chemical contaminants and assess linkages between contamination and coral condition. The first report quantified chemical contaminants in sediments from southwest Puerto Rico. This document summarizes the analysis of nearly 150 chemical contaminants in coral tissues. Although only eight coral samples were collected, some observations can be made on the correlations between observed tissue and sediment contaminant concentrations. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), typically associated with petroleum spills and the combustion of fossil fuels, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the coral tissues were comparable to concentrations found in adjacent sediments. However, the concentration of a chemical contaminant (e.g., PAHs) in the coral tissues at a particular site was not a good predictor of what was in the adjacent sediments. In addition, the types of PAHs found in the coral tissues were somewhat different (higher ratios of alkylated PAHs) than in sediments. The levels of PCBs and DDT in coral tissues appeared higher just outside of Guanica Bay, and there was evidence of a downstream concentration gradient for these two contaminant classes. The trace elements copper, zinc and nickel were frequently detected in coral tissues, and the concentration in the corals was usually comparable to that found in adjacent sediments. Chromium was an exception in that it was not detected in any of the coral tissues analyzed. Additional work is needed to assess how spatial patterns in chemical contamination affect coral condition, abundance and distribution.
    Description: National Status and Trends Program for Marine Environmental Quality
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Management ; Pollution
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: monograph
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 32
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    NOAA/National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science | Charleston, SC
    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/14864 | 403 | 2014-03-06 18:36:18 | 14864 | United States National Ocean Service
    Publication Date: 2021-06-27
    Description: Models that help predict fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) levels in environmental waters can be important tools for resource managers. In this study, we used animal activity along with antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA), land cover, and other variables to build models that predict bacteria levels in coastal ponds that discharge into an estuary. Photographic wildlife monitoring was used to estimate terrestrial and aquatic wildlife activity prior to sampling. Increased duck activity was an important predictor of increased FCB in coastal ponds. Terrestrial animals like deer and raccoon, although abundant, were not significant in our model. Various land cover types, rainfall, tide, solar irradiation, air temperature, and season parameters, in combination with duck activity, were significant predictors of increased FCB. It appears that tidal ponds allow for settling of bacteria under most conditions. We propose that these models can be used to test different development styles and wildlife management techniques to reduce bacterial loading into downstream shellfish harvesting and contact recreation areas.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Ecology ; Management ; Pollution
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    Type: monograph
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 32
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  • 42
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15087 | 403 | 2014-05-28 03:22:35 | 15087 | United States National Marine Fisheries Service
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
    Description: The population structure of walleye pollock (Theragrachalcogramma) in the northeastern Pacific Ocean remains unknown. We examined elemental signatures in the otoliths of larval and juvenile pollock from locations in the BeringSea and Gulf of Alaska to determine if there were significant geographic variations in otolith compositionthat may be used as natural tags of population affinities. Otoliths were assayed by using both electron probemicroanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements measured at the nucleus of otoliths by EPMA and laser ablation ICP-MS differed significantly among locations. However, geographicgroupings identified by a multivariate statistical approach from EPMA and ICP-MS were dissimilar, indicating that the elements assayed by each technique were controlled by separate depositional processes within the endolymph. Elemental profiles across the pollock otoliths were generally consistent at distances up to 100 μm from the nucleus. At distances beyond 100 μm, profiles varied significantly but were remarkably consistent among individuals collected at each location. These data may indicate that larvae from various spawning locations are encountering water masses with differing physicochemicalproperties through their larval lives, and at approximately the same time. Although our results are promising, we require a better understanding of the mechanisms controlling otolith chemistry before it will be possibleto reconstruct dispersal pathways of larval pollock based on probe-based analyses of otolith geochemistry. Elemental signatures in otoliths of pollock may allow for the delineation of fine-scale population structure in pollock that has yet to be consistently revealed by using population genetic approaches.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 604-616
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  • 43
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15617 | 8 | 2014-11-10 23:13:07 | 15617
    Publication Date: 2021-07-09
    Description: A 1844-1987 time-series of carbon stable isotope ratios from dated sedimentary total organic carbon from the center of the Santa Barbara basin is compared with historical climate and oceanographic records. Carbon derived from carbon-13-depleted phytoplankton and carbon-13-enriched kelp appear responsible for a large part of the isotopic variance in sedimentary total organic carbon. El Niño/Southern Oscillation events are recorded by the isotopic response of marine organic carbon in sediments.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Oceanography ; PACLIM
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: conference_item
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 157-163
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15771 | 8 | 2014-12-01 20:45:58 | 15771
    Publication Date: 2021-07-10
    Description: EXTRACT (SEE PDF FOR FULL ABSTRACT):Reconstruction of proxy variables from massive corals and varved sediments of the eastern Pacific allow us to compare variability in the ocean climate from equatorial and mid-latitude sites for a significantly longer period than is available from the instrumental record.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Earth Sciences ; Oceanography ; PACLIM
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    Type: conference_item
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 47-47
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  • 45
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/15928 | 12051 | 2015-01-16 08:52:26 | 15928 | Indian Fisheries Association
    Publication Date: 2021-07-11
    Description: Seasonal variation in some physico-chemical properties of Rushikulya estuary was studied. The surface water temperature varied from 20 to 34.5 degree C, the transparency of the water from 6.3 to 12 cm, the salinity from 28.3 to 32.8 % and the pH from 6.77 to 7.35. The transparency and salinity showed bimodal distribution. Occurrence of the Chanos fry were correlated to it.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Environment ; temperature data ; nursery grounds ; seasonal variations ; salinity data ; estuary ; Chanos chanos ; marine ; Rushikulya river ; Odisha ; Orissa ; India
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 69-71
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  • 46
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/16031 | 12051 | 2015-01-29 11:03:37 | 16031 | University of Karachi. Marine Reference Collection Centre
    Publication Date: 2021-06-25
    Description: During the course of chemical investigation of marine algae collected from Karachi coast of Arabian Sea, five sterols named as sarangosterol(1), 23-methyl cholesta-5, 25-dien-3ß-ol(2) from Endarachne binghamiae (brown alga), sargasterol(3) from Dictyota indica (brown alga), cholesterol(4) from Laurencia obtusa (red alga) and clerosterol(5) from Codium iyengarii (green alga) have been isolated. Their structures were elucidated with the help of spectroscopic means.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; sterols ; marine algae ; Endarachne binghamiae ; Dictyota indica ; Laurenica obtusa ; Codium iyengarii ; Karachi ; Pakistan ; Arabian Sea
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 57-64
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  • 47
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/16092 | 12051 | 2019-06-11 14:53:07 | 16092 | University of Karachi. Marine Reference Collection and Resource Centre
    Publication Date: 2021-06-27
    Description: The fruit and hypocotyl of Ceriops tagal were analysed for their organic and inorganic constituents. They showed almost similar characteristics in major metabolites and high molecular weight elements. Both the samples had high concentration of the carbohydrates and crude fibre and very low in fat and protein. The ash was rich in NA, K and Ca. Some essential free amino acids and sugars were also present. Calorific values were found fairly high. There is a strong possibility of using fruit and hypocotyl of C. tagal as a source for supplementing animal feed.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; mangroves ; Ceriops tigal ; fruit ; hypocotyl ; chemical constituents
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    Type: article
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 119-122
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  • 48
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    In:  http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/16143 | 12051 | 2015-02-09 08:09:11 | 16143 | Society of Fisheries Technologists, India
    Publication Date: 2021-06-29
    Description: Experiments were conducted to study the significance of difference between samples taken from the surface and interior of a frozen shrimps block, as well as to determine the size of sample necessary to represent the whole block, with respect to bacterial count determination. The results showed that the surface samples and interior samples did not differ significantly at 5% level of significance and that the minimum quantity representative of the block was 21-26 gms in the case of a block weighing about 1300 gms. The procedure adopted for taking the bacterial count was the normal standard plate count method.
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; bacteriological estimation ; frozen pranwns
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 168-170
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  • 49
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    In:  reinhard.schubring@mri.bund.de | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4296 | 1240 | 2012-11-10 20:00:36 | 4296 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; chemical analysis ; fishery products ; processing ; quality evaluation
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 187-193
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  • 50
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    In:  horst.karl@mri.bund.de | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4358 | 1240 | 2012-11-10 23:05:33 | 4358 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; fish products ; chemical analysis ; marinade ; acetic acid ; common salt
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 137-143
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  • 51
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    In:  J.Oehlenschlaeger@gmx.net | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4377 | 1240 | 2012-11-10 13:03:23 | 4377 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
    Description: Über die Phosphorgehalte in Seefischen mit magerem Muskelfleisch und die Gründe für eine möglichst umfassende Kenntnis über diese Gehalte und ihre arten-, orts- und zeitabhängigen Variationen wurde kürzlich berichtet (OEHLENSCHLAGER, 1990). Da auch für die Seefischarten mit mittleren und ausgesprochen hohen Fettgehalten im Muskelnur unvollständige Informationen vorlagen, wurden auch diese Fischarten in die Untersuchungen einbezogen. Die Art der Probenahme, der Probenvorbereitung und der Messung entsprach den bei mageren Fischarten gemachten Angaben. Die Fischproben stammten aus den in Tabelle 1 aufgeführten Reisen mit den Fischereiforschungsschiffen "Walther Herwig" und "Anton Dohrn".
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; fish quality ; marine fish ; North Atlantic ; fat content ; phosphorous content
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
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    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 24-31
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  • 52
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    In:  J.Oehlenschlaeger@gmx.net | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4402 | 1240 | 2012-11-11 16:46:22 | 4402 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; marine fish ; fish quality ; fat content ; pH value
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 143-146
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  • 53
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    In:  hartmut.rehbein@mri.bund.de | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4401 | 1240 | 2012-11-11 16:48:56 | 4401 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-02
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; fish quality ; formaldehyde content ; fish filets ; Macrourus holotrachys ; electrophoresis
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 136-143
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  • 54
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    In:  J.Oehlenschlaeger@gmx.net | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4420 | 1240 | 2012-11-11 17:31:38 | 4420 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Pollution ; heavy metal content ; redfish ; fish quality ; chemical analysis
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 32-34
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  • 55
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    In:  hartmut.rehbein@mri.bund.de | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4419 | 1240 | 2012-11-11 17:35:10 | 4419 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; identification ; fish species ; chromatography ; watersoluble proteins
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 25-31
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  • 56
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    In:  J.Oehlenschlaeger@gmx.net | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4432 | 1240 | 2012-11-11 17:32:23 | 4432 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; marine fish ; fish products ; selenium ; North East Atlantic ; nutrient contents
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 85-87
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    In:  foe@vti.bund.de | http://aquaticcommons.org/id/eprint/4443 | 1240 | 2012-11-11 17:16:32 | 4443 | Bundesforschungsanstalt für Fischerei
    Publication Date: 2021-07-03
    Description: Johann Heinrich von Thünen-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries began publishing the Informationen aus der Fischereiforschung = Information on Fishery research in 2010
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Fisheries ; Pollution ; mercury content ; flounder ; German Bight ; contaminants ; trend analysis ; marine environment
    Repository Name: AquaDocs
    Type: article , FALSE
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: application/pdf
    Format: 126-129
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