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  • Chemistry  (34,620)
  • General Chemistry  (7,564)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology
  • 1970-1974  (28,166)
  • 1910-1914
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: EHDP ; Bone ; Chemistry ; Serum ; Rabbits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effects of disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) on bone and serum chemistry were investigated in adult rabbits. EHDP was administered by subcutaneous injection at doses of 0.25, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg body weight/day for of 28 days. Blood samples were obtained weekly from each rabbit and serum levels of total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were determined. At the end of the treatment period all rabbits were sacrificed and the tibiae removed for chemical analysis and histological evaluation. The effect of EHDP administration on serum chemistry was both dose- and time-related. The highest of the three doses, 10 mg/kg/day, resulted in a time-related decrease in total serum calcium. This dose also caused a rapid but transient reduction in serum ionized calcium. The effect of EHDP on serum inorganic phosphate was biphasic. Administration of 2.5 mg/kg/day resulted in a time-related elevation in this parameter, whereas the 10 mg/kg/day dose resulted in a time-related hypophosphatemic response. There were no significant drug-related changes in tibial fat-free dry weight, ash weight, total calcium or total phosphorus values. However, administration of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day EHDP resulted in increased osteoid tissue as measured histologically. These results are compared with data from other EHDP studies, and discussed in relation to the maturity and growth-state of the experimental animals.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 14 (1974), S. 3-14 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Hydroxyapatite ; Mineral ; Phase ; Chemistry ; Synthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des diagrammes de phase d'équilibre ont été déterminés pour le système CaO-P2O5-H2O en utilisant des techniques de synthèse hydrothermique au cours de variatio nsde température allant de 300–600° et 2 Kb H2O de pression. De l'hydroxyapatite bien cristallisé a été synthétisé et caractérisé. De faibles variations de paramètres de la maille cristalline, liées à la température de synthèse et composition globale du matériel initial, ont été déterminées. Des conditions chimiques précises sont nécessaires pour obtenir de l'apatite, en tant que seule phase solide en équilibre dans la solution. Les résultats de diagramme de phase d'équilibre sont comparés avec ceux obtenus dans des milieux synthétiques.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Es wurden Gleichgewichts-Phasendiagramme für das System CaO-P2O5-H2O bestimmt, indem hydrothermale Synthese-Techniken im Temperaturbereich von 300–600° und bei einem Druck von 2 Kb H2O verwendet wurden. Es wurde gut-kristallisiertes Hydroxyapatit erzeugt und charakterisiert. Es wurden geringe Unterschiede in den Parametern der Zelleinheiten festgestellt, welche von der angewandten Temperatur und der Zusammensetzung des Startmaterials abhingen. Es waren genaue chemische Bedingungen nötig, um Apatit als die einzige feste Phase im Gleichgewicht mit der Lösung zu erhalten. Die Resultate der Gleichgewichts-Phasendiagramme werden mit früheren Untersuchungen mit der Synthesetechnik verglichen.
    Notes: Abstract Equilibrium phase diagrams have been determined for the system CaO-P2O5-H2 using hydrothermal synthesis techniques in the temperature range 300–600° and 2 Kb H2O pressure. Well-crystallized hydroxyapatite has been produced and characterized. Small variations in unit cell parameters dependent on temperature of synthesis and bulk composition of the starting materials have been determined. Precise chemical conditions were required to obtain apatite as the only solid phase in equilibrium with solution. Equilibrium phase diagram results are compared with previous synthetic investigations.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Biomechanics and Simulation of the Tensile Behaviour of the Chordae tendineae of the Human Heart: Many problems in the field of medical research and clinical practise can be solved only by a more detailed knowledge of the material properties of biological tissues. Among other things it is the task of the biomedical engineer to support the physician in his research work to develop a material suitable for prothesises and artificial organs by application of the modern methods of the materials testing as well as his knowledge of the materials mechanics. These efforts are preceded by basic investigations of the tissue of that organ or of that part of the body which has to be replaced. For only then the important demands are fulfilled optimally, i. e. compatibility and an accurate function in a mechanical and a rheological sense. In a previous paper we investigated the strength and the rheological properties of the Chordae tendineae of the human heart with an electronic tensile testing machine. The present investigations shall show that these biomechanical phenomena can be reproduced by a nonlinear viscoelastic material model and can be simulated with an analogue computer.
    Notes: Viele Probleme in der medizinischen Forschung und Klinik lassen sich nur mit einer detaillierten Kenntnis des Stoffverhaltens biologischer Gewebe lösen. Es ist u. a. die Aufgabe des in der Biomedizinischen Technik tätigen Ingenieurs, dem Mediziner dei seiner Suche nach geeigneten Materialien für Prothesen und Implantate durch Anwendung moderner Methoden des Materialprüfungswesens sowie der Kenntnis der Werkstoffmechanik zu helfen. Diesen Bemühungen müssen Untersuchungen prinzipieller Art am Gewebe des zu ersetzenden Organ-bzw. Körperteils vorangehen, weil nur dann die wichtigen Forderungen, nämlich Kompatibilität und richtige Funktion in mechanischer und rheologischer Hinsicht, optimal erfüllt werden können. In einer früheren Studie haben wir das Festigkeitsverhalten und die rheologischen Eigenschaften der Sehnenfäden (Chordae tendineae) des menschlichen Herzens, die wichtige biomechanische Funktionen übernehmen, mit einer elektronischen Zugprüfmaschine getestet. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen sollen zeigen, daß sich diese biomechanischen Phänomene mit einem nichtlinear viskoelastischen Werkstoffmodell reproduzieren lassen und mit Hilfe eines Analogrechners simuliert werden können.
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  • 9
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 14
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Hydrogen-embrittlement of Titanium and Titanium-Alloys. The influence of hydrogen-embrittlement on mechanical properties, especially on plastic deformation of titanium and its alloys is described. Even less than 200 ppm H may result in embrittlement. Titanium is sensitive to hydrogen-embrittlement at high speed of deformation; titanium-alloys in a notched condition at low speed of deformation. Hydrogen dissolution can be avoided or diminished by thin oxide layers. The connection between hydrogen-embrittlement and stresscorrosion-cracking is shown on different examples. Alloys with high content of aluminium are most sensitive against this sort of embrittlement.
    Notes: Der Einfluß einer Wasserstoffversprödung auf die mechanischen Eigenschaften, insbesondere die plastische Verformung von Titan und seinen Legierungen werden beschrieben. Bereits geringe Anteile von Wasserstoff in der Größenordnung von ≦ 200 ppm können sich ungünstig auswirken. Titan ist bei einer hohen Verformungsgeschwindigkeit und Titanlegierungen sind bei einer niedrigen Verformungsgeschwindigkeit insbesondere im gekerbten Zustand empfindlich gegen die Wasserstoffversprödung. Durch dünne Oxidschichten kann die Wasserstoffaufnahme verhindert oder vermindert werden. An verschiedenen Beispielen wird der enge Zusammenhang zwischen Wasserstoffversprödung und Spannungsrißkorrosion aufgezeigt. Legierungen mit hohen Gehalten an Aluminium sind besonders empfindlich gegen diese Art der Versprödung.
    Additional Material: 24 Ill.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Measurement of the Deformations of EB-welded Joints by the Means of Holographic Interferometry. The field of deformations in EB-welded specimens should be measured in all directions. Therefore holographic interferometry was chosen to be the best method.Normally the deformations are so large, that the usual fringe systems cannot be solved. In order to avoid this difficulty, new diagrams were developed and based on this the holographic equipment was optimized. By means of the new diagrams and some derived diagrams it was possible, to calculate the deformations very easily.In addition a specimen-holder is described which allows the specimen to be taken out of the holographic system during the welding process.
    Notes: Das Verformungsfeld elektronenstrahlgeschweißter Proben war zu ermitteln. Dafür wurde die holografische Interferometrie als Meßverfahren ausgewählt.Die Verformungen sind i. a. so groß, daß mit üblichen Aufbauten Interferenzstreifensysteme mit nicht mehr auflösbarer Streifendichte entstehen. Mit Hilfe von Diagrammen, die aufgrund einfacher Gleichungen erstellt werden, konnte der Aufbau jedoch der Meßaufgabe entsprechend optimiert werden.Ähnliche Diagramme ermöglichen nach Aufnahme zweier Interferenzstreifensysteme die Auswertung der Verformungen in den interessierenden beiden Hauptachsen.Zusätzlich wird eine Vorrichtung beschrieben, die den Ausbau der Probe während des Schweißens gestattet.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Ultrasonic test procedure to determine the number of inclusions in material samples  -  a critical analysis of recommended methods. To judge the specific properties of metals one tries to determine the quantity and distribution of the non-metallic inclusions. But the microscopic procedures used so far are destructive and do further not refer to the volume, but rather to the surface of the micrograph sample. Contrary to these methods the inspection by ultrasound is non-destructive and wellsuited for the volumetric detection of inclusions. The possibilities of the ultrasonic pulse-echo-method for cleanliness rating are being checked. Based on the respective results there is a critical view on the ultrasonic test methods which have been recommended so far. Proposals will be made how to make the optimum use of the advantages of the ultrasonic inspection when determining the purity degree of a sample.
    Notes: Zur Beurteilung der Gebrauchseigenschaften von Metallen sucht man die Anzahl und die Verteilung der nichtmetallischen Einschlüsse zu bestimmen. Dabei sind die bisher benutzten mikroskopischen Verfahren nicht zerstörungsfrei und auch nicht auf das Volumen, sondern auf die Oberfläche der Schliffproben bezogen. Die Ultraschallprüfung ist demgegenüber zerstörungsfrei und gut zum volumetrischen Nachweis von Einschlüssen geeignet. Untersucht werden die Möglichkeiten des Ultraschall-Impuls-Echo-Verfahrens zur Reinheitsgradbestimmung. Mit den Ergebnissen erfolgt eine kritische Betrachtung der bisher zu diesem Zweck empfohlenen Ultraschallprüfmethoden. Es werden Vorschläge gemacht, wie die Vorteile der Ultraschallprüfung bei der Bestimmung des Reinheitsgrades optimal genutzt werden können.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Analysis of the Behavior of the Steel X12 NiCrSi 32 20 at High Temperatures and over Long Periods. The demands made on the performance of materials for chemical plant are constantly growing. Besides the switch to large units we may note only an increase in pressures and temperatures, but for technical and economic reasons also a trend toward optimum utilization of material properties. The service life of structural parts which are subjected to the greatest pressure and temperature stresses must be calculated by means of longtime rupture strength parameters. Since the computational data may fluctuate within certain limits and irregularities in operation can occur, it is difficult to predict the remaining life of operating plant.A synthesis gas plant in which important pressure-stressed components are made of the austenitic material X 12 NiCrSi 32 20 is here taken as an example. An attempt is made to predict the remaining life with the aid of longtime rupture strength parameters which have been determined in our own extended time trials. A comparision of experimental results with elongation values obtained from measurement of the component parts permits a good prediction of the remaining service life. Structural examinations of samples removed from the installation complete the data.
    Notes: Die Ansprüche an die Leistungsfähigkeit der Werkstoffe für Chemie Anlagen wachen ständig. So ist neben dem Übergang zu großen Einheiten nicht nur ein Ansteigen der Drücke und Temperaturen zu verzeichnen, sondern aus technischen und wirtschaftlichen Gründen auch eine optimale Ausnutzung der Werkstoffeigenschaften. Bei den durch Druck und Temperatur höchstbeanspruchten Bauteilen muß die Lebensdauer anhand von Zeitstandfestigkeitskennwerten berechnet werden. Da die Berechnungsdaten, wie Druck und Temperatur, innerhalb gewisser Grenzen schwanken und Unregelmäßigkeiten im Betrieb auftreten können, ist eine Voraussage der Restlebensdauer von laufenden Anlagen schwierig.Am Beispiel einer Synthesegasanlage, bei der wichtige druckbeanspruchte Bauteile aus dem austenitischen Werkstoff X 12 NiCrSi 32 20 sind, wird versucht, mit Hilfe von Zeitstandfestigkeitskennwerten, die im eigenen Langzeitversuch ermittelt sind, eine Aussage über die Restlebensdauer zu machen. Der Vergleich der Versuchsergebnisse mit den an Bauteilen gemessenen Dehnwerten ermöglicht eine gute Voraussage der noch zu erwartenden Lebensdauer. Gefügeuntersuchungen an herausgetrennten Probestücken vervollständigen die Aussagen.
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  • 19
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: On the Effect of Alternating Temperatures on the Creep Strength of Nickel Alloys. The design of parts for duty under creep stresses, such as turbine blades, had conventionally been rested on the assumption of linearly accumulating damage in the presence of alternating temperatures. Experimental work on nickel alloys has now shown that the damage will not generally accumulate linearly. Temperature alternations, when superimposed upon creep stresses, will cause multiplicative damage by impairing the creep strength and on occasion substantially promoting creep.
    Notes: Beim Auslegen zeitstandbeanspruchter Teile, wie Turbinenschaufeln, wird bisher unter wechselnden Temperaturen eine lineare Schadenssummierung angenommen. Versuche an Nickellegierungen zeigen, daß lineare Schadenssummierung im allgemeinen nicht zutrifft. Der Zeitstandbeanspruchung überlagerte Temperaturwechsel schädigen multiplikativ durch Vermindern der Zeitstandfestigkeit und teilweise erheblichem Erhöhen des Kriechens.
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  • 21
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 22
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 23
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Long Term Behaviour of non Iron Metals. In a teamwork of several laboratories the Dechema Specialist Committee „Materials and design in chemical engineering“ investigates the long term behaviour of non iron metals over 50 000 hours. This programme comprises technically pure copper, nickel, aluminium and titanium as well as several alloys of these basic metals if relevant for chemical apparatus. Lead and some of its alloys are tested in a special research programme. This paper deals with the results found on copper 99.9, LC-Nickel 99.2, Aluminium 99.5, pure titanium and the Ni Cu 30 Fe alloy, which have been investigated in the form of unnotched, notched and welded specimens. 1 % creep limit and creep strength data are given for 1000, 10 000 and 50 000 hours as well as their dependence on temperature (between 20 und 650°C).
    Notes: In einem Gemeinschaftsprogramm des Dechema-Fachausschusses „Werkstoffe und Konstruktion im Chemie-Apparatebau“ werden seit einigen Jahren in Zeitstandzugversuchen 50 000 h-Werte für Nichteisenmetalle erarbeitet. Neben technisch reinem Kupfer, Nickel, Aluminium und Titan sind verschiedene Legierungen dieser Basismetalle im Programm, soweit sie für den Apparatebau interessant sind. Daneben läuft ein gesondertes Programm über Blei und Bleilegierungen. Hier wird über die abgeschlossenen Untersuchungen an SF-Kupfer, LC-Nikkel, Aluminium 99,5 und Titan Gruppe III sowie der Legierung NiCu 30 Fe berichtet, die in Form von glatten Proben wie auch im gekerbten Zustand und als Schweißverbindungen untersucht wurden. Die 1 %-Dehngrenze und die Bruchgrenze werden als Zahlenwerte für 1000, 10 000 und 50 000 h sowie in ihrem Verlauf über einen Temperaturbereich von 20 bis 650°C angegeben.
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  • 24
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 25
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 26
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 27
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 28
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Brick-lining of Vessels and Process Units for Chemical Service. Bricklinings are used as an internal protection in chemically attacked vessels and process units. They generally consist of an impermeable membrane and the masonry itself. Materials of the single parts of the lining are described and guidelines for chosing materials and designing the lining are given. After some details of installing the lining typical examples of bricklined vessels and process units are given.
    Notes: Ausmauerungen werden als Korrosionsschutz für chemisch beanspruchte Behälter und Apparate verwendet. Diese Ausmauerungen bestehen aus der Schutzschicht und dem eigentlichen Mauerwerk. Die Werkstoffe für diese Ausmauerungselemente werden beschrieben und die Gesichtspunkte für die Werkstoffauswahl erläutert. Auf Hinweise zur Ausmauerungstechnik und die Nachbehandlung von Ausmauerungen folgen Beispiele für Behälter und Apparate mit chemisch beständigen Ausmauerungen.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Operating Principles of Mechanical Modules for Transducers and the Most Important Sources of Errors. The function of the mechanical modules of transducers for the measurement of physical quantities is explained and therefrom a classification of the transducers in three groups deduced. External interfering quantities, the feed-in of energy into the module and the material properties are mentioned as the most important sources of errors and their compensation is exemplified on already constructed transducers. Special attention is paid to the heat effect and the structure dependent mechanical properties of materials.
    Notes: Es wird die Funktion mechanischer Meßelemente von Meßwertaufnehmern zum Messen physikalischer Größen erläutert und daraus eine Einteilung der Aufnehmer in drei Gruppen abgeleitet. Als wichtigste Fehlerquellen werden äußere Störgrößen, die Energieeinleitung in das Meßelement und Werkstoffeigenschaften genannt und ihre Kompensation an ausgeführten Aufnehmern erläutert. Besonders wird auf die Wärmetönung und die strukturbedingten mechanischen Eigenschaften der Werkstoffe eingegangen.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Gold Flashing on Relay Contacts. It is not the colour but the resistance of contacts which determines their efficiency. Since, however, it is an expensive and time-wasting procedure to measure the resistance of every contact, many costomers reject relays whose silver contacts show a brownish-black discolouration, complaining that they have been kept too long in stock.This problem was believed to have been solved by the introduction of gold-flashing as a temporary coating while the contacts are kept in stock. Now the German Post Office's Telecommunications Head Quarters (Fernmeldetechnisches Zentralamt der Deutschen Bundespost) in Darmstadt have found indications which raise some suspecions as to the damaging side-effects of gold-flashing. For this reason, a working committee of the VDE (Association of German Electrical Engineers), group 1.6„Contact behaviour and switching processes“, undertook its own investigations. The results were revealed during a platform-discussion on the 3rd October, 1973 in the Technical College at Karlsruhe and are given here in the form of edited speeches and a summary of the discussion.
    Notes: Nicht die Farbe, sondern der Kontaktwiderstand ist ein eindeutiges Maß für die Brauchbarkeit von Kontakten. Da aber die Messung des Kontaktwiderstandes zeitraubend und teuer ist, weisen viele Kunden Relais mit braun-schwarz angelaufenen Silberkontakten als „überlagert“ zurück. Seit der Einführung der Hauchvergoldung als vorübergehender Lagerschutz galt dieses Problem als gelöst. Hinweise des Fernmeldetechnischen Zentralamtes der Deutschen Bundespost in Darmstadt haben Zweifel an der Unschädlichkeit der Hauchvergoldung aufkommen lassen und einen Arbeitskreis der VDE-Fachgruppe 1.6„Kontaktverhalten und Schalten“ zu eigenen Untersuchungen veranlaßt. Die Ergebnisse wurden in einer Podiumsdiskussion am 3. 10. 1973 an der Technischen Hochschule Karlsruhe vorgetragen und werden heir als Kurzfassung der Vorträge und Zusammenfassung der Diskussion wiedergegeben.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The Reliability of Materials in Tribology. The reliability of materials is, in general, reduced by lack of knowledge or the disregard of reaction mechanisms, by the disturbance of chemical or physical conditions of equilibrium and by changes in systems (e. g. combinations of materials, manufacturing processes, interaction with the environment etc.) entailing serious consequences.In the field of tribology, the following examples may be encountered:- Reaction mechanisms: Irreversible single threshold value: Transition from a metastable to a stable system; Crystallisation of synthetic materials; Abrasion phenomena with coating layers. Reversible threshold value: Volume change due to changes in physical state; Reversible structural transition. Irreversible cumulative threshold value: Influence of light on the resinification of lubricants; Crack development in the case of fatigue failures; Structurally unstable surface layers; Structural ageing phenomena.- Equilibrium: Wear/repolishing equilibrium; Tribological equilibrium of the surface structure; Compatibility of bearing materials; Consumption of additives in lubricating oil; Tribology and corrosion.- Interactions and system changes: General influence of basic materials; Interactions and catalysis; Evaporation of synthetic materials; Cleaning systems; Vibration.
    Notes: Die Zuverlässigkeit wird bei Werkstoffen im wesentlichen durch Unkenntnis oder Nichtbeachtung von Reaktionsmechanismen, durch Störung von chemischen oder physikalischen Gleichgewichten und durch folgenschwere Änderungen in Systemen (Werkstoffkombinationen, Fabrikationsabläufe, Wechselwirkung mit Umgebung usw.) beeinträchtigt. Auf das Gebiet der Tribologie übertragen, ergeben sich etwa folgenden Beispiele:- Reaktionsmechanismen: Irreversibler oder einfacher Schwellenwert; Übergang von einem metastabilen in ein stabiles System; Abrieberscheinungen bei Deckschichten. Reversibler Schwellenwert: Volumenänderung bei Änderungen des Aggregatzustandes; reversible Strukturumwandlungen. Irreversibler kumulativer Schwellenwert; Lichteinfluß auf die Verharzung von Schmiermitteln. Rißausbreitung bei Dauerschwingbrüchen; strukturinstabile Oberflächenschichten; strukturelle Alterungsvorgänge.- Gleichgewichte: Abnützungs/Repolitur-Gleichgewicht; tribologisches Gleichgewicht der Oberflächenstruktur; Kompatibilität von Lagerwerkstoffen; Aufbrauchen von Additiven im Schmieröl; Tribologie und Korrosion.- Wechselwirkungen und Systemänderungen: Einfluß der Grundwerkstoffe allgemein; Wechselwirkungen und Katalyse; Kunststoffausdünstungen; Reinigungssysteme; Vibrationen.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Strains and Stresses in the Area of the Plastic Zone Near the Crack Tip of Precracked Steel Specimens. Models for shape and dimension of the plastic zone near the crack tip of precracked specimens are described and discussed. Using idealized assumptions an area of influence of the plastic zone is postulated in accordance with the shape of the plastic zone observed. In this area an estimation of the stress distribution has been made. X-ray stress measurements have been done in and near the plastic zone.
    Notes: Modellvorstellungen über Form und Größe der plastischen Zone nahe der Rißspitze angerissener Proben werden beschrieben und anhand experimenteller Beobachtungen diskutiert. Basierend auf der experimentell ermittelten Form der plastischen Zone, wird unter idealisierender Annahme ein Einflußbereich der plastischen Zone postuliert und der Spannungsverlauf innerhalb dieses Bereichs angegeben. Die Ergebnisse röntgenographischer Spannungsmessungen im Bereich der plastischen Zone werden angegeben und diskutiert.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Behaviour of Steels under Shaped Charges Bombardement. There is at present not too much known about the behaviour of steel under the very high pressures of some 100 kbars as they will be produced by the hydrodynamic jet force stream of a shaped charge.In a short revue the hithero existing knowledge of the formation of a jet force stream is given as the phenomens in the penetration process of a material. It is recognized by bombardement tests on iron and steels of different compositions and of different heat treatments that there are some changes of the structure near the boundaries of the penetration channels.There is given some information by light- and electronmicroscopical investigations about the occurence during the hydrodynamic penetration process of the jet force stream and about the behaviour of the different structures under local concentrated pressures of shock waves.Microprobe-analyses and scanning electron microscope micrographs supply the understanding.
    Notes: Über das Verhalten von Stahl unter sehr hohen lokalen Drücken von einigen 100 kbar, wie sie durch den in einer Hohlladung erzeugten hydrodynamischen Strahl auf Stahl auftreten, ist derzeit wenig bekannt.In einer kurzen Übersicht werden die bisherigen Erkenntnisse bei der Bildung eines Strahles sowie die Vorgänge beim Durchdringen von Materie dargestellt. Beschußversuche an Eisen und Stählen unterschiedlicher Zusammensetzung und Wärmebehandlung lassen an den Grenzschichten des Schußkanals verschiedene Veränderungen des Gefüges erkennen. Licht- und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen ergeben Aufschluß über die Vorgänge während des Eindringens des hydrodynamischen Energiestrahles sowie über das Verhalten der verschiedenen Gefüge unter örtlich konzentrierten Stoßwellenbelastungen. Mikrosondenuntersuchungen und rasterelektronenmikroskopische Aufnahmen ergänzen das gewonnene Bild.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Mechanical Correlations at Material Transitions in Composite Bodies out of Dissimilar Materials. - Part I: Introduction. This paper gives a general description of the mechanical correlations in composite bodies. The formation and practical importance of the stress- and strain states, caused by the inhomogenous material transition, is discussed. Practicable composite bodies with plain and curved interfaces partly with interlayers are presented. The task and importance of intermediate layers is treated.
    Notes: In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird eine allgemein gehaltene einführende Beschreibung zum Problem der mechanischen Wechselwirkungen bei Verbundkörpern gegeben und auf die Entstehung und praktische Bedeutung von Spannungs- und Verformungszuständen durch den inhomogenen Werkstoffübergang hingewiesen. Ausgeführte Verbundkörper mit ebenen und gekrümmten Grenzflächen mit und ohne Zwischenschichten werden vorgestellt. Die Aufgabe und Bedeutung von Zwischenschichten wird behandelt.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Artificial and Natural Composites for High Temperature Application. Artificial composites are made by embedding reinforcing fibers into a metallic matrix f. i. by means of powder metallurgy. Natural composites are defined by the thermodynamic equilibrium: directional solidified eutectics as natural composites of high stability at high temperatures. Composites will probably replace conventional superalloys as turbine blades in jet engines allowing higher temperatures of combustion and therefore resulting in higher efficiency.Examples of such composites as materials for engine design are discussed. New processing methods (high energy rate forming and directional casting) and some recent results are described.Practical examples are mentioned and an outlook given for use in the near future.
    Notes: Unter „künstlichen“ Verbundwerkstoffen werden solche verstanden, die durch Einbettung von Fasern in eine Metallmatrix  -  z. B. auf pulvermetallurgischem Wege  -  entstehen. „Natürliche“ Verbundwerkstoffe werden vom thermodynamischen Gleichgewicht her definiert: d. s. gerichtet erstarrte Eutektika von guter Stabilität bei hohen Temperaturen.Verbundwerkstoffe werden wahrscheinlich in der Zukunft einmal die konventionellen Superlegierungen als Material für Turbinenschaufeln in Strahltriebwerken ersetzen. Dadurch werden höhere Verbrennungstemperaturen und eine höhere Leistung der Turbine ermöglicht.Beispiele der neuartigen künstlichen und natürlichen Verbundwerkstoffe für den Hochtemperatureinsatz in Wärmekraftmaschinen werden diskutiert. In diesem Zusammenhang werden neue Verfahrenstechniken, wie Hochgeschwindigkeitsstrangpressen und gerichtete Erstarrung von Schmelzen sowie neueste Versuchsergebnisse beschrieben.Es wird auf praktische Beispiele eingegangen und ein Ausblick auf die zukünftige Entwicklung gegeben.
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    Description / Table of Contents: Industrial Application of Fracture Mechanics. The application objects and application possibilities of fracture mechanics are demonstrated discussing typical methods and examples taken from industrial environment. In thrength proving the safe life of the fail safe design is aimed at. The crack intiation concept is confronted with the crack arrest concept. Examples refer to pressure and safety vessels of nuclear reactors, welded connections and gas pipe lines. The material can be selected according to KIc/σF or δc/σF for static loading, or additionally according to varying load amplitude behaviour and corrosion for fatigue. In case of catastrophic failure a fracture mechanical back computation to the reason of failure is possible. KIc and Kc-measurements are used for quality control too.
    Notes: Die Einsatzziele und Einsatzmöglichkeiten der technischen Rißbruchmechanik werden an Hand von typischen Verfahrensweisen und Beispielen aus der industriellen Praxis dargestellt. Beim Festigkeitsnachweis geht es um die bruchsichere (safe life) oder kontrolliert brechende (fail safe) Konstruktion. Dem Rißeinleitungskonzept steht das Rißauffangkonzept gegenüber. Die Beispiele beziehen sich auf Druck- und Sicherheitsbehälter von Kernreaktoren, Schweißverbindungen und Gasrohrleitungen. Der Werkstoff kann bei statischer Beanspruchung nach KIc/σF oder δc/σF gewählt werden, bei Ermüdung zusätzlich nach dem Verhalten bei wechselnder Lastamplitude und bei Korrosion. Bei Schadensfällen kann rißbruchmechanisch auf die Schadensursache zurückgerechnet werden. KIc und Kc-Messungen dienen auch der Qualitätskontrolle.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Lochfraß an einem austenitischen Stahl. Wärmetauscher in einer Schwefelsäurefabrik waren mit Rohren aus Nicrofer 3620 bestückt. Als Kühlmedium diente Meerwasser. Innerhalb 5 Wochen nach Inbetriebnahme fielen mehrere Rohre durch Lochfraß aus. Dies bestätigt erneut, daß rostbeständige Stähle ohne Molybdän für derartige Einsatzfälle nicht geeignet sind.
    Notes: A sulfuric acid plant was equipped with heat exchangers with Nicrofer 3620 tubing. The cooling medium was sea water. Within 5 weeks after start-up some of the tubes failed by pitting, showing that it is impossible to use stainless steel as a heat transfer material in sea water unless the molybdenum content is very high.
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    Description / Table of Contents: Fiber-Reinforced Aluminium. Light-weight construction requires materials of very high tensile strength and Young's modulus. For this reason, the principles of fiber reinforcement is also applied to light metals, preferably aluminium as in the case of reinforced plastics, which have already found a wide variety of applications. Unidirectional fiber reinforcement of aluminium can be achieved either by filaments or by short fibers. For these two types of fibers, different technologies have been developed. The mechanical, properties so far achieved by filament reinforcement enable high-performance composites for special applications to be developed. Composites reinforced with low-cost short fibers, on the other hand, should be developed in particular for the production of mass products.
    Notes: Der Leichtbau benötigt Werkstoffe mit möglichst hoher Zugfestigkeit und hohem E-Modul. Es liegt daher nahe, auch auf Leichtmetalle, vorzugsweise Aluminium, das Prinzip der Faserverstärkung anzuwenden, wie es beim Kunststoff breiten Eingang in die Praxis gefunden hat. Die unidirektionale Faserverstärkung von Aluminium kann durch Lang- oder Kurzfasern vorgenommen werden. Für beide Fasertypen sind unterschiedliche Technologien entwickelt worden. Die bisher bei Langfaserverstärkung erzielten mechanischen Eigenschaften ermöglichen die Entwicklung eines Hochleistungsverbundwerkstoffes für spezielle Anwendungen. Die Einlagerung möglichst preiswerter Kurzfasern sollte dagegen vorzugsweise für die Herstellung eines Massenproduktes für breite technische Anwendungen entwickelt werden.
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    Description / Table of Contents: Anwendung der holographischen Interferometrie zur vergleichenden Messung von Form und Abmessungen von Wälzlagerelementen. Es wird eine industrielle Anwendung präsentiert über den Einsatz der Schräglichtbeleuchtungstechnik zur Nutzung des holographischen interferometrischen Vergleichs von nicht-optischen Oberflächen.Es wird ein holographischer Interferometer beschrieben zur Messung von Zylinder- und Kegelrollen. Es werden experimentelle Ergebnisse aufgezeigt. Anhand davon wird diskutiert, in wieweit es diese Technik ermöglicht, sehr kleine Formabweichungen zu messen, obwohl der Interferometer eine verminderte Empfindlichkeit aufweist, infolge der Schräglichtbeleuchtung.
    Notes: An industrial application of the oblique illumination technique used for holographic interferometric comparison of non-optical surfaces is presented.A holographic interferometer for testing cylindrical and taper rollers is described.Experimental results are given, while it is discussed how to measure very small form deviations in spite of a decreased sensitivity of the interferometer due to the oblique illumination technique.
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    Description / Table of Contents: Beobachtungen zur Spannungsrißkorrosion in austenitisch-ferritischen nichtrostenden StählenStähle mit austenitisch-ferritischem Gefüge besitzen sowohl im geschweißten als auch im ungeschweißten Zustand hohe Beständig keit gegen Spannungsrißkorrosion. Bei Laboratoriumsversuchen-Calciumchloridlösung bei 100 °C, mit und ohne anodische Polarisation sowie chloridhaltige Medien bei 225 °C- war es nicht möglich, Ri°bildung zu erzeugen. Die Ri°bildung im geschweißten Zustand, die in Ausnahmefällen auftreten kann, läßt sich unterdrücken durch Verwendung von Elektroden, die ein Schweißgefüge der gleichen Zusammensetzung wie der Grundwerkstoff ergeben.
    Notes: Steels having austeno-ferritic structure are highly resistant to stress corrosion cracking in the welded as well in the nonwelded condition. It has not been possible in laboratory experiments-calcium chloride solution at 100 °C, with and without anodic polarisation, and chloride containing media at 225 °C - to produce cracking. Crack formation which in exceptional cases may occur in the welded condition may be suppressed by the use of electrodes yielding a weld seam having the same composition as the base material.
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    Description / Table of Contents: Die Polarisationswiderstandsmethode zur KorrosionsprüfungDie Messung des Polarisationswiderstandes mit Hilfe von Wechselstrom bietet bei der Bestimmung des Korrosionsverlustes gewisse Schwierikgeiten. Trotzdem sind die Wechselstrommethoden von technischem Interesse, da man unter diesen Bedingungen de Korrosionsgeschwindigkeit-Zeit-Kurven leicht aufstellen kann, die Potentialschwankungen leicht zu kompensieren sind und außerdem gewisse Vorteile bezüglich der Gerätekonstruktion offenkunding sind.
    Notes: The measurement of the polarization resistance using AC enables the corrosion losses to be determined with certain difficulties only, Despite that the AC methods are of technical interest because they allow the determination of corrosion rate/time curves without difficulties and enable potentiel fluctuation to be easily compensated; beyond that they offer certain advantages with respect to the construction of the measuring instruments.
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    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Incubation period and cracking progress during the transcrystalline stress corrosion cracking of austentitic chromium nickel steels in magnesium chloride solutionsA very sensitive measuring method has enabled new details to be brought to light with respect to to the corrosion behavior of an austenitic steel. According to studies on a steel (German designation Werkstoff-Nr,1.4301) the stress corrosion cracking is a process in three stages, it is a creep stage proceeding apparently without perturbation, a period of discontinuous crack growth and finally a period of discontinuous crack growth. The duration of the incubation period which can be experimentally determined depends from the sensitivity of the measuring method; the ture incubation period, however, is always shorter than the experimentally determined value. The incubation period which is determined on the base of specimen elongation is followed by a discontinuous period characterized by crack-growth and subsequent repassivation and finally by a period with continuous crack growth. This behaviour can be interpreted in terms of the glide step-repassivation model.
    Notes: Mit Hilfe einer sehr empfindlichen Meßmethode konnten Einzelheiten über das Korrosionsverhalten eines austenitischen Stahls ermittelt werden, die bisher unbekannt waren. Nach den Untersuchungen an dem Stahl Werkstoff-Nr. 1.4301 handelt es sich bei der Spannungsrißkorrosion um einen in drei Etappen ablaufenden Vorgang, nämlich einen Fließvorgang, der anscheinend ungestört verläuft, eine Periode diskontinuierlichen Rißwachstums und schließlich eine Periode Kontinuierlichen Rißwachstums. Die Dauer der Inkubationszeit, die experimentell erfaßt werden kann, ist abhängig von der Empfindlichkeit der Meßmethodik; die wahre Inkubationsdauer ist immer kürzer als der experimentell bestimmte Wert. Der Inkubationsperiode, die aufgrund der Dehnung bestimmt wird, folgt eine diskontinuierliche Periode, die durch Rißwachstum und anschließende Repassivierung charakterisiert ist; abschließend folgt eine Periode mit kontinuierlichem Rißwachstum. Dieses Verhalten kann mit Hilfe des Gleitstufen-Repassivierungsmodells gedeutet werden.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    Weinheim [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: An optical method for continuously following slow corrosion processesThe method presented here is based on the variation of the optical transmittance and, consequently, can be applied to very thin (some 1000 Å ) metal layers only. Because of the high absorption coefficients of metals it is possible by this method to follow dissolution processes of the order of monoatomic layers. The light source used is a He-Ne-laser. The following applications are described: dissolution rate of chromium in the transpassive range; dissolution of gold in sulfuric acid with additions of hydro chloric acid; photolytic corrosion of titanium.
    Notes: Die hier verwendete Methode beruht auf der Veränderung der optischen Durchlässigkeit und kann infolgedessen nur auf sehr dünne (einige 1000) Metallschichten angewendet werden. Aufgrund der hohen Werte der Absorptionskoeffizinten von Metallen ist es möglich, mit dieser Methode Auflösungsvorgänge in der Größenordnung monomolekularer Schichten zu verfolgen. Als Lichtquelle wird ein He-Ne-Laser verwendet. Beschrieben werden die folgenden Anwendungen: Auflösungsgeschwindigkeit von Chrom im Bereich der Transpassivität;Auflösung von Gold in Schwefelsäure mit HCL Zusatz;photolytische Korrosion von Titan.