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  • Chemistry  (27,206)
  • 1970 - 1974  (27,206)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 14 (1974), S. 3-14 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Hydroxyapatite ; Mineral ; Phase ; Chemistry ; Synthesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des diagrammes de phase d'équilibre ont été déterminés pour le système CaO-P2O5-H2O en utilisant des techniques de synthèse hydrothermique au cours de variatio nsde température allant de 300–600° et 2 Kb H2O de pression. De l'hydroxyapatite bien cristallisé a été synthétisé et caractérisé. De faibles variations de paramètres de la maille cristalline, liées à la température de synthèse et composition globale du matériel initial, ont été déterminées. Des conditions chimiques précises sont nécessaires pour obtenir de l'apatite, en tant que seule phase solide en équilibre dans la solution. Les résultats de diagramme de phase d'équilibre sont comparés avec ceux obtenus dans des milieux synthétiques.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Es wurden Gleichgewichts-Phasendiagramme für das System CaO-P2O5-H2O bestimmt, indem hydrothermale Synthese-Techniken im Temperaturbereich von 300–600° und bei einem Druck von 2 Kb H2O verwendet wurden. Es wurde gut-kristallisiertes Hydroxyapatit erzeugt und charakterisiert. Es wurden geringe Unterschiede in den Parametern der Zelleinheiten festgestellt, welche von der angewandten Temperatur und der Zusammensetzung des Startmaterials abhingen. Es waren genaue chemische Bedingungen nötig, um Apatit als die einzige feste Phase im Gleichgewicht mit der Lösung zu erhalten. Die Resultate der Gleichgewichts-Phasendiagramme werden mit früheren Untersuchungen mit der Synthesetechnik verglichen.
    Notes: Abstract Equilibrium phase diagrams have been determined for the system CaO-P2O5-H2 using hydrothermal synthesis techniques in the temperature range 300–600° and 2 Kb H2O pressure. Well-crystallized hydroxyapatite has been produced and characterized. Small variations in unit cell parameters dependent on temperature of synthesis and bulk composition of the starting materials have been determined. Precise chemical conditions were required to obtain apatite as the only solid phase in equilibrium with solution. Equilibrium phase diagram results are compared with previous synthetic investigations.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: EHDP ; Bone ; Chemistry ; Serum ; Rabbits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effects of disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) on bone and serum chemistry were investigated in adult rabbits. EHDP was administered by subcutaneous injection at doses of 0.25, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg body weight/day for of 28 days. Blood samples were obtained weekly from each rabbit and serum levels of total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were determined. At the end of the treatment period all rabbits were sacrificed and the tibiae removed for chemical analysis and histological evaluation. The effect of EHDP administration on serum chemistry was both dose- and time-related. The highest of the three doses, 10 mg/kg/day, resulted in a time-related decrease in total serum calcium. This dose also caused a rapid but transient reduction in serum ionized calcium. The effect of EHDP on serum inorganic phosphate was biphasic. Administration of 2.5 mg/kg/day resulted in a time-related elevation in this parameter, whereas the 10 mg/kg/day dose resulted in a time-related hypophosphatemic response. There were no significant drug-related changes in tibial fat-free dry weight, ash weight, total calcium or total phosphorus values. However, administration of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day EHDP resulted in increased osteoid tissue as measured histologically. These results are compared with data from other EHDP studies, and discussed in relation to the maturity and growth-state of the experimental animals.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Failure of Helicopter Turbines Caused by Use of Steel in Corrodible Condition Aggravated by Incorrect Construction. Impeller compressors of steel X 15 Cr 13 were not drawn up as usual to 725 °C but only to 540 °C after hardening, in order to maintain high strength. By this treatment the steel becomes especially sensitive to corrosion, because a network of Chromium carbide is precipitated on the former austenit grain boundaries. Nevertheless the impellers reached the stipulated lifetime, since the corrosive agent  -  the condensed moisture of the air  -  is eliminated by centrifugal force. After an apparently insignificant variation of construction, the water was retained in a rim and the impellers were destructed due to stress corrosion and corrosion fatigue.
    Notes: Axialverdichterräder aus Turbinenschaufelstahl X 15 Cr 13 wurden nach dem Härten nicht wie üblich auf 725 °C, sondern nur auf 540 °C angelassen, um eine möglichst hohe Festigkeit zu erzielen. Der Stahl wird durch diese Behandlung besonders korrosionsanfällig, da sich ein Netz von Chromkarbiden auf den ehemaligen Austenitkorngrenzen ausscheidet. Die Räder erreichten dennoch die vorgeschriebene Lebensdauer, weil die als Korrosionsmedium wirkende, aus der anströmenden Luft niedergeschlagene Feuchtigkeit aufgrund der hohen Fliehkraft abgeschleudert wurde. Durch eine anscheinend unbedeutende konstruktive Änderung  -  das Andrehen eines Wuchtringes  -  wurde die Feuchtigkeit jedoch gestaut, so daß die Räder infolge von Spannungs- bzw. von Schwingungsrißkorrosion brachen.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The Crack Toughness of Heat Treatable Steels. A survey on KIc- measurements of heat treatable steels is presented. The influences of factors like the heat-treatment, test-temperature, micro-structure and the previous thermal and mechanical history of the starting material on the KIc-values are described. KIc-values at room-temperature of typical steels are tabulated.
    Notes: Es wird eine Übersicht über Ergebnisse neuerer Rißzähigkeitsmessungen an Vergütungsstählen gegeben. Die Einflüsse der Wärmebehandlung, der Prüftemperatur sowie metallurgischer und struktureller Faktoren auf die Rißzähigkeit werden aufgezeigt. Allgemein gültige Gesetzmäßigkeiten werden herausgestellt und die KIc-Werte kennzeichnender Vergütungsstähle bei Raumtemperatur zusammengefaßt.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Carbon-Carbon Composites. Carbon-carbon composites, i. e. carbon fibre reinforced artifical carbons, are a new type of composite material for high temperature applications. They exhibits strength values up to 100 kp/mm2 combined with densities lower than 2 g/cm3. Although at first developed for use in aerospace technology, in the last time they become more interesting for common applications because of their extraordinary properties.A process for the production of carbon carbon composites from commercially available endless carbon fibres and coal tar pitch as matrix precursor is presented. The properties of the composites are discussed in detail in relation to the production conditions. The high temperature strength under inert atmosphere is characterised up to 2000 °C. Literature is given for some newer applications of carbon-carbon composites.
    Notes: Kohlenstoff/Kohlenstoff-Verbundkörper (carbon carbon composites) weisen Festigkeiten bis zu 100 kp/mm2 bei Körperdichten unter 2 g/cm3 auf. Diese neue Werkstoffklasse, anfänglich für Luft- und Raumfahrtanwendung entwickelt, dringt wegen ihrer außergewöhnlichen Eigenschaften in allgemeine Anwendungsgebiete vor.Es wird ein Verfahren zur Herstellung solcher Verbundkörper aus kommerziell verfügbaren endlosen Kohlenstoff-Fasern und aus Steinkohlenteerpech als Matrixrohstoff vorgestellt. Die Eigenschaften der Verbundkörper und deren Abhängigkeit von den Herstellungsbedingungen werden im einzelnen diskutiert. Die Hochtemperaturfestigkeit bis 2000 °C in inerter Atmosphäre wird auf Grund von Kurzzeitmessungen charakterisiert. Auf neuere Anwendungen dieser Verbundkörper und diesbezügliche Literatur wird hingewiesen.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Torsional cycling of cold pressure welded zirconium/steel-specimens. Low-cycle fatigue of cold pressure welder zirconium/steel-specimens has been studied in cyclic torsion. The critical number of cycles Ncr instead of the number of cycles to final failure Nf is taken for evaluation of the endurance life in low-cycle fatigue. Ncr is defined as the number of cycles leading to the formation of a crack which noticeably weakens the specimen. The relationship NKra · Δγ = const. is achieved for bonded specimens. The results have been correlated with the observations in unwelded zirconium and steel to predict the endurance life of bonded specimens. Microstructure studies revealed crack initiation at points of intense slip in zirconium. Fracture occured always in zirconium outside the welded zone.
    Notes: Plastoermüdung (low-cycle fatigue) an kaltpreßgeschweißten Zirkonium/Stahl-Proben wurde im Torsionswechselversuch untersucht. Zur Bestimmung der Lebensdauer bei Plastoermüdung wurde die kritische Lastspielzahl NKr anstelle der Bruchlastspielzahl NB verwendet. NKr ist die Lastspielzahl, bei der Risse auftreten, die die Probe merklich schwächen. Der Zusammenhang NKra. Δγ = C wurde auch für geschweißte Proben gewonnen. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit den Beobachtungen an ungeschweißten Proben in Zusammenhang gebracht, um die Lebensdauer der geschweißten Proben voraussagen zu können. Mikroskopische Untersuchungen zeigten die Anrißbildung an Stellen intensiver Gleitung in Zirkonium. Der Bruch erfolgte immer außerhalb der Schweißnaht im Zirkonium.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Lochfraß an einem austenitischen Stahl. Wärmetauscher in einer Schwefelsäurefabrik waren mit Rohren aus Nicrofer 3620 bestückt. Als Kühlmedium diente Meerwasser. Innerhalb 5 Wochen nach Inbetriebnahme fielen mehrere Rohre durch Lochfraß aus. Dies bestätigt erneut, daß rostbeständige Stähle ohne Molybdän für derartige Einsatzfälle nicht geeignet sind.
    Notes: A sulfuric acid plant was equipped with heat exchangers with Nicrofer 3620 tubing. The cooling medium was sea water. Within 5 weeks after start-up some of the tubes failed by pitting, showing that it is impossible to use stainless steel as a heat transfer material in sea water unless the molybdenum content is very high.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 12
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Usage of Holographic Interferometry for Non-Destructive Materials Testing. Holographic interferometry has meanwhile developed into a usable method for non-destructive materials testing, which permits even large-area components to be tested by using high-power lasers. Recording the fringe structures makes a subsequent detailed resolution evaluation possible. Appraisal of the video recordings makes the origin and change of the secondary interference fringes clearly recognizable and interpretable and thus substantiates very informatively the introduction of holographic interferometry for non-destructive materials testing.
    Notes: Die holografische Interferometrie hat sich inzwischen zu einer brauchbaren Methode der zerstörungsfreien Werkstoffprüfung entwickelt, wobei durch den Einsatz leistungsstarker Laser auch großflächige Bauelemente untersucht werden können. Durch Aufzeichnung der Streifenstrukturen wird eine detailliert auflösbare spätere Auswertung ermöglicht. Die Begutachtung von Video-Aufzeichnungen macht das Entstehen und die Änderung von sekundären Interferenzstreifen deutlich erkennbar und deutbar und begründet so sehr aufschlußreich die Einführung der holografischen Interferometrie in die zerstörungsfreie Werkstoffprüfung.
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  • 16
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Holographic Vibration Analysis. With the time averaging method of the holographic interferometry it is possible to measure the vibration amplitudes of models excited by natural or forced vibration. The models must not be plane and only opaque reflecting. In a few examples we demonstrate the determination of stress distributions on complicated solid structures (value plates) and fluid-solid systems. Such vibration states also occur after short time loading in the following steady state. We use a periodic excitation with frequencies between 100 Hz and 10 kHz and vibration amplitudes of about 1 μm. Edge stresses of about 10 kp/cm2 are measured on a vibrating valve plate with a thickness of 0,5 mm. The investigation of fluid-solid systems shows a diminuition of the natural frequency caused by the fluid component.
    Notes: Mit dem Zeitmittelungsverfahren der holographischen Interferometrie lassen sich bekanntlich die Schwingungsamplituden von Bauteilen, die durch Eigenschwingungen oder erzwungene Schwingungen hervorgerufen werden, auch an nicht ebenen und nicht spiegelnden Modellen bestimmen. Es wird gezeigt, wie man bei komplizierten geometrischen Strukturen (Ventilplatten) sowie festflüssigen Systemen Schwingungszustände quantitativ ermitteln kann, wie sie auch nach kurzzeitiger Belastung im darauf folgenden eingeschwungenen Zustand auftreten. Es wurde eine periodische Anregung mit einer Frequenz zwischen 100 Hz und 10 kHz und eine Schwingungsamplitude von ca. 1 μm benutzt. Dabei wurden Biegespannungsamplituden von ca. 10 kp/cm2 bei einer 0.5 mm dicken Ventilplatte gemessen. Bei den untersuchten festflüssigen Systemen wurde eine Verringerung der Eigenfrequenz durch die flüssige Komponente festgestellt.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The Influence of Niobium on the Creep Rupture Strength of Centrifugally Cast Alloys Containing 25% Chromium and 20% Nickel. The material most frequently used in chemical furnace construction is G-X 40 CrNiSi 25 20 steel. Because of the change to larger units and the increase in operating pressure and temperature it is often no longer possible to obtain sufficiently long on-stream times with this alloy. The development consequently turned to new alloy variants which held out promise of an improved creep rupture strength, with undiminished resistance to corrosion. By adding niobium to alloys containing 25% chromium and 20% nickel it is possible to improve the thermal stability of centrifugal castings. The creep rupture strength data of two niobium-containing melts of this type of steel were determined experimentally. The creep rupture strength characteristics of the CrNi-containing centrifugally cast alloys with and without niobium was compared by platting the scatter jointly on one chart.
    Notes: Der im Chemieofenbau zur Zeit am häufigsten verwendete Werkstoff ist der G-X 40 CrNiSi 25 20. Durch den Übergang zu größeren Einheiten und das Ansteigen von Druck und Temperatur lassen sich mit dieser Legierung vielfach keine ausreichend langen Betriebszeiten mehr erreichen. Die Entwicklung ging daher zu neuen Legierungsvarianten, die eine bessere Zeitstandfestigkeit bei unverminderter Korrosionsbeständigkeit versprachen. Durch das Zulegieren von Niob läßt sich die Warmfestigkeit der Schleudergußqualitäten mit 25 % Chrom und 20 % Nickel verbessern. Die Zeitstandfestigkeitskennwerte von zwei niobhaltigen Schmelzen dieses Stahltyps wurden in Versuchen ermittelt. Der Vergleich der Zeitstandfestigkeitskennwerte der CrNi-haltigen Schleudergußsorten mit und ohne Niob ist anhand eines gemeinsamen Streubandes durchgeführt worden.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 21
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    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Properties and applications of low-alloy steels for elevated temperatures. Demands on steels for elevated temperatures. Tensile and toughness data on Manganese Nickel Molybdenum Vanadium steels with ferritic-bainitic structures in dependence of the chemical composition and the temperature. Influence of pulsating stresses. Examples of application.
    Notes: Anforderungen an warmfeste Stähle. Ergebnisse von Festigkeits- und Zähigkeitsuntersuchungen an ferritisch-bainitischen MnNiMo V-legierten Stählen in Abhängigkeit von chemischer Zusammensetzung und Temperatur. Einfluß einer schwellenden Beanspruchung. Anwendungsbeispiele.
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  • 22
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Strength and Toughness, Criteria of Safety for Construction of Apparata. In the chemical research technique often high requirements are being set on the materials of apparata due to pressure, temperature and corrosive medias. While the strength necessary to avoid macroscopical deformation can be guaranteed today without difficulties, this does not go similarly for the toughness. The toughness of steel being a condition in the strength calculation is the real safety criterion for welded structures. This is especially applicable in the case of local peak stress due to construction or of micro cracks caused during manufacturing or service. If - as mostly in practice - local inhomogeneities and unknown residual stresses are existing, the linear fracture mechanics can only be applied with empirical factors. The best safety even with unforeseen overloadings can be seen in such a toughness, which avoids brittle fracture at all. The possible test methods will in any case have to reliably consider also the heat affected zones of weldings, since brittle cracks also in tough matrix can only be absorbed under limited stresses.
    Notes: In der chemischen Verfahrenstechnik werden meist infolge von Druck, Temperatur und korrosiven Medien hohe Anforderungen an die Werkstoffe von Apparaten gestellt. Während die zur Vermeidung makroskopischer Verformungen notwendige Festigkeit heute ohne Schwierigkeiten gewährleistet werden kann, gilt dies für die Verformungsfähigkeit nicht in gleichem Maße. Da die Verformungsfähigkeit bei Stählen in der Festigkeitsrechnung vorausgesetzt wird, stellt sie bei geschweißten Bauteilen das eigentliche Sicherheitskriterium dar. Dies gilt um so mehr, wenn auch konstruktiv bedingte örtliche Spannungsspitzen auftreten oder fertigungs- und betriebsbedingte Anrisse. Wenn wie meist in der Praxis örtliche Inhomogenitäten und unbekannte Eigenspannungen vorliegen, ist die Bruchmechanik nur mit empirischen Zuschlägen anwendbar. Die beste Sicherheit auch bei unvorhergesehenen Überlastungen liegt in einer solchen Zähigkeit, daß keine Sprödbrüche möglich sind. Die in Betracht kommenden Prüfverfahren müssen in jedem Fall auch die Wärmeeinflußzone von Schweißungen zuverlässig berücksichtigen, da spröd eingeleitete Brüche auch in Zäher Matrix nur bei begrenzten Spannungen aufgefangen werden können.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Corrosion and Stress Corrosion Problems of Aluminium Structural Alloys. The corrosion behavior of structural Aluminium alloys in different environments is discussed. Reference is made to the important influence of naturally formed surface oxide films on corrosion resistance of Aluminium. Selected examples are given for the different types of attack, e. g. pitting corrosion, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. The possible effect of composition and of fabricating procedures on corrosion is discussed. The stress corrosion mechanism of AlZnMg-alloys is quite different from the common corrosion process. The difficulties to distinguish between different corrosion mechanisms having apparently similar features are described. Knowledge of the different origins of failure provides possibilities for avoiding corrosion and stress corrosion damages.
    Notes: Ausgehend von der Bedeutung der natürlichen Deckschichten für die Beständigkeit des Aluminiums wird kurz das Verhalten in verschiedenen Medien besprochen. An ausgewählten Beispielen werden die verschiedenen Korrosionsarten, interkristalline Korrosion, Lochkorrosion und Schichtkorrosion, ihre Ursachen und mögliche Beeinflussung durch Zusammensetzung und Fertigungsbedingungen phänomenologisch erläutert. Spannungsrißkorrosion ist dagegen als ein gänzlich anderer Vorgang anzusehen. Es wird die Schwierigkeit aufgezeigt, unterschiedliche Prozesse, die zu einem ähnlichen Erscheinungsbild führen, auseinanderzuhalten und eine zuverlässige Beurteilung bei Schadensfällen vorzunehmen. Auf die Möglichkeit zur Vermeidung von Schäden bei Erkennen ihrer Ursache wird hingewiesen.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Retardation of the recrystallization of tungsten wire in Ni- and NiCr-Matrix. Nickel and other metals like palladium, aluminium, manganese, platinum and iron are known to reduce the recrystallization temperature of doped tungsten and tungsten- 2 % thorium oxide. This effect and its retardation were investigated within the framework of a larger study of fiber reinforced materials.
    Notes: Nickel und andere Metalle, wie Palladium, Aluminium, Mangan, Platin und Eisen können die Rekristallisationstemperatur von dotiertem Wolfram und Wolfram-2% Thoriumoxid stark erniedrigen. Dieser Effekt wurde im Rahmen einer größeren Untersuchung über Faserverbundkunststoffe [1] studiert und Wege zu seiner Behebung gesucht.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Fiber-Reinforced Aluminium. Light-weight construction requires materials of very high tensile strength and Young's modulus. For this reason, the principles of fiber reinforcement is also applied to light metals, preferably aluminium as in the case of reinforced plastics, which have already found a wide variety of applications. Unidirectional fiber reinforcement of aluminium can be achieved either by filaments or by short fibers. For these two types of fibers, different technologies have been developed. The mechanical, properties so far achieved by filament reinforcement enable high-performance composites for special applications to be developed. Composites reinforced with low-cost short fibers, on the other hand, should be developed in particular for the production of mass products.
    Notes: Der Leichtbau benötigt Werkstoffe mit möglichst hoher Zugfestigkeit und hohem E-Modul. Es liegt daher nahe, auch auf Leichtmetalle, vorzugsweise Aluminium, das Prinzip der Faserverstärkung anzuwenden, wie es beim Kunststoff breiten Eingang in die Praxis gefunden hat. Die unidirektionale Faserverstärkung von Aluminium kann durch Lang- oder Kurzfasern vorgenommen werden. Für beide Fasertypen sind unterschiedliche Technologien entwickelt worden. Die bisher bei Langfaserverstärkung erzielten mechanischen Eigenschaften ermöglichen die Entwicklung eines Hochleistungsverbundwerkstoffes für spezielle Anwendungen. Die Einlagerung möglichst preiswerter Kurzfasern sollte dagegen vorzugsweise für die Herstellung eines Massenproduktes für breite technische Anwendungen entwickelt werden.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Description / Table of Contents: Anwendung der holographischen Interferometrie zur vergleichenden Messung von Form und Abmessungen von Wälzlagerelementen. Es wird eine industrielle Anwendung präsentiert über den Einsatz der Schräglichtbeleuchtungstechnik zur Nutzung des holographischen interferometrischen Vergleichs von nicht-optischen Oberflächen.Es wird ein holographischer Interferometer beschrieben zur Messung von Zylinder- und Kegelrollen. Es werden experimentelle Ergebnisse aufgezeigt. Anhand davon wird diskutiert, in wieweit es diese Technik ermöglicht, sehr kleine Formabweichungen zu messen, obwohl der Interferometer eine verminderte Empfindlichkeit aufweist, infolge der Schräglichtbeleuchtung.
    Notes: An industrial application of the oblique illumination technique used for holographic interferometric comparison of non-optical surfaces is presented.A holographic interferometer for testing cylindrical and taper rollers is described.Experimental results are given, while it is discussed how to measure very small form deviations in spite of a decreased sensitivity of the interferometer due to the oblique illumination technique.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Hydrogen-embrittlement of Titanium and Titanium-Alloys. The influence of hydrogen-embrittlement on mechanical properties, especially on plastic deformation of titanium and its alloys is described. Even less than 200 ppm H may result in embrittlement. Titanium is sensitive to hydrogen-embrittlement at high speed of deformation; titanium-alloys in a notched condition at low speed of deformation. Hydrogen dissolution can be avoided or diminished by thin oxide layers. The connection between hydrogen-embrittlement and stresscorrosion-cracking is shown on different examples. Alloys with high content of aluminium are most sensitive against this sort of embrittlement.
    Notes: Der Einfluß einer Wasserstoffversprödung auf die mechanischen Eigenschaften, insbesondere die plastische Verformung von Titan und seinen Legierungen werden beschrieben. Bereits geringe Anteile von Wasserstoff in der Größenordnung von ≦ 200 ppm können sich ungünstig auswirken. Titan ist bei einer hohen Verformungsgeschwindigkeit und Titanlegierungen sind bei einer niedrigen Verformungsgeschwindigkeit insbesondere im gekerbten Zustand empfindlich gegen die Wasserstoffversprödung. Durch dünne Oxidschichten kann die Wasserstoffaufnahme verhindert oder vermindert werden. An verschiedenen Beispielen wird der enge Zusammenhang zwischen Wasserstoffversprödung und Spannungsrißkorrosion aufgezeigt. Legierungen mit hohen Gehalten an Aluminium sind besonders empfindlich gegen diese Art der Versprödung.
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    Description / Table of Contents: Long Term Behaviour of non Iron Metals. In a teamwork of several laboratories the Dechema Specialist Committee „Materials and design in chemical engineering“ investigates the long term behaviour of non iron metals over 50 000 hours. This programme comprises technically pure copper, nickel, aluminium and titanium as well as several alloys of these basic metals if relevant for chemical apparatus. Lead and some of its alloys are tested in a special research programme. This paper deals with the results found on copper 99.9, LC-Nickel 99.2, Aluminium 99.5, pure titanium and the Ni Cu 30 Fe alloy, which have been investigated in the form of unnotched, notched and welded specimens. 1 % creep limit and creep strength data are given for 1000, 10 000 and 50 000 hours as well as their dependence on temperature (between 20 und 650°C).
    Notes: In einem Gemeinschaftsprogramm des Dechema-Fachausschusses „Werkstoffe und Konstruktion im Chemie-Apparatebau“ werden seit einigen Jahren in Zeitstandzugversuchen 50 000 h-Werte für Nichteisenmetalle erarbeitet. Neben technisch reinem Kupfer, Nickel, Aluminium und Titan sind verschiedene Legierungen dieser Basismetalle im Programm, soweit sie für den Apparatebau interessant sind. Daneben läuft ein gesondertes Programm über Blei und Bleilegierungen. Hier wird über die abgeschlossenen Untersuchungen an SF-Kupfer, LC-Nikkel, Aluminium 99,5 und Titan Gruppe III sowie der Legierung NiCu 30 Fe berichtet, die in Form von glatten Proben wie auch im gekerbten Zustand und als Schweißverbindungen untersucht wurden. Die 1 %-Dehngrenze und die Bruchgrenze werden als Zahlenwerte für 1000, 10 000 und 50 000 h sowie in ihrem Verlauf über einen Temperaturbereich von 20 bis 650°C angegeben.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Analysis of the Behavior of the Steel X12 NiCrSi 32 20 at High Temperatures and over Long Periods. The demands made on the performance of materials for chemical plant are constantly growing. Besides the switch to large units we may note only an increase in pressures and temperatures, but for technical and economic reasons also a trend toward optimum utilization of material properties. The service life of structural parts which are subjected to the greatest pressure and temperature stresses must be calculated by means of longtime rupture strength parameters. Since the computational data may fluctuate within certain limits and irregularities in operation can occur, it is difficult to predict the remaining life of operating plant.A synthesis gas plant in which important pressure-stressed components are made of the austenitic material X 12 NiCrSi 32 20 is here taken as an example. An attempt is made to predict the remaining life with the aid of longtime rupture strength parameters which have been determined in our own extended time trials. A comparision of experimental results with elongation values obtained from measurement of the component parts permits a good prediction of the remaining service life. Structural examinations of samples removed from the installation complete the data.
    Notes: Die Ansprüche an die Leistungsfähigkeit der Werkstoffe für Chemie Anlagen wachen ständig. So ist neben dem Übergang zu großen Einheiten nicht nur ein Ansteigen der Drücke und Temperaturen zu verzeichnen, sondern aus technischen und wirtschaftlichen Gründen auch eine optimale Ausnutzung der Werkstoffeigenschaften. Bei den durch Druck und Temperatur höchstbeanspruchten Bauteilen muß die Lebensdauer anhand von Zeitstandfestigkeitskennwerten berechnet werden. Da die Berechnungsdaten, wie Druck und Temperatur, innerhalb gewisser Grenzen schwanken und Unregelmäßigkeiten im Betrieb auftreten können, ist eine Voraussage der Restlebensdauer von laufenden Anlagen schwierig.Am Beispiel einer Synthesegasanlage, bei der wichtige druckbeanspruchte Bauteile aus dem austenitischen Werkstoff X 12 NiCrSi 32 20 sind, wird versucht, mit Hilfe von Zeitstandfestigkeitskennwerten, die im eigenen Langzeitversuch ermittelt sind, eine Aussage über die Restlebensdauer zu machen. Der Vergleich der Versuchsergebnisse mit den an Bauteilen gemessenen Dehnwerten ermöglicht eine gute Voraussage der noch zu erwartenden Lebensdauer. Gefügeuntersuchungen an herausgetrennten Probestücken vervollständigen die Aussagen.
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    Description / Table of Contents: The Mechanism of Contact Fatigue. This Paper reviews the mechanism of contact fatigue and the different effects of material, lubricant, surface conditions and load on this type of surface failure in bearings and gears. An analysis of the combined stresses of two cylinders clearly demonstrates that the methods applied to calculate the actual stress in the contact zone are based on idealized conditions.The consideration of the effective conditions which influence life time of machine parts under concentrated contacts  -  for example residual stresses, dynamically changing thermal stresses, surface roughness  -  has not succeeded till now.
    Notes: In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden die vielfältigen Einflußgrößen, die bei der Oberflächenermüdung (Pitting- oder Grübchenbildung) in wälzend oder gleitend/wälzend beanspruchten Reibsystemen, z. B. Wälzlagern und Zahnradpaarungen, eine Rolle spielen, beschrieben. Dabei wird an Hand einer Berechnung der Beanspruchung zweier Walzen durch Normal- und Tangentialkräfte deutlich gemacht, daß für eine rechnerische Erfassung der Werkstoffanstrengung zur Zeit lediglich stark idealisierte Ansätze zur Verfügung stehen. Die Einbeziehung realer Werkstoff- und Oberflächenzustände (z. B. Eigenspannungen, dynamische Wärmespannungen und Oberflächenfeingestalt) in eine umfassende mathematische Beschreibung der Werkstoffanstrengung ist trotz einiger wesentlicher experimentell erarbeiteter Erkenntnisse bislang nicht gelungen.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Wood and Woodmaterials in the Technology of Today and Tomorrow. Though wood on the market is under the pressure of numerous competing materials, its production and consumption increases on the whole world. Available are round logs, sawn lumber, sheetlike wood based materials such as plywood, particleboard, fiber building board and since some time glued structural parts. Continuous wood consumption is necessary for securing the beneficial effects of forests. In the Federal Republic of Germany and in most industrialized countries the production of particleboard increased in a parabolic manner. A special stimulation of wood consumption came by glued laminated structural parts. Firms working on this field founded the organization Glulam with the aim to standardize the production methods, the permissible stresses, the classification and dimensions of the sawn wood, the calculation of glued wood constructions and its behaviour in fire. On the basis of test results the minimum dimensions for fire resistance grades F 30 and F 60 (30 min. and 60 min.) are given. Large spans e. g. for halls, serving for various purposes, gymnasiums, covered tennis courts, ice rink halls, swimming baths, churches, warehouses, factory buildings, storage sheds, filling stations, shell roofs and bridges can be built with no other materials besides laminated timber with so little dead weight.
    Notes: Obwohl Holz auf dem Markt unter dem Druck zahlreicher Wettbewerbsstoffe steht, steigen sein Einschlag und Verbrauch auf der ganzen Welt ständig an. Angeboten und verwendet werden Rundholz, Schnittholz, plattenförmige Werkstoffe wie Sperrholz, Spanplatten, Faserplatten und seit geraumer Zeit verleimte Holzbauteile. Holzverbrauch ist erforderlich, um die Schutzwirkungen der Wälder zu sichern. Überproportional entwickelte sich in der Bundesrepublik und in den meisten industriell entwickelten Staaten die Erzeugung von Holzspanplatten. Besondere Belebung erfuhr die Holzverwendung durch den Holzleimbau. Die damit in Europa beschäftigten Firmen gründeten die Organisation Glulam, um die Fabrikationsvorschriften, die zulässigen Spannungen, die Klassifizierung und Bemessung der Holzlamellen, die Normung der Holzleimträger, ihre Berechnung und Einstufung hinsichtlich des Brandverhaltens zu vereinheitlichen. Für feuerwiderstandsfähige Holzleimbauteile kommen die Widerstandsklassen F 30 und F 60 in Frage. Große Spannweiten, z. B. bei Hallen aller Art, Schalendächern, Brükken, lassen sich weder mit Stahl noch mit Beton mit so geringem Eigengewicht wie mit Holzleimbauteilen erzielen.
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    Description / Table of Contents: Ultrasonic test procedure to determine the number of inclusions in material samples  -  a critical analysis of recommended methods. To judge the specific properties of metals one tries to determine the quantity and distribution of the non-metallic inclusions. But the microscopic procedures used so far are destructive and do further not refer to the volume, but rather to the surface of the micrograph sample. Contrary to these methods the inspection by ultrasound is non-destructive and wellsuited for the volumetric detection of inclusions. The possibilities of the ultrasonic pulse-echo-method for cleanliness rating are being checked. Based on the respective results there is a critical view on the ultrasonic test methods which have been recommended so far. Proposals will be made how to make the optimum use of the advantages of the ultrasonic inspection when determining the purity degree of a sample.
    Notes: Zur Beurteilung der Gebrauchseigenschaften von Metallen sucht man die Anzahl und die Verteilung der nichtmetallischen Einschlüsse zu bestimmen. Dabei sind die bisher benutzten mikroskopischen Verfahren nicht zerstörungsfrei und auch nicht auf das Volumen, sondern auf die Oberfläche der Schliffproben bezogen. Die Ultraschallprüfung ist demgegenüber zerstörungsfrei und gut zum volumetrischen Nachweis von Einschlüssen geeignet. Untersucht werden die Möglichkeiten des Ultraschall-Impuls-Echo-Verfahrens zur Reinheitsgradbestimmung. Mit den Ergebnissen erfolgt eine kritische Betrachtung der bisher zu diesem Zweck empfohlenen Ultraschallprüfmethoden. Es werden Vorschläge gemacht, wie die Vorteile der Ultraschallprüfung bei der Bestimmung des Reinheitsgrades optimal genutzt werden können.
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    Description / Table of Contents: The Reliability of Materials in Tribology. The reliability of materials is, in general, reduced by lack of knowledge or the disregard of reaction mechanisms, by the disturbance of chemical or physical conditions of equilibrium and by changes in systems (e. g. combinations of materials, manufacturing processes, interaction with the environment etc.) entailing serious consequences.In the field of tribology, the following examples may be encountered:- Reaction mechanisms: Irreversible single threshold value: Transition from a metastable to a stable system; Crystallisation of synthetic materials; Abrasion phenomena with coating layers. Reversible threshold value: Volume change due to changes in physical state; Reversible structural transition. Irreversible cumulative threshold value: Influence of light on the resinification of lubricants; Crack development in the case of fatigue failures; Structurally unstable surface layers; Structural ageing phenomena.- Equilibrium: Wear/repolishing equilibrium; Tribological equilibrium of the surface structure; Compatibility of bearing materials; Consumption of additives in lubricating oil; Tribology and corrosion.- Interactions and system changes: General influence of basic materials; Interactions and catalysis; Evaporation of synthetic materials; Cleaning systems; Vibration.
    Notes: Die Zuverlässigkeit wird bei Werkstoffen im wesentlichen durch Unkenntnis oder Nichtbeachtung von Reaktionsmechanismen, durch Störung von chemischen oder physikalischen Gleichgewichten und durch folgenschwere Änderungen in Systemen (Werkstoffkombinationen, Fabrikationsabläufe, Wechselwirkung mit Umgebung usw.) beeinträchtigt. Auf das Gebiet der Tribologie übertragen, ergeben sich etwa folgenden Beispiele:- Reaktionsmechanismen: Irreversibler oder einfacher Schwellenwert; Übergang von einem metastabilen in ein stabiles System; Abrieberscheinungen bei Deckschichten. Reversibler Schwellenwert: Volumenänderung bei Änderungen des Aggregatzustandes; reversible Strukturumwandlungen. Irreversibler kumulativer Schwellenwert; Lichteinfluß auf die Verharzung von Schmiermitteln. Rißausbreitung bei Dauerschwingbrüchen; strukturinstabile Oberflächenschichten; strukturelle Alterungsvorgänge.- Gleichgewichte: Abnützungs/Repolitur-Gleichgewicht; tribologisches Gleichgewicht der Oberflächenstruktur; Kompatibilität von Lagerwerkstoffen; Aufbrauchen von Additiven im Schmieröl; Tribologie und Korrosion.- Wechselwirkungen und Systemänderungen: Einfluß der Grundwerkstoffe allgemein; Wechselwirkungen und Katalyse; Kunststoffausdünstungen; Reinigungssysteme; Vibrationen.
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Recent investigations into inorganic and organic coatings on steel, galvanized steel and aluminium, using an accelerated cor- rosion test according to Machu-SchiffmanThe method constitutes the improvement with respect to the salt spray method. It is based on a weakly acid solution i. e. specifically 5% NaCl solution with addition of a small quantity of hydrogen peroxide. This solution is used for immersion tests and, as to aggressivity, is comparable to industrial and marine atmospheres; the duration of the test, however, is considerably reduced (about I5 hours). A typical and optimum composition is 50 g/l NaCl, 10 millglacial acetic acid and 5 81130% HzOz, pH = 3.0. In the case of galvanized steel or zinc it is of advantage to use a solution containing 50 g/l NaCl and 10 mlJl30% HzOz. pH = 6.0. As to alumini- um both solutions can be used, depending on the aggressivity to be simulated. Duration of immersion of 16 hours at 23 OC in the solu- tion of pH 3.0 would correspond in the case of coated aluminium to 336 hours exposure to salt spray.
    Notes: Die Methode stellt gegenüber der Salzprüfung eine Verbesserung dar; man arbeitet mit einem schwachsauren Medium, nämlich einer Lösung von 5% NaCl mit einer geringen Menge Wasserstoffsuperoxid. Diese Lösung wird im Tauchversuch eingesetzt und ist hinsichtlich ihrer Aggressivität vergleichbar mit Industrie- und Meeresatmosphäre, wobei die Versuchsdauer ziemlich stark verkürzt ist (etwa 15 Stunden). Die optimale typische Zusammensetzung ist 50 g/l NaCl, 10 ml/1 Eisessig, 5 g/l 30%iges Wasserstoffsuperoxid, pH = 3,0. Im Falle von verzinktem Stahl oder Zink verwendet man vorteilhafterweise eine Lösung aus 50 g/l NaCl und 10 ml/l 30%iges Wasserstoffsuperoxid (pH = 6.0). Bezüglich Aluminium können je nach der zu simulierenden Aggressivität beide Lösungen verwendet werden. Im Falle von beschichtetem Aluminium entspricht eine Tauchdauer von 16 Stunden bei 23°C in der Lösung mit pH 3,0 einem Salzsprühnebelversuch von336 Std. Dauer.
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    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: The corrosion of CuZn alloys in Chloride solutions with potentiostatic polarisationThe intercrystalline corrosion susceptibility of brasses can be studied either by potentiostatic methods in NH4Cl+HCl solutions with polarisation to +80 mV, or - without polarisation - in NH4Cl+HCl+CuSO4 solutions where the potential of +80 mV is attained without external polarisation. Tests carried out with macroelements formed either by brasses having different structures (α, β/α), or identical structure (α) but different zinc contents (21 and 32% respectively) have shown the preferential attack of the β phase at potentials lower than those required for grain boundary dissolution, and the more anodic character of the alloys of higher zinc content.
    Notes: Die Anfälligkeit von CuZn-Legierungen für interkristalline Korrosion kann entweder potentiostatisch untersucht werden, und zwar in NH4Cl+HCl-Lösungen mit Polarisation auf +80 mV, oder - ohne Polarisation - in NH4Cl+HCl+CuSO4-Lösungen, denn dort stellt sich das Potential von +80 mV auch ohne äußere Polarisation ein. Versuche mit Makroelementen aus entweder Messungen verschiedener Struktur (α, β/α) oder gleicher Struktur (α), jedoch verschiedener Zn-Gehalte (21 bzw. 32%) haben gezeigt, daß die β-Phase bevorzugt angegriffen wird, und zwar bei niedrigeren Potentialen als zur Auflösung der Korngrenzen erforderlich sind, und daß die Legierungen höheren Zn-Gehalts stärker anodisch sind.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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