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  • Chemistry  (61,011)
  • General Chemistry  (9,374)
  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (3,632)
  • 1980-1984  (36,477)
  • 1970-1974  (28,166)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: motility ; power output ; muscle ; flagella ; cytokinetic furrow ; mitotic spindle ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cellular motile systems as diverse as muscle and the mitotic spindle have been compared by their specific power output: the maximum power they develop per unit of engine volume. Striated muscles and flagella have high specific output; their performance is comparable to that of typical automobile engines. The cytokinetic furrow and the mitotic spindle have very much lower specific power output. The furrow's output is 7,000 times lower than muscle and the spindle's is 300,000 times lower. Different macromolecules have been used to generate power in systems with similar output (muscles and flagella) and, conversely, the same macromolecular motor has been used in systems with very different output (muscles and cytokinetic furrows). The common feature amid this diversity is adaptation to a particular biological role, which specific power output reflects very well. High values are found where a powerful, compact engine should be advantageous, while low values are found where precision, not power, matters most.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 41-55 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Leptodiscinae ; Dinoflagellates ; contractility ; non-actin filaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Leptodiscinae, a group of marine Dinoflagellates, are good material for the study of contraction though they cannot be collected in abundance. Their cell bodies are flattened anteroposteriorly (Leptodiscus, Leptophyllus, and Leptospathium) and are able to contract suddenly when the surrounding water is disturbed.Electron microscopical observations have shown that the structures responsible for the contraction consist of a layer of parallel filaments located beneath the cell membrane of some specialized parts of the body. These filaments seem to be nonactin (NAF) because of their diameter (2.5-3 nm) and because they are not decorated by heavy meromyosin (HMM). They appear helically coiled and doubly twisted, and form tubular structures when contracted.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: fast axonal transport ; mitochondria ; membrane receptors ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In living tissue, membrane-bound organelles, including mitochondria, move along parallel cytoplasmic pathways. Motion is directed and tends to be confined to a single path. Deviations from this single path motion are rare. When present, however, they tend to occur at points of intersection of cytoskeletal linear elements (LE). Such intersections are relatively uncommon in intact axons and extruded axoplasm. However, we have found that such intersections can be produced in extruded preparations by shear forces directed tangential to the axoplasmic surface.We have studied the detailed behavior of mitochondria in extruded squid axoplasm. Special attention was directed to the relationship between mitochondrial shape changes and orientation of cytoskeletal LE. The most striking of these changes in shape is branching. In this process, the mitochondrion transiently assumes a triradial (three-ended) shape. This appearance may be maintained for seconds to minutes before the normal cylindrical shape is resumed by absorption of either the newly formed end or, more commonly, one of the original ends. The frequency of branching appears to be dependent on the degree of cytoskeletal organization. It becomes more common as the number of apparent intersections between cytoskeletal LE increases. Further, the formation of new ends seems to occur along paths defined by cytoskeletal elements.These observations suggest that the mitochondrial membrane is multivalent. That is, it contains multiple sites capable of interacting with the axonal force generation apparatus. Furthermore, LE in the cytoskeleton may indicate the paths along which these interactions are permissible.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonal transport ; ATP ; nucleotides ; saltatory movement ; dynein ; video microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a permeabilized axon model, exogenous ATP can reactivate intraaxonal saltatory organelle movements (microscopically visible manifestations of fast axonal transport). We have studied the dependence of the reactivated movements on the ATP concentration and have also examined the nucleotide specificity of the reactivation. Organelle transport was visualized in isolated lobster giant motor axons using Nomarski optics and video microscopy. The axons were permeabilized with saponin, and movement was reactivated with ATP or other nucleotides. Some slight movement was seen with ATP concentrations as low as 10 μM. The velocity and frequency of the reactivated transport increased with increasing ATP concentrations up to about 5 mM. Movement was also reactivated by deoxyadenosine triphosphate, but not by AMP-PNP (a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue), ADP, or AMP. Although other nucleotides (CTP, GTP, UTP, ITP) could reactivate transport, movement equivalent to that produced by 0.1 mM ATP was only seen with tenfold or greater concentrations of the other nucleotides. This pattern of specificity is consistent with the hypothesis that a dynein-like ATPase, rather than a myosin, is involved in fast axonal transport.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; motility ; cell spreading ; epithelial cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Reorganization of intermediate filaments during cell spreading is examined by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and time-lapse video microscopy. A juxtanuclear cap, believed to correspond to the intermediate filament distribution center, was observed to be spatially related to the organization of the intermediate filament network as cells spread. A keratin cap was observed, which appeared spontaneously in motile PtK1 cells. Cap formation may be a consequence of retraction of intermediate filaments from the cytoplasm as cells move. The position of this juxtanuclear cap is related to the direction of movement, located on the side of the nucleus near the advancing edge of the cell. As the cell spreads, the cap disappears as the keratin filament network returns to the cytoplasm. Evidence presented here is consistent with the hypothesis that the distribution center mediates keratin filament organization during cell shape change.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: sperm motility ; flagellum ; axoneme ; microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Iontophoretic application of ATP to the flagellum of the demembranated hamster spermatozoon produced a planar pair of bends at the two ends of the stimulated site. During bend propagation, torsion appeared in the vicinity of the interbend in some responses such that the distal bend was twisted clockwise when viewed from the base of the flagellum. This pattern of propagation is consistent with the instantaneous configurations of free-swimming cells previously described. The technique used here establishes that the three dimensionality arises from propagation per se, and does not depend on forces developed during swimming. The rolling of both free-swimming intact and demembranated spermatozoa was examined by two-color darkground videomicroscopy and the direction of rotation was, as predicted, always anticlockwise. A hypothetical mechanism, involving differential speeds of propagation of active sliding within the active microtubule subset, is proposed to account for the observed waveforms.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; centrosome ; tonofilaments ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We present observations on the relative location of the centriole and keratin filament cap in motile PtK1 cells. Subconfluent cells were double labeled with anticentriole and antikeratin sera. These preparations revealed that the centriole is separate from, but neighboring, the keratin filament cap. Serial ultrathin sections confirm this observation. These observations are consistent with the idea that the microtubule organizing center and intermediate filament distribution center are not identical or concentric in PtK1 cells.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: microfilaments ; microtubules ; contraction ; collagen gel ; fibroblasts ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In vitro models have been developed recently to study the ability of fibroblasts to generate tensile force within collagen gels. The present study was initiated to assess the role of the cytoskeleton in the cell shape changes and force generation in one such model system. Porcine periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PPLF) were cultured within three-dimensional collagen gels attached to glass coverslips. Fluorescence microscopy, using nitrobenzooxadizole (NBD)-phallacidin labeling for microfilaments and tubulin antibody staining for microtubules, was combined with phase and Nomarski optics to determine the intra- and extracellular architecture of the cells and collagen fibers. Samples were observed from 30 minutes to 24 hours after initiation of cell attachment. During attachment and spreading, NBD-phallacidin staining changed dramatically until large microfilament bundles became prominent. Collagen fiber alignment, compaction, and finally tearing from the coverslip occurred during this time. After release of tension, microfilament bundles were no longer evident. The change in microtubule distribution during these processes was less dramatic, appearing to follow the change in cell shape. These results indicate that microfilaments play an essential role in generating force to align and compact collagen, while microtubules may have a secondary role only.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; flagella ; cell surface ; adhesion ; glycoproteins ; iodination ; lactoperoxidase ; Iodogen ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The Chlamydomonas flagellar surface exhibits interesting adhesive properties that are associated with flagellar surface motility. This dynamic surface property can be exhibited as the binding and movement of small polystyrene microspheres or as the interaction of the flagellar surface with a solid substrate followed by whole cell locomotion, termed “gliding.” In order to identify flagellar surface proteins that mediate substrate interaction during flagellar surface motility, two immobilized iodination systems were employed that mimic the conditions for flagellar surface motility: small polystyrene microspheres derivatized with lactoperoxidase, and large glass beads derivatized with Iodogen. Use of these iodination conditions resulted in preferential iodination of a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein with apparent molecular weight of 300,000-350,000. These results suggest this glycoprotein as a major candidate for the surface-exposed adhesive component that directly interacts with the substrate and couples the substrate to a system of force transduction presumed to be located within the flagellum.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; mitosis ; mitotic spindle ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol stabilizes or promotes the assembly of microtubules. In this report we characterize the rate, extent, and reversibility of taxol stabilization of calciumlabile microtubules in isolated mitotic spindles, principally from embryos of the sand dollar Echinarachnius parma. The intense depolymerizing action of 100 μM Ca2+ was used to assess the extent of stabilization by taxol. Changes in spindle microtubule assembly were evaluated and recorded by measuring changes in spindle birefringent retardation (BR). Membrane-free mitotic spindles, isolated with a calcium-chelating, nonionic detergent buffer, were stored in an EGTA-gylcerol storage buffer to prevent microtubule depolymerization. When perfused with an EGTA-buffer without glycerol, microtubules in these isolated spindles depolymerized gradually over 60-120 min; but in isolated spindles perfused with buffer that contained 100 μM Ca2+, BR decreased by 90% within 2-5 sec. In contrast, spindles that were pretreated for 3 min with 1 μM taxol, or for about 30 sec with 10 μM taxol, lost less than 10% of their initial BR when perfused with buffer containing 100 μM Ca2+. The rate and extent of microtubule stabilization by taxol depended on both the concentration and the duration of exposure to taxol. Taxol stabilization was reversible. After a 15 min preincubation with 1 μM or 10 μM taxol then washout, stability of spindle BR to 100 μM Ca2+ decreased exponentially with a time constant of 30-60 min. Thus taxol dissociates from spindle microtubules at significant rates; taxol-stabilized microtubules are not “fixed.”
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: tubulin ; assembly ; mitotic apparatus ; bimane ; fluorescence microscopy ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluorescent derivatives of cellular proteins that retain their native characteristics have become useful probes to investigate the dynamics of specific cytoskeletal proteins. In the experiments reported here, a previously characterized fluorescent derivative of tubulin, bimane-tubulin [Wadsworth and Sloboda, 1982a], was used to investigate microtubule assembly in vitro. The results demonstrate that bimanetubulin was competent to assemble onto a variety of organizing centers in vitro, including microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) present in homogenates of sea urchin eggs, isolated mitotic apparatuses (MAs), and lysed mitotic cells. When homogenates of fertilized sea urchin eggs containing MTOCs were incubated with bimane-tubulin at 37°C, discrete areas of linear fluorescence were observed. Only diffuse fluorescence was observed when calcium or colchicine was added to the homogenate or if the temperature was maintained at 0°C. Negative-stain electron microscopy of the fluorescent arrays revealed morphologically normal microtubules radiating from electron dense regions. When mitotic spindles, isolated in glycerol containing buffers and therefore cold stable, were incubated with bimane-tubulin, linear fluorescence was observed emanating from the spindle poles but not from the region occupied by the kinetochores. MAs incubated with bimane-labeled bovine serum albumin or bimane-labeled microtubule-associated proteins showed only diffuse fluorescence. However, when mitotic cells which were hypotonically lysed in the absence of detergents or microtubule stabilizing solvents, were perfused with bimane-tubulin intense fluorescence was observed in the asters and throughout the spindle. Two experiments suggested that the fluorescence observed in the results outlined above was due to the assembly of normal microtubules from the fluorescent subunits. First, the observed fluorescence was sensitive to cold temperataure, which is known to disassemble microtubules. Second, when the isolated, fluorescent MAs were examined by thin section electron microscopy, microtubules of normal diameter were seen. No aggregated material appeared associated with the walls of the microtubules, which might have been expected if the fluorescent protein was nonspecifically adsorbed to the microtubules. The results of these experiments demonstrate that isolated, stabilized MAs support the growth of new microtubules from the spindle poles while labile spindles, present in lysed cells, incorporate fluorescent tubulin throughout the spindle and asters. The significance of these results for hypotheses concerning microtubule assembly and disassembly during mitosis is discussed.
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  • 16
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: axonemal mutants ; Ca++ response ; ciliary reversal ; electrophysiology ; models ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Six mutants of Paramecium tetraurelia, which display altered axonemal responses to Ca++, are described. The mutants, designated atalantas, are impaired in their ability to swim backward when stimulated by ions or heat; instead they spin very rapidly in one place. Three mutants, ataA1-3, are completely unable to swim backward. The three lines, however, can be distinguished from one another by their forward swimming velocities. The remaining three mutants are leaky. ataB swims backward briefly when stimulated, then stops and spins in place. ataC and ataD are extremely leaky and only display the spinning phenotype at elevated temperatures. An electrophysiological analysis reveals that all six mutants have normal membrane properties, including the Ca++ inward current under voltage clamp. When the membrane is disrupted so as to allow the axoneme free access to Ca++, wild-type cells swim backward, but the mutants do not. These data indicate the site(s) of lesion in the mutants is in the axoneme or in some step linking Ca++ influx and the axoneme, not within the ciliary membrane. These mutants may be useful in investigating the role of Ca++ in the regulation of axonemal motion.
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  • 18
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 305-314 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cell surface motility ; axopodia ; reticulopodia ; Allogromia ; Echinosphaerium (Actinosphaerium) nucleofilum ; surf-riding ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The mechanism responsible for the energy-dependent movement of membrane components (ie, surface motility) is unknown. Recently a potentially unifying model, termed “surf-riding” [Hewitt, 1979] or “surf-boarding” [Berlin and Oliver, 1982], has been proposed to explain surface motility. Using phase-contrast light microscopy and membrane surface markers (polystyrene microspheres), we have tested the surf-riding/surf-boarding hypothesis on two protozoan systems: the axopodia of the heliozoan Echinosphaerium nucleofilum and the reticulopodial networks of the allogromiid foraminiferans Allogromia laticollaris and Allogromia sp, strain NF. Our evidence indicates that surface motility, as displayed by these organisms, does not occur by a surf-riding/surf-boarding mechanism. Previouś observations on surface motility associated with the Chlamydomonas flagellum indicate that this system is also incompatible with the surf-boarding/surf-riding hypothesis.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 403-404 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton 4 (1984), S. 469-503 
    ISSN: 0886-1544
    Keywords: cytogel ; actomyosin ; Physarum ; oscillations ; mechanics ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The contractility of actomyosin gels is the basis for a variety of cellular motility phenomena. We present here a mechanical analysis of contractile gels. By making certain hypotheses on the chemical regulation of cytogel contraction we formulate a model for the rhythmic contractions of plasmodia in the slime mold Physarum polycephalum which is in accord with a number of experimental observations.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Experiences in Welding Highly Pure, Gas-Sensitive MaterialsHighly pure steels and non-ferrous react during processing, particularly welding, with atmospheric gases and change their service properties. Hence special measures are often necessary in forming and inert gas welding. Taking the specific example of a high pure chromium steel (superferritic), welding properties, processing data and selection of suitable inert gas torches are described. The possibility of applying this information to other materials such as titanium is discussed.
    Notes: Hochreine Stähle und Nichteisenmetalle reagieren bei der Verarbeitung, insbesondere beim Schweißen mit den Gasen der Luft und verändern ihre Gebrauchseigenschaften. Daher sind vielfach Sondermaßnahmen beim Formieren und Schutzgasschweißen notwendig. Speziell am Beispiel eines Chromstahles hoher Reinheit (Superferrit) werden die Schweißeigenschaften, Daten der Verarbeitung sowie die Auswahl geeigneter Schutzgasbrenner beschrieben. Vergleichende Hinweise und Anwendungsbeispiele für andere Werkstoffe wie z. B. Titan sind möglich.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Contribution to the Influence of Pressurized Hydrogen on the Mechanical Properties of SteelsThe investigation method of using hollow specimens in tensile tests to examinate steels for hydrogen service is described. Reduction of area after fracture, Z, resulting from these tensile tests with constant strain rates shows not only a significant but also a constant difference between hydrogen and nitrogen when being plotted versus strain rate. Therefore a newly introduced term named “Index of embrittlement” and characterized by the relation of Z with nitrogen and with hydrogen was found to be independent of strain rate. With strain rate ε = 10-6 s-1 chosen for a “critical” one because of lacking in a maximum index of embrittlement several European steels for hydrogen service were tested to find out their individual index of embrittlement. Assisted by light optical microscopy it was found that there is a special correlation between microstructure, index of embrittlement and tensile strength of a given steel grade.
    Notes: Eine Methode zur Durchführung von Zugversuchen an Hohlproben aus Stählen für den Einsatz mit Wasserstoff wird beschrieben. Die Ergebnisse der unter konstanten Dehngeschwindigkeiten durchge-führten Zugversuche zeigten besonders für die Brucheinschnürung Z deutliche und in Abhängigkeit von der Dehngeschwindigkeit konstante Unterschiede zwischen Stickstoff und Wasserstoff als Füllgas der Hohlproben. Ein aus den Wertepaaren der Brucheinschnürung unter Stickstoff bzw. Wasserstoff gebildeter sogen. “Versprödungs-index” I ist daher unabhängig von der Dehngeschwindigkeit eine Konstante für jeden einzelnen Stahl. Dieser Versprödungsindex wurde für verschiedene Vergütungsstähle deutscher und französischer Herkunft bestimmt. Es zeigte sich eine charakteristische Abhängigkeit zwischen Versprödungsindex, Mikrogefüge gemäß Wärmebehandlung und Zugfestigkeit, wodurch eine rangmäßige Zuordnung der Stähle hinsichtlich ihrer Versprödungsneigung möglich ist.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Applicability of Different Etching Methods for Metals - Comparing Investigation of Metallographic Etching ProceduresThe feasibility of different etching techniques in laboratory practice is mainly appointed by the reproducibility of the metallographic micro-structure, which is dependent on the etching method, the etching time and a practical handling of the etching procedure. Comparing investigations concerning the applicability of chemical, electrolytic and ionic etching methods for metals and alloys in electrotechnical industry - with the aim to estimate efficiency and reproducibility of the micro-structure resulting from the different techniques - have been done. Micro-structure estimation will be done by different methods of light-microscopy.In any case physical ion-etching turns out to be the less problematic etching method - in comparison with chemical and electrolytic techniques. Ion etching shows a good reproducibility and allows the simultaneous etching of different materials. The summarizing valuation of the different etching methods includes a list of optimum etching parameters for copper, brass copper-tin and copper-beryllium alloys.
    Notes: Die Einsatzmöglichkeiten unterschiedlicher Ätzverfahren in der Laborpraxis werden im wesentlichen bestimmt durch die Reproduziorbarkeit der ausgebildeten Gefügestrukturen - als Funktion einer bestimmten Ätzmethode, der Ätzzeit und der problemlosen Handhabung der Ätzprozedur. Zur Anwendbarkeit des chemischen und elektrolytischen Ätzens, sowie des Ionenätzens bei Metallen und Legierungen der Elektrotechnik wurden vergleichende Untersuchungen mit dem Ziel durchgeführt, eine Beurteilung von Güte und Reproduzierbarkeit der nach den verschiedenen Ätzprozessen entstandenen Gefügebilder zu ermöglichen.Die Abbildung der Gefügestrukturen geschieht mit Hilfe unterschiedlicher lichtmikroskopischer Beobachtungsverfahren.Das physikalische Ionenätzen erweist sich gegenüber chemischen und elektrolytischen Ätzverfahren in allen Fällen als die problemlosere Ätzmethode, die neben einer guten Reproduzierbarkeit zudem ein gleichzeitiges Ätzen unterschiedlicher Materialien in einem Werkstoff ermöglicht.Eine zusammenfassende Wertung der verschiedenen Ätzverfahren umfaßt die Angabe optimaler Ätzparameter für die Werkstoffe Kupfer, Messing, CuSn 8 und Kupfer-Beryllium.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Thermomechanical Properties of Castable Refractories with Embedded Scaleresistant Steel FibersIn the last years steel fibers were embedded in castable refractories for certain application to increase the thermomechanical properties of refractory concrete.When cheap carbon steel fibers were used, the less oxidation resistance in the high temperature range was a serious disadvantage. Stainless steel fibers were oxidation resistant only up to about 1000 °C when practical used at long time.Now, stainless steel fibers with high chromium (24-26%) and high nickel content (34-36%) were put on the market for embedding in castable refractories. The thermomechanical properties of these composites will be compared with those of earlier investigations. Their will be used steel fibers not only fabricated by cutting of drawn wires but also by melt extraction processing. The interfacial area steel fiber/refractory matrix will be examined and the reaction or oxidation products analyzed by microprobe.
    Notes: Für bestimmte Anwendungen werden in jüngster Zeit Stahlfasern in Feuerbetone eingelagert, um das thermomechanische Verhalten der Feuerbetone zu verbessern.Beim Einsatz preisgünstiger. Kohlenstoffstahlfasern war deren ungenügende Oxidationsbeständigkeit bei hohen Temperaturen von Nachteil. Edelstahlfasern (Cr Ni 18/10) genügten auf Dauer auch nur Temperaturen um 1000 °C.Neuerdings sind hochchromhaltige (24-26%) und hochnickelhaltige (34-36%) Stahlfasern auf dem Markt, die in Feuerbetone eingelagert werden. Die thermomechanischen Eigenschaften dieser Verbundwerkstoffe werden mit denen früherer Untersuchungen verglichen. Dabei werden auch Stahlfasern eingesetzt, die nicht durch Ablängen von gezogenem Draht hergestellt werden, sondern nach dem Melt-extraction-Verfahren aus der Schmelze ausgeschleudert werden. Dabei werden in Abhängigkeit von der Temperatur auch der Grenzbereich Stahlfaser/Feuerbetonmatrix mit Hilfe der Elektronenstrahlmikrosonde untersucht und auftretende Reaktions- bzw. Oxidations-produkte analysiert.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Grip °and Specimen Heating-System for Fatigue Tests at the Temperature-Range 20 °C 〈 T 〈 600 °CA grip and specimen heating system for fatigue tests is presented. The equipment is easily to handle, long-time stable and available up to a test-temperature of 600 °C also with inert environment. Specimens can be fixed without bending moments.
    Notes: Es wird eine einfach zu handhabende, momentenfrei spannende, langzeitstabile und bis etwa 600 °C Versuchstemperatur einsetzbare Probeneinspann- und Heizvorrichtung vorgestellt, die sich bei Dauerschwingversuchen auch unter inerten Umgebungsbedingungen vorzüglich bewährt hat.
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  • 26
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Steel of the type 13%Cr6%Ni modified with 0.56%Mo allows to achieve favourable mechanical metallurgy properties, including decrease of the susceptibility to temper embrittlement. Application of two-stage tempering (first at 625°C, second at 575-600 °C) leads to counterbalanced mechanical properties and to the improvement of corrosion resistance in dependence on the modification of structure.The physical metallurgy characteristics were completed by potentiodynamic measurements. It was found that this evaluation indicates very sensitively the formation of austenite in the structure after applying tempering at intercritical temperatures. A model of austenite stabilization using the single and two-stage tempering method is presented.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations to Determine the Size of Corrosion CracksFor determining the size of corrosion cracks with ultrasound a multifrequency test method is described. By applying this procedure corrosion cracks of a size smaller than 2 mm are correctly evaluated independent of their position and of the reflection factor. Examples are presented and discussed for some practical applications.
    Notes: Zur Bestimmung der Größe von Korrosionsrissen bei der manuellen Ultraschallprüfung wird ein Mehrfrequenzenverfahren erfolgreich eingesetzt. Dieses liefert - unabhängig von der absoluten Echoamplitude (Reflexionsfaktor) des Risses und ohne Einschränkungen hinsichtlich der axialen Auflösung - selbst bei geneigten Fehlern Genauigkeiten in der Tiefenbestimmung, die bisher speziell bei kleinen Rißtiefen unter 2 mm nicht realisierbar waren. Beispiele werden vorgestellt und praktische Anwendungen diskutiert.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Corrosion Resistant Materials for Fluorine and Hydrogen FluorideAluminum and Duralumin are restistant against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride up to 600 and 700 K, respectively. The resistance of nickel and its alloys, particularly monel, against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride is fairly good up to 900 and 800 K. During the attack of nickel-chromium alloys by fluorine between 1000 and 1300 K, it appears an inner fluorination similarly to the inner oxidation.The resistance of titanium in water-free liquid fluorine at lower temperatures with 〈 0,3 mm · a-1 is comparable to that of nickel and monel. However, the corrosion of titanium in gaseous fluorine amounts at 377 K only 0,0082 mm · a-1. In spite of their limited resistance against fluorine and hydrogen fluoride, very pure molybdenum and tungsten are employed as construction materials in the rocket technology because of their large strength at high temperatures if fluorine-hydrogen and fluorine-hydrazine flames are used.Lanthanum and calcium borides are only little attacked by fluorine hydrazine flames between 1400 and 1800K; they are superior to all special grade alloys. The same is true in a lower temperature region (290-400 K) with fluorcarbon resins. Organic materials substitute in increasing extent metal alloys and non-renetal inorganic materials.
    Notes: Unter den Metallen sind Aluminium und Duralumin gegen Fluor und trockenen Fluorwasserstoff bis 600 bzw. 700 K beständig. Die Beständigkeit von Nickel und seiner Legierungen, insbesondere Monel, gegen Fluor und Fluorwasserstoff reicht sogar bis etwa 900 bzw. 800 K. Beim Angriff von Fluor auf Nickel-Chromlegierungen zwischen 1000 und 1300 K tritt auch eine innere Fluorierung ähnlich der inneren Oxidschichtbildung auf.Die Beständigkeit von Titan in wasserfreiem flüssigem Fluor ist bei niedrigen Temperaturen mit 〈 0,3 mm · a-1 vergleichbar mit der von Nickel und Monel. In gasförmigem Fluor aber beträgt die Korrosion von Titan bei 377 K nur 0,0082 mm · a-1. Trotz ihrer bedingten Beständigkeit gegen Fluor und Fluorwasserstoff werden reinstes Molybdän und Wolfram wegen ihrer Festigkeit bei hohen Temperaturen in der Raketentechnik beim Antrieb mit Fluor-Wasserstoff bzw. Fluor-Hydrazin eingesetzt.Lanthan- und Calciumboride widerstehen Fluor-Hydrazinflammen zwischen 1400 und 1800 K und sind allen Speziallegierungen weit überlegen. Dieses gilt auch im niedrigeren Temperaturbereich (290-400 K) für die Fluorcarbonharze. Organische Werkstoffe verdrängen immer mehr metallische und nichtmetallische anorganische Werkstoffe.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Theoretical Foundations for the Application of Fracture Mechanics to Fibre Reinforced CompositesThis work gives a survey of the theoretical problems arising from the application of fracture mechanical concepts to fibre-reinforced composite materials.A classification of existing models into macro- and micromechanical is proposed, the derivation of essential equations outlined and some graphical illustrations of the resulting formulae are shown.
    Notes: Diese Arbeit gibt einen Überblick über die theoretischen Probleme, die sich bei der Anwendung bruchmechanischer Konzepte auf faserverstärkte Verbundwerkstoffe ergeben.Eine Einteilung der existierenden Modelle in macro- und micro-mechanische wird vorgeschlagen, die Herleitung der wichtigsten Gleichungen skizziert und graphische Illustrationen zu den resultierenden Formeln werden gezeigt.
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    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Eine phänomenologische Theorie der Schädigungs- und Adaptionsprozesse in festen KörpernIn der vorliegenden Arbeit wird versucht, ein phänomenologisches Konzept zu entwickeln, um den Tragfähigkeitsverlust belasteter Werkstoffe infolge struktureller und geometrischer Veränderungen mit Hilfe von Schädigungs- und Adaptionsparametern zu formulieren. Dabei wird die Einbuße an Tragfähigkeit, die etwa durch Wachstum struktureller und geometrischer Imperfektionen sowie durch andere Entfestigungsvorgänge, entsteht, als Schädigung schlechthin bezeichnet. Die Reaktion des Werkstoffs, bei Einwirkung äußerer Felder der auftretenden Schädigung das Gleichgewicht zu halten, erfolgt durch Adaptionsvorgänge, z. B. Verfestigung. Beide Prozesse werden durch kinetische Gleichungen beschrieben und in einfachen Beispielen besprochen.
    Notes: In the present paper the attempt is made to develop a phenomenological concept based on the assumption that the mechanical resistance of the material decreases as result of the structural and geometrical changes which take place in the solids during loading. This model is described in terms of damaging and adaptation parameters. The growth of structural and geometrical imperfections, as well as other softening processes leading to the loss of the mechanical strength of the solid regarded here as damaging processes. These damaging processes can occur simultaneously with the processes of material resistance (for example, strain-hardening) to the aggressive action of the external load. Development of the damaging and adaptation processes is described by properly kinetic equations. Several simple typical examples are discussed.
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    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the application and the development of on-line methods for particle size analysis one has to distinguish three principally different problem areas:aallocation and preparation of a representative sample,banalysis of the sample,cevaluation of the results.Methods and problems connected with these areas will be discussed in this paper. Some of the methods available for rapid response analysis of particle size distributions mark the beginning of a new era of particle size analysis. One has to recognize however that a uniform solution of the problems of on-line particle size analysis is extremely difficult if not impossible to find. The boundary conditions vary to such an extent that similar methods or combinations of methods can rarely be used in different cases. Since instrument manufacturers will in most cases not be able to adopt their instruments to different industrial applications, specialists will have to solve the problem. One has to recognize, however, that not all of the steps described in this paper have been investigated to an extent which renders possible appropriate solutions. There is still room for improvement.
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    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Particle Technology is a broad and multidisciplinary subject of great importance but diffuse in definition. In this paper a view is presented of the underlying science and its technological applications. In particular a structured subject is dependent upon characterization techniques from which predictions can be made. In this paper the interrelationship between macroscopic and microscopic characterization is discussed. The standardisation and development of the microscopic techniques, particle analysis, is identified as the key to the development of the whole subject.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Over the past few years, laser diffraction spectrometry has become a very important method of particle size analysis. Typical features include the large measuring range, the simplicity of operation and the speed with which analyses can be carried out. The principle of measurement and the set-up of three commerical instruments are described.The following points are discussed, with reference to examples:-Relevant parameters, such as particle shape, shape of distribution curve or dispersion, bution curve or dispersion,-reproducibility, comparison of the results obtained with different types of apparatus between one another and with other, analytical methods, and-on-line use of the instruments for the measurement of dynamic processes, eg. flocculation and dispersion processes.Operating experience gained with six instruments over a number of years is discussed.The measuring method which is described here is in a stage of rapid development and dissemination. It is for this reason that recent improvements and new developments cannot be dealt with here. For example, an apparatus named Helos from Sympatec GmbH, Remlingen, has appeared on the market. The external appearance of the instruments marketed by the Malvern and Leeds and Northrup companies has changed somewhat.The author's practical experience (in some instances extremely wide-ranging) with these devices is presented here in summary form.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fluid classification methods for particle size analysis are based on the concept of cut size. The particles suspended in a fluid are passed through several separation stages, of progressively finer cut-size, so that each stage collects a fraction of the feed solids in the same way as each screen in a stack of sieves.There is an inherent error involved in the data reduction, which often leads to a poor comparison between the results of fluid classification and sedimentation, although both in principle measure the equivalent Stokes' diameter.This paper investigates the problem and attributes the above mentioned error to the difference between the equiprobable size and the analytical cut size. The paper presents a simple correlation which relates the analytical cut size and the equiprobable size if both the measured size distribution and the grade efficiency curve of the separator follow, approximately, log-normal functions. The usefulness of the correlation is exemplified in the case of the Bahco analyser. Measured grade efficiency curves for each separation stage provide the necessary data for the above mentioned correction and this is then applied to examples of practical particle size analysis.
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    ISSN: 0934-0866
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental methods to determine minimum sintering temperatures of a variety of granules such as polymers, glass, coal, inorganic salts, etc. are presented. These methods include the use of a dilatometer in which the contraction-dilation characteristics of a small sample is measured, a differential scanning calorimeter test and an Instron machine by which yield strengths are measured. It is clearly shown that for the majority of materials studied, the different methods give similar values for the minimum sintering temperature but that the dilatometer experiment is the simplest as well as the most reliable method. Since the minimum sintering temperature is always less than the solid's melting point, an efficient method of measuring this temperature is very important for all fluidizable granules subjected to high temperatures. The danger of agglomeration during fluidization increases tremendously at temperatures higher than minimum sintering and therefore special precautions must be taken to avoid defluidization under these conditions.
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Ion chromatography, IC ; Steel surface analysis ; Carbonate, chloride, nitrite ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Negative ion atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry ; Fused silica capillary columns ; Nitro-PAHs ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Liquid chromatography, HPLC ; Normal and reversed phases ; Steroid esters ; Long-acting contraceptive ; Injectable contraceptives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Packed glass columns ; Solvent extraction ; Plastics ; Ethylene oxide ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Pressurized gas ; Supercritical fluid ; Elution and resolution behavior ; n-Pentane ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: High performance thin layer chromatography, HPTLC ; Fluorescence ; Prostaglandins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Fused silica capillary columns ; CP-MAS NMR ; Silylation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The effect of temperature, water content, and the type of reagent on the silylation of fused silica capillaries was studied by 29Si and 13C CP-MAS NMR. Fumed silica (Cab-O-Sil M5), which is essentially a highly dispersed vitreous quartz with a surface comparable to that of fused silica capillary columns, was selected as a model material.Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and 1,2-diphenyl-1,1,3,3-tetraphenyldisilazane (DPTMDS), which were used as silylation reagents, yielded trimethyl- and dimethylphenylsilyl surface groups respectively at lower temperatures (〈 350°C and 〈250°C respectively). At higher temperatures, increasingly more dimethylsilyl groups are formed, with the silicon bound to two oxygen atoms. This process occurs for DPTMDS at a considerably lower temperature than for HMDS. The formation of silyl groups on the surface and the disappearance of hydroxyl groups are followed independently. The 13C NMR and GC-MS of the reaction products showed that with DPTMDS, the formation of two Si-O-Si links is accompanied by a loss of phenyl groups rather than of methyl groups.After the Cab-O-Sil had been dried over P2O5, the formation of these double links occurred for HMDS only at temperatures above 460°C and for DPTMDS at 400°C. Thus we concluded that water supplies oxygen atoms for double Si-O-Si links (possibly crosslinks) necessary for efficient deactivation. This may explain the less successful silanization of fused silica capillaries because their water content is lower than that of glass capillaries.
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Theory ; Sorption ; Plate model ; Band widths ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The original plate model of chromatography is extended to the sorption process occurring at the column inlet and the desorption process at the column exit. At the column inlet it is shown that sufficiently wide feed bands undergo no change in concentration but a fall in band width, i.e., the volume of mobile phase occupied by the solute band is reduced. The reduction factor is (1 + k) where k is the mass distribution ratio (capacity factor). Narrower bands suffer partial reduction in both band width and concentration. On desorption at the outlet, however, the change is always in band width and not concentration. A perfect detector registers the true concentration-time profile of the band in the column if the solute mass fraction in the stationary phase is below 10-3 at the column outlet. The risks of stripping the stationary phase at high solute concentrations in analytical and preparative or production gas chromatography are compared.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Glass capillary columns ; Immobilization ; Gamma radiation ; Very thick films ; Nonpolar stationary phases ; OV-1, OV-101, SE-54 ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Borosilicate glass capillaries, silylated and coated with OV-1 or SE-54, were irradiated by a 60Co gamma source. The effect of radiation on chromatographic performance was determined for a series of dosages and was evaluated before and after rinsing with solvent. Results for both regular and thick films were obtained.
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Reaction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, GC/MS ; Capillary columns ; Post-column hydrodesulfurization ; Cyclic sulfides ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This article describes a method that assists in structure determination of cyclic sulfides mixtures by GC/MS. The method involves the use of a gas-phase hydrodesulfurization microreactor (AP-56 catalyst, reaction temperture 300-315°C, hydrogen as a carrier and reagent gas) located between the capillary column (OV-17) and the mass spectrometer. The presence of a microreactor in such a position does not essentially affect the chromatographic separation achieved by using the capillary column. Combined analysis of the mass spectra registered for the original sulfides and the hydrodesulfurization products permits the structure determination of each effluent to be made more reliably. This is illustrated by the investigation of a reaction mixture containing the structural and geometric isomers of methyl-substituted thiabicyclononanes.
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    Keywords: Preparative liquid chromatography, HPLC ; Chiral HPLC columns ; (-)-Gossypol ; Resolution of enatiomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography, TLC ; Methylated β-cyclodextrins ; Complex-forming eluent additives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography, HPLC ; Diode array spectroscopy ; Trace enrichment ; Algal pigments ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Glass capillary columns ; Liquid crystal ; Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ; N,N′-Bis(p-butoxybenzylidene)-α,α′-bi-p-toluidine (BBBT) ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Capillary columns, FSOT ; CB polyphenylmethylsiloxane (RSL-300) ; Steroid profiling ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography, GC ; Capillary columns ; Artefact formation ; Hydrogenation ; Anethole ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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  • 63
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 64
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 65
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000