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  • Chemistry  (6,741)
  • 1980-1984  (6,741)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1983  (6,741)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Stabile Geometrie von Oberflächenrissen bei Rißwachstum durch ErmüdungDie sich bei einer Ermüdungsbeanspruchung einstellende Rißgeometrie unter überlagerter Zug- und Biegebeanspruchung wird mit verschiedenen Annahmen berechnet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen im Vergleich zu den in [1] publizierten Resultaten geringe Unterschiede.
    Notes: Final crack aspect ratios are calculated for alternating combined tension and bending loading using different assumptions. The results are compared with those published in [1] showing small differences.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Constitutive Equations for Inelastic Analysis with Reference to the Austenitic Stainless Steel X 6 CrNi 18 11 (Type 304 ss)The design analysis of high temperature components requires stress-strain relations for structural materials under consideration. These are to be based on quantitative descriptions of the mechanical behaviour under the conditions of operation.Average stress-strain relations for the time-independent and time-dependent material behavior are derived for a representative product form of the stainless steel X 6 CrNi 18 11 by means of the actual data from a set of tensile and creep experiments.The actual data at temperatures of 20°C and 550°C are compared with the derived average constitutive relations. The results are discussed and compared with literature data for the corresponding American steel AISI 304 ss and the Japanese steel SUS 304, resp.
    Notes: Zum Festigkeitsnachweis von im Hochtemperaturbereich betriebenen Komponenten werden für hochbeanspruchte Konstruktionsbereiche inelastische Spannungs-Dehnungsanalysen auf der Grundlage quantitativer Beschreibungen des Werkstoffverhaltens benötigt.Anhand einer realen Meßdatengesamtheit aus Zug- und Kriechversuchen werden für eine repräsentative Halbzeugform des Stahles X 6 CrNi 18 11 die mittleren Spannungs-Dehnungs-Beziehungen für das zeitunabhängige und zeitabhängige Materialverhalten abgeleitet. Bei Temperaturen von 20°C und 550°C werden die Meßdaten einer typischen Materiallieferung den abgeleiteten mittleren werkstoffmechanischen Beziehungen vergleichend gegenübergestellt. Das Ergebnis wird diskutiert und mit Literaturwerten für den artgleichen amerikanischen Stahl AISI 304 ss sowie den entsprechenden japanischen Stahl SUS 304 verglichen.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Microstructural Changes and Cyclic DeformationThe crack initiation starts due to weakening and strengthening process during rotating bending. However a smaller plastic deformation amplitude is noticed at the same nominal stress compared to tension-compression stressed specimens. This results in a higher fatigue life. The different cyclic deformation behaviour was proofed by SEM (rotating bending specimens showed a lower slip line density compared to tension-compression specimens at the same nominal stress) and TEM investigations (the rotating bending specimens showed a smaller dislocation density at the same nominal stress).Furthermore it is showed, a correlation of cyclic stress strain data σ(εpls) between tension-compression and rotating bending specimens exists.This is also valid for the Manson-Coffin-relationship. the relation between lg εpls and lg NB depends on the material (Ck 15, Ck 45) but not on the state of stress.
    Notes: Die in Wöhler-Versuchen nachgewiesene höhere Wechselfestigkeit inhomogen (umlaufbiegebeansprucht) gegenüber homogen (zugdruckbeansprucht) belasteter Proben der normalisierten Kohlenstoffstähle Ck 15 und Ck 45 konnte auf Unterschiede im Wechselverformungsverhalten zurückgeführt werden. Zwar leiten bei Umlaufbiegebeanspruchung ähnliche Entfestigungs- und Verfestigungsprozesse die Anrißbildung ein, doch wird bei gleicher Nennspannung im Vergleich homogen belasteter Proben eine niedrigere plastische Dehnungsamplitude registriert, die zu einer erhöhten Lebensdauer führt.Diese Unterschiede im Wechselverformungsverhalten konnten sowohl auf rasterelektronenmikroskopischem Weg an der Probenoberfläche - die Umlaufbiegeproben wiesen bei gleicher Lastspannung eine niedrigere Gleitliniendichte auf als die Zugdruckproben - als auch innerhalb des Gefüges durch transmissionselektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen - die Umlaufbiegeproben zeigten bei gleicher Lastspannung eine niedrigere Versetzungsdichte - nachgewiesen werden.Weiterhin konnte nachgewiesen werden, daß eine Übertragbarkeit der zyklischen Spannungsdehnungsdaten σ (εpls) von Zugdruck- auf Umlaufbiegeproben möglich ist.Gleiches gilt für die Manson-Coffin-Beziehung, d.h., die Abhängigkeit zwischen lg εpls und lg NB bleibt erhalten und ist nur vom Werkstoff (Ck 15, Ck 45), nicht aber von der Beanspruchungsart (homogen/inhomogen) abhängig.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Characterization of Aluminium Oxide LayersAdhesive bonding aluminium sheets is a manufacturing process which is very relevant in aircraft construction. In order to produce bonds featuring adequate strength and long-term stability, an aluminium oxide layer having certain properties must be generated on the sheet surface during pretreatment.The properties of aluminium oxide layers which are required and adequate in the light of current findings are delineated in this paper and the analytics prepared for the purpose of checking these properties are presented.Al2O3 layers produced by means of pickling and chromic acid and phosphoric acid anodic oxidation can be characterized adequately by means of the following: chemical composition (impurity)layer thicknessstructuremorphologyThe following methods of physical analysis are employed in order to determine these properties: Surface analysis (AES, ESCA, SIMS) in conjunction with ion etching for the obtention of depth profiles.Electron diffraction in reflection and transmission as well as X-ray diffraction.High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (resolution 30 Å).Transmission electron microscopy.Further more, the methods of investigation which in our opinion are necessary and adequate for checking in the practice the proper pretreatment of aluminium sheets for subsequent bonding are also presented.
    Notes: Das Verkleben von Aluminiumblechen ist im Flugzeugbau ein wichtiges Fertigungsverfahren. Um Klebeverbindungen ausreichender Festigkeit und Langzeitbeständigkeit herzustellen, muß bei der Vorbehandlung der Bleche auf der Blechoberfläche eine Aluminiumoxidschicht erzeugt werden, die bestimmte Eigenschaften aufweist.In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die nach dem heutigen Erkenntnisstand notwendigen und hinreichenden Eigenschaften von Aluminiumoxidschichten aufgezeigt und die zur Überprüfung dieser Eigenschaften erarbeitete Analytik vorgestellt.Al2O3-Schichten, die durch Pickling-Beizen, Chromsäure- und Phosphorsäureanodisieren erzeugt werden, können durch die Chemische Zusammensetzung (Verunreinigung)SchichtdickeStrukturMorphologie hinreichend charakterisiert werden. Zur Ermittlung dieser Eigenschaften werden folgende Methoden der physikalischen Analytik eingesetzt: Oberflächenanalyse (AES, ESCA, SIMS) in Verbindung mit Ionenätzen zur Erstellung von Tiefenprofilen.Elektronenbeugung in Reflexion und Durchstrahlung sowie Röntgenbeugung.Hochauflösungsrasterelektronenmikroskopie (Auflösung ∼ 30 Å)Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie.Des weiteren werden die, unseres Erachtens für die Praxis notwendigen und hinreichenden. Untersuchungsmethoden für die Überprüfung der ordnungsgemäßen Vorbehandlung von Aluminiumblechen für das anschließende Verkleben angegeben.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Influence of the Crinding Parameters and the Quality of the Starting Materials on the Properties of Extruded AIC ProductsDispersion strengthened aluminium has been produced by grinding aluminium powder with carbon black in a high energy ball mill, heat treating of the milled powder and subsequented hot extrusion. Tensile strength, elongation, hardness and impact strength were determined. The influence of griding parameters, such as duration, speed of rotation of the rotation arm and the weight ratio of powder to milling balls on the mechanical properties of the extruded rods were investigated. Other important variables are the oxygen content of the aluminium powder, the quality of the carbon black and additions of control agents such as oil or water.
    Notes: Dispersionsgehärtetes Aluminium wurde durch Reaktionsmahlen von Aluminium mit Flammruß, Wärmebehandeln des Granulats und Kompaktieren durch Strangpressen hergestellt. Mechanische Eigenschaften wie Zugfestigkeit, Bruchdehnung, Härte und Kerbschlagzähigkeit wurden gemessen. Der Einfluß der Mahlparameter wie Mahldauer, Umdrehungsgeschwindigkeit des Schlagarms und Gewichtsverhältnis von Mahlgut zu Mahlkugeln auf die mechanischen Eigenschaften der Strangpreßprodukte wurde untersucht. Weiters von Bedeutung erwies sich der Sauerstoffgehalt des Al-Pulvers, die Rußsorte und der Zusatz von Mahlhilfsmittel wie Öl oder Wasser.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 14
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 15
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Testing the Plastic Behaviour of Metallic Materials by Torsion TestsThe torsion test on cylindrical bars (bulk material) and the plane torsion test on thin sheet which has been developed recently are described and discussed with respect to their communities and their differences.In the torsion test on cylindrical bars the experimental data are conventionally used for calculating shear stress and shear strain for the specimen surface. However, the material properties are strongly distorted at the surface; therefore it is recommended to calculate shear stress and shear strain for a „critical radius“ for which shear stress is only weakly depend on the properties of the estimated shape of flow curve. It is shwon that for this critical radius, stress and strain are almost independent of the notch effect caused by the shape of specimen.For the plane torsion test on thin sheet a “critical radius” is defined by the condition that shear strain is only weakly dependent on the properties of the estimated shape of flow curve.The calculation of stress and strain for the “critical radius” seems to result in a loss of information. However, the flow curve obtained this way is more reliable than that one obtained by the conventional method.
    Notes: Der Torsionsversuch an Rundstäben (massives Probenmaterial) und der neuartige ebene Torsionsversuch an dünnen Blechen werden beschrieben und im Hinblick auf Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede diskutiert.Beim Torsionsversuch an Rundstäben werden aus den Meßdaten herkömmlicherweise Schubspannung und Schiebung für die Außenfaser (Mantelfläche) der Probe berechnet. Dies ist aber physikalisch nicht sinnvoll, da die Außenfaser ein Ort gestörten Zustandes (Grenzschicht) ist. Deshalb wird die Versuchsauswertung für einen „kritischen Radialabstand“ empfohlen, für den die Schubspannung möglichst wenig abhängt von den Eigenschaften einer geschätzten Näherungslösung für die Fließkurve. Es wird gezeigt, daß für diesen Radialabstand Schiebung und Schubspannung auch nahezu unabhängig sind von durch die Probengestalt bedingten Kerbeinflüssen.Für den ebenen Torsionsversuch an dünnen Blechen wird ein „kritischer Radialabstand“ definiert durch die Forderung, daß die Schiebung möglichst wenig abhängt von den Eigenschaften einer geschätzten Näherungslösung für die Fließkurve.Die Versuchsauswertung für den „kritischen Radialabstand“ führt bei beiden Versuchen zu einem scheinbaren Informationsverlust; sie liefert jedoch zuverlässigere Ergebnisse als die herkömmliche Vorgehensweise.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Teil II: Neue Herstellungstechniken von SiliciumnitridIn Teil I wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen Gefüge und verschiedenen mechanischen, thermischen und thermomechanischen Eigenschaften von heißgepreßtem und reaktionsgesintertem Siliciumnitrid diskutiert, wie Bruchfestigkeit, Temperaturleitfähigkeit und Thermoschockverhalten. Aufbauend auf dieser Korrelation wurden die heutigen Grenzen von Siliciumnitrid für eine breitere Anwendung sowie die Möglichkeiten für eine Optimierung dieser Materialgruppe dargelegt. Diese Diskussion zeigt sehr deutlich, daß es notwendig ist, einige wichtige Eigenschaften weiter zu verbessern und neue Herstellungs-techniken zu entwickeln. In Teil II der Arbeit werden die Entwicklungsrichtungen dieser neuen Herstellungstechniken für Siliciumnitrid aufgezeigt. Es wird ein Überblick über die in jüngster Zeit erzielten Fortschritte bei der Anwendung dieser Techniken gegeben. Als Beispiel einer neuen Herstellungstechnik werden Ergebnisse vom heißisostatischen Pressen von reaktionsgesintertem Siliciumnitrid diskutiert.
    Notes: In part I of this paper the relationship between microstructure and various mechanical, thermal and thermo-mechanical properties of hot-pressed and reaction-bonded silicon nitride, such as fracture strength, thermal diffusivity and thermal shock resistance, was discussed. On the basis of this correlation today's limits of silicon nitride regarding a broader application and the possibilities for optimizing this material group were outlined. This discussion demonstrates the necessity of further improving some important properties and of developing new processing techniques. In part II the development lines of these new techniques for silicon nitride processing are discussed and a survey is given of recent progresses in the use of those techniques. As an example of a new processing technique, results of hot-isostatic pressing of reaction-bonded silicon nitride are presented in more detail.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 20
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 21
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Laser-Oberflächenumschmelzen von Gußeisen mit unterkühltem GraphitAn einer Gußeisenlegierung 3% C, 2% Si und 0,25% Ti mit unterkühltem Graphit wurden Laserumschmelzversuche mit unterschiedlichen Leistungsdichten und Einwirkzeiten durchgeführt. Die sich ergebenden charakteristischen Gefüge nach dem Umschmelzen und verschiedenen Wärmebehandlungszuständen werden beschrieben, ebenso wie die erzielbaren Härtesteigerungen. Beispielhaft wird aufgezeigt, in welcher Weise die Abschreckgeschwindigkeiten und die Konzentration das Erstarrungsverhalten hochkohlenstoffhaltiger Gußeisenlegierungen modifizieren können. Die gewählte Zusammensetzung des Gußeisens besitzt Modellcharakter und kann für viele Gußeisenlegierungen als repräsentativ angesehen werden.
    Notes: Laser surface melting experiments were carried out on an alloy cast iron with 3% C, 2% Si and 0.25% Ti containing undercooled graphite. Different heating times and energy densities were used to achieve different penetration depths and cooling rates. The microstructures obtained after surface melting and after various heat treatments are presented and discussed. It is shown how the cooling rate and concentration influence the solidification behaviour of high carbon cast irons. The composition chosen for the experiments can be considered as representative of many cast irons.
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  • 23
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Influence of the Process Parameters on Quenching Rates in Laser Melting of Ledeburitic SteelsOn quenching, surface melted ledeburitic steels solidify dendritically. The secondary arm separation can be used to estimate the cooling rate and hence enables the effect of the operating conditions on the cooling rate to be assessed. In general, the residual melt solidifies as an eutectic or as chromium carbide or a mixture of chromium carbide and iron. The resultant carbide net and the resultant grain refinement change the hardness of the surface. The hardness can be controlled by varying the quenching rate in surface melting and if necessary a subsequent heat treatment.
    Notes: Beim Umschmelzen der Oberfläche ledeburitischer Stähle erstarren diese Stähle in dendritischer Form. Aus dem sekundären Dendritenarmabstand läßt sich die Abschreckgeschwindigkeit ermitteln. Dies bietet die Möglichkeit den Einfluß der Versuchsparameter auf die Abschreckgeschwindigkeit nach dem Umschmelzen zu untersuchen. Im allgemeinen beobachtet man ein eutektisches oder monolitisches Erstarren der Restschmelze in Form von Chromkarbid bzw. Chromkarbid und Eisen. Das so entstandene Karbidnetz und die durch das Karbidnetz aufgetretene Kornfeinung verändern die Härte der umgeschmolzenen Oberfläche. Damit kann über die unterschiedliche Abschreckgeschwindigkeit die Härte nach dem Umschmelzen und einer gegebenenfalls durchzuführenden Wärmebehandlung bereits durch die Versuchsparameter festgelegt werden.
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  • 25
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Metallurgical Aspects of Laser CuttingIn this paper the possibilities of laser cutting and the microstructural changes it causes in the material are discussed. It is shown which cutting speeds can be used for different sheet thicknesses and how this changes the surface roughness and hardness. The influence of laser power and cutting gas pressure (oxygen) is demonstrated. Examples are given of low alloy carbon steels, high alloyed austenitic, ferritic and martensitic steels.
    Notes: In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird gezeigt, welche Möglichkeiten das technische Schneiden mit Lasern heute bietet und welche Änderungen der Schneidvorgang im Werkstoff hervorruft. Es wird gezeigt, bei welchen Geschwindigkeiten Bleche unterschiedlicher Stärke geschnitten werden können und welchen Einfluß dies auf Rauhigkeit und Härte ausübt. Beispielhaft wird der Einfluß der Laserleistung und des O2 Schneidgasdruckes aufgezeigt. Untersucht wurden sowohl niedrig legierte Kohlenstoffstähle als auch hochlegierte austenitische, ferritische und martensitische Stähle.
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  • 26
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 27
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    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The report presents investigations of the microstructure of commercial Alloy 800 after isothermal ageing at 900°C, carried out by optical microscopy and by transmission electron microscopy using replica and thin foil techniques.The high temperature ageing was characterized predominantly by precipitation of carbides on grain and twin boundaries of the austenitic matrix, as well as on dislocations within the grains. The carbides were identified, using electron microscope diffraction and X-ray phase analysis of electrolytic extractions, as (Cr, Fe)23C6, Ti (C, N) and TiC.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: An Improved Method for the Evaluation of Staircase TestsThe assessment of the endurance limit by a time- and cost-saving methode - taking into account the mean, the scatter and the confidence limits - is an important engineering challenge. Among the many methods used up to now, only the staircase method developed by Dixon and Mood in 1948 specifies the confidence limits of the mean and standard deviation.Based on certain considerations it has to be doubted, however, wether the method of Dixon and Mood evaluating the “less frequent occurrence: failures or runouts” gives reliable estimates and confidence limits.Using a large numer of staircase tests, randomly computer-generated by way of the Monte Carlo-method, the evaluation method of Dixon and Mood was examined. An important result was that the estimate of the standard deviation is always too small and the use of the “less frequent occurrence” does not result in optimum confidence limits. The method was therefore improved considering all accurrences: failures and runouts in the evaluation.The new method for the evaluation of the estimate of means, standard deviations and their confidence limits is outlined. Moreover, an optimum way to plan staircase tests is explained. Finally a practical application of the new method is presented.
    Notes: Eine zeitsparende und kostengünstige Ermittlung des Übergangsgebietes ist nach wie vor ein bedeutendes technisches Problem, sollen Mittelwert, Streuung und Vertrauensgrenzen in die Auswertung mit einbezogen werden. Unter den vielen Methoden, die dafür verwendet werden, macht allein das von Dixon und Mood im Jahre 1948 entwickelte Treppenstufenverfahren Angaben über die Vertrauensgrenzen von Mittelwert und Standardabweichungen.Aufgrund bestimmter Überlegungen muß jedoch bezweifelt werden, ob die von Dixon und Mood vorgeschlagene Methode der Auswertung des „weniger oft eintretenden Ereignisses: Brüche oder Durchläufer“ optimale und richtige Schätzwerte und Vertrauensgrenzen ergibt.Durch Treppenstufen-Reihen, die auf dem Rechner in der Art der Monte Carlo-Methode in großer Zahl erzeugt wurden, konnte die Auswertemethode von Dixon und Mood überprüft werden. Dabei stellte sich u. a. heraus, daß der Schätzwert für die Standardabweichung stets zu klein ausfällt und die Verwendung des „weniger oft eingetretenen Ereignisses“ keine optimalen Vertrauensgrenzen erwarten läßt. Das Verfahren wurde daher umgestellt auf die Auswertung sämtlicher Ereignisse.Die neue Auswertemethode zur Ermittlung der Schätzwerte für Mittelwert, Standardabweichung und zugehörige Vertrauensgrenzen wird dargelegt. Weiterhin werden dem Anwender Hinweise für einen optimalen Versuchsansatz gegeben und der Ablauf einer Dauerfestigkeitsabschätzung anhand eines praxisnahen Beispiels erläutert.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Capillary, glass ; ECD ; Halocarbons in water, 0.1-10 ppb ; 0.5-2 μl injected on-column ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Interest in monitoring halogenated organics in drinking water and natural surface and ground water in the low ppb range continues to grow. There is a tendency to include still more volatile halocarbons, the trace determination of which is known to be rather demanding. This prompted us to re-examine the feasibility of large-volume direct aqueous injection onto capillary columns, coupled with ECD. A primary problem was to avoid simultaneous elution of water with halocarbons, since water suppresses the ground current of the ECD. The following measures contributed to the solution of this problem.Apolar, extremely inert, columns are required to elute water completely, and even before very light halocarbons. Their coatings have to be far thicker (≍ 5 mUm) than commonly employed thick films since they must permit isothermal analysis at a column temperature around 100°C in order to ensure rapid and complete elution of water. Finally, it is essential that sampling be carried out on-column for two reasons: diffusion of water vapor in the injector, resulting in delayed elution, is then eliminated, and peak distortion during splitless injection is avoided.Although we now know that persilylated columns with immobilized coatings withstand routine water injections, more longterm experience is needed to provide detailed recommendations for the handling of these columns.
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  • 32
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    Keywords: Reversed-phase mode liquid chromatography ; Rekker's hydrophobic fragmental constant ; Calculation of concentration of organic modifier ; Prediction of retention time of phenols ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The chromatographic behavior of phenols in reversed-phase mode liquid chromatography differs from that of non-ionic compounds such as alkyl alcohols, alkylbenzenes, halogenated benzenes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic acids. Therefore, the retention times of 61 phenols were measured in a system of an octadecyl bonded silica gel and acetonitrile/water mixtures. The logarithm of the capacity ratio (log k') was found to be a linear function of the hydrophobicity (log P) in acidic acetonitrile/water mixtures. This result was applied to a different octadecyl bonded silica gel. Eight phenols were selected as standard compounds, and their log k' values were measured in 0.05 M phosphoric acid in 10 to 90% acetonitrile/water mixtures. An empirical polynomial relation was obtained between the concentration of acetonitrile and the slope of the log k' vs log P curve. Finally the capacity ratio of all phenols were calculated in given eluents by the equations derived from the measurements of standard compounds and the calculated log P values. The difference between predicted capacity ratios and measured ones was within 10%.
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid-liquid partition chromatography, HPLC ; Liquid-liquid distribution ; Nucleoside ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Capillary column ; Cryogenic focusing ; On-column, pre-column trapping ; Volatile aroma compounds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry ; Capillary, fused silica ; Negative ion ; Femtogram sensitivity ; Nitroglycerin ; Organic nitrates ; Dinitroglycerin ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Recent developments in the use of negative ion detection in GC-MS have indicated the potential for highly sensitive analyses for certain compounds. This paper describes the application of the techniques to the assay of Nitroglycerin and its metabolites yielding sensitivity to two femtograms. Because of the low levels of nitroglycerin in biological media such sensitivity is highly desirable if not essential for meaningful measurements. In addition to sensitivity the method is shown to yield extremely good selectivity contributing further to the credibility of quantitative results.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Thin-layer chromatography, TLC ; Resolution ; Optimization ; Development distance ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Theoretical equations are given to relate resolution with development distance. Comparative experiments undertaken with quaternary ammonium compounds as test substances and using a selection of basic drugs are presented. As expected, resolution decreases with shorter development distance. However, this effect is less pronounced for compounds with small Rf values and when the spot size at the starting point is kept small. It was also shown that, for correctly assessing resolution in relation to development distance, the amounts of material spotted have to be decreased for shorter development distances.
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    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Capillary, fused silica ; GC/MS ; Drugs of abuse ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; Column packing ; Column coupling ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; Reversed phase mode ; Triglycerides ; Brominated triglycerides ; Cocoa butter, cocoa butter equivalents ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The structure determination of triglycerides by RP HPLC is discussed, and the importance of temperature and mobile phase composition demonstrated. The formation of brominated triglycerides followed by RP HPLC analysis allows rapid determination of cocoa butter equivalents (CBE ) in cocoa butter and chocolate products.
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  • 44
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    Keywords: Capillary chromatography ; Glass capillary tubing ; Fused silica capillary tubing ; Cutting of glass tubing ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An investigation of techniques suitable for precision cutting of glass and fused silica capillary tubing has been carried out. Accurate trimming of capillary tubing is important when precision splitters and manifolds have to be made. Techniques employed for cutting optical fibers proved to be useful, and factors affecting the suface quality of the fracture are discussed.It was found to be difficult to obtain a square cut with a flat surface in the case of fused silica tubing. The best results were obtained when the tubing was scored with the edge of a broken silicon wafer before the fracture was accomplished. This technique allows precision cutting of glass tubing with an outer diameter of 100 μm or less.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Capillary, glass ; Immobilization of moderately polar phases ; Combination of surface bonding and crosslinking ; Vinyl groups in the support surface ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas Chromatography ; On-column Injection ; Capillary Columns ; Solute Focusing ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A novel solute focusing technique for on-column injection of liquid samples onto capillary GC columns is described. The focusing technique allows injection of 8.0 microliters or more of sample without producing the peak distortion or splitting observed under conventional on-column injection conditions. The experimentally determined performance of the technique is given for a wide volatility range sample. Solute focusing is useful in situations where on-column injection of 1.0 microliter or greater is required.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography, HPLC ; Zeaxanthin ; Lutein ; Separation of configurational isomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method is described for the qualitative and quantitative determination of configurational isomers of zeaxanthin (=3,3′ -dihydroxy-β, β -carotene) and lutein (=3,3′ -dihydroxy-α -cartotene). It is based on the reaction of these zeaxathin and lutein isomers with (S)-(+)-α-(1-naphthyl) ethyl isocyanate to afford diastereomeric dicarbamates, which are analyzed by HPLC.
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Multiplex GC ; Vacancy chromatograms ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: High-performance thin-layer chromatography, HPTLC ; Reversed-phase ; Octadecyl-bonded silica gel ; Bile acid methyl esters ; Methyl 5β -cholanates ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A comparative study is reported on separation of series of mono-, di-, and trisubstituted methyl 5β-cholanates, which differ only in the position and stereochemistry of hydroxyl or keto groups at position and stereochemistry of hydroxyl or keto groups at positions C-3, C-7, and/or C-12, by reversed-phase [with chemically-bonded (C-18) silica gel] and normal-phase (silica gel) high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Methnol (or acetonitrile)/water systems were employed as mobile phase. Reversed-phase HPTLC found to be particulary effective for separation of the stereoisomers of di- and trisubstituted compounds whereas the less polar monosubstituted isomers are well resolved in normal-phase HPTLC.
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    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Capillary columns ; On-column injection ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; Electron capture detector ; Cell design ; Hydrogen carrier gas ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new design for an electron capture detector cell is described. The cell is compatible with the requirements of high resolution capillary columns and is shown to be useful in applications that require high analysis speed. A unique method of sample introduction reduces the problems of sample loss by adsorption on the surfaces of the cell. Previously reported problems of sample loss by adsorption on active surfaces within the cell when using hydrogen carrier gas are shown to have been eliminated. Examples are shown demonstrating the increased speed of analysis that can be obtained when using hydrogen carrier gas and 100 micron diameter columns.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography, HPLC ; Influence of sample solvent on peak shape ; Influence of trace ions on peak shape ; Acetylsalicylic acid ; Salicylic acid ; Determination in blood and plasma ; Suppression of the enzymatic degradation of acetylsalicylic acid ; Sample preparation and extraction ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method is described for the determination of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid in human whole blood and plasma which uses liquid chromatography with UV detection. The enzymatic degradation of acetylsalicyclic acid in blood and plasma is examined. Addition of potassium fluoride as enzyme inhibitor and deep freezing after plasma preparation allows storage of plasma for one week. A mixture of acetonitrile and diluted acetic acid as mobile phase give the best peak shape. Traces of iron lead to slight peak broadening; addition of EDTA results in excessive tailing. The detection limit for acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid is about 250 ng/ml for a 1.0 ml primary sample. The method is sensitive enough for the monitoring of both drugs in bioavailability studies.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Injector systems ; On-column injection ; Liquid chromatography, HPLC ; Dibenzothiophene oxide and dioxide ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Analytical methods are described for identification and monitoring of the oxygenated metabolites of dibenzothiophene. Since such compounds are thermolabile, GC analysis is seen to be hardly feasible with conventional injectors such as all-glass moving needle or splitless injectors. Only on-column injection gives no degradation products. In addition, reversed-phase HPLC is particularly suitable for the analysis of the sulfone or sulfoxides of dibenzothiophenes.
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Crosslinked stationary phases ; Open-tubular capillary liquid chromatography column ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Crosslinked polysiloxane stationary phases were prepared on soda-lime glass capillaries and applied to the separation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and of phthalates in reversedphase liquid chromatography. Preparation procedures and chromatographic performance of these columns are described.
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    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Fused silica capillary column ; Split injector ; Herbicides ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; Micro HPLC fast ; Rapid separation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Post column trap ; Alumina ; Halocarbons ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography ; Steroid hormones ; Selective detection (NPD) ; Effluent splitting ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Capillary columns ; Selective on-column injection ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 66
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Ion mobility detector ; Plasma chromatography ; Selective detection ; Quantitative analysis ; Halogenated compounds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An ion mobility detector that has been specifically developed for interfacing with capillary gas chromatography is investigated in the negative ion mode. Like the electron capture detector, to which this instrument is closely related, the ion mobility detector shows an enhanced response to low molecular weight halogenated compounds when a small quantity of oxygen is doped into the make-up gas flow. Under O2 doping conditions, the device can operate in a reactant ion monitoring mode responding universally to compounds capable of capturing thermal electrons and in a tunable selective product ion mode providing increased selectivity over that achieved by the ECD. At an oxygen concentration of 0.5%, minimum detectable amounts as low as 600 femtograms have been realized for carbon tetrachloride. Selectivity of chloro- versus bromo- compounds is demonstrated using a mixture of p-dichlorobenzene and p-dibromobenzene.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography ; Liquid crystal stationary phases ; para-Substituted cholesterol cinnamate ; Geometrical isomers (insect pheromones) ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Four para-substituted cholesterol cinnamates were synthesized and evaluated for utility as gas chromatograph (GC) liquid crystal stationary phases. The capability of the phases to separate olefinic geometrical isomers was found to be dependent on the position of the olefinic bond. When unsaturation occurred at positions four carbons or greater from the terminal methyl of the compounds investigated, the relative ability of the phases to separate geometrical isomers was p-Cl 〉 p-Me 〉 cholesterol cinnamate 〉 p-MeO derivative 〉 p-NO2. When unsaturation occurred at positions four carbons or less from the terminal methyl the relative ability of the para-derivatives of cholesterol cinnamate to separate geometrical isomers was reversed.
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  • 68
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; LSC with binary eluents ; Resolution in LSC ; Selectivity in LSC ; Adsorption LC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The recently derived general equation for the capacity ratio has been utilized to study the dependence of selectivity and resolution upon mobile phase composition. This equation accounts for differences in molecular size of solutes and solvents, and for the energetic heterogeneity of the adscrbent surface. Model calculations illustrating the influence of these factors on the selectivity and resolution are presented and discussed.
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  • 69
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Special steels with superior corrosion resistance and strength for chemical equipment manufactureStainless steels are among the materials most predominantly used in chemical plant engineering. During the past few years, quite a number of special steels of this type have been developed to meet the eve1 increasing demands in this field. This paper deals with two of them.VEW A 963 is an austenitic CrNiMo steel containing about 6.3% molybdenum which shows superior resistance to the attack of media with a high chloride content, in other terms, excellent resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion.Stress corrosion cracking tests in NaCl solution with crust formation show steel VEW A %3 to be definitely superior to CrNiMo grades with up to 4.5% molybdenum. Corrosion resistance in acids, too, is very good. The steel possesses good weldability, and suitable filler metals are available in the form of coated electrodes and inert gas welding wire.Big scale production of steel VEW A 963 in the form of sheet and plate, bar, forgings and seamless tube is possible.VEW A 905 is an austenitic-ferritic CrNiMo steel with manganese and nitrogen additions which permit to obtain a minimum 0.2% proof stress of 590 Nlmm2 in the solution annealed condition. The micro- structure shows more or less equal parts of austenite and ferrite which hardly change with rising temperature. This is of great importance for welding: there is no grain coarsening in the heat affected zone, nor increase of ferrite content. An electrode type of the same composition is available.VEW A 905 has good resistance to pitting corrosion and to the attack of a variety of acids. Particular emphasis should be laid on its excellent resistance to chloride induced stress corrosion cracking.VEW A 905. too, is available in the form of sheet and plate, bar, forgings and seamless tube produced on a large scale.
    Notes: Die korrosionsbeständigen Stähle gehören mit zu den wichtigsten Werkstoffen des chemischen Apparatebaus. Um den ständig steigen- den Anforderungen N entsprechen, wurde in den letzten Jahren eine Reihe von Sonderstählen entwickelt. über zwei derartige Stähle wird berichtet.VEW A %3 ist ein austenitischer CrNiMo-Stahl mit etwa 6,3% Molybdän, der eine hervorragende Beständigkeit in hochchloridhaltigen Medien, das heißt, eine ausgezeichnete Lochfraß- und Spaltkorrosionsbeständigkeit hat.Die Prüfung auf Spannungsrißkorrosion in NaCI-Lösung unter Krustenbildung zeigt eine starke Überlegenheit des Stahles VEW A 963 gegenüber den CrNiMo-Stählen mit bis zu 4.5% Molybdän. Auch die Beständigkeit in Säuren kann als sehr gut bezeichnet werden. Der Stahl ist gut schweißbar, und Schweißzusatzwerkstoffe stehen in Form von Schutzgasschweißdrähten und umhüllten Elektroden zur Verfügung.Die Erzeugung des Stahles VEW A 963 ist großtechnisch als Blech, Stabstahl, Schmiedestück und Nahtlosrohr möglich.VEW A 905 ist ein austenitisch-ferritischer CrNiMo-Stahl mit Mangan- und Stickstoffzusatz. Durch diese Zusätze wird im lösungsgeglühten Zustand eine 0,2-%-Dehngrenze von 〉 590 N/mm2 erreicht.Das Gefüge besteht zu etwa gleichen Teilen aus Austenit und Fer- rit, wobei sich die Anteile mit steigender Temperatur kaum ändern. Dies ist für die gute Schweißbarkeit des Stahles wesentlich. Es kommt neben dem Schweißgut weder zu einer Grobkornbildung, noch entsteht ein Ferritsaum. Eine artgleiche Elektrode ist verfügbar.VEW A 905 hat eine gute Lochfraßbeständigkeit und ein gutes Korrosionsverhalten in verschiedenen Säuren. Besonders hervorzuheben ist die gute Beständigkeit gegen Chlorid-Spannungsrißkorrosion.Wie VEW A 963 wird auch VEW A 905 großtechnisch als Blech, Stabstahl, Schmiedestück und Nahtlosrohr hergestellt.
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