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  • Chemistry  (504)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 2 (1993), S. 171-175 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 2 (1993), S. 75-106 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The design of extrusion lines deals with the extruder and the die as well as with the down stream equipment, especially the cooling section. This paper aids in the design of these three units, regarding different aspects. The scale-up of extruders by means of the model theory is demonstrated in its practical use with examples. Emphasis is laid on the design of series of single screw extruders with mixing-pins and of twin-screw extruders (scale-up). There the adequate selection of the necessary restrictions for the compilation of model laws is discussed in detail. This is an approach to the safe machine design on the basis of model theory.The present standard of the calculation of threedimensional flow patterns in extrusion dies by means of the finite-element-method (FEM) is shown in order to point out how design-aids for the die-designer are derived from these calculations. After a discussion of application-criteria for the FEM, examples will show possible ways of using FEM-results.For the shaping of Y-branches in twin-screw machines the FEM-results point to possible plate-out areas and to their avoidance by geometrical modifications. The calculation of a die for a T-profile helps to design the passages between entry and exit sections. Finally, flow coefficients for the calculation of pressure losses in different cross sections are given.The design and optimization of cooling sections, as it can be done with the aid of the actual cooling models, is shown for some important extrusion processes. Heat transfer coefficients for practical cases (film-sheet-, pipe- and parison extrusion) are presented. Examples show, how diagrams for the design and optimization of cooling sections (for example the reduction of internal stresses and warping) can be made, using a microcomputer.
    Additional Material: 31 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 3 (1983), S. 197-203 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Additional Material: 21 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 3 (1983), S. 213-221 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: In single screw melt extruders there is a continuous flow of polymer melt over the flight clearance. The melt flowing over the clearance experiences high shear rate and may also experience very high temperature. This, in turn, may affect polymer structure and properties. The melt that flows over the flight is mixed with the bulk of the melt flowing in the channel. In the extrudate there are fluid elements that have not passed over the flights and there are fluid elements that passed over the flight once, twice, or many times. In this paper, a theoretical model is proposed for calculating the number of pass distribution function of a melt stream emerging from a melt extruder.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 3 (1983), S. 205-211 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The mechanics of energy conversion in an extruder is extremely complex. Generally speaking, the extrusion process utilizes two sources of energy: (1) mechanical energy which is imparted to the polymer by the rotational motion of the screw, and (2) thermal energy (heat) which flows between the polymer and surfaces of the barrel by conduction and convection.Modern extrusion processes are relatively wasteful of energy because, operating at high speeds, they often dissipate an excess of mechanical energy as heat that has to be transferred (by barrel cooling) from the polymer and discharged into the surroundings as waste energy.Until recently, little attention was paid to this wasted energy. Energy was relatively cheap and the process economics favored was high speed operation despite its associated energy wastage. With the recent introduction of gear pumps for extruders, low pressure extruder operation becomes a possibility. It appears that this type of operation may result in a significant improvement in energy efficiency.This paper attempts to analyze the energy economy of extrusion processes and to understand where and how energy savings can result from the use of gear pumps. It shows that if substantial energy savings are to result from the use of gear pumps, these savings will come about not because of increased pumping efficiencies, but because low pressure operation has made a fundamental change in the energy conversion processes occurring in the screw.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 3 (1983), S. 223-231 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: High molecular weight polymers have become well established as packaging or container materials. Unlike metallic and ceramic barriers, however, polymer films are known for their semipermeable nature; that is, they permit small gaseous and vapor molecules to migrate through their atomic/molecular structures. Since the intrusion of oxygen/water from the surrounding air or the loss of water/carbon dioxide from a packaged product can be detrimental to the shelf life of the product, the steady state transmission rate of a polymer film has become an important property characteristic of polymers to be used for packaging.An attempt has been made in this study to review the transmission data of commercially available polymer films. The three molecular species O2, CO2, and H2O were of particular interest. Since these permeability data vary over five orders of magnitude, several log-log plots were constructed in order to assist decision making in film selections. Data for 34 different polymers are given. The effects of order or crystallinity, the presence of plasticizers, and the effects of laminated layering are discernible. It is the latter modification (laminating) that possesses demonstrable potential for improving the barrier properties of polymer films used for packaging purposes.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    Advances in Polymer Technology 3 (1983), S. 281-287 
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) has been produced for about 20 years; however, the commerical potential of the product was not fully appreciated until Union Carbide developed its vapor phase process. Now many companies throughout the world are producing LLDPE. The following paper reviews some of the different processes to produce LLDPE.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-6679
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The outlook for rubber processing equipment in the 1980s is good, as is the future for rubber compounding processing. A significant number of changes have occurred in the rubber industry and, subsequently, in rubber processing equipment. Compound processing machinery reflects the awareness of energy costs and the need for conservation. There is a slow but growing trend toward continuous processing. The elastomers are more readily available in particle form. The machinery reflects a far greater understanding of the nature of the material to be processed, and the need for the processing equipment to be able to operate with this in mind. The processing machinery of the 1980s is not necessarily bigger, but it is better because it is smarter. The old magic and mysterious art of rubber compounding and compound processing is being completely replaced by machinery systems that scientifically process rubber compounds.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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