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  • Chemistry  (408,373)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0975
    Keywords: Key words Otolith ; Chemistry ; ICP-MS ; Stock discrimination ; Epinephelus striatus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  We examined the utility of otolith minor and trace element chemistry, assayed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), as a means of delineating population structure in the Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We characterized the elemental composition of otoliths collected in 1993 from three locations in Exuma Sound, Bahamas and from Glover Reef, Belize in 1995. A single location in Exuma Sound was sampled in 1994 to test temporal variability in otolith composition. Five elements (Ca, Zn, Sr, Ba and Pb) were routinely detected, at levels significantly above background, by solution-based ICP-MS. Results from analysis of variance of elemental data, expressed as a ratio to Ca, indicated that there were no significant differences among the Exuma locations for any element, but significant variability was found between Glover Reef and the pooled Exuma localities for Zn/Ca, Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios. Significant inter-annual differences at one Exuma Sound location was restricted to Ba/Ca ratios. Discriminant function analysis correctly classified 86% and 95% of the Belize and pooled Exuma sites, respectively. Otoliths from Belize were characterized by low Zn/Ca and high Ba/Ca and Pb/Ca ratios compared to otoliths from fish collected in Exuma Sound. Although differences in Ba levels may be related to upwelling at Glover Reef, more data are needed to definitely link otolith composition with regional differences in water chemistry.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0517
    Keywords: Key words Metrology ; Comparisons ; Chemistry ; Standards
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract  After stressing the importance in the modern world of accurate and reproducible measurements, the actions taken by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures to set up, together with the regional metrology organizations, a series of key comparisons are described. They are the technical foundation of a mutual recognition of national measurement standards arrangement prepared in conjunction with the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). This arrangement also includes the recognition of calibration and measurement certificates issued by these institutes. Then, the consequences of this arrangement for trade are described. The case of chemical analysis is illustrated by the application of the Kyoto protocol on the reduction of greenhouse gases. But the global workload to be taken up by the International Committee of Weights and Measures, its Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance and the NMIs is huge.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Galactic cosmic rays ; Solar proton events ; Particle precipitation ; Chemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An assessment is made of the relative contribution of certain classes of energetic particle precipitation to the chemical composition of the middle atmosphere with emphasis placed on the production of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen species and their subsequent role in the catalytic removal of ozone. Galactic cosmic radiation is an important source of odd nitrogen in the lower stratosphere but since the peak energy deposition occurs below the region where catalytic removal of O3 is most effective, it is questionable whether this mechanism is important in the overall terrestrial ozone budget. The precipitation of energetic solar protons can periodically produce dramatic enhancement in upper stratospheric NO. The long residence time of NO in this region of the atmosphere, where catalytic interaction with O3 is also most effective, mandates that this mechanism be included in future modelling of the global distribution of O3. Throughout the mesosphere the precipitation of energetic electrons from the outer radiation belt (60°≲Λ≲70°) can sporadically act as a major local source of odd hydrogen and odd nitrogen leading to observable O3 depletion. Future satellite studies should be directed at simultaneously measuring the precipitation flux and the concomitant atmosphere modification, and these results should be employed to develop more sophisticated models of this important coupling.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 23 (1977), S. 13-17 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Dental calculus ; Glycopeptide ; Chemistry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary A method is described for the isolation and purification of a sulphated glycopeptide from human supragingival calculus. The compound was isolated after using EDTA treatment, 2 M CaCl2 extraction, proteolytic digestion, ethanol precipitation, and finally purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. It migrated as a single component on cellulose acetate electrophoresis, and chemical and infrared spectral analysis showed the presence of covalently attached sulphate groups. The sulphated glycopeptide was distinguished from being a sulphated glycosaminoglycan.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
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    Calcified tissue international 13 (1973), S. 259-270 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Fluorapatite ; Exchange ; Chemistry ; Crystallography
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Un échantillon minéral provenant de Burgess, Canada s'est révélé être un speciment exceptionnellement pur de fluoroapatite après analyse chimique et cristallographique. La composition globale de cet échantillon est la suivante: $$(Ca^2 )9.98(Sr^{2 + } ,Na^ + ,K^ + ,Mg^{2 + } )0.02(PO_4^{3 - } )5.98(HCO_3^ - ,CO_3^{2 - } )0.02(F^ - )2$$ . L'axe cristallographique C est de 6.865 A et l'axe a de 9.374 A. Des expériences d'échanges réalisés à l'aide de45Ca,32P et18F indiquent la présence de gros cristallites de surface spécifique de l'ordre de 1 m2/g. Il apparait que l'interprétation physique des processus d'échange ne nécessite pas l'existence de compartiments séparés, avec chacun son propre facteur cinétique, les échanges semblent être simplement liés à un changement exponentiel dans l'énergie libre de la réaction. Pour la réaction suivante: $$(Ca)_5 (PO_4 )_3 OH solide + (F^ - ) \rightleftarrows (Ca)_5 (PO_4 )_3 F solide + (OH^ - )$$ , la constante thermodynamique de 101.26 a été calculée, suggérant que le fluorapatite se forme toujours aux dépens de l'hydroxyapatite dans des conditions physiologiques. Cette transformation se continue en abaissant le pH.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Eine Mineralprobe aus Burgess, Kanada, erwies sich nach chemischer und kristallographischer Analyse als außergewöhnlich reines Fluorapatit. Die Gesamtzusammensetzung entspricht: $$(Ca^{2 + } )_{9,98} (Sr^{2 + } ,Na^ + ,K^ + ,Mg^{2 + } )_{0,02} (PO_4^{3 - } )_{5,98} (HCO_3^ - ,CO_3^{2 - } )_{0,02} (F^ - )_2 $$ . Die kristallographische c-Achse wurde bestimmt und ergab 6,865 Å, und die a-Achse ergab 9,374 Å. Austauschwerte, welche durch Anwendung von45Ca,32P und18F erhalten wurden, deuteten auf große Kristalliten mit einer spezifischen Oberfläche von ca. 1 m2/g. Die Befunde deuten darauf hin, daß für die physikalische Erklärung des Austauschvorganges keine separaten Kompartimente mit eigenen kinetischen Faktoren nötig sind, sondern daß der Austausch mit dem exponentiellen Wechsel in der freien Energie der Reaktion in einfacher Beziehung steht. Für die Reaktion $$(Ca)_5 (PO_4 )_3 OH_{in fester Form} + (F^ - ) \rightleftarrows (Ca)_5 (PO_4 )_3 F_{in fester Form} + (OH^ - )$$ wurde als thermodynamische Konstante 101,26 errechnet, was darauf deutet, daß unter physiologischen Bedingungen immer Fluorapatit auf Kosten von Hydroxyapatit entsteht. Diese Umwandlung wird erhöht, wenn das pH erniedrigt wird.
    Notes: Abstract A mineral specimen from Burgess, Canada, proved upon chemical and crystallographic analyses to be an exceptionally pure sample of fluorapatite. The over-all composition corresponds to $$(Ca^{2 + } )_{9.98} (Sr^{2 + } ,Na^ + ,K^ + ,Mg^{2 + } )_{0.02} (PO_4^{3 - } )_{5.98} (HCO_3^ - ,CO_3^{2 - } )_{0.02} (F^ - )_2 $$ . The crystallographic c-axis was determined to be 6.865 Å, and the a-axis 9.374 A. Exchange data obtained by employing45Ca,32P, and18F indicate the presence of large crystallites with a specific surface of the order of 1 m2/g. It is indicated that the physical interpretation of the exchange process does not require the existence of separate departments, each with its own kinetic factor, but that the exchange may be simply related to the exponential change in the free energy of the reaction. For the reaction $$(Ca)_5 (PO_4 )_3 OH_{solid} + (F^ - ) \rightleftarrows (Ca)_5 (PO_4 )_3 F_{solid} + (OH^ - )$$ the thermodynamic constant has been calculated to be 101.26, implying that fluorapatite always will form at the expense of hydroxyapatite under physiologic conditions. This transformation will be furthered by lowering the pH.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Bacterial amphophile ; Purification ; Chemistry ; Resorption ; Ca influx ; Cyclic AMP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Summary The bone resorptive factor and amphipathic antigen (AcA) previously identified by us in preparations fromActinomyces viscosus have been partially purified, characterized chemically, and compared. They elute at the same location on chromatography with Ac 22. The fatty acid composition of AcA and the bone resorptive factor is the same. Some differences in carbohydrate composition are observed. TheActinomyces factor does not affect calcium influx or cyclic AMP in isolated bone cells. Therefore it is concluded that AcA stimulates resorption either by gaining entrance into bone cells or by way of a yet undetermined second messenger.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Skin ; Calcinosis ; Keratin ; Chemistry ; X-ray diffraction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des études histologiques antérieures ont montré que le follicle pileux est particulièrement susceptible de se calcifier, lorsque la peau de rats hypercalcémiques est lésée. Des analyses chimiques et par diffraction aux rayons X du follicule ont confirmé ce résultat. — En se basant sur l'augmentation du calcium et du phosphore, les calcifications débutent dans le tissue folliculaire 6–12 h après une blessure d'intensité moyenne de la peau de rats, ayant reçu du dihydrotachysterol (DHT), et 24–48 h après une blessure similaire chez des rats non injectés. Les diagrammes de diffraction aux rayons X sont diffus. Trois heures après la blessure, on note une augmentation du calcium du tissu folliculaire qui ne semble pas en rapport avec le DHT qui traduit probablement une liaison de calcium plutôt qu'un dépot minéral.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Frühere histologische Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, daß der Haarfollikel besonders anfällig für Verkalkungen ist, wenn die Haut von hypercalcämischen Ratten verletzt wird. Dieses Resultat wurde nun durch direkte chemische Bestimmungen und Röntgendiffraktions-analysen von Follikelgewebe bestätigt. Aufgrund der erhöhten Calcium- und Phosphatwerte kann gesagt werden, daß nach einer leichten Quetschung der Haut von Ratten, die mit Dihydrotachysterol (DHT) behandelt wurden, im Haarfollikelgewebe nach 6–12 Std Mineral-ablagerungen stattfanden, wogegen Kontrollratten mit der gleichen leichten Hautverletzung diese Ablagerungen erst nach 24–48 Std zeigten. Röntgendiffraktionsanalysen ergaben ein diffuses Apatit-Muster. Innerhalb 3 Std nach der Verletzung wurde ein Anstieg des Calcium-gehaltes im Follikelgewebe beobachtet, der nicht im Zusammenhang mit der DHT-Behandlung stand, also nicht eine Mineralablagerung, sondern eher eine Bindung von Calcium widerspiegelte.
    Notes: Abstract Previous histological investigations have shown that the hair follicle is particularly susceptible to mineralization when the skin of hypercalcaemic rats is injured. Direct chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses of follicle tissue have now confirmed this finding. As judged by increases in both calcium and phosphorus, mineral deposits began to form in hair follicle tissue 6–12 h after a mild crush injury to the skin of rats dosed with dihydrotachysterol (DHT), and 24–48 h after a similar injury to the skin of non-dosed rats. X-ray diffraction gave a diffuse apatite pattern. Within 3 h of injury there was a rise in the calcium content of follicle tissue which was not related to DHT-dosing and which was probably a reflection of calcium binding rather than mineral deposition.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Calcium ; Phosphate ; Solubility ; Computer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Un programme d'ordinateur a été mis au point pour calculer les activités ioniques du calcium et l'orthophosphate dans un grand nombre de solutions. Dans le cas de solutions synthétiques, les calculs sont vérifiés en comparant les valeurs de pH, obtenues par ordinateur, avec celles observées expérimentalement. Des essais de ce type, avec des solutions possèdant des concentrations de calcium et d'orthophosphate trouvées dans les liquides biologiques et à des valeurs de pH variant de 3.00 à 10.00, indiquent que le programme est adapté pour des applications biologiques. Le programme n'est pas effectif pour des solutions, dans les lesquelles l'ion bromure est la source principale de la force ionique, sans doute, par manque d'équation étendue de Debye-Hückel dans ces circonstances. Aucune formation de complexe de phosphate de sodium n'a été notée à des concentrations biologiques normales.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Es wurde ein Computer-Programm ausgearbeitet, um die Ionenaktivitäten von Calcium und Orthophosphat in einer breiten Varietät von Lösungen zu berechnen. Die Berechnungen wurden bei synthetischen Lösungen durch Vergleiche zwischen den auf diese Weise errechneten pH-Werten und den experimentell gefundenen kontrolliert. Diese Art Kontrollen mit Calcium-und Orthophosphatkonzentrationen, wie sie in biologischen Flüssigkeiten gefunden werden, und mit pH-Werten zwischen 3,0 und 10,0 wies darauf hin, daß das Programm für biologische Anwendungen geeignet war. Das Programm konnte nicht benützt werden für solche Lösungen, bei welchen hauptsächlich das Bromidion zur Einstellung der Ionenstärke verwendet wurde, vermutlich weil die erweiterte Debye-Hückel-Gleichung unter diesen Umständen nicht anwendbar ist. Die Bildung eines Natriumphosphat-Komplexes unter normalen biologischen Konzentrationen konnte nicht nachgewiesen werden.
    Notes: Abstract A computer program has been designed to calculate the ionic activities of calcium and orthophosphate in a wide variety of solutions. In the case of synthetic solutions the calculations were checked by comparing the computed pH values with those observed experimentally. Tests of this type with solutions having the concentrations of calcium and orthophosphate found in biological fluids and with pH values ranging from pH 3.0–10.0 indicated that the program was suitable for biological applications. The program was not effective for solutions in which the bromide ion was a principal source of ionic strength probably because of the failure of the extended Debye-Hückel equation under those circumstances. No evidence for the formation of any sodium phosphate complex at normal biological concentrations could be found.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Morphology ; Glycosaminoglycans ; Cartilage ; Chemistry ; Audioradiography ; Healing
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Une perte de substance ostéo-cartilagineuse, de taille limitée et identique, est réalisée chez le lapin adulte et la cicatrisation est étudiée histologiquement et par autoradiographie après marquagein vitro au35S-sulfate. Une analyse microchimique est pratiquée pour le contenu et la composition en glycosaminoglycanes. 1. Entre la première semaine et la 4ème et 8ème semaine, un tissu conjonctif non-métachromatique se différencie en un cartilage métachromatique et la quantité de sulfate de chondroitine augmente de façon significative aux dépens des glycoprotéines. 2. Jusqu'à la 4ème semaine, la perte de substance est surtout comblée par de l'os néoformé: après cette période, la région est comblée au delà de la limite de la surface articulaire. 3. Le cartilage hyalin, ressemblant morphologiquement, autoradiographiquement et chimiquement au cartilage articulaire, en ce qui concerne la distribution en glycosaminoglycanes, constitute la surface articulaire de la perte de substance comblée dans un tiers des cas après 8 semaines. Le cartilage hyalin s'observe surtout dans les régions où de l'os néoformé a comblé la cavité médullaire. 4. Dans les deux tiers des cas, après 8 semaines, les surfaces articulaires des zones comblées comportent, non seulement du cartilage, mais aussi du tissu fibreux se formant essentiellement sur les parties latérales et dans les régions, où la cavité médullaire, fliant face, à la surface articulaire, n'a pas été comblée par du tissue osseux. La fraction glycoprotéique augmente par rapport à la fraction chondroitine sulfate. 5. Dans la majorité des cas, après 20 semaines, le cartilage néoformé subit des phénomènes dégénératifs, qui se traduisent par une diminution en chondroitine sulfate.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Bei ausgewachsenen Kaninchen wurde ein begrenzter, standardisierter, osteochondraler Defekt hervorgerufen, und das regenerierte Gewebe wurde histologisch und autoradiographisch durch Markierung in vitro mit35S-Sulfat und durch mikrochemische Bestimmung des Gehaltes und der Zusammensetzung der Glykosaminglykane untersucht. Die wichtigsten Befunde waren: 1. Zwischen 1 und 4–8 Wochen veränderte sich nichtmetachromatisches Bindegewebe zu metachromatisch gefärbtem Knorpel, und der Anteil an Chondroitin-Sulfat nahm auf Kosten der Glykoproteine signifikant zu. 2. Bis zu 4 Wochen war der Hauptteil des defekten Gebietes mit neugebildetem Knochen gefüllt; nach dieser Zeit lag dieser Bezirk oberhalb der Verknöcherungsgrenze in Richtung der Gelenkoberfläche. 3. Nach 8 Wochen bestand die Gelenkoberfläche des defekten Gebietes in einem Drittel der Fälle aus hyalinem Knorpel, der morphologisch, autoradiographisch und chemisch dem Gelenkknorpel in Bezug auf die Verteilung von Glykosaminoglykanen glich. Hyaliner Knorpel wurde hauptsächlich an Stellen beobachtet, wo neugebildeter Knochen die Markhöhle geschlossen hatte. 3. Nach 8 Wochen bestand die Gelenkoberfläche des defekten Gebietes in einem Drittel der Fälle aus hyalinem Knorpel, der morphologisch, autoradiographisch und chemisch dem Gelenkknorpel in Bezug auf die Verteilung von Glykosaminoglykanen glich. Hyaliner Knorpel wurde hauptsächlich an Stellen beobachtet, wo neugebildeter Knochen die Markhöhle geschlossen hatte. 4. Nach 8 Wochen bestanden Teile der Gelenkoberfläche des Defektes in zwei Dritteln der Fälle nicht nur aus Knorpel, sondern auch aus fibrösem Gewebe, welches vor allem in den seitlichen Teilen des Defektes und an Stellen vorlag, wo die Markhöhle gegenüber der Gelenkoberfläche nicht mit Knochengewebe verschlossen worden war. Die Glykoproteinfraktion nahm im Vergleich zur Chondroitin-Sulfatfraktion zu. 5. Nach 20 Wochen zeigten sich in den meisten Fällen bei neugebildetem Knorpel degenerative Veränderungen, welche durch eine gewisse Abnahme des Chondroitin-Sulfats wiedergegeben wurden.
    Notes: Abstract A limited, standardized osteochondral defect was created in adult rabbits and the regenerated tissue was examined histologically and autoradiographically after labellingin vitro with35S-sulphate, and microchemically for its content and composition of glycosaminoglycans. The principal findings were: 1. Between 1 week and 4 to 8 weeks, non-metachromatic connective tissue differentiated to metachromatically stained cartilage, and the proportion of the chondroitin sulphate increased significantly at the expense of the glycoproteins. 2. Up to 4 weeks, the major part of the defect area was filled with newly formed bone; after this time, the area lay above the level of the “tidemark”, towards the articular surface. 3. Hyaline cartilage with morphological, autoradiographic and chemical resemblance to the articular cartilage in terms of the distribution of glycosaminoglycans constituted the articular surface of the defect area in one-third of the cases at observation times after 8 weeks. Hyaline cartilage was observed mainly in areas where newly formed bone had closed the medullary cavity. 4. In two-thirds of the cases, after 8 weeks, parts of the articular surface of the defect consisted not only of cartilage but also of fibrous tissue, occurring mainly in the lateral parts of the defect and in areas where the medullary cavity facing the articular surface had not been sealed by bone tissue. The glycoprotein fraction increased relative to the chondroitin sulphate fraction. 5. In most cases after 20 weeks, newly-formed cartilage underwent degenerative changes, which were reflected in some reduction of the chondroitin sulphate.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: EHDP ; Bone ; Chemistry ; Serum ; Rabbits
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The effects of disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonate (EHDP) on bone and serum chemistry were investigated in adult rabbits. EHDP was administered by subcutaneous injection at doses of 0.25, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg body weight/day for of 28 days. Blood samples were obtained weekly from each rabbit and serum levels of total calcium, ionized calcium, inorganic phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were determined. At the end of the treatment period all rabbits were sacrificed and the tibiae removed for chemical analysis and histological evaluation. The effect of EHDP administration on serum chemistry was both dose- and time-related. The highest of the three doses, 10 mg/kg/day, resulted in a time-related decrease in total serum calcium. This dose also caused a rapid but transient reduction in serum ionized calcium. The effect of EHDP on serum inorganic phosphate was biphasic. Administration of 2.5 mg/kg/day resulted in a time-related elevation in this parameter, whereas the 10 mg/kg/day dose resulted in a time-related hypophosphatemic response. There were no significant drug-related changes in tibial fat-free dry weight, ash weight, total calcium or total phosphorus values. However, administration of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg/day EHDP resulted in increased osteoid tissue as measured histologically. These results are compared with data from other EHDP studies, and discussed in relation to the maturity and growth-state of the experimental animals.
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