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  • Chemical Engineering  (1,794)
  • 1970 - 1974  (1,794)
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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 294-300 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A continuous thermal parametric pumping system is compared to a conventional adsorption system with thermal regeneration. Well-defined mathematical models are used to find the operating conditions which maximize the separation and throughput of each system.Under practical operating conditions, the model equations indicate parametric pumping can process a larger volume feed stream at equivalent separations than conventional adsorption for the solute/adsorbent system studied. At equilibrium conditions equivalent results are obtained but parametric pumping requires more energy.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The design of vapor recovery processes requires very accurate vapor-liquid equilibria data. In this work the problem is attacked from both an experimental and a correlational viewpoint, and the methane-n-hexane system is chosen for study. A predictive model for vapor-liquid equilibrium aids in the interpretation of the experimental measurements, and data acquired in this study agree closely with the theoretical predictions. Maximum deviation between calculated and experimental equilibrium ratios (yi/xi) is 8.5% with average absolute deviations of 3% for n-hexane and 0.1% for methane. Several procedures are described for checking the accuracy of experimental VLE data when a heavy vapor is present at low concentrations in the gas phase. Several potential sources of experimental error are also identified and discussed.
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  • 3
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 368-375 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: There is an equivalence between stiff and singularly perturbed systems of ordinary differential equations. This feature is exploited in this paper by numerically employing recent singular perturbation methods to attack troublesome boundary layer stage of the solution in which some variables have very short response times. The numerical method affords a means of essentially determining the thickness of this boundary layer. The algorithm is capable of high stability and accuracy for the commonly occurring stiff system, whether or not it is in singularly perturbed form. Application to a singularly perturbed reaction system and a highly stiff reactor system not in singularly perturbed form demonstrate the effectiveness and utility of this approach.
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  • 4
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 618-619 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 5
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 611-615 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 6
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 619-620 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 7
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 622-623 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 8
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 623-623 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Part II of this review is concerned with the mathematical analysis of facilitated transport. An exposition is given of the most generally useful techniques for obtaining asymptotic or approximate solutions to one-dimensional carrier-mediated diffusion in membranes, involving multiple permeant and carrier species which undergo one or more chemical reactions. Primary emphasis is devoted to the limiting regimes of weakly-perturbed membranes (small driving forces) and slow or fast reactions (small or large Damkohler numbers). Many of the results appearing in the literature are unified and extended, and a systematic procedure for using these to estimate membrane performance is put forth. Finally, some areas for further work are identified.
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  • 10
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 646-653 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In a previous paper hydrodynamic conditions, interfacial areas and mass transfer coefficients in a packed tower with concurrent downward flows were measured. In this work a packed column with concurrent upward flow has been examined.The results show greater area and liquid mass transfer coefficient values than with downward flow. In concurrent upward flow the increase of power consumption was less than proportional to the mass transfer increase.The experimental data show some factors which affect the increase of area and of the liquid mass transfer coefficient.Energy correlations of mass transfer parameters were proposed.
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  • 11
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 660-664 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Two-phase solids-in-air flow was experimentally studied in a once through flexible wall tube flow system using nominal 25μm and 50μm spherical glass beads. For turbulent flow through the Silastic tube without a damping medium behind the wall, cases of true drag reduction and no drag reduction were found. The rate of addition of the glass beads was seen to be a correlatable parameter for both the flexible and rigid wall systems. A mechanistic model is proposed for interpretation of the results. It was qualitatively observed that the presence of an electrostatic charge on the particles at low relative humidities had a pronounced effect on increasing the drag in the system.
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  • 12
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 670-678 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Diffusion rates were measured at 25°C and 1 atm by a steady state method in pellets of nonporous nickel oxide particles in order to determine the effects of sintering and chemical reduction. Sintering led to a striking decrease in diffusion flux; tortuosities above 100 were found for highly sintered (porosity 0.03) pellets. Reduction caused a sharp increase in diffusion rate when the original pellet was highly sintered. For an originally unsintered pellet the diffusion rate decreased with extent of reduction.These phenomena were explained quantitatively by using: (1) the random pore model to predict tortuosity factors for an unsintered, unreduced pellet, and (2) the extent of pore interconnections and the fractional reduction to treat the effects of sintering and reduction. In this way an approximate, predictive equation was derived which contained no arbitrary parameters and which required for application only data on porosity and extent of chemical reduction.
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  • 13
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 678-687 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Growth and dissolution rates of nickel sulfate α-hexahydrate were measured as functions of the concentration driving force in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed crystallizer for the temperature range 35° to 50°C and the crystal size range 0.5 to 4.0 mm.Dissolution rates at a given temperature and crystal size were first order in the concentration driving force. Growth rates were about one-quarter of dissolution rates and depended on a higher exponent (around 1.3) of the concentration driving force. This exponent was not significantly affected by variations in crystal size, but decreased as temperature increased. The apparent variation of growth rate itself with crystal size at constant temperature was slight. Growth rates were found to be insensitive to solids concentration.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The optimal temperature policy which will maximize the final catalyst activity that gives a fixed conversion of reactants in a specified time for batch operation was determined by the formulation of a calculus of variations problem following the technique of Szepé and Levenspiel (1968). The method was applied to the general case of first-order reversible reactions which occur in the presence of catalysts deactivating by an irreversible first-order mechanism. To reduce trial and error estimations and circumvent numerical instabilities, the two-point boundary value variational problem was reformulated in terms of an initial value problem with a parameter which includes the initial value of temperature. This initial value problem was solved by a regression technique.These techniques were applied to the industrially important enzymatic reaction of the isomerization of D-glucose to D-fructose catalyzed by glucose isomerase in solution. Kinetic and deactivation data are available for this endothermic reaction which obeys first-order reversible kinetics and for the isomerase denaturation which appears to be first order. The optimal temperature operational policy as stated above maximized final enzyme activity such that 10% less denaturation of glucose isomerase occurred when compared to final isomerase activity yielding the same conversion for the same reaction time when the reactor is operated at the optimal isothermal temperature.
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  • 15
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    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 728-734 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Adsorption rate data were measured at 25° to 75°C for benzaldehyde on polymeric, porous Amberlite particles. When the benzaldehyde is dissolved in methanol, the adsorption capacity is very low. Data for methanol solutions gave reasonable values for intraparticle diffusivities based solely on transport in the pore volume. For adsorption from aqueous solution (where the adsorption capacity was high), the contribution of surface diffusion was important.From the two sets of data it was possible to evaluate average effective surface diffusivities by using a model based upon both pore-volume and surface transport. These values were about 10-8 cm2/s and were sufficiently sensitive to temperature to give activation energies of 7 to 9 k cal/mole.For the more hydrophobic Amberlite, XAD-4, surface transport was many times as large as pore-volume diffusion.
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  • 16
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 735-742 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: By means of infrared internal reflection spectroscopy we measured the time dependence of the surface concentration of stearic acid molecules over a well defined region of the surface. The molecules were diffusing into this region from a source comprising a compressed monolayer or bulk crystalline material outside the field of view. By these measurements in conjunction with solutions to the diffusion equations we determined the diffusion coefficient Ds of stearic acid on the (0001) plane of α-alumina. We also determined the dependence of Ds upon the amount of water coadsorbed on the surface. When the surface was free of reversibly adsorbed water, Ds had a value of about 2 × 10-7 cm2/s. As the surface coverage of coadsorbed water increased to about a monolayer Ds increased to a maximum value of about 4 × 10-5 cm2/s. With further additions of surface water Ds then decreased and became less than 10-8 cm2/s at coverages slightly less than about two monolayers. In the region of its maximum value the temperature dependence of Ds indicated an activation energy for the diffusion process of about 26 kcal/mole.
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  • 17
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 751-761 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The desalination performance of a tubular reverse osmosis membrane was studied under well-defined hydrodynamic conditions. Experimental measurements were made of local mass transfer rates in a 2.31-cm I.D. × 81-cm long horizontal cellulose acetate membrane at 16 locations along the tube length for both laminar and turbulent flows. The membrane's intrinsic permeability to water and NaCl was found to vary significantly along its productive length.The experiments suggest that the dominant transport mechanisms in laminar flow are forced convection in the upstream region and combined free and forced convection in the downstream region, beyond a distance of approximately 16 tube diameters, for all feed concentrations studied. The Deissler analogy applies well to the turbulent region for Re ≧ 104; however, it increasingly overpredicts performance as Re is decreased below 104.The experimental results of other workers are interpreted successfully in terms of the mechanisms deduced in the present work.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is suggested that chromatographic separations can be performed very effectively in the absence of a stationary sorbent phase by using small diameter tubes or tube bundles for the column and segregating the solutes radially into the slower moving fluid near the tube walls. Separation is achieved by differential solute retardation whenever the degree of segregation is different for the various solute species present.An approximate analysis and preliminary experimental studies demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrafiltration through the tube wall to achieve solute separation. Preliminary estimates based on our ultrafiltration analysis also show that segregation by electromigration is very promising for electrically charged solutes.
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  • 19
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 785-795 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The flow of polymer melts in cylindrical, annular, and slit dies has been examined. Large temperature rises at the outer surface of the extrudate were measured with an infrared pyrometer. Calculations show that severe radial temperature gradients exist in these flow geometries under conditions similar to those encontered in polymer processing and in viscometry measurements. A common method of estimating the average temperature rise from the total mechanical energy input seriously underestimates the maximum temperature rise.A numerical solution of the flow and energy equations models the flow in all three geometries. A very simple Nusselt number correlation allowed an estimate of the temperature rises possible if heat transfer with the die wall occurrs. Good agreement was obtained between predicted and infrared measured melt surface temperature rises. The pressure drop gives only an indication that nonisothermal flow is occuring and is not sensitive enough to distinguish the type of heat transfer boundary condition present.The mathematical model presented could be helpful in die design and in process modeling, allowing the designer to obtain some knowledge of the kind of flow situations which might be encountered.
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  • 20
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 803-814 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Adiabatic Joule-Thomson coefficients are presented for argon and two argon-carbon dioxide mixtures (46.4% CO2 and 75.4% CO2) in the single-phase part of the range: -120 < T <110°C, P < 190 atm. Results are analyzed in terms of the virial equation (including terms to account for the quadrupole moment of CO2), several forms of the Redlich-Kwong equation, and the Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation. In general, the best results were obtained by the Redlich-Kwong equation as modified by Barner et al. (1966).
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  • 21
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 817-818 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 22
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 823-824 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 23
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 827-828 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 24
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 829-829 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The industrially important reaction of phenol and acetone to give bisphenol A and water was catalyzed by beads of ion-exchange resin (sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer) suspended in a batch reactor containing liquid reactants. The data are summarized by a rate equation accounting for reaction in the resin competitively swollen by water, acetone, phenol, and methylcyclohexane.The catalyst is modeled as two phases, each in equilibrium with the liquid: a polar phase consisting of sulfonic acid groups with hydrogeb-nonded acetone and water and a nonpolar phase consisting of the hydrocarbon matrix swollen with organic components. The rate determining step is the electrophilic attack on phenol in the nonpolar phase by a carbonium ion intermediate in the polar phase.Resin cross-linked with 4% divinylbenzene initially catalyzed acetone conversion at a rate of 5 × 10-4 (moles)/(equiv of acid groups s) at 364°K. An 8% cross-linked resin was much less active because the rigid polymer matrix was only slightly swollen by phenol, but a more highly cross-linked resin with macropores and accessible internal surface catalyzed reaction almost as rapidly as the 4% cross-linked catalyst.
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  • 26
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1037-1040 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 28
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1041-1066 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A survey is given of co-rotational rheological equations suitable for describing the flow of viscoelastic liquids such as polymer solutions and melts. Comparisons are given with experimental data and molecular theories. An introduction to kinematical descriptions in co-rotating reference frames is included.
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  • 29
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1079-1086 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One challenging problem in liquid-gas, interfacial phenomena is the prediction of the size and location of a flowing meniscus because it involves surfaces which are highly curved. The paper presents one aspect of this problem. A numerical method is presented for predicting the dynamic meniscus profiles-specifically these distorted considerably by flow. The geometry considered to provide those free (liquid-gas) surfaces is coating of a moving sheet by upward withdrawal from a finite bath. The predicted profiles agree with data taken with a glycerine-water solution and with viscous oils.The method predicts the three parameters (coating thickness and two others) which are the minimum number of parameters necessary to describe the dynamic-meniscus profiles for this geometry. The numerical method is iterative, it simultaneously predicts the flow field in the bath, and it is based on the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and appropriate boundary conditions. The interfacial boundary condition used for iteration is the normal stress condition which is composed of pressure, surface tension, and viscous terms.
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  • 30
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1097-1104 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Low-pressure solubilities of methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, iso-butane, and hydrogen have been measured in n-hexadecane, n-eicosane, squalane, bicyclohexyl, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, diphenylmethane, and 1-methylnaphthalene over the temperature range 25° to 200°C. The accuracy of these measurements is better than 1%. The data for the hydrocarbon gases have been correlated with a generalized configurational entropy and a van Laar-type interaction parameter. The entropic component of that parameter is related to the free volume of the solvent as suggested by Flory's equation-of-state theory of fluid mixtures. The accuracy of the correlation is about ±15%.
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  • 31
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1118-1124 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The performance of a continuous, vertical, dense-bed column crystallizer is evaluated by comparing experimental and predicted column temperature profiles and by examining product composition at various operating conditions. The separation obtained in an eutectic system is modeled by a component conservation equation coupled with a nonadiabatic energy balance equation. The critical parameter in the analysis is the axial dispersion coefficient and the measured values of this coefficient were similar in magnitude to those reported for ice washing columns. The dense-bed column apparently achieves nearly ideal plug flow.
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  • 32
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1219-1221 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 33
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1227-1228 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 34
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1224-1226 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 35
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1228-1231 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 1232-1233 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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  • 38
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974) 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 60-67 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The objective of this work was to study the undesirable oscillating behavior which can develop on distillation trays. This takes the form of violent lateral movements of the gas/liquid mixture, causing premature flooding and reduced efficiency. It has been demonstrated that entrainment is significantly increased by the presence of oscillations. A simple predictive method by which a designer may evaluate the likelihood of oscillations occurring is proposed. It is concluded that columns of greater than about 1.0 m diam. operating at atmospheric pressure or above are unlikely to oscillate. However, reduced pressure columns of greater diameter may oscillate. A very simple mesh baffle system which completely prevents oscillations developing is described.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 103-108 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental data are presented for five systems, each consisting of water, an alcohol (methanol or ethanol), and an inorganic salt dissolved to saturation in the boiling liquid phase. The data confirm and extend knowledge of recently discovered anomalies to the general theory of salt effect in vapor-liquid equilibrium. A partial accounting for the observed anomalies is attempted based on recent advances in the understanding of the structural nature of alcohol-water mixtures.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 88-93 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Rates were measured at 25°C for the adsorption of benzaldehyde from an aqueous solution into particles of Amberlite, or activated carbon, suspended in the solution. The data for monodisperse, Amberlite particles (mean pore radius = 50Å) showed significant intraparticle diffusion resistance over the entire particle size range 200 to 900 microns (diameter). Intraparticle diffusivities were larger (tortuosity factor ∼ 0.35) than expected from pore-volume diffusion in the liquid-filled pores.For the activated carbon particles (of the same size) which have a bidisperse pore-volume distribution (pore diameter range 15 to 104Å), the effect of intraparticle diffusion was much less important and separation of the external diffusion resistance to obtain a precise value of the intraparticle diffusivity was not possible. However, De values are larger than for Amberlite and much greater than the molecular diffusivity of benzaldehyde in liquid-filled pores. The unusually high intraparticle diffusivity seems most likely to be due to interpreting dynamic adsorption data for a bidisperse porous particle with a theory involving but one diffusivity.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 205-206 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 207-207 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 206-206 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974) 
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Notes: Holographic techniques employing a pulse ruby laser were used to measure the size and velocity of drops for air-water two-phase critical flow at quality levels above 0.95. The use of a large numerical aperture in the holographic recording system permitted diffraction limited resolution of the droplets. The measured slip ratio a long withthe observation that a very significant portion of the liquid phase was concentrated near the boundary layer at the exit plane indicates that a separated flow model describing two-phase critical flow would represent the actual conditions to a better degree than the other models.
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    Notes: The effect of changing platinum crystallite size from 2.7 to 15.5 nm on the specific catalytic activity in NO reduction by NH3, with and without added O2, was studied over alumina supported platinum catalysts between 423 and 473°K. In the NO-NH3 system both specific catalytic activity and selectivity to N2 are independent of crystallite size. In the NO-O2-NH3 system the specific catalytic activity of the 15.5 nm crystallites is about six times that of the 2.7 nm crystallites. The NO reduction rate shows dependence on NO to the first power and on NH3 to the one-half power.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 238-244 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A calculation procedure for multicomponent distillation has been developed that is directly applicable to design problems. It is based on successive approximation methods with adjustment of the number of equilibrium stages in each column section between iterations to meet given reflux flow and feed stage composition conditions while maintaining specified key component recoveries. This procedure has been applied to a number of representative distillation design problems. It converges readily to proper column designs from initial estimates based on a noniterative stage-to-stage calculation. Moreover, the procedure is markedly superior in computational efficiency to solution of design problems by repeated application of operating calculations to assumed column configurations.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 228-238 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Most models for fixed bed adsorbers have used either the homogeneoussolid or pore diffusion model for the pellets. When the adsorption isotherm is linear, the two models can lead to identical breakthrough curves. The conditions for this equivalence are presented here. It is shown that one of the bulk flow factors that was included in the formulation of one pore diffusion model will be significant only for feedstreams containing a relatively high concentration of adsorbate. The prosity factor of the pore model is shown to be very important, especially as the porosity decreases. The importance of the two diffusional models with respect to the predicted breakthrough curves is demonstrated. For comparable beds, it is shown that the breakthrough curve based on the homogeneous model is delayed with respect to that based on the pore model at early times, regardless of the shape of the isotherm. Finally, the various possible solutions for an irreverisble isotherm are reviewed for each of the models, and a solution is presented for the general case of a pore model with an outside film resistance.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 245-250 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Using the Karman-Pohlhausen integral method, an analysis has been made for turbulent flow on a rotating hemispherical electrode mounted on an inert support rod of equal radius. The resulting friction coefficient is then substituted into the Chilton-Colburn relation to give a rate equation for mass transfer at high Schmidt numbers. Experiments with a diffusion-controlled electrolytic system over a range of Sc from 910 to 6,300 confirm the validity of the theory for Re > 40,000. A comparison with the results of previous heat and mass transfer measurements reveals that the turbulent flow on the present geometry is different from that on a rotating sphere and on a hemispherical electrode mounted on a support rod of larger radius.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 250-255 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new objective function for estimating parameters in differential equations, based upon a weighted least squares criterion for the residuals of these equations, is presented. The use of Lobatto quadrature in combination with the collocation technique reduces the original problem to one of minimizing a simple algebraic expression with respect to a series of unknowns. The method can be applied to different types of differential equations as shwon by a series of examples and leads to very good estimates. It becomes particularly useful for systems which are linear in the parameters and for which all states are observable since in this case the usual convergence problem is avoided. The gain in computation time when compared with classical methods is significant.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 256-263 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Steady state multiplicity in exothermic adiabatic reaction systems has previously been demonstrated by a number of authors. Specifically, the work of Root and Schmitz proved the existence of multiple steady states in a loop reactor, but difficulty was encountered in controlling such a reaction system at the intermediate steady states.Since a close analogy can be demonstrated between loop reactors and controlled cycled reactors (CCTR), it appeared reasonable to attempt to achieve steady state multiplicity in a CCTR. When the chemical reaction of Root and Schmitz was carried out in a CCTR, it proved relatively easy to obtain experimental values of intermediate steady statesf and to control the reactor at these conditions by means of a simple on-off temperature controller.This work suggests that chemical systems displaying steady state multiplicity can be experimentally investigated in a CCTR and that cyclic operation may be the best way for controlling such reactions systems.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 273-279 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Polydisperse submicronic lead chloride aerosols were generated from melt phase under dry and humid conditions. The particle size and concentration increased with increasing generation temperature. The aerosol particles generated in a dry atmosphere were pherical while the aerosol particles generated in humid atmosphere showed development of crystallinity at the surface.Coagulation rates of the aerosol generated in a dry atmosphere were measured at room temperature under different humidities. The coagulation rates were in goodagreement with Smoluchowski's theory, modified to include the effect of polydisperisity and were unaffected by humidity. The interaction of lead chloride particles with the water vapor was characterized by a process of adsorption a the interfce. The coagulated aerosol exhibited a chain structure for humidities lower than 70% and, at higher humidities, compact agglomeration was observed.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 263-272 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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    Notes: A new correlation of second virial coefficients of both polar and nonpolar systems is presented. It uses the Pitzer-Curl correlation for nonpolar compounds, but in a modified form. The second virial coefficient of nonhydrogen bonding compounds (ketones, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile, ethers) and weakly hydrogen bonding compounds (phenol) is fitted satisfactorily with only one additional parameter per compound, which is shown to be a strong function of the reduced dipole moment. Two parameters are needed for hydrogen bonding compounds (alcohols, water), but for alcohols, one parameter has been kept constant and the other expressed as a function of the reduced dipole moment. The extension of the correlation to mixtures is satisfactory, direct, and involves only one coefficient per binary.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 279-284 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transient sorption rates of allene and methylacetylene in synthetic faujasite (Linde 13X) powder and self-bonded pellets are studied in a constant-volume, constant-pressure system at three temperatures. The intracrystalline diffusion coefficients are found to be in the order of 10-11 cm2/s and the activation energy for diffusion is 4.0 kcal/g-mole.A simple bipore distribution model for transient diffusion in macropores and micropores is presented. It agrees well with the experimental data and quantitatively predicts the macropore diffusion coefficients. The flow in the macropores is found to be in the Knudsen flow regime.
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    Notes: A new measuring technique involving concurrent chemical absorption of carbon dioxide and desorption of oxygen is developed for simultaneously evaluating the liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient kL and the specific area a of sparingly-soluble gas dispersions in stirred tanks containing an aqueous solution of inorganic electrolytes. The method ensures that kL and a are evaluated under consistent hydrodynamic conditions.Results from three different nonviscous systems show that at high agitation power, such that the average bubble diameter is between 0.2 and 2 mm, kL decreases with increasing power input and is dependent on the bubble diameter. This behavior is in contrast to the results of others at lower agitation levels or in nonelectrolytic liquids, but in general agreement with previous results for bubbles of the same diameter range produced in viscous, nonelectrolytic solutions.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 306-310 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A thermal continuous parametric pump for separating multicomponent mixtures was experimentally investigated using the model system tolueneaniline-n-heptane on silica gel adsorbent. A simple method for predicting separations is presented and is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The method, based on an equilibrium theory, invokes the assumption that a multicomponent mixture contains a series of pseudo binary systems. Each binary system consists of one of the solutes as one component and the common inert solvent as the other component.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 320-325 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Methods are developed for the computer-aided synthesis of sequences of valve operations to reach complex operation goals with safety. Given dangerous events which must not occur and operation goals to be reached, sequences of valve openings and closings are formed rapidly for industrially significant problems.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 311-319 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Since operation error is a major factor contributing to industrial disaster, it is necessary to develop safety interlock systems which prevent modes of operation that are known to be dangerous. It is not possible to foresee all the disruptions that might occur and, for this reason, an a priori analysis of safety problems is incomplete. At each step in operation the state of the process must be updated if hazardous conditions are to be avoided. To a large extent this is a problem in logic which can be handled rapidly by the computer using the methods developed here.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 301-306 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An analysis of the velocity profile and pressure drop relationships for turbulent flow of fiber suspensions through smooth tubes was evaluated experimentally over a range of flow rates, tube sizes, fiber concentrations, and fiber geometries (aspect ratios). This work shows that drag reduction in these systems, in marked contrast to that in viscoelastic polymeric fluids, involves processes in the turbulent core of the velocity field. As a result the drag reduction achieved is independent of the scale of the system.The implications of these results with respect to rates of heat and mass transport are considered in a preliminary way. The measurement of such transport rates, and of the turbulent velocity profiles in dilute suspensions, is seen to be of mechanistic interest.
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    Notes: Based on new experimental data presented for the boiling point elevation of natural sea water solutions, smoothed tabular values are presented for boiling point elevation (BPE), osmotic coefficient, water activity, osmotic pressure, and minimum separation energy to 200°C and 12% sea salt.The concentration of sodium chloride solutions having the same water activities as sea salt solutions is also presented.Rigorous thermodynamics and the equations for strong electrolytes by Bromley (1973) were used for the correlation together with previously obtained heat capacity and enthalpy data and equations. A simplified equation is presented for boiling point elevation.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 335-339 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is suggested that the productivity of ultra-filtration and reverse osmosis can be increased substantially where the desired product is concentrated in the diffusional boundary layer adjacent to the membrane. This increase can be achieved by removing product preferentially from the boundary-layer region. The possible concentration increase and yield of such a skimming process are predicted to be very significant for the constant-property approximation and stagnation flow considered in this exploratory paper.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 340-346 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fully developed forced-convective heat transfer to viscous flow of a constant-property Newtonian fluid in curved circular tubes was studied theoretically for a uniform-wall-temperature boundary condition. Numerical solutions were obtained over a wide range of Prandtl numbers for Dean numbers as large as 1,200. The curvature ratio (radius of bend/inside radius of tube) was included as an independent parameter and, for values as small as 10, was found to have a negligible effect on the peripherally averaged Nusselt number. The average Nusselt numbers for the important Prandtl number range of 0.7 to 5 were correlated by NNu = 0.836 NDe0.5 NPr0.1 for NDe ≥ 80.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 353-356 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Measurements of iodine dissolution rates in supercritical carbon dioxide and other supercritical fluids show when the iodine flux in these systems can be made fast. For these systems, the dominant factor in achieving this fast flux is the solubility; increases in diffusion coefficient have less effect. An approximate guide for estimating these fluxes is developed and compared with the experimental results.
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    Notes: Liquid composition-total pressure and liquid composition-liquid density data for the carbon dioxide-ethane system were measured at -31.7°, -17.8°, -3.9°, and 10.0°C (-25°, 0°, 25°, and 50°F ± 0.02°F), from 0 to 80 mole % CO2 at 10°C and 0 to 100% CO2 for the other isotherms. The Benedict-Webb-Rubin equation of state with a modified A0 mixing rule was used to correlate the composition-pressure data, with deviations in predicted pressures of only 0.8% average and 2% maximum. Vapor-liquid equilibrium compositions and component K values y/x were then predicted for this minimum boiling azeotrope system from 10° down to -56.7°C (50° to -70°F).
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 362-368 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An analysis is presented which enables detailed description of solute concentration profiles for free-flow elecrophoresis in planar slit flows. This analysis is suitable for either batch or continuous operation with arbitrary variation of solute input rate, and it requires no seriously restrictive assumptions other than constancy of equilibrium and transport properties. It permits for the first time a systematic investigation of the effects of governing parameters and can be used to optimize operating conditions. The most significant finding is that Taylor dispersion, ignored in previous analyses, markedly reduces separability.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 376-387 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper outlines the concepts for a systematic approach to the safety analysis of chemical processing systems. A procedure for automatically generating fault trees is presented. The fault trees describe nearly all the failure modes for the system under analysis. The fault tree generation procedure uses information on (1) the description of the system (detailed flowsheet), (2) physical and chemical properties of materials in and around the system, and (3) unit models which describe the behavior of the units within the system and which are assembled to describe the behavior of the complete system. The unit models are connected to form an information flow structure for the complete processing system. Unit failure models are also defined for common chemical units. By systematically defining hazard states and searching the information flow structure for the system, it is possible to generate fault trees for the complete process. An analysis of the fault trees can reveal the important failure modes for the process.
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    AIChE Journal 20 (1974), S. 388-390 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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