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  • Chemical Engineering  (17,979)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the framework of the evaluation of the three-dimensional, finite volume code ADREAHF, a computational simulation of the Thorney Island Dense Gas Trial No. 8 is performed. A one-equation turbulence closure scheme is adopted in this first approach. The results of the simulation are compared with the experimental data in the form of concentration-time histories. The model predictions are satisfactory, with a tendency of the model to underestimate the maximum gas concentration and the time of its occurrence. The differences between model predictions and experimental data can be reduced by taking into account concentration fluctuations, utilization of finer numerical grids and improvements of the turbulence modelling.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A drive to achieve manufacturing excellence is underway within the speciality chemicals industry. Components of this objective include improving capabilities for efficient technical and market information processes; responding quickly to changes in market demands and to the introduction of new product; reducing the time-consuming and costly overhead associated with documentation, recordkeeping, and safety; and coordinating the activities of operating and management personnel, scientists and engineers, and management information specialists to create a fully integrated smoothly functioning organization [1].
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The loss of containment (LOC) for Pressure Liquefied Gas (PLG) vessels under accidential fire engulfment is shown to be very complex. The LOC depends upon: (i) the extent and intesity of external heating, (ii) the pressure relief device (PRD) operation and flare (if contents flammable), (iii) the fluid and fill level, (iv) the construction of the vessel, and (v) the thermohydraulic history of the commodity prior to failure.The Simple experiments described here shows that there exists a new type of more powerful failure than the BLEVE. This even we call a BLCBE, a Boiling Liquid Compressed Bubble Explosion. A hypothesis is advanced to explain this mode of failure which is supported by an initial series of small scale experiments involving Argon, water, R11, and R123.A comprehensive test program to determine the details of the BLCBE and BLEVE failure modes is indicated along with work to determine methods of protection.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 76-82 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In conjunction with the production of a new film entitled BLEVE Update®2, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) sponsored a series of six Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) tests using 1.893 m3 propane tanks. The purpose of the experiments was to obtain film footage of BLEVEs and to compile test data and documentation that might help to better define failure mechanisms and other important physical processes involved. The experiments included tests with simulated pool fires and tests with liquid and gaseous flame jets. The fill level of each tank was varied for the six experiments. The tanks were instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers in both the liquid and vapor space. This paper describes the test setup and summarizes the data measurements obtained.
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  • 5
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 104-105 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The American Petroleum Institute strongly supports process safety management (PSM). However, as we begin to implement OSHA's new PSM rule, and as we face EPA's Risk Management Plan Rulemaking pursuant to the Clean Air Act Amendments, we have several concerns. These involve: (1) resource management; (2) quality of effort; (3) managing regulatory change; (4) enforcement; (5) prospect of duplicative or inconsistent regulations; and (6) role of the Chemical Safety Board. An enormous challenge lies ahead for industry, consultants and contractors, as well as OSHA and EPA, in implementing process safety management. Working together, we will be successful.
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  • 6
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 83-91 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Of all the analytical tools available to the process safety professional, perhaps the most critical are those used to identify and analyze process hazards. Such tools have been collectively referred to as “Hazard Evaluation Procedures” by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) and as techniques for “Process Hazard Analysis” (PHA) by the Occupational, Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).One of the best known PHA tools, the Hazard and Operability or HAZOP study, emerged over two decades ago in ICI, U.K., and its use has since spread over six continents. In 1979, ARCO Chemical piloted its first HAZOP and since then, HAZOPs have become the backbone of the company's Process Hazards Review procedure.Repeated use of the HAZOP technique since 1979 has resulted in an affirmation that to be “successful”, much more was needed than simply executing the HAZOP technique. Success is dependent upon the preparation and planning effort that precedes the HAZOP, and the follow-up activity that ensures implementation of study findings. Unlike the study technique, little information was available in 1979 on how to design the framework, or management system, that was needed to support the use of this tool.The purpose of this paper is shift focus from executing the HAZOP technique to that framework, by presenting insights that have accumulated from using the technique in ARCO Chemical, especially during the period 1979 through 1986. These were the formative years, during which the company's advancement on the learning curve was most noticeable. These were the years that convinced the company that successful HAZOP studies do not just happen; success comes from building the right management system. Success must be defined and assured at each step in a Process Hazards Review procedure, of which executing the HAZOP technique is only one.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The chemical industry today is in transition, with increasing emphasis on total quality control along with needs to meet ever more stringent levels of health, safety, and environmental management. Fortunately, these needs are being met by tremendous strides in process monitoring and control instrumentation. Microprocessor-based process sensors, programmable electronic systems (PESs), and precision throttling valves now improve the implementation and maintenance of complex process control strategies, with operators interacting with the process through modern human/machine interfaces. Sophisticated graphical displays and powerful control algorithms aid the operators in their work. Many formerly manual tasks are being automated. Some sources of human error are reduced by the use of PES controls, but these systems introduce new and different potential sources of error, leading to new implementation considerations.Many of the hazard identification and risk assessment methodologies used today are based on techniques that assume independence of failures. However, possibilities for common mode failures and covert faults are greatly increased in process control systems that make use of PES technology. PES controls are interconnected through data highways; use common hardware and software functions in many modules; and may depend on central supervisory control computers for some critical control data. Today, achieving plant safety is a systems issue, requiring an integrated analysis with inputs from each of the disciplines involved in design and operation, as well as the guidance of safety and risk specialists. This article presents a systematic, semi-quantitative approach to total system safety design in which modern programmable electronic monitoring and control systems are integrated with traditional administrative and engineering controls to achieve acceptable levels of operating risk. The philosophy presented is a reflection of the consensus of a group of experienced control system specialists from some ten leading companies.
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  • 8
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 106-110 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The petroleum refining industry has been performing hazard analyses in process units to some extent since at least 1988 and in earnest since 1990, when the American Petroleum Institute published Recommended Practice No. 750, “Process Hazards Management.” The Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOPS) is the most widely used of the various analysis techniques available, in part because this highly structured technique is easy to teach and well-suited for continuous process units.The results of HAZOPS fall into two broad categories, tangible and intangible. The tangible results are obvious: worksheets which detail event scanarios for potential process deviations, and action items, or recommendations for changes to process equipment of procedures. In many cases, the action items address issues which have a purely economic impact or which are procedural in nature, involving little or no capital investment.The intangible results or products of a HAZOPS include: the training and knowledge gained by the team participants, and better utilization of limited capital funds resulting from more detailed up-front engineering when a HAZOPS is required prior to funding. An aggressive HAZOPS schedule also aids facilities in planning resources for process safety information updates where the necessary P&ID's or PFD's are out-of-date.This paper details the experiences with HAZOPS at Chevron U.S.A. Products Company's Pascagoula, Mississippi Refinery. The manner in which HAZOPS are performed, the types of results obtained, and the benefits of the HAZOPS program will be discussed.
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  • 9
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 111-114 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The most common cause for runaway polymerizations of glacial acrylic acid (AA) is overheating of the material due to mechanical failure, human error, or nearby fire. Under such circumstances, dissolved oxygen (D.O) is consumed more rapidly than the AA stabilizer, p-methoxyphenol (MEHQ), and “oxygen stravation” is the immediate cause of polymerization onset. From the known kinetics of oxygen disappearance, it is possible to calculate D.O. concentrations during a heatup period and to predict the time remaining until that concentration becomes unacceptably low. This information provides guidance for the timely activation of an emergency response shortstop inhibitor injection system so that there is enough time for adequate mixing of the inhibitor, phenothiazine (PTZ), to prevent or mitigate the polymerization.
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  • 10
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 115-117 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 11
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 118-122 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The ADREA-HF code is a 3-D time dependent finite volume code for vapour cloud dispersion under development at NCSR “DEMOKRITOS” and JRC ISPRA. ADREA-HF is especially suitable for complex terrain and is also designed to treat liquid phase change in the vapour cloud (two phase releases). The fluid dynamics and thermodynamics are described by the mixture mass, momentum and internal energy equations whereas mass conservation of the heavy fluid component is fulfilled through a separate mass transport equation. The system is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium, but the liquid and gas phases can have different velocitites. The present work falls within the framework of the code validation for two phase relases. The experiment selected for comparision was the DT1 Run from the Desert Tortoise ammonia spill series of experiments. The results are given in terms of ammonia concentrations as well as temperatures. The comparison with the experimental data is discussed.
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  • 12
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Faced with the lack of historical data or access to specific plant maintenance records, the analyst can estimate failure rates for plant-specific vessels and pipes using the Thomas model. The model uses available information regarding the vessel shape, size, and thickness along with the construction details of the vessel or pipe (number and type of welds, etc.). Maintenance and inspection history of the equipment can also be factored into the model, allowing the model to reflect the analyst's state of knowledge about the impact of these observed praictices on predicted failure rates. The model was orginally developed using a large database for predicting vessel and pipe failures for the nuclear industry but can be equally applicable to the chemical industry. Any additional information about plant-specific failures can be easily factored into the analysis by using Bayesian techniques.In the present application, the Thomas model was used to predict failure rates of process vessels storing corrosive and hazardous chemicals. Engineering judgement was used in making the model reflect the corrosive properties of the stored chemicals and the effectiveness of the inspection programs. Finally, the results of the model were compared with available industry wide data sources and were found to be reasonable.
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  • 14
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 7-7 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 15
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 9-9 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 16
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 8-8 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 17
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 133-136 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: There are unresolved problems with contractor injuries that operators must confront.
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  • 18
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 137-142 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Audit systems for quantifying the quality of safety management are discussed, as well as lessons learned from European R&D in developing correction factor for good management practices in quantified risk analysis. It also describes how internal process safety audits help quantify strengths and weaknesses.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper discusses the procedure developed for simulating water sprays at a reduced scale (i.e., physical modeling) and, more impotantly, compares the model spray characterstics to corresponding full scale spray characteristics. An ideal physically modeled spray would simulate actual spray momentum, water volume flow rate, air entrainment rate, discharge water pressure, spray angle, spray pattern and drop size distribution. Full scale measurements or estimates of air discharge velocity, momentum, entrainment rate and drop size distributions were obtained for two types of sprays at two discharge pressures, various spray angles and at a 500 gpm flow rate. Physical modeling was conducted to simulate the full scale nozzles at a 1:50 scale reduction using commercially available spray nozzles. Measurements of spray momentum, volume flow rate and air entrainment rate were obtined for a subset of spray angles used in the full scale testing. Particle size distribution was not measured since it was considered of secondary importance in the simulation. The results of the study showed that model and full scale momentum, volume flow rate and air entrainment rates compared well with corresponding full scale observations (i.e., within 10 percent for momentum, 20 percent for volume flow rate and 25 percent for air entrainment rate). The results indicate that the method used for simulating water sprays is valid and that the model sprays adequately simulate the mechanical action of full scale sprays on vapor clouds. The results provide evidence that physical modeling can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of water sprays as a mitigation technique.
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  • 20
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 158-165 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 21
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 151-157 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the handling of chemicals in our plants, there is always concern about the possibility of spillage. The consequences of a spill have to be carefully evaluated. Two of the main hazards are fire and emissions to the environment. Foams have proven to be very effective in blanketing a spill and in giving fire extinguishment by providing a barrier covering. This same barrier covering can also be effectively used to suppress vaporization and emissions. This paper gives the results of measurements of the vapor suppression for various chemicals using foamsm, and gives the test procedures developed. The base conditions simulated a 5.0 mph (8.05 km/hr) wind at 25°C with a 76% relative humidity, using Universal® GOLD foam from Chubb National Foam. Variables studied were chemical, foam type, foam height, relative humidity, and time. Data was obtained for chemical concentration in the vapor and relative percent vapor suppression versus time using acrylonitrile, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate, allyl chloride, propylene oxide and vinylidene chloride. Excellent vapor suppression was demonstrated for most systems with 100% vapor suppression for 2 hr for vinylidene chloride, about 95% for 2 hr for the acrylates and allyl chloride, and 90% for 2 hr for acylonitrile. Propylene oxide was suppressed to 95% for 1 hr before marked decrease.
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  • 22
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 23
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 176-180 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Sections of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 that refer to accident prevention are to be found in Title III. Two significant requirements of the CAAA in this respect relate to the responsibilities of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which has promulgated a new Process Safety Management (PSM) standard and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which at the time of writing, is developing Risk Management Program (RMP) regulations. The focus of this paper is on how the requirements of the CAAA may affect the reasons for performing a Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) or may affect the results of QRA.In order to limit the discussion, this paper focuses on HF. First, the CAAA requires that the EPA assess the hazards associated with HF: the EPA's current draft report is discussed. Second, a generic assessment of the risks associated with the use of HF is given, with emphasis on alkylation units in refineries. The principal contributors to risk will be listed. Finally, an assessment of OSHA's PSM standard 29 CFR 1910.119, the related requirements of state laws such as California's Risk Management and Prevention Program and the potential requirements of EPA's Risk Management Program will be given, including an assessment of how these requirements may influence quantitative estimates of risk.
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  • 24
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 199-202 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: On August 3, 1991, at about 12:20 pm, a deflagration occurred inside a wastewater treatment tank at the Allied-Signal Delaware Plant. The tank was being used to hold treated wastewater prior to discharge to the plant process sewer system. One minor injury occurred as a result of the deflagration. The tank sustained damage to its manway, conservation assembly, and inlet and discharge piping. The building in which the tank was located had to have relief panels and roofing replaced and required repairs to the walls where the roof girders separated from the masonry.The exact cause of the deflagration is not known. Investigation of the incident indicated that the source of the deflagration was ignition of flammable vapors in the head space of the tank. The three most likely sources of ignition each involved the presence and use of hydrogen peroxide in the process.
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  • 25
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 203-205 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: There have been instances where ignitions have occurred in oxygen enriched atmospheres in closed systems. The causes of these ignitions have been difficult if not impossible to explain by ordinary mechanisms, and even though electrostatics has been implicated, there have been no definitive mechanisms proposed which can explain the ignitions. This paper will perhaps be a step toward a satisfactory explanation by bringing another electrostatic mechanism to the attention of the loss prevention community.In an example incident, ignition occurred when oxygen was bubbling to the surface of a liquid where flammable vapors existed. It is known that bubbles breaking at a liquid surface can create an electic field in the atmosphere above the liquid. Also, in real systems, there are all sorts of surface discontinuities and things floating about so that there are sharp points where it is conceivable that corona discharge may develop, depending on the strength of the electrostatic field. In ordinary atmospheres, corona discharge is only incendive to very sensitive vapors and is considered to be non-incendive to ordinary vapors, but on the other hand, it is well known that the minimum ignition energy requirements for ordinary vapors in pure oxygen atmospheres are some 100 times less than those in normal atmospheres. Such a reduction in energy requirements could likewise be expected for corona discharge. One can then speculate that such a self induced corona discharge could have been capable of igniting the flammable vapors which were in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. The experimental and theoretical pros and cons of this mechanism are discussed in the paper with no definitive conclusion being reached.
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    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 222-231 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The experimental and theoretical research on vapor cloud explosions, performed at TNO Prins Maurits Laboratory, is discussed within the framework of the simple model for explosion blast prediction, the Multi-Energy Method. This research is focused on the influence of obstacles and confinement present in the vapor cloud on flame acceleration and overpressure production. This led to the development of the CFD code for reactive mixtures REAGAS3D. The research is mainly performed within multi-sponsor projects and is carried out in collaboration with other laboratories from various European countries.Further, the effect of vapor cloud explosions on constructions are discussed. The 3Dcode ABAQUS is used to quantify these effects.
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  • 27
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. F5 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 28
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 114-120 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A standard method for evaluating the fire performance of pipe insulation is not available in North America. In Europe, however, the regional standards organization NORDTEST has had available for several years now a method specifically designed for this purpose. The NORDTEST NT FIRE 036 test is a full-scale room fire test where the pipe insulation is installed along the ceiling and subjected to a gas burner fire. Four classes of performance (Class I through III, plus unrated) are used to evaluate the products. In the present work, 4, different pipe insulation products, representing the most common materials used for this purpose, have been examined according to this test. The results showed that rock wool insulation gave the best fire performance, with phenolic foam being in the least safe rated category. Synthetic foam rubber and polyethylene insulation products gave intermediate performance.
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  • 29
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 128-138 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper addresses a number of accident case histories in pressurized ethylene systems comprising heaters, driers, purifiers and High Pressure Polyethylene product receivers. Also covered are compression-heating accidents in pipelines and compressors, and decomposition via external fire exposure of piping.Several companies contributed accounts; few of these have been reported in the open literature. The probable event scenarios are discussed with reference to safety information that in many cases postdates the contemporary loss reports. While there may be room for some debate over probable causes, insight can be gained simply by reading the accounts.The objective is to provide real examples of design and operational oversights contributing to preventable losses. As usual in Loss Prevention case histories, an important lesson is that years of uneventful operation often pass before a problem is recognized, and that subsequent investigation often uncovers the potential for other failure routes and possibly worse outcomes.
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 146-152 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The design of high integrity interlock systems involves more than the simple specification of high-quality components. Redundancy of components is often used as a strategy to improve the reliability of an interlock system. This paper uses quantitative reliability engineering methods to explore the relationships of component reliability, time between proof tests, redundancy and common cause failures to overall system performance. The paper demonstrates that addition to redundancy often, but not always, improves the reliability of an interlock system. The paper also demonstrates how common cause failures can greatly reduce the chances of an interlock system performing when needed.
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 159-170 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Quantum's Deer Park Ethylene Plant was built with a philosophy of risk management which was based on loss prevention. To this end, the plant incorporates a number of concepts designed to effect early detection containment and dispersion of hydrocarbon releases. Features include a gas detection grid system, water curtain in the furnace/boiler area with open path IR detector, extensive deluge systems on equipment and in pipe racks, remote television monitoring, large portable monitors (as well as the more standard plant safety systems such as hydrants), fixed monitors, and foam generators.The systems described are monitored by means of a graphic panel and alarm console located in the Central Control Room. This centralized facility enables the operator to monitor and activate the proper subsystems and provide a visual interface between the operator and the physical plant.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Thionyl chlorie is routinely shipped in galvanized drums. The compatibility of this drum for the storage of a mixture of thionyl chloride and ethyl acetate was investigated by thermochemical studies, condensed phase and off gas analysis. The chemical incompatibility of the ternary mixtures (thionyl chloride/ethyl acetate/zinc) resulted in an exothermic runaway reaction with extensive gas evolution, which has not been heretofore described in the literature. Storage in a drum was simulated in a half-liter, high pressure containment vessel. Adiabatic calorimeter data are also presented to illustrate the mass transfer process involved in the induction period and the runaway reaction characteristics. Ethyl acetate is inert with thionyl chloride. However, in the presence of metallic zinc, an equimolar amount of each component are consumed by the reaction to generate ethyl chloride (g), sulfur dioxide (g), acetyl chloride (l) and sulfur (s). It was also found that the rate of gas evolution is highly dependent on the molar ratio of the thionyl chloride or ethyl acetate to metallic zinc in the solution. Based on the semi-batch process experiments, the reaction mechanism is proposed. A potential hazard indication based on the oxygen balance for the reaction mixture is also discussed. Data on similar ternary mixtures are presented.
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 139-145 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper reports results from a U.S. Bureau of Mines study of the flammability of various metals and other elemental dusts dispersed in air. The data are useful for evaluating the explosion hazards in the minerals and metals processing industries. The dusts studied included boron, carbon, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, sulfur, titanium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, niobium, molybdenum, tin, hafnium, tantalum, tungsten, and lead. The dusts were chosen to cover a wide range of physical properties - from the more volatile materials such as magnesium, sulfur, and zinc to the highly “refractory” materials such as carbon, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, and tungsten. These flammability studies were conducted in the Bureau of Mines 20-L explosibility test chamber, using strong pyrotechnic ignitors. The parameters measured included the minimum explosible concentrations, maximum explosion pressures, and maximum rates of pressure rise. All of the elemental dusts ignited and burned as air-dispersed dust clouds except the nickel, copper, molybdenum, and lead. In general, the dusts with the highest explosion pressures and rates of pressure rise were also those with the highest calculated, adiabatic flame temperatures and/or the ones that vaporized most easily, but this was not true in all cases. The effect of particle size on flammability was studied for the aluminum and iron dusts. The minimum explosible concentrations were relatively independent of particle size below 30 μm, but the highest explosion pressures and rates of pressure rise were found at the finest sizes tested.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 171-175 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new means for modeling blast effects of all types of reactants including vapor cloud explosions has been developed and verified against empirical data. Methods such as the TNT-equivalency model are still being widely used to simulate vapor cloud explosions and blast effects. However, many limitations exist in the accuracy of those models. Use of such flawed models could potentially provide for deleterious results from an explosion such as loss of property and/or life as well as the ramifications of liability. This should be of extreme interest to not only the chemical process industry, but also to insurerers who must understand the nature of the risk that is being under written, government safety compliance organizations and the legal profession which must either defend or litigate liability cases resulting from explosions.The computer code, CMBWAT, models the physics of detonations and deflagrations occurring in the reaction zone and the resulting shock wave which attenuates with distance. It computes static and stagnation pressure, velocity and the shock wave impulse delivered to target surfaces within the flow field, all as a function of time, both for the incident and reflected waves. Data resulting from these analyses are used to examine the structural response of the object due to the resulting shock and to determine proper risk mitigation solutions to minimize damage effects. The model can also examine the physics of solid or vapor reactants including nuclear explosions.Systems Integration Corporation has developed this code which was independently verified against actual test data by Sandia National Laboratory. The Nuclear Regulatory Agency is currently revising its REG GUIDE 131 as a result of this work.
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 177-182 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An approach is presented to accurately design emergency relief systems for even the most complex chemical reactions. Two examples illustrate how large differences in relief requirements can result if small, but important, aspects of the calorimetry data are overlooked. Although both simple and rigorous kinetic models may seem to predict calorimetry data reasonably well, these examples demonstrate the importance of well-designed experiments, optimization algorithms, rigorous kinetic modeling, correct physical properties, and dynamic simulations.The first example shows how the inclusion of a subtle equilibrium reaction in the kinetic model will allow venting of an intermediate species, decreasing the reactant available for the highly exothermic irreversible reaction. The second example emphasizes the importance of a rigorous model for the decomposition of a large molecule where bond cleavage can occur between repetitive groups.This example takes advantage of the tempering effect of intermediate decomposition products which are accounted forwith the rigorous model.
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 183-189 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The dust explosibility characteristics of Lycopodium, Cornstarch, Pittsburgh Bituminous Coal and Calcium Sterate were measured in a 1 m3 spherical explosion chamber at ambient pressures, ambient temperatures and at three different turbulence levels. Explosibility parameters measured were the maximum pressure, maximum pressure rate of rise and the initial pressure rate of rise. Propane explosibility and Hybrid explosibility (Cornstarch in the presence of propane) were also measured. For the hybrid system, the lower limits of explosibility and the effect of low propane concentrations on the explosibility of optimum Cornstarch concentrations were investigated. Finally, a relationship between maximum pressure rate of rise and initial pressure rate of rise was sought in order to lay a foundation for explosion suppression and explosion venting engineering methodologies.
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    Process Safety Progress 13 (1994), S. 190-201 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The VDI Guideline 3673 “Pressure Release of Dust Explosions” published in June 1979 [1] describes one of the possible constructional protective measures against the effect of dust explosions and provides details on the venting area requirements of vessels and silos. Thanks to the results of extensive explosion trials conducted in the last ten years on the problems addressed above, important gaps in our knowledge have been filled and new findings gained which have made a revision of the above guidline necessary. The contents of the new version are reported and attention drawn to modifications compared with the first version.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 258-261 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Process Safety Management (PSM) programs are expected to reduce the probability and severity of hazardous incidents. This paper presents a real life incident that occurred in a plan before a PSM program was put in place. A detailed description of the incident is provided with appropriate discussions of noncompliance with the PSM rule. Finally, the paper provides a theoretical scenario where a fully operational PSM program would have prevented the incident. The case history and discussion provided in this paper also reinforces the concept of maintaining process and equipment integrity through multiple barriers of safety. A fully operational PSM program represents such a multiple barrier safety systems.The incident occurred in a high temperature boiler in a process plant. The incident was caused by a sequence of four occurrences that combined to cause the boiler to lose water level and have serious internal and tube damage. The problem was not detected until a mechanic who was going to work on the feed pump realized that there was flames coming out of the boiler stack. The mechanic told the operator about the problem and the boiler was manually tripped. The boiler feedwater pump was not blocked in until 30 minutes after the incident was over. If this pump was started during or directly after the incident, the addition of boiler feedwater to the over-heated boiler would have caused an explosion. At the time the incident was reported there were 8-10 employees in the area of the boilers.
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 247-257 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Current guidelines for sizing of vents in dust explosions deal with panel inertia effects either by suggesting that the issue be approached experimentally on a case-by-case basis (VDI 3673) or by recommending a maximum mass per unit area (NFPA 68). This empirical approach to the problem is surprising, given that this aspect of explosion venting should be easily amenable to analytical treatment. From this assessment, an analysis of vent panel dynamics was carried out based on a simplified explosion model, which has also been used to develop a generalized vent sizing correlation. The main result of the analysis is the identification of a dimensionless parameter which fully characterizes the effects associated with the inertia of the panel. This inertia parameter includes: the reactivity of the mixture; the volume of the enclosure; the mass of the vent per unit area; the number of equal panels on the vented volume; and a panel shape factor. The analysis has quanitified the intuitive expectation that the mass per unit area of the panel is not a property that should be considered in isolation, and that panel inertia effects are more important the more reactive the mixture and the smaller the volume. The predictions from the model have been validated by comparison with available data for both dust and gas explosions. The extensive validation work that has supported their development provides confidence that the design correlations derived from the analysis can be used reliably to account for an effect that is either neglected or referred to testing by existing guidelines.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 32-36 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recent catastrophic piping failures dramatically demonstrate the importance of implementing a piping program. Piping system leaks and ruptures have caused death and injury to plant workers, firefighters, and the public. Significant financial consequences due to unexpected downtime and property damage have plagued industry. The environment has also suffered from the release of toxic chemicals. In the chemical industry, roughly 30% of the catastrophic losses have been historically attributable to piping failures.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 6-7 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: As process safety and risk management stewards, one of the first things we should be concerned about is the reliability of our pressure relief system. The importance of pressure relief systems to the CPI and HPI is paramount. Yet this issue has frequently not received the recognition it deserves, even though it is mandated by OSHA 1910.119. Although relief systems presently in service at process facilities may have been adequate for the original plant design, it is likely that the same systems are now being exposed to higher capacities and different relief scenarios. Therefore, verification of the adequacy of these systems should have been done concurrently with operational changes. Many in industry have only recently recognized this, and are striving to incorporate such procedures in their engineering standards. Others are still uncertain how to proceed, and two obvious questions that come to mind are (1) what is the most logical way for us to verify the adequacy of an existing system?, and (2) how to we document this information systematically, in order to avoid replicating our efforts every time we make a process modification?
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 8-13 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: OSHA's Process Safety Management Standard, 29 CFR 1910.119 (September, 1992) requires that process hazard evaluations be performed on covered processes. The regulations contain 14 areas for consideration, six of which are related to the need to provide comprehensive information of all process materials, including the consequences of inadvertent mixing of process materials. This information can be made available to those involved in the manufacturing process through the development of an Interaction Matrix. A brief overview of the subject is given in a publication by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) [1].In 1996 AIChE announced the availability of the computer package CHEMPAT that provides a straight-forward method of generating and documenting the interaction matrix, or Compatibility Chart, and accompanying database. CHEMPAT was developed, and used internally, by the Dow Chemical Company since 1987. It was donated by Dow to AIChE in 1995 for use by the chemical process industries.This paper outlines the approach used to develop chemical compatibility information and briefly describes the use of CHEMPAT in that process.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 18-22 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A Simple case study of a relatively high-friction pipeline with pump-assisted gravity flow (e.g., for high viscosity fluids such as hydrocarbon products) illustrates three features which lead to unexpectedly high transient pressure surges for which conventional alleviation practices (such as extended value-closure times or surge-relief devices at the pump discharge) are ineffective: (i)the use of a value to control flow in a long or high-friction pipeline;(ii)a system with a value closure a significant distance downstream of a pump; and(iii)a system where surge protection is located a significant distance away from a control value.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 14-17 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The shipment of hazardous chemicals can pose signficant risk to the general public and the environment. These shipments are made in a variety of packages ranging from small bottles to large tank trucks, tank cars, and barges. However, the many standards and regulations that have been established to govern the design and use of these packages define what many consider to be the minimum requirements for risk management. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to more thoroughly identify the risk minimization options and verify the design of a package for a particular service. This method is based on the concept of a threat analysis of the proposed movement of the hazardous chemical. The threat analysis looks for unusual (but realistic) threats to the package that may result in the release of the hazardous chemical to the environment. Such unusual threats may include events such as: Dropping of the package during loading; Accident enroute; External fire during shipment; Random acts of vandalism (using the package as a practice target); Puncture (fork lift collision with package, rail/truck accident); Crushing (sudden starting or stopping). By conducting an engineering analysis of the strength and ability of the container to withstand these unusual events, a package design that can withstand the threats indentified in the threat analysis can be defined.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 23-24 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Large scale centralized manufacture of chemicals coupled with distribution to remote customers has obvious economic advantages derived from economy of scale. In some cases, however, concern for safety and environment can drive a search for competitive small scale processes for production of toxic chemicals at the end-use site, thereby eliminating the potential hazards associated with transportation. We will present a case study in which novel technology is being explored to develop a safe, economically attractive process with minimal waste for the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 32-36 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transportation of hazardous chemicals as raw materials or products from chemical process facilities presents special hazards. Recently, the Risk Assessment Subcommittee (RASC) of the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safetly (CCPS) completed a three-year project which has been published in a CCPS Guidelines Series entitled Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Risk Analysis. The major themes of the book are summarized in this paper and the methods and techniques used in evaluating the risk of movement of hazardous chemicals are described. Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Risk Analysis covers methods that can be used to evaluate the risk of movement of a hazardous chemical by rail, barge, truck, pipeline, and ocean-going vessel. A simple example is presented using the methods discussed in the guidelines.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 37-42 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Aiming at improving the safety of process startup, this paper integrates safety evaluation into an operational design methodology which designs operable processes by proposing alternatives, examining process operability and modifying plnat structures and operating procedures. Safety analysis is used as a key component of design evaluation for examining potential hazards during startup. Potential hazards are eliminated by modifying both plant structure and operating procedures. Issues for both methodology and implementation of a prototype in G2 are discussed. Finally, the system is applied to an industrial hydrodesulfurization process.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 25-31 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Waste-derived fuel is an environmentally friendly method for destroying waste and recovering the energy value it contains. The fuel is characterized as a mixture of various solvents with a flashpoint in the flammable range. In addition to these solvents, the waste fuel contains solid material. During the transfer of this material to storage tanks, some of the solid material is is left behind in the tankers and rail cars. The ideal solution to remove this solid material is to wash the tank vehicle with the same waste fuel. With the waste fuel being in the flammable range, there is a concern about the washing operation causing ignition due to static electricity.Scaled experiments were conducted to assess the potential for static electricity to cause ignition. Although several ignition mechanisms were assessed, this paper is concerned with the charged mist caused by the high velocity solvent jet impinging on the tank wall. Isopropyl alcohol, mixed xylenes, and mineral spirits were evaluated. An aerosol electrometer was used to measure charge per unit volume of mist sampled. Discharge generation was assessed using an analytical model which estimates electric field corresponding to measured charge density for various configurations.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 107-119 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperature of dust-air-mixtures are important technical safety indices. They are used for the assessment of the efficacy of the ignition sources expected in dust-air mixtures. First of all, the test apparatus and the determination procedures are introduced, including the significant parameters on the mentioned indices. Finally, the correlations are described between - the minimum ignition energy and the efficacy of electrostatic sparks,  - the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature and the mechanically generated sparks on the on hand, the limiting oxygen concentration and the limiting gap width of combustible dusts on the other hand,  - the minimum ignition temperature and hot steel surfaces (mechanically generated hot surfaces) or glowing particle nests surfaces.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 57-59 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The required vent area for pressure relief equipment is affected by the gas/vapor-liquid disengagement. The main objective of this work is the experimental verification of disengagement models for highly viscous fluids. The dynamic two-phase flow in the vessel is modeled with a one dimensional finite volume approach, the phase slip is taken into account with a drift flux model recommended by DIERS. The simulation shows good agreement with the experiment if the drift velocity is considered as a function of the fluid phase viscosity.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 54-56 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The flammability of titanium chips, fines, and powders is widely recognized. Titanium alloy tubing is much more difficult to ignite. However, as this paper describes, titanium tubing in heat exchangers is subject to ignition as a result of hot work operations. Explosions can follow if water is applied to the burning titanium.A fire consumed the titanium tube bundle of a steam turbine condenser during demolition work in a decommissioned power plant. The titanium fire is believed to have initiated by contact with hot steel slag from torch cutting which was being conducted to remove sections of the steel condenser casing above the tube bundle. The approximately 25 ft long bundle was essentially consumed end-to-end, including the tube sheets.A fire watch had been stationed as part of the plant's Hot Work Permit System, but the initial phase of the fire was obscured from view. Workers reported a bright yellow flame coming from inside the south end of the tube bundle. Water application on the fire by workers and the local fire department was followed by explosions within the tube bundle and discharge pipes. Fortunately, no injuries or property damages occurred from this incident.Loss lessons from this and two similar titanium heat exchanger fires are presented. The initiating conditions for these fires are discussed.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 50-53 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A complete solution to explosion protection in facilities processing combustible dusts or flammable gases often involves consideration of dust and gas conveying systems as well as primary process volumes. The pipes or ducts of the conveying system can serve as efficient means of propagating deflagrations from point to point in a plant. Subsequent to the implementation of the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 the need for explosion protection systems on pipes and ducts has increased. VOCs and vapors of hazardous chemicals are commonly incinerated. Such systems are subject to flash back failure and ignition of flammable gases in the feed pipe. Feed bins and product collectors up and down stream are at risk of ignition from sparks generated at grinding stations. Systems feeding dusty solids to furnaces are subject to flash back. This paper summarizes present day methods of detecting pipeline deflagration events and intercepting same using either fast closing valves or chemical barrier systems. Modes of deflagration detection, type and placement of barriers are discussed. The impact of the phase out of the production of halons in this area is also discussed. Examples of combustible dust and flammable gas protection systems are described.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. S3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 69-71 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The management of safety, quality and environmental issues covers a complex set of interrelated issues of concern to society and industry. Traditionally an engineering approach has been adopted for the management of risk; the development of technical standards, operations and requirements. Recently, industry leaders have begun to realize that real progress will be made only throgh effective risk management systems. This paper presents a few of the key requirements for improving risk management and risk analysis. By improving the way risk analysis is used for decision support, improving hazard identification exercise, while incorporating site specific properties of design, condition, operation and management into an analysis, it is possible to improve the value of current risk management techniques.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 61-68 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One of the many novel features on ICI's leading Concept Ammonia Plants is the use of Slam Shut Valves instead of safety relief valves for certain important relief duties. The design intention was to reduce the environmental impact of gas releases to the vent and flare systems, to allow a smaller vent and flare system to be installed, and to contain gas within the plant systems to allow rapid re-start following a plant upset giving considerable savings in flaring and plant re-start time. As the design proceeded throughout 1984-86, various implications of the design were revealed, and these are discussed in this paper. Nearly 15 years of operating and maintenance experience on the 2 plants at ICI's Severnside factory have justified the decision to use Slam Shut Valves.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 78-79 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is generally agreed that inherent safety is most effectively addressed early in chemical process development. Measurement of inherent safety, health, and environmental (SHE) characterisics of various process alternatives is important to effectively consider these charactersitics when selecting the best overall process. Several tools which can be used to measure inherent SHE characteristics of a chemical process early in development are briefly discussed.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 72-77 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In 1970, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company was formed to manage the design, costruction, operation and maintenance of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The 800 mile long pipeline carries crude oil from Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope to Port Valdez on Prince William Sound. There are 11 pump stations located along the pipeline, each of which is equipped with a crude oil relief tank. Because of the potential flammable nature of the crude oil vapors being vented from the tanks, Alyeska wanted to determine the region surrounding the tanks within which the lower flammable limit (LFL) could be exceeded. Because numerical models cannot accurately model the flow near structures, especially for dense gases (as is the case here), wind tunnel modeling was conducted to provide more accurate distance to LFL estimates. The wind tunnel model simulations were also used to judge the effect of various modeling parameters (i.e., site specific configurations, release scenarios and meteorological conditions), and to assist in possible future refinements to numerical models. Field observations were also obtained at one of the pump stations for the purpose of validating the wind tunnel modeling. The project, wind tunnel scaling methods, experimental methods, concentration measurement results, distance to LFL estimates and comparison between the field and wind tunnel observations are described in this paper.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative risk associated with two methods of storage, pressurized and refrigerated, for six different chemicals. The study was done under the technical guidance of DNV Technica who provided example methodology (Off site Pressurized Ethylene Oxide) and reviewed all the cases.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This document briefly describes the method used to estimate a screening value for the Total Failure Probability (FT) of human error events that are identified in the fault trees which describe potential liquid UF6 release accidents at two U.S. Gaseous Diffusion Plants. A discussion is provided of the assumptions, limitations, and overall logic of the FT assignment method, and a description is presented of how the method is employed. The description herein, and more completely in Burns and Turner [1], presents the screening technique* used to quantify human errors in the accident analysis portion of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 215-217 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Over three years ago the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) process safety management regulation became effective in the United States. Most of us have dealt with the initial shock of that regulation and what it entailed and, hopefully, we have things pretty much under control.Although, one hates to be the bearer of bad news, it is not yet time to relax. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has another process safety regulation in store for the ammonia industry. In fact, in some areas, the EPA's upcoming risk management programs regulation makes the OSHA regulation look like child's play.It is much better to be proactive than reactive when responding to new regulations. A proactive approach allows one to make the correct long-term decisions without the pressure of a compliance deadline.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 218-225 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To be cost-effective, a process hazards analysis effort should concentrate on those areas where there is the greatest potential for risk reduction. The level of detail of the analysis is a factor which affects the magnitude of effort and the completeness of the results. Often, there is an opportunity to combine components together to be analyzed as a single entity, in order to increase the efficiency of the hazard identification process. Issues arise concerning how to combine components, and what should be the appropriate level of detail for consideration. For instance, a level of detail shown on piping and instrumentation diagrams which has proven convenient for process design may not be sufficient or optimal for hazard identification. To resolve such issues, some guidelines are proposed for determining the appropriate level of detail. These guidelines have been deduced from the intent of the analysis and the basic assumptions of the methodology.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. O3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 229-231 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Quantitative risk assessment is comprised of the following steps: identification, consequence analysis, probability estimation, consideration of mitigation measures, as well as judging the outcome against certain criteria of tolerability. The first two steps are showing an increase in acceptability; the rest remain the center of controversy.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 170-171 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article discusses two incidents, both of which occurred after process safety reviews had taken place. Certain key recommendations were made for inherently safer operations, but the people in charge had decided not to implement them. In this connection it is important to note the three P's of safety: Safety of People, Property, and Profits. Safety hazards in a process operation can involve any or all of these. The first incident involved safety of property and profits, i.e., significant losses in both; the second primarily involved safety of profits. Both incidents occurred well before the days of OSHA and EPA.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 172-184 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Risk assessment, based on quantitative maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA), has been conducted for a chloralkali industry situated in the midst of densely populated coastal villages. The study has made use of a software package MAXimum CREDible accident analysis version 2 (henceforth referred to as MAXCRED-II) recently developed by us.Among the six different most credible accident scenarios developed using MAXCRED-II, the one envisaging ‘confined vapor cloud explosion followed by fire ball’ (in the hydrogen storage vessel) comes out to be the worst in terms of the highest propensity for damage (overpressure, missile, heat load). It also has the potential of causing domino effect (chain of accidents). The scenario of causing domino effect (chain of accidents). The scenario of ‘continuous release of chlorine from storage vessel’ is the second most disastrous, in terms of lethal toxic load likely over a large distance (3252 meters). In summary, the study reveals that given the masses of materials stored, and the conditions in which they are stored, there is a live risk of accidents in the storage vessels that would have far-reaching consequences. The industry thus poses a great risk to large areas of surrounding including densely populated villages (particularly Chinnakalapet and Kalapet) and the campuses of Pondicherry University and Pondicherry Engineering College.This paper demonstrates the u