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• Chemical Engineering  (17,980)
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• 1
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Springer
Keywords: Biomass conversion ; Biotechnology ; Chemical Engineering ; Chemistry industry ; Industrial Chemistry ; Kent ; Riegel ; biochemical engineering
Description / Table of Contents: Substantially revising and updating the classic reference in the field, this handbook offers a valuable overview and myriad details on current chemical processes, products, and practices. No other source offers as much data on the chemistry, engineering, economics, and infrastructure of the industry. The Handbook serves a spectrum of individuals, from those who are directly involved in the chemical industry to others in related industries and activities. It provides not only the underlying science and technology for important industry sectors, but also broad coverage of critical supporting topics. Industrial processes and products can be much enhanced through observing the tenets and applying the methodologies found in chapters on Green Engineering and Chemistry (specifically, biomass conversion), Practical Catalysis, and Environmental Measurements; as well as expanded treatment of Safety, chemistry plant security, and Emergency Preparedness. Understanding these factors allows them to be part of the total process and helps achieve optimum results in, for example, process development, review, and modification. Important topics in the energy field, namely nuclear, coal, natural gas, and petroleum, are covered in individual chapters. Other new chapters include energy conversion, energy storage, emerging nanoscience and technology. Updated sections include more material on biomass conversion, as well as three chapters covering biotechnology topics, namely, Industrial Biotechnology, Industrial Enzymes, and Industrial Production of Therapeutic Proteins.
Pages: Online-Ressource (XIV, 1562 pages)
ISBN: 9780387278438
Language: English
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• 2
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American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Publication Date: 2014-10-04
Description: Ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. The elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolsters these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged, with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding those of industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401034/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401034/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lam, Felix H -- Ghaderi, Adel -- Fink, Gerald R -- Stephanopoulos, Gregory -- R01 GM035010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM035010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 3;346(6205):71-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1257859. Epub 2014 Oct 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. gfink@wi.mit.edu gregstep@mit.edu. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. gfink@wi.mit.edu gregstep@mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25278607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
Keywords: *Biofuels ; Cation Transport Proteins/genetics ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Chemical Engineering ; *Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics ; Ethanol/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Fermentation ; Genetic Engineering ; Glucose/metabolism ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Phosphates/*metabolism ; Potassium Compounds/*metabolism ; Proton Pumps/genetics ; Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics ; Up-Regulation ; Xylose/metabolism
Print ISSN: 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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• 3
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American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Publication Date: 2007-11-17
Description: Artificial biochemical circuits are likely to play as large a role in biological engineering as electrical circuits have played in the engineering of electromechanical devices. Toward that end, nucleic acids provide a designable substrate for the regulation of biochemical reactions. However, it has been difficult to incorporate signal amplification components. We introduce a design strategy that allows a specified input oligonucleotide to catalyze the release of a specified output oligonucleotide, which in turn can serve as a catalyst for other reactions. This reaction, which is driven forward by the configurational entropy of the released molecule, provides an amplifying circuit element that is simple, fast, modular, composable, and robust. We have constructed and characterized several circuits that amplify nucleic acid signals, including a feedforward cascade with quadratic kinetics and a positive feedback circuit with exponential growth kinetics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, David Yu -- Turberfield, Andrew J -- Yurke, Bernard -- Winfree, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1121-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, MC 136-93, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA91125, USA. dzhang@dna.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
Keywords: Animals ; Catalysis ; Chemical Engineering ; *Computers, Molecular ; DNA/*chemistry ; Entropy ; Equipment Design ; Feedback, Physiological ; Mice ; Nanotechnology ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Rabbits
Print ISSN: 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Publication Date: 2016-03-19
Description: Exploiting binding affinities between molecules is an established practice in many fields, including biochemical separations, diagnostics, and drug development; however, using these affinities to control biomolecule release is a more recent strategy. Affinity-controlled release takes advantage of the reversible nature of noncovalent interactions between a therapeutic protein and a binding partner to slow the diffusive release of the protein from a vehicle. This process, in contrast to degradation-controlled sustained-release formulations such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, is controlled through the strength of the binding interaction, the binding kinetics, and the concentration of binding partners. In the context of affinity-controlled release--and specifically the discovery or design of binding partners--we review advances in in vitro selection and directed evolution of proteins, peptides, and oligonucleotides (aptamers), aided by computational design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pakulska, Malgosia M -- Miersch, Shane -- Shoichet, Molly S -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):aac4750. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4750.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
Keywords: Chemical Engineering ; Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques ; Delayed-Action Preparations/*chemistry ; Directed Molecular Evolution ; *Drug Design ; Humans ; Lactic Acid/*chemistry ; Microspheres ; Polyglycolic Acid/*chemistry ; Proteins/*administration & dosage
Print ISSN: 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Publication Date: 2012-11-28
Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Savage, Phillip E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Nov 23;338(6110):1039-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1224310.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. psavage@umich.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23180853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
Keywords: *Biofuels ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Chemical Engineering ; Chlorophyta/*chemistry/growth & development ; *Hot Temperature ; *Hydrostatic Pressure ; *Water
Print ISSN: 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
Publication Date: 2014-11-29
Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Langer, Robert S -- Gura, Trisha -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 28;346(6213):1146. doi: 10.1126/science.346.6213.1146.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Trisha Gura is a freelance writer who lives in Boston. For more on life and careers visit www.sciencecareers.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430772" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
Keywords: Biotechnology ; *Career Choice ; Chemical Engineering ; *Entrepreneurship ; *Science
Print ISSN: 0036-8075
Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 872-876
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the effects of vibration of the heat transfer surface in saturated pool boiling of water at atmospheric pressure. Wires of 0.01 in. diameter were heated electrically and vibrated electromagnetically at frequencies ranging from 20 to 115 cycles/sec. and amplitudes from 0.0118 to 0.0701 in. An increase in heat transfer up to a maximum of 200% at low ΔT was observed for an increase in frequency and/or amplitude. At a heat flux of 105 B.t.u./(hr.) (sq. ft.) high-speed motion pictures were taken at 4,800 frames/sec. of a wire vibrating at 45 cycles/sec. with an amplitude of 0.0492 in. Comparison of these films with those taken at the same heat flux without vibration showed that the generating period and diameters at break-off for the pulsed wire follow normal distribution. The waiting period is much longer and more fluctuating in nature. A slight increase in bubble emission frequency was also observed for pulsating wire.
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• 8
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 877-883
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The results of ideal and nonideal vapor-liquid equilibria of ammonia-water-nitrogen-hydrogen, a system of industrial importance, have been examined. Redlich-Kwong equation of state and the Gompertz equation have been used to determine the fugacities and activity coefficients in the vapor and liquid phases, respectively. The standard fugacity in the liquid phase is found by integrating the fundamental thermodynamic equation by using the Gamson-Watson expression.A trial and error procedure for the determination of a nonideal equilibrium system has been suggested. A comparison has been made between the available experimental values and the calculated ones. The importance of the use of fugacities which include deviations from ideality in calculating thermodynamic equilibria has been pointed out.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 883-889
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The chemical reaction and diffusion rate parameters were determined for the hydration of liquid isobutylene to t-butanol with a cation exchange resin catalyst. High reaction rates were found to result from a high diffusivity of isobutylene within the resin catalyst. Both the high value for diffusivity and its negative temperature coefficient are consistent with the transport mechanism within the resin, being that of surface diffusion of isobutylene in an adsorbed state.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 890-895
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: For a trial multistep mechanism for a heterogeneous catalytic reaction, it is suggested that dynamic experiments can be used to calculate the forward and reverse rate constants of individual steps. The experiments consist of the measurement of the composition of the effluent from a continuous stirred-tank catalytic reactor as a function of time as the input composition to the reactor is perturbed. The method of moments is used to obtain the kinetic constants for a trial mechanism from the experimental data.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 896-902
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: While much attention has been given to second virial coefficients of nonpolar gases, experimental and theoretical studies on third virial coefficients are scarce. This work presents a correlation of third virial coefficients within the framework of the corresponding states principle. The correlation is useful for estimating third virial coefficients of pure and mixed nonpolar gases, including the quatum gases helium, hydrogen, and neon. The importance of third virial cross coefficients in phase equilibrium predictions is illustrated with calculations for the solid-gas, methane-hydrogen system at 76°K.Brief attention is given to the pressure series form of the virial equation. Because of fortuitous cancellations, it is shown that for reduced temperatures above 1.4, the pressure series, truncated after the second term, is applicable to a wider range of density than the density series truncated after the second term. However, when both series are truncated after the third term, the density series appears to be superior regardless of reduced temperature.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 903-908
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The pyrolysis of propane has been studied over the temperature range 830° to 1180°C. with a single-pulse shock tube employed to effect rapid heating and quenching. Both the uncatalyzed decomposition and the decomposition catalyzed by hydrogen sulfide were studied. First-order rate constants for the uncatalyzed reaction are in excellent agreement with published data obtained in nonisothermal, tubular reactors. The product distribution differs from that obtained in other studies. It is characterized by decomposition of propane via two routes at roughly equal rates, one route leading to propylene and hydrogen, the other to ethylene and methane or ethane. Propylene subsequently is converted, almost stoichiometrically, to ethylene and acetylene. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates the initial decomposition of propane, thus maintaining high propylene selectivity to high propane conversion. A free radical mechanism is used to explain the gross features of the pyrolysis.
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• 13
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 909-914
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Unsteady diffusion in the system methane-argon-hydrogen was studied in a Loschmidt apparatus with large changes in concentration. The mean concentration-time history was predicted within experimental error by the linearized equations of multicomponent mass transfer. In the calculations the Stefan-Maxwell equations were used to obtain the diffusivity matrix which was evaluated at the equilibrium concentration.Digital computer solutions to the nonlinear differential equations were also obtained for various systems and boundary conditions. The fluxes predicted by the linearized equations with the diffusivity matrix evaluated at the arithmetic average of the initial and boundary concentrations were in all cases within 5% of the numerical predictions.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 915-925
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The chlorination of propane was studied in a tubular flow reactor, with outside illumination, at atmospheric pressure. At chlorine concentrations of less than 1.5 mole % (and inert nitrogen above 94%) a second-order (in chlorine) rate expression was indicated. At higher chlorine or propane concentrations propane affects the rate. Two rate equations, based upon different termination steps for the chain carriers, were found to fit the data. For the low concentration region the apparent activation energy for the overall reaction was 3.4 kcal./g.-mole. Most of the measurements were carried out with polychromatic light, but data taken with a narrow band of radiation, over the range 2,200 to 5,400Ā, showed an increase in rate with decreasing wave length. As a first step toward reactor design, differential reactor data were used to predict the conversion for laminar flow, integral reactor conditions. A reactor model which included the effects of residence time distribution and radial variation in light intensity gave good agreement with experimental data. A plug-flow model was less satisfactory.
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• 15
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 931-935
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The general form of the equations describing a steady, two-dimensional flow of an incompressible liquid is reduced to a form containing only two parameters. The histories of stress and of deformation of a material element are written explicitly. A second-order, slow-flow approximation and a Maxwell type of constitutive equation are used to infer properties of the rheological behavior of viscoelastic liquids in such flows.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 936-947
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A new calculation method presented here for interpreting batch or tubular-flow reactor data (and also CSTR data) on three-component, three-reaction reversible systems is based upon the general analyses of Jost and of Wei and Prater. With advance knowledge of the pertinent equilibria, even a very few experimental points can be matched easily and rapidly to the given figures and equations. The simplification involved when one reaction disappears, with the divariant system thus becoming monovariant, is also described. Representative concentration-time curves are given for design purposes.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 926-931
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: In most control applications in the chemical process industries it is not realistic to attempt to define a unique mathematical statement of the control objective, for many criteria will satisfy the physical requirement of the rapid elimination of errors in the product stream as the result of an upset. The strong dependence of the structure of an optimal control system on the choice of objective then makes optimal control theory irrelevant in such situations, since the control engineer has no assurance that a complicated controller is a necessity of the process, rather than a consequence of an unfortunate choice of objective. In this paper an inverse problem is considered, in which an easily implementable feedback control system is first chosen and then is shown to be optimal for a physically meaningful objective in a large class of systems.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 948-954
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The results of an analytical and experimental study of compressible, axially symmetric, turbulent free jets exhausting into quiescent air are presented. A finite-difference technique was used to obtain a general solution which has eliminated the need for the simplifying assumptions required in previous investigations. The jet Mach number and jet temperature ratio have been found to be the only two initial jet properties which are necessary to characterize the dimensionless velocity and temperature variations in this type of jet. Modifications of dynamic eddy transfer coefficients given in the literature are used in the solution An experimental program was carried out to obtain data on free jet velocity and temperature variation at high initial jet temperatures and high subsonic Mach numbers where there has been a lack of experimental data. The numerical solutions of the time-averaged conservation equations have been shown to agree well with the experimental data of the present study and of previous investigations.
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• 19
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 961-964
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The problem of transient multicomponent diffusion of an arbitrary number of components in one-dimension with heterogeneous reaction has been solved exactly by means of the Laplace transform. Linearized expressions for the diffusion and reaction were used. Numerical evaluations of the solution are given and a comparison made with results derived by use of an effective diffusivity.
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• 20
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 955-961
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A molecular theory for the stress P in a concentrated polymer solution is evaluated for simple shear flow. Three rheological functions (P12, P11 - P22, P11 - P33) are predicted to be dependent on shear rate γ in a very complicated fashion, and are displayed graphically. A unique feature is that P22 - P33 is shown to have the same sign as P11 - P33 at low shear, a result in agreement with most experimental data and not predicted by other theories. A comparison with two sets of data verifies the prediction of relative behavior of shear and normal stresses at low γ, but the theory fails to fit data at high γ. Reasons for the success of the reducing factors c2 or c3 (where c is mass concentration) in constructing master curves for normal stress are suggested.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 965-972
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Liquid phase adsorption has been one of the latest unit operations to receive theoretical treatment because of the relative complexity of the mechanisms involved. The purpose of this investigation is to present an improved method for solving problems, especially where intraparticle diffusion is a rate controlling mechanism. Appropriate boundary conditions for liquid phase adsorption and a general nonlinear equilibrium relation are included in deriving a system of partial differential equations describing the process.The mathematical model consists of a bulk phase material balance, an intraparticle diffusion equation, and a rate for interphase transfer; these equations must be solved simultaneously with the boundary conditions and equilibrium function. A numerical procedure is developed and discussed for use on a high-speed computer.The results are sets of computed curves for four liquid systems, each requiring a separate computer solution because of changes in feed concentration or equilibrium relationship. It is shown that for three of the four systems tested in this research, experimental data correlate with computed results better than in earlier work. Although the solution of this model has been carried out for particular examples, it should be applicable in the case of other liquid phase systems following the assumed mechanisms.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 973-981
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Five different variations on the basic quasilinearization algorithm for optional control are applied to a six-variable nonlinear gas absorber system. Convergence of the algorithms to the optimal trajectory with better than 1% accuracy is achieved in less than ten iterations. The region of initial starting points which yield convergence is quite large. The main difficulty encountered is due to instabilities of the maximum principle equations. This limitation is, however, not severe and it is possible to predict a priori when the difficulty will occur. It is concluded that quasilinearization is a feasible algorithm for the optimization of nonlinear unconstrained systems.
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Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 982-988
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The quasilinearization algorithm is examined as a means of determining the optimal control of a nonlinear tubular reactor system with state constraints. It is shown that the use of penalty functions in an unconstrained algorithm can effectively solve the constrained problem. The method is quadratically convergent to the optimal control and seems more successful than methods which require gradients in the computation.
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• 24
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 995-998
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Emulsion drop size distributions have been measured at various locations in a turbine mixer for the methyl isobutyl ketone-salt water system. The drop sizes are strongly dependent on the sampling position, being smallest near the impeller tip and largest at the bottom of the mixing tank. The variation of drop diameter with impeller speed has been studied and indicates that droplet breakup predominates near the impeller, whereas the coalescence of emulsion droplets can be controlling in other locations.
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• 25
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 989-995
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The drop size distributions resulting from the agitation of immiscible liquids were measured over a wide range of parameters. The average drop size is correlated by \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$\overline D _{32}/L$\end{document} = 0.053 NWe-0.60. The distribution function for volume fraction is normal and depends only upon \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$\overline D _{32}$\end{document}. The results are valid for very dilute solutions wherein coalescence of droplets plays no role in the dispersion mechanism.
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• 26
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 999-1006
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The terminal velocities of spheres falling in aqueous solutions of hydroxyethyl cellulose and polyethylene oxide were determined with ruby and steel spheres. For each sphere the terminal velocity was obtained in seven cylinder sizes covering a range of sphere-to-cylinder diameter ratio from 0.0067 to 0.18. The data were used in an extrapolation to correct for the cylindrical wall effect. Several alternative extrapolation procedures for estimating the zero shear viscosity were attempted and the results were compared. An empirical correlation for the drag coefficient was developed in terms of the Ellis parameters of the fluids, and the Faxén wall correction for Newtonian flow. the correlation gives the drag coefficient within 4% for all cases in which the quantity ηvt/Dτ1/2 is less than 0.3.
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• 27
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1007-1013
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A new method for measuring the frequency of coalescence of drops in an agitated tank is proposed. It makes use of the fact that the rate of establishment of a new steady state mean drop size following a reduction in agitation intensity is related to the coalescence frequency in the tank. This method allows independent examination of the effects of drop size and impeller speed on coalescence frequency, and has the advantage that, since the measurement is not dependent upon the addition of external substances, high degrees of purity can be maintained and the effect of trace additions to the dispersion observed. The results provide some support for the assumption of an inverse proportionality between coalescence frequency and drop size. For constant drop size, coalescence frequency was found to depend on impeller speed raised to the power of 1.3 to 1.65 and the volume fraction of dispersed phase to the power of 0.6. The magnitude of density difference between the phases and the operating temperature were found to affect coalescence frequency, although it is suspected that these two effects are interrelated. The addition of small quantities of simple electrolytes to the continuous phase was found to cause a marked reduction in coalescence frequency.
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• 28
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1014-1016
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: In this note convective diffusion in stagnation flow is discussed in the context of membrane separation processes, reverse osmosis in particular. It is shown that this is a desirable configuration for determining the rejection parameter R, a measure of how imperfect the semipermeable membrane interface is, because the dimensionless concentration function depends only on η.A simple approximate analytical solution is developed for (wsw/wse) which applies to separation processes in general. For reverse osmosis, NSc ≃ 560 and in this case the approximate results are compared with exact numerical calculations. It is found that the analytical solution is very accurate up to a polarization of (wsw/wse) ≃ 4 which constitutes a wide range of practical interest. For completeness, numerical results are reported up to a polarization of about 30.
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• 29
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1017-1017
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 30
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1042-1237
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 31
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1011-1014
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 32
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1008-1010
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Vaporization of methanol and carbon tetrachloride into air and carbon tetrachloride into helium was carried out in a counterflow wetted-wall column at 10° to 20°F. These data show an influence of liquid rate upon the mass transfer coefficients. Liquid rate influence has been empirically accounted for by a function of surface area increase caused by rippling of the liquid film.
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• 33
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1018-1019
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 34
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1025-1026
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 35
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1023-1024
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 36
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1026-1026
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 37
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1019-1022
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 38
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1027-1027
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 39
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1028-1029
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 40
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1029-1029
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 41
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1030-1030
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 42
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1031-1032
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 43
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1043-1043
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 44
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966)
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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• 45
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1081-1086
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: An investigation was made of the simulation of bulk and solution polymerization of styrene in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR). A theoretical model from the literature was used to predict conversion, molecular weight distribution (MWD), and molecular weight averages. The kinetic rate constants required to solve the model were also taken from the literature.Styrene polymerizations were done at steady state in a laboratory-scale CSTR over a range of experimental conditions. The recently developed gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) was used to measure MWD and average molecular weights. Comparisons were made between the theoretically predicted and experimentally determined values.The effect of solvent was included in the theoretical model but further investigation is necessary before the effects of thermal polymerization, viscosity, and mixing can be included. Where the latter effects were not important, good agreement was obtained between theoretical and experimental values.
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• 46
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1087-1091
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The free radical polymerization of styrene in benzene was studied theoretically and experimentally over ranges of monomer and catalyst (AIBN) concentrations and temperature in an isothermal, stirred batch reactor. Molecular weight distributions were measured with a gel permeation chromatograph. Tung's hermite polynomial method was used to correct for imperfect resolution.The differential rate equations have been solved to predict the conversion of monomer and molecular weight distribution of the polymer as a function of time. These solutions were used to interpret the experimental rate data.Good agreement between theory and experiment was found for narrow and broad distribution, provided the variation of the termination constant with solvent concentration was accounted for.The agreement between the experimental and calculated molecular weight distribution suggests the utility of gel pemeation chromatography in the investigation of polymer reaction kinetics.
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• 47
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1092-1098
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A nonlinear unsteady state convective diffusion problem that describes the performance of a constant pressure cell is studied. The cell can be used to either determine membrane constants or to carry out batch filtration operations. It consists of a cylinder closed by a semipermeable membrane at one end and a piston at the other.The nonlinear partial differential equation governing the system was solved by both integral methods and the use of a similarity transformation. The similarity approach formulates the solution in the form of an infinite series and reduces the problem to finding the solution of an infinite system of ordinary differential equations. The series solution can be considered to be exact but its convergence is questionable for large values of time in the event B ≠ 0; when B = 0, the convergence is substantially better.Approximate solutions obtained by integral methods were examined in detail. It was found that the results obtained by these methods can involve serious errors, under certain circumstances, and these errors seem unpredictable a priori. Consequently, it is concluded that considerable care should be taken in the use of integral methods for solving mass transfer problems in which the velocity field is coupled with the convective diffusion equation and its boundary conditions.The numerical results obtained in this work are sufficiently comprehensive to be used, in conjunction with experimental data, to determine membrane constants which are required for the design of both continuous and batch membrane separation systems.
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• 48
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1099-1107
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Thermodynamic analysis of high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria requires information on the effect of pressure on liquid phase fugacities; this information is given by partial molar volumes in the liquid mixture. A method for predicting these partial molar volumes is presented here. First, molar volumes of saturated liquid mixtures are computed by extending to mixtures the corresponding states correlation of Lyckman and Eckert. These mixture volumes are then used to calculate partial molar volumes with an expression based on a modification of the Redlich-Kwong equation. At high pressures partial molar volumes are strong functions of the composition and in the critical region, may be positive or negative. Calculations are sensitive to the characteristic energy between dissimilar molecules; this energy is generally lower than that given by the geometric-mean rule. Calculated results are in good agreement with experimental data for seven systems containing paraffinic and aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide.
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• 49
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1107-1113
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: An analysis of critical data for a larger number of binary mixtures of normal fluids shows that the critical temperature and the critical volume can each be expressed as quadratic functions of the surface fraction. Each of these functions requires one adjustable parameter characteristic of the binary pair; for any family of chemical components, these parameters, upon suitable reduction, follow definite trends. It was shown that the surface fraction gives much better correlation than any other size-weighted variable. For the critical pressure, however, no quadratic function was adequate. To calculate critical pressures, the correlations for critical temperature and critical volume were used in conjunction with a slightly altered version of the Redlich-Kwong equation.Generalizations to systems containing more than two components follow without additional assumptions. The methods presented in this paper provide good estimates for critical constants of multicomponent mixtures. These are particularly useful for analyzing and correlating vapor-liquid equilibria in the critical region.
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• 50
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1114-1117
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: In this paper a method is presented for the computation of the heat transfer coefficient in a gas-air burner in the presence of combustion-driven transverse mode oscillations. By considering the oscillations in pressure within the chamber to be small compared with the mean chamber pressure, and to be known, methods of acoustics may be used to determine the average energy density of the acoustic waves at the wall. Consideration of this acoustic energy to create greater mixing in the boundary layer enables the heat transfer problem to be considered by the Dankwerts-Mickley model for turbulent heat exchange. With suitable definition of a friction velocity in terms of the friction velocity v* for fully developed turbulent pipe flow and the root mean square particle velocity of the acoustic wave (ar.m.s.ω), it is found that agreement exists between the computed ratio of heat transfer coefficients, with and without combustion-driven oscillations and the experiments of Zartman, which appear to be the only experimental data for transverse oscillations in a gas-air burner.
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• 51
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1117-1119
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The permeation of propane, propylene, ethane, and ethylene through 0.0051-cm. thick polyethylene films was measured at temperatures between 25° and -30°C. Plots of P vs. 1/T for C3H8, C3H6, and C2H6 were saucer shaped, the activation energies changing from positive (endothermic) to negative (exothermic) over a narrow temperature range. This change is attributed to a plasticization-condensation phenomenon and a change in intermolecular potentials.
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• 52
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1120-1124
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: An experimental study of the spreading and dissolving of thin liquid films under the action of surface forces is presented. The method consists of the continuous feeding of a liquid over the surface of another liquid into which it dissolves; the steady film thus obtained covers only a part of the supporting liquid surface, dependent on the flow rate of the liquid fed. The dependence of the radius of the film contour on flow rate and concentration driving force is obtained for various film forming liquids dissolving into water. By using a Schlieren technique the film contour and the flow pattern outside the film contour are studied, several structures being evidenced.
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• 53
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1124-1126
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A frequency domain analysis of reversible molecular diffusion in a granule or relatively stagnant drop of fluid reveals that for the larger values of time the rate equation reduces to \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\frac{{dW}}{{dt}} = \frac{{15D}}{{R^2}}\left({W^* - W} \right)$$\end{document}Compared with an earlier time domain result \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\frac{{dW}}{{dt}} = \frac{{\pi ^2 D}}{{R^2}}\left({W^* - W} \right)$$\end{document} the rate predicted is 15/π2 = 1.516 greater and this has been confirmed by results of experiment. An analysis of time constants shows that the dimensionless group relation \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\frac{{Dt}}{{R^2}} \ge 0.101$$\end{document} defines mathematically that which is meant by the larger value of time limitation.
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• 54
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1127-1131
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The purpose of this study was to determine the two-dimensional temperature field for a fluid in slug flow through tubes with uniform mass injection and linearly decreasing wall temperature. A series solution was obtained, the first ten eigenvalues for which were determined from the characteristic equation by the method of Runge-Kutta. Expressions for local conductive heat flux at the tube wall and local Nusselt number were obtained as a function of inlet Peclet number, injection Peclet number, tube radius, temperature boundary conditions, and fluid properties. Sample results are presented for several injection rates at different wall temperature conditions. In general, mass injection was found to decrease the local heat flux and increase temperature driving force causing a decrease in the Nusselt number.
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• 55
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1141-1154
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Under some conditions, continuous crystallization exhibits cyclic changes of the particle size even with constant input conditions. A linearized stability analysis has been performed to determine under what conditions this behavior can be expected. Numerical solutions of the actual nonlinear system equations were carried out to follow the cyclic behavior and to compute the cycle time and the amplitude of the fluctuations. The effect of seeding on the stability limits and product distribution was also evaluated.
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• 56
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1110-1115
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: In most rate process problems, the original experimental data must be differentiated to obtain the derivatives, which are the information actually sought. For first derivatives all the commonly used methods give about the same result. However, the common methods of calculating derivatives can give very different second derivatives for the same set of starting data. Thus, in problems in which the desired result is a second derivative, the answer obtained is a strong function of the method used to calculate second derivatives. This is illustrated by several examples.
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• 57
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1116-1124
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Experimental observations are reported on convective motion in a laterally confined fluid layer heated from below. Measurements extend over a wide range of Rayleigh numbers which encompass several flow regimes, including remarkably stable periodic flows. The conditions necessary for the oscillatory motion as well as the qualitative nature of the flow have been explored.
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• 58
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 12 (1966), S. 1124-1133
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A method of describing the behavior of a single-phase, photochemical reaction in a tubular flow reactor is given. A simplified form of the equations is applied to experimental data for the chlorination of propane.The results indicate that the reaction rate is second order in chlorine concentration and first order in light intensity at the wall. Independent experimental actinometer measurements permit the determination of absolute values of the kinetic constants. Such data are rarely available for photochemical reactions. Filter solutions flowing through a jacket around the reactor is shown to be a practical method for studying the effects of light intensity, as well as for cooling the reactor. The optical efficiency of the reactor lamp system was 11%.
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• 59
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1155-1159
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The pressure drop of water was measured when water flowed through a bed of stainless steel ball bearings packed in an ordered rhombohedral geometry. Experiments were carried out with eleven different packed beds, encompassing the entire range of the square-base array, in the same 10.85 by 10.85 by 30-in. rectangular test column in a forced circulation loop at modified Reynolds numbers up to 17,000. The test variables included water velocity, bed voidage, spacing between adjacent balls, ball diameter, and bed height. Curves of friction factor vs. Reynolds number are presented. An increase in the relative horizontal spacing between balls was found to have a more important effect than an increase in voidage in decreasing the pressure drop. A general correlation relating the mutual effects of bed voidage and ball spacing on pressure drop that would bring all the data points together, especially in the transition flow region, could not be found. As a result, the system appears to consist of two distinct parts separated at the minimum packing density. A correlation was found only for the first, but from a practical point of view more important, region. Data may be corrected for bed voidage, but only for small variations in ball spacing, by the ratios of (1 - ε)/ε3 at the two voidages. No entrance and exit effects could be measured beyond the first seven ball layers.
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• 60
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1160-1166
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: An experimental investigation of heat transfer rates in which were used three spray towers varying from 4 to 6 in. in diameter and 7 to 10 ft. in height, and distributor elements with hole sizes varying from 1/8 to 1/64 in. in diameter was carried out. The immiscible liquid system consisted of water and kerosene (normal boiling point range 395° to 490°F.). Volumetric heat transfer coefficients ranged from 100 to 3,600 B.t.u./(hr.)(cu. ft.)(°F.) and the overall film heat transfer coefficients ranged from 4 to 23 B.t.u./(hr.)(sq. ft.)(°F.). Height equivalent to a theoretical stage varied from 1 to 8 ft. Scale-up correlations relating these rate data to operating variables were developed.
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• 61
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1167-1171
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: An experimental investigation is presented of the ion flotation of dichromate from aqueous solution with a cationic surfactant and using a non-ionic polymer as a flocculant aid. A dissolved-air, continuous flow unit is used (with a surfactant-dichromate premix period of 1 hr.) with a feed rate of 120 liters/hr. of a stream containing from 25 to 100 mg./liter of dichromate. Within the ranges of the variables studied, optimum results are obtained with a molar surfactant to dichromate feed ratio of about 2, a feed polymer dosage of about 3% of the dichromate feed concentration, a recycle rate 200% of the feed rate, and a column detention time of 35 min. With an air requirement of 0.043 liters of air (at STP)/liter of feed delivered at 40 lb./sq. in. gauge, feed streams containing from 25 to 100 mg./liter of dichromate can be readily reduced to 10 mg./liter of dichromate and 30 mg./liter of surfactant. The primary advantage of the process lies in the concentration of dichromate, surfactant, and polymer in a small liquid volume of collapsed foam, less than 1% of the total feed throughput. Foam concentrations are of the order of 10,000 to 20,000 mg./liter of dichromate.
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• 62
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1171-1174
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: A relationship for the diffusion coefficient of a dilute species in a mixture of two solvents is developed. The result, based on the linear additivity of the frictional activation energy which is valid for completely miscible, nonassociated systems, predicts the diffusion coefficient of the solute in terms of the limiting values of the diffusion coefficient of the solute in each of the solvents, the limiting values of the solvent pair diffusion coefficient, and two thermodynamic factors. The equation is confirmed for some recent experimental data.
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• 63
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1175-1180
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: The effects of viscous dissipation on fully developed laminar forced convection with heat sources in various regular polygonal ducts under the thermal boundary conditions of uniform wall heat transfer per unit duct length and circumferentially uniform wall temperature are approached by the method of point matching. The method uses the exact solutions to the governing partial differential equations and satisfies the boundary conditions exactly only at selected points. This method complements the method of complex variables for various noncircular geometrical configurations where the velocity and temperature fields are not deducible directly from the boundary equations. The relationship between the average velocity and the average of (grad u)2 over the cross section is pointed out. Other useful relationships between heat transfer quantities based on analogy or the observation of the results from literature and present investigation are also pointed out. The numerical results presented can be used to evaluate the effects of viscous dissipation on mean temperature, overall heat transfer rate at the boundary, heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number. Graphical results for the representative cases are also presented for the heat transfer rate and the Nusselt number.
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• 64
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Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1181-1187
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Particle-to-gas heat transfer coefficients were determined in packed and fluidized beds with large diameter particles and high mass velocities using the cyclic temperature method.Experimental results for packed beds were satisfactorily correlated within 10% deviation as εjh vs. NRe and were found to compare favorably with results of other experimenters obtained with much lower mass velocities and larger particles. The particle-to-gas heat transfer coefficient varied as G0.60 for the steel spheres vs. G0.66 for the tungsten spheres, and as Dp-0.44.Heat transfer coefficients obtained at minimum fluidization were in good agreement with those obtained with packed beds. As the mass velocity was increased above that required for minimum fluidization, heat transfer coefficients remained essentially constant.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 65
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 1188-1192
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Spatial distributions of species flux in axisymmetric free jets of helium-argon mixtures were determined experimentally. The experiments encompass the transition range between inviscid and free molecular flow at the exits of the nozzles forming the jets. Comparison is made with existing theories of separation. The results confirm the validity of Sherman's predictions and Rothe's measurements of diffusive separation for nearly inviscid flow. In the transition range departures from the nearly inviscid theory occur. The maximum degree of separation is observed in this range.
Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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• 66
Electronic Resource
Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
AIChE Journal 11 (1965), S. 595-600
ISSN: 0001-1541
Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Notes: Flash X-ray radiography was used to study the internal structure of fluidized beds. Basic data were obtained on the density distribution and on void shapes, sizes, and velocities within an air-sand bed. The data obtained, in general, support the view of fluidized beds as consisting of liquidlike emulsions through which voids rise. Density measurements and void characteristics were in agreement with the two-phase flow theory and with more recent theories of fluid bed flow. Void velocities and shapes agreed with recent predictions that the dense phase behaves as a liquidlike emulsion of zero viscosity and surface tension.