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  • Chemical Engineering  (1,635)
  • 1995-1999  (1,635)
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. F5 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 2
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 114-120 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A standard method for evaluating the fire performance of pipe insulation is not available in North America. In Europe, however, the regional standards organization NORDTEST has had available for several years now a method specifically designed for this purpose. The NORDTEST NT FIRE 036 test is a full-scale room fire test where the pipe insulation is installed along the ceiling and subjected to a gas burner fire. Four classes of performance (Class I through III, plus unrated) are used to evaluate the products. In the present work, 4, different pipe insulation products, representing the most common materials used for this purpose, have been examined according to this test. The results showed that rock wool insulation gave the best fire performance, with phenolic foam being in the least safe rated category. Synthetic foam rubber and polyethylene insulation products gave intermediate performance.
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  • 3
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 258-261 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Process Safety Management (PSM) programs are expected to reduce the probability and severity of hazardous incidents. This paper presents a real life incident that occurred in a plan before a PSM program was put in place. A detailed description of the incident is provided with appropriate discussions of noncompliance with the PSM rule. Finally, the paper provides a theoretical scenario where a fully operational PSM program would have prevented the incident. The case history and discussion provided in this paper also reinforces the concept of maintaining process and equipment integrity through multiple barriers of safety. A fully operational PSM program represents such a multiple barrier safety systems.The incident occurred in a high temperature boiler in a process plant. The incident was caused by a sequence of four occurrences that combined to cause the boiler to lose water level and have serious internal and tube damage. The problem was not detected until a mechanic who was going to work on the feed pump realized that there was flames coming out of the boiler stack. The mechanic told the operator about the problem and the boiler was manually tripped. The boiler feedwater pump was not blocked in until 30 minutes after the incident was over. If this pump was started during or directly after the incident, the addition of boiler feedwater to the over-heated boiler would have caused an explosion. At the time the incident was reported there were 8-10 employees in the area of the boilers.
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  • 4
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 247-257 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Current guidelines for sizing of vents in dust explosions deal with panel inertia effects either by suggesting that the issue be approached experimentally on a case-by-case basis (VDI 3673) or by recommending a maximum mass per unit area (NFPA 68). This empirical approach to the problem is surprising, given that this aspect of explosion venting should be easily amenable to analytical treatment. From this assessment, an analysis of vent panel dynamics was carried out based on a simplified explosion model, which has also been used to develop a generalized vent sizing correlation. The main result of the analysis is the identification of a dimensionless parameter which fully characterizes the effects associated with the inertia of the panel. This inertia parameter includes: the reactivity of the mixture; the volume of the enclosure; the mass of the vent per unit area; the number of equal panels on the vented volume; and a panel shape factor. The analysis has quanitified the intuitive expectation that the mass per unit area of the panel is not a property that should be considered in isolation, and that panel inertia effects are more important the more reactive the mixture and the smaller the volume. The predictions from the model have been validated by comparison with available data for both dust and gas explosions. The extensive validation work that has supported their development provides confidence that the design correlations derived from the analysis can be used reliably to account for an effect that is either neglected or referred to testing by existing guidelines.
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  • 5
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 32-36 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recent catastrophic piping failures dramatically demonstrate the importance of implementing a piping program. Piping system leaks and ruptures have caused death and injury to plant workers, firefighters, and the public. Significant financial consequences due to unexpected downtime and property damage have plagued industry. The environment has also suffered from the release of toxic chemicals. In the chemical industry, roughly 30% of the catastrophic losses have been historically attributable to piping failures.
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  • 6
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 6-7 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: As process safety and risk management stewards, one of the first things we should be concerned about is the reliability of our pressure relief system. The importance of pressure relief systems to the CPI and HPI is paramount. Yet this issue has frequently not received the recognition it deserves, even though it is mandated by OSHA 1910.119. Although relief systems presently in service at process facilities may have been adequate for the original plant design, it is likely that the same systems are now being exposed to higher capacities and different relief scenarios. Therefore, verification of the adequacy of these systems should have been done concurrently with operational changes. Many in industry have only recently recognized this, and are striving to incorporate such procedures in their engineering standards. Others are still uncertain how to proceed, and two obvious questions that come to mind are (1) what is the most logical way for us to verify the adequacy of an existing system?, and (2) how to we document this information systematically, in order to avoid replicating our efforts every time we make a process modification?
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  • 7
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 8-13 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: OSHA's Process Safety Management Standard, 29 CFR 1910.119 (September, 1992) requires that process hazard evaluations be performed on covered processes. The regulations contain 14 areas for consideration, six of which are related to the need to provide comprehensive information of all process materials, including the consequences of inadvertent mixing of process materials. This information can be made available to those involved in the manufacturing process through the development of an Interaction Matrix. A brief overview of the subject is given in a publication by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (CCPS) [1].In 1996 AIChE announced the availability of the computer package CHEMPAT that provides a straight-forward method of generating and documenting the interaction matrix, or Compatibility Chart, and accompanying database. CHEMPAT was developed, and used internally, by the Dow Chemical Company since 1987. It was donated by Dow to AIChE in 1995 for use by the chemical process industries.This paper outlines the approach used to develop chemical compatibility information and briefly describes the use of CHEMPAT in that process.
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  • 8
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 18-22 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A Simple case study of a relatively high-friction pipeline with pump-assisted gravity flow (e.g., for high viscosity fluids such as hydrocarbon products) illustrates three features which lead to unexpectedly high transient pressure surges for which conventional alleviation practices (such as extended value-closure times or surge-relief devices at the pump discharge) are ineffective: (i)the use of a value to control flow in a long or high-friction pipeline;(ii)a system with a value closure a significant distance downstream of a pump; and(iii)a system where surge protection is located a significant distance away from a control value.
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  • 9
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 14-17 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The shipment of hazardous chemicals can pose signficant risk to the general public and the environment. These shipments are made in a variety of packages ranging from small bottles to large tank trucks, tank cars, and barges. However, the many standards and regulations that have been established to govern the design and use of these packages define what many consider to be the minimum requirements for risk management. This paper presents a methodology that can be used to more thoroughly identify the risk minimization options and verify the design of a package for a particular service. This method is based on the concept of a threat analysis of the proposed movement of the hazardous chemical. The threat analysis looks for unusual (but realistic) threats to the package that may result in the release of the hazardous chemical to the environment. Such unusual threats may include events such as: Dropping of the package during loading; Accident enroute; External fire during shipment; Random acts of vandalism (using the package as a practice target); Puncture (fork lift collision with package, rail/truck accident); Crushing (sudden starting or stopping). By conducting an engineering analysis of the strength and ability of the container to withstand these unusual events, a package design that can withstand the threats indentified in the threat analysis can be defined.
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  • 10
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 23-24 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Large scale centralized manufacture of chemicals coupled with distribution to remote customers has obvious economic advantages derived from economy of scale. In some cases, however, concern for safety and environment can drive a search for competitive small scale processes for production of toxic chemicals at the end-use site, thereby eliminating the potential hazards associated with transportation. We will present a case study in which novel technology is being explored to develop a safe, economically attractive process with minimal waste for the synthesis of hydrogen cyanide.
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  • 11
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 32-36 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Transportation of hazardous chemicals as raw materials or products from chemical process facilities presents special hazards. Recently, the Risk Assessment Subcommittee (RASC) of the AIChE Center for Chemical Process Safetly (CCPS) completed a three-year project which has been published in a CCPS Guidelines Series entitled Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Risk Analysis. The major themes of the book are summarized in this paper and the methods and techniques used in evaluating the risk of movement of hazardous chemicals are described. Guidelines for Chemical Transportation Risk Analysis covers methods that can be used to evaluate the risk of movement of a hazardous chemical by rail, barge, truck, pipeline, and ocean-going vessel. A simple example is presented using the methods discussed in the guidelines.
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  • 12
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 37-42 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Aiming at improving the safety of process startup, this paper integrates safety evaluation into an operational design methodology which designs operable processes by proposing alternatives, examining process operability and modifying plnat structures and operating procedures. Safety analysis is used as a key component of design evaluation for examining potential hazards during startup. Potential hazards are eliminated by modifying both plant structure and operating procedures. Issues for both methodology and implementation of a prototype in G2 are discussed. Finally, the system is applied to an industrial hydrodesulfurization process.
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  • 13
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 25-31 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Waste-derived fuel is an environmentally friendly method for destroying waste and recovering the energy value it contains. The fuel is characterized as a mixture of various solvents with a flashpoint in the flammable range. In addition to these solvents, the waste fuel contains solid material. During the transfer of this material to storage tanks, some of the solid material is is left behind in the tankers and rail cars. The ideal solution to remove this solid material is to wash the tank vehicle with the same waste fuel. With the waste fuel being in the flammable range, there is a concern about the washing operation causing ignition due to static electricity.Scaled experiments were conducted to assess the potential for static electricity to cause ignition. Although several ignition mechanisms were assessed, this paper is concerned with the charged mist caused by the high velocity solvent jet impinging on the tank wall. Isopropyl alcohol, mixed xylenes, and mineral spirits were evaluated. An aerosol electrometer was used to measure charge per unit volume of mist sampled. Discharge generation was assessed using an analytical model which estimates electric field corresponding to measured charge density for various configurations.
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  • 14
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 107-119 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperature of dust-air-mixtures are important technical safety indices. They are used for the assessment of the efficacy of the ignition sources expected in dust-air mixtures. First of all, the test apparatus and the determination procedures are introduced, including the significant parameters on the mentioned indices. Finally, the correlations are described between - the minimum ignition energy and the efficacy of electrostatic sparks,  - the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature and the mechanically generated sparks on the on hand, the limiting oxygen concentration and the limiting gap width of combustible dusts on the other hand,  - the minimum ignition temperature and hot steel surfaces (mechanically generated hot surfaces) or glowing particle nests surfaces.
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  • 15
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 57-59 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The required vent area for pressure relief equipment is affected by the gas/vapor-liquid disengagement. The main objective of this work is the experimental verification of disengagement models for highly viscous fluids. The dynamic two-phase flow in the vessel is modeled with a one dimensional finite volume approach, the phase slip is taken into account with a drift flux model recommended by DIERS. The simulation shows good agreement with the experiment if the drift velocity is considered as a function of the fluid phase viscosity.
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  • 16
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 54-56 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The flammability of titanium chips, fines, and powders is widely recognized. Titanium alloy tubing is much more difficult to ignite. However, as this paper describes, titanium tubing in heat exchangers is subject to ignition as a result of hot work operations. Explosions can follow if water is applied to the burning titanium.A fire consumed the titanium tube bundle of a steam turbine condenser during demolition work in a decommissioned power plant. The titanium fire is believed to have initiated by contact with hot steel slag from torch cutting which was being conducted to remove sections of the steel condenser casing above the tube bundle. The approximately 25 ft long bundle was essentially consumed end-to-end, including the tube sheets.A fire watch had been stationed as part of the plant's Hot Work Permit System, but the initial phase of the fire was obscured from view. Workers reported a bright yellow flame coming from inside the south end of the tube bundle. Water application on the fire by workers and the local fire department was followed by explosions within the tube bundle and discharge pipes. Fortunately, no injuries or property damages occurred from this incident.Loss lessons from this and two similar titanium heat exchanger fires are presented. The initiating conditions for these fires are discussed.
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  • 17
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 18
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 50-53 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A complete solution to explosion protection in facilities processing combustible dusts or flammable gases often involves consideration of dust and gas conveying systems as well as primary process volumes. The pipes or ducts of the conveying system can serve as efficient means of propagating deflagrations from point to point in a plant. Subsequent to the implementation of the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 the need for explosion protection systems on pipes and ducts has increased. VOCs and vapors of hazardous chemicals are commonly incinerated. Such systems are subject to flash back failure and ignition of flammable gases in the feed pipe. Feed bins and product collectors up and down stream are at risk of ignition from sparks generated at grinding stations. Systems feeding dusty solids to furnaces are subject to flash back. This paper summarizes present day methods of detecting pipeline deflagration events and intercepting same using either fast closing valves or chemical barrier systems. Modes of deflagration detection, type and placement of barriers are discussed. The impact of the phase out of the production of halons in this area is also discussed. Examples of combustible dust and flammable gas protection systems are described.
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  • 19
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. S3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 69-71 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The management of safety, quality and environmental issues covers a complex set of interrelated issues of concern to society and industry. Traditionally an engineering approach has been adopted for the management of risk; the development of technical standards, operations and requirements. Recently, industry leaders have begun to realize that real progress will be made only throgh effective risk management systems. This paper presents a few of the key requirements for improving risk management and risk analysis. By improving the way risk analysis is used for decision support, improving hazard identification exercise, while incorporating site specific properties of design, condition, operation and management into an analysis, it is possible to improve the value of current risk management techniques.
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  • 21
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 61-68 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One of the many novel features on ICI's leading Concept Ammonia Plants is the use of Slam Shut Valves instead of safety relief valves for certain important relief duties. The design intention was to reduce the environmental impact of gas releases to the vent and flare systems, to allow a smaller vent and flare system to be installed, and to contain gas within the plant systems to allow rapid re-start following a plant upset giving considerable savings in flaring and plant re-start time. As the design proceeded throughout 1984-86, various implications of the design were revealed, and these are discussed in this paper. Nearly 15 years of operating and maintenance experience on the 2 plants at ICI's Severnside factory have justified the decision to use Slam Shut Valves.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 78-79 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is generally agreed that inherent safety is most effectively addressed early in chemical process development. Measurement of inherent safety, health, and environmental (SHE) characterisics of various process alternatives is important to effectively consider these charactersitics when selecting the best overall process. Several tools which can be used to measure inherent SHE characteristics of a chemical process early in development are briefly discussed.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 72-77 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In 1970, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company was formed to manage the design, costruction, operation and maintenance of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The 800 mile long pipeline carries crude oil from Prudhoe Bay on the North Slope to Port Valdez on Prince William Sound. There are 11 pump stations located along the pipeline, each of which is equipped with a crude oil relief tank. Because of the potential flammable nature of the crude oil vapors being vented from the tanks, Alyeska wanted to determine the region surrounding the tanks within which the lower flammable limit (LFL) could be exceeded. Because numerical models cannot accurately model the flow near structures, especially for dense gases (as is the case here), wind tunnel modeling was conducted to provide more accurate distance to LFL estimates. The wind tunnel model simulations were also used to judge the effect of various modeling parameters (i.e., site specific configurations, release scenarios and meteorological conditions), and to assist in possible future refinements to numerical models. Field observations were also obtained at one of the pump stations for the purpose of validating the wind tunnel modeling. The project, wind tunnel scaling methods, experimental methods, concentration measurement results, distance to LFL estimates and comparison between the field and wind tunnel observations are described in this paper.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative risk associated with two methods of storage, pressurized and refrigerated, for six different chemicals. The study was done under the technical guidance of DNV Technica who provided example methodology (Off site Pressurized Ethylene Oxide) and reviewed all the cases.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This document briefly describes the method used to estimate a screening value for the Total Failure Probability (FT) of human error events that are identified in the fault trees which describe potential liquid UF6 release accidents at two U.S. Gaseous Diffusion Plants. A discussion is provided of the assumptions, limitations, and overall logic of the FT assignment method, and a description is presented of how the method is employed. The description herein, and more completely in Burns and Turner [1], presents the screening technique* used to quantify human errors in the accident analysis portion of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 27
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 215-217 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Over three years ago the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) process safety management regulation became effective in the United States. Most of us have dealt with the initial shock of that regulation and what it entailed and, hopefully, we have things pretty much under control.Although, one hates to be the bearer of bad news, it is not yet time to relax. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has another process safety regulation in store for the ammonia industry. In fact, in some areas, the EPA's upcoming risk management programs regulation makes the OSHA regulation look like child's play.It is much better to be proactive than reactive when responding to new regulations. A proactive approach allows one to make the correct long-term decisions without the pressure of a compliance deadline.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 218-225 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To be cost-effective, a process hazards analysis effort should concentrate on those areas where there is the greatest potential for risk reduction. The level of detail of the analysis is a factor which affects the magnitude of effort and the completeness of the results. Often, there is an opportunity to combine components together to be analyzed as a single entity, in order to increase the efficiency of the hazard identification process. Issues arise concerning how to combine components, and what should be the appropriate level of detail for consideration. For instance, a level of detail shown on piping and instrumentation diagrams which has proven convenient for process design may not be sufficient or optimal for hazard identification. To resolve such issues, some guidelines are proposed for determining the appropriate level of detail. These guidelines have been deduced from the intent of the analysis and the basic assumptions of the methodology.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. O3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 229-231 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Quantitative risk assessment is comprised of the following steps: identification, consequence analysis, probability estimation, consideration of mitigation measures, as well as judging the outcome against certain criteria of tolerability. The first two steps are showing an increase in acceptability; the rest remain the center of controversy.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 170-171 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article discusses two incidents, both of which occurred after process safety reviews had taken place. Certain key recommendations were made for inherently safer operations, but the people in charge had decided not to implement them. In this connection it is important to note the three P's of safety: Safety of People, Property, and Profits. Safety hazards in a process operation can involve any or all of these. The first incident involved safety of property and profits, i.e., significant losses in both; the second primarily involved safety of profits. Both incidents occurred well before the days of OSHA and EPA.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 172-184 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Risk assessment, based on quantitative maximum credible accident analysis (MCAA), has been conducted for a chloralkali industry situated in the midst of densely populated coastal villages. The study has made use of a software package MAXimum CREDible accident analysis version 2 (henceforth referred to as MAXCRED-II) recently developed by us.Among the six different most credible accident scenarios developed using MAXCRED-II, the one envisaging ‘confined vapor cloud explosion followed by fire ball’ (in the hydrogen storage vessel) comes out to be the worst in terms of the highest propensity for damage (overpressure, missile, heat load). It also has the potential of causing domino effect (chain of accidents). The scenario of causing domino effect (chain of accidents). The scenario of ‘continuous release of chlorine from storage vessel’ is the second most disastrous, in terms of lethal toxic load likely over a large distance (3252 meters). In summary, the study reveals that given the masses of materials stored, and the conditions in which they are stored, there is a live risk of accidents in the storage vessels that would have far-reaching consequences. The industry thus poses a great risk to large areas of surrounding including densely populated villages (particularly Chinnakalapet and Kalapet) and the campuses of Pondicherry University and Pondicherry Engineering College.This paper demonstrates the utilizability of MAXCRED-II and also focuses attention on the need to bestow greater effort towards risk assessment. It is hoped that these studies will make plant managers conscious of the serious consequences that can result from accidents in their vulnerable units. Appreciation of the risk, we hope, will prompt them to develop accident prevention strategies and to put in position emergency preparedness plans to cushion the adverse impacts if accidents do occur.
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    Process Safety Progress 16 (1997), S. 198-201 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Knowledge of the decomposition reactions of chemicals when tested neat versus in mixtures with various solvents is essential for process safety studies. The decomposition of several mercaptotetrazole derivatives was studied by differential scanning calorimetry, both neat and in seven different solvents. Most mixtures exhibited destabilization of the chemical in the solvent compared with the neat material, resulting in a lower decomposition onset temperature in the mixture. It was demonstrated that the decomposition mechanism and kinetics changed significantly when these chemicals were mixed with solvents. The highly variable effects on thermal stability from mixing thermally unstable chemicals with solvents demonstrates the value of thermal stability testing of reaction mixtures as integral part of process hazard identification.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 257-265 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Dust layers on the bottom of mine tunnels, on factory floors, or on the floors of grain elevator passages are the most frequent cause of highly destructive dust explosions. Typically, such layered dust explosions involve a high velocity, accelerating, turbulent flame which is fed by the dust layer and results in high destructive static and dynamic pressures. In some cases transition to detonation has been observed, and such explosions are the most destructive. Scientific studies of such layered dust explosions, conducted at the University of Michigan, are discussed.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 271-275 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We learn more from accounts of accidents than from codes and standards or exhortations to follow them. Incident reports are more likely to spur us into action. We are unlikely to read a code until an accident report has shown us the need. This paper describes a number of accidents, some old, some recent, which can teach us lessons of general interest. It looks at the underlying causes as well as the immediate technical ones.
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    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 266-270 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The activation energies of two wood sawdusts were determined using an experimental technique based on the crossing-point temperature concept, which was derived from the transient model of self-heating in a solid. The two samples used in this study were treated and untreated sawdust. The activation energies measured were 106 ± 4 kJ mol-1 for the treated sawdust and 90 ± 3 kJ mol-1 for the untreated sawdust. These values are similar to those in previously published results which were obtained using the steady-state model. The transient model provides a quicker yet sufficiently accurate method of determining thermal ignition kinetics.
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. S3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 1-1 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: One of the most lucrative areas for improving bottom line profitability is related to an organization's costs for utilities and energy. Such thing as gas, electric, water, and telephones are treasure chests of cost reduction opportunities. In the past, these items have been viewed as a fixed expense or basic mundane commodity. In recent years, these items have become a large portion of product cost now must be examined on a contiual basis. A formal income improvement program to capture and report on the savings is a requirement for remaining competitive in a global economy.
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 32-41 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The results from four research projects on ammonia stress corrosion cracking (SCC) are provided, including the effect of oxygen and water in the ammonia, prevention of SCC with electrochemical methods, crack growth rate studies, and behavior of welds. Practical recommendations are given for construction, inspection, repair, commissioning, and operation of ammonia storage tanks.
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 26-31 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: While releases of hazardous/toxic fluids from pressurized pipelines are infrequent, the potential for a catastrophic event resulting from such a release warrants extraordinary care of the hazardous/toxic piping systems containing these fluids, during the entire plant life cycle.System identification, segregation, material and component selection, construction techniques, and preventative maintenance programs all contribute to improved system reliability, and are discussed herein. Methods to mitigate damages in the event of a failure are also discussed.
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
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    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 48-51 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Implementing an Inherent SHE Review process is under way at the Exxon Chemical Company and progress is being made in the pursuit of inherently safer, healtheir, and environmentally friendly processes. The review integrates well with the company's systems for process safety management, new product development, and project execution. In addition, the Inherent SHE Review process has been quite helpful in educating the organization with regard to the appoprite use of the laboratory in developing reactive chemistry understanding during product and process development. Another benefit of the Inherent SHE Review process is the proactive involvement of industrial hygiene early in the product development and project execution processes.
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 42-47 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Process safety officials often place great emphasis on the results from tests to define various fire and explosion hazards inherent in dusts. These include the flammability, the autoignition temperature, the lower explosive limit, and sometimes the Kst-value which is a characteristic equivalent to the maximum pressure rise in a 1 m3 vessel of an optimally combined substance/air mixture when the temperature is 20°C and pressure was 100 kPa before the explosion. It is also important to know if there is any electrostatic hazard. Tests of the specific volumetric resistance, the minimum ignition energy, the electrostatic chargeability, the relative permittivity and the discharge time contribute to determining this specific hazard.If the substance is also subjected to elevated thermal conditions, the safe process temperature should be tested by the help of thermoanalytical techniques [1, 2, 3, 4]. If the dust indicates the characteristics of an explosive in such tests, its sensitivity to impact should be tested, and if the substance is sensitive to impact, its sensitivity to friction should also be tested [5, 6, 7]. Note: many of the tests used for process safety studies in the chemical industry have been adapted from the explosives industry.The significance of friction testing for expert decisions regarding grinding operations on non-explosive chemicals when the test results of the sensitivity to impact were negative is introduced in this paper.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. S3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 1-8 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recent guidelines released by the U.S. EPA define a worst-case scenario as a release under stable atmospheric conditions defined as Pasquil-Gifford stability class F. Unfortunately, very few tests at F stability have been available heretofore to provide a basis for models. Recent test data with propane releases by the German research organization TUV provide a set of 60 experiments conducted specifically to define the effects of atmospheric stability class on dispersion. Of these, 25 tests were at F stability. A comparable number were at each other stability class A through E. In addition 23 tests were at wind speeds under 1.5 m/s in stable atmospheres. This paper reports on adjustments made to our models based on these new data by reducing the originally-postulated sensitivity to stability class. In spite of considerable scatter in the TUV data, particularly between two different types of propane analyzers, the model allows us to extract information by averaging over the tests.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 9-15 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The design and deflagration pressure relief vents is based on correlations developed for various types of combustible materials and for enclosures of different strengths. The primary guideline for deflagration vent design in the US is NFPA 68 Guide for Venting of Deflagrations [5]. That document gives guidance for the design of vents for enclosures containing flammable gases, specifically hydrogen, coke oven gas, propane, and methane. Application of the guide to other gases is achieved using the KG value. Values of KG are published for a relatively small number of gases, as seen in Table D-1 of NFPA 68. This work present KG data on several additional gases obtained in a laboratory scale test vessel along with analysis of the results with respect to published values of fundamental burning velocity.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 20-22 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Most audits try to look at a representative selection of the plant procedures and equipment. An alternative is a survey, a look in depth at selected procedures (such as those for testing alarms and trips, issuing permits-to-work, controlling modifications, taking samples or testing relief devices) or selected equipment (such as level glasses or equipment for handling LPG). If the procedure or equipment is well-chosen, surveys may make a bigger contribution to safety, per person-hour, than a conventional audit.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 16-19 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A multi-disciplinary team developed a guideline for determining access restriction zones around vented solids handling equipment. The guideline provides a method for ensuring the discharge from a vented explosion will not cause injury to personnel. The steps in this method include: calculating the extent of external hazards from vented explosions; identifying potential areas where personnel could be exposed to a hazard; identifying ways to eliminate or reduce the hazard area; and establishing and documenting any access restrictions needed. Hazard zone calculations use the latest knowledge from research into fireball size, flame length and external pressure equations in VDI 3673. The guideline provides guidance for using this information. Options for mitigating or reducing external hazards from vented explosions are also described. As part of the project, the team audited several solids handling systems to look for potential oversights in existing restricted access areas. Some of the team's learnings from these audits are reviewed.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 23-31 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In May 1996, the Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code Committee of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) proposed for adoption by the Association a new edition of NFPA 30, Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. This new edition was the culmination of two and one-half years' work by the Committee and included one of the most significant changes to that document in some twenty years: the incorporation of mandatory fire protection criteria for warehouses and other inside areas that store flammable and combustible liquids in containers and portable tanks.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 43-48 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper defines situation awareness (SA) and discusses its importance to operator-machine system safety and functioning in the context of process control activities. Specifically, identified are relationships of human detection of critical process cues converying the status of automated control systems and operator interpretation of the meaning and relevance of such information to the potential for negative incidents in chemical processing. Beyond individual operator SA in interacting with control systems, intra- and inter- work team SA are discussed for supporting individual attainment of process control responsibilities. Factors critical to team SA are discussed. “Road blocks” to team SA are also analytically examined. Lastly, methods for assessing individual and team SA are reviewed and vehicles for relating outcomes of these methods to changes in process control operator and team behavior to improve human-machine system safety and performance are relayed.
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    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 106-109 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This paper introduces a new method (now commonly referred to as the Baker-Strehlow Method) for estimating pressure and impulse generated by vapor cloud explosions. Strehlow's blast curves and concepts from the Multi-Energy method for determination of explosion energy are applied in this technique. New correlations for maximum flame speed based on obstacle density, fuel reactivity, and cloud confinement allow selection of the appropriate blast curve. Application of these correlations removes much of the subjectivity present in existing explosion estimates.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The knowledge of the ingition behavior of dust-air mixtures due to electrical sparks (MIE, Minimum Ignition Energy) and hot surfaces (MIT, Minimum Ignition Temperature) is important for risk assessments in chemical production plants. The ignition behavior determines the extent and hence the cost of preventive protection measures.This paper describes the use of the minimum ignition energy and minimum ignition temperature as very important safety indexes in practice.Based on the latest results from large scale experiments on pneumatic filling of silos with polymeric materials and new results of full scale filling tests using Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC) manufactured from a variety of materials, guidance can be given to ensure safe operation in different situations such as filling, emptying operations, type of powder handled.The aim of this paper is to assist people dealing with product. It reflects the present state of the art and current knowledge of the assessment and measures associated with powder handling.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. S3 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 83-85 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Safety, health and loss prevention are major areas of interst for the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). There has been an evolution of these concerns over the years in the Institute just as it has in industry. This article chronicles this evolution.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 171-175 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An explosion occurred in a petroleum product storage tank at a refinery. The liquid petroleum product was a heavy oil used as an asphalt extender. There were no injuries, but the cleanup was costly. The storage tank was one of several which received the product stream from a dehydration unit. The accident occurred shortly after the refinery was brought back on-line following a shutdown for schduled maintenance.This was the first incident of this kind to occur at this facility. Analysis of the process data and eyewitness observations indicated that the dehydration tower, which was supposed to be maintained at a minimum of 100°C during the shutdown, was allowed to drift below 100°C for an unknown period of time. This deviation enabled liquid water to enter the storage tank. Three operational factors contributed to the accident. Corrective actions were recommended to prevent a recurrence of a similar incident.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 157-170 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Risk analysis in chemical process industries is an elaborate exercise involving several steps from preliminary hazard identification to development of credible accident scenarios, to preparation of strategies for prevention or control of damage.All this requires substantial inputs of time and money. In order to get an approximate yet workable assessment of risk at much lesser costs, indices have been developed which link typical findings of elaborate risk analysis to scales of risk. The scales, in turn, provide workable measures of hazards/risks/safety.In the past, indices have been reported for swift risk assessment - the noteworthy among them include Dow fire and explosion index, Mond fire, explosion and toxicity index, IFAL index, and mortality index. A few rapid ranking techniques have also been proposed.This paper presents a new system of methodologies for Hazard Identification and Ranking (HIRA). The system consists of two indices: one for fire and explosion hazards and another for the hazard due to likely release of toxic chemical. The magnitudes of these indices indicate the severity of the likely accident; in terms of the size of the impacted area.HIRA has been applied to a typical chemical process industry - a sulfolane plant - and its performance has been compared with that of the Dow's and the Mond's indices. The study reveals that HIRA is more sensitive and accurate than the other indices.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 184-189 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Dust explosions have been with us for a long time. The first record of a dust explosion occurred in Turin, Italy, on December 14, 1785 [1]. The detailed record of this event is left to us by Count Morozzo. The event took place in Mr. Giacomelli's bakery. We know from his account that the weather was unseasonably dry, that a boy who worked in the bakery was using a shovel to stir and transfer the flour to a chute from a store room to the bakery and he had a lighted lamp to work by. The rest, as the saying goes, is history. No one was killed, and the building was saved by the sagacious fact of having plenty of windows. Since that first record, of course, there have been many explosions with much loss of life and significant economic consequences.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 176-183 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The safest method to prevent fires and explosions of flammable mixtures in the first place. This method requires detailed knowledge of the flammability region as a function of the fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen concentrations. A triangular flammability diagram is the most useful tool to display the flammability region, and to determine if a flammable mixture is present during plant operations.This paper describes how to draw and use a flammability diagram. A procedure to estimate the flammability region using the available and sometimes limited data is discussed. The paper also shows how to use the flammability diagram with plant operations involving inerting and purging, and from bringing vessels into and out of service. A compilation of flammability diagrams for 30 materials, based on previously published data is provided.An automated apparatus for acquiring data for a flammability diagram is described. The apparatus consists of a 20-L sphere with an automated gas mixing system, a fuse-wire ignition system, and a high speed pressure measurement and data acquisition system. Data derived from the apparatus includes flammability limits, maximum pressure during combustion, and the maximum pressure rate. The effect of fuse-wire ignitor dynamics on the results is studied. A flammability diagram for methane drawn from data obtained from the apparatus, is presented.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 190-195 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The RSST DIERS vent sizing methodology is revised to provide realistic design equations for reactive systems consistent with available large-scale experience. Using easy to obtain RSST data such as rate of temperature rise and rate of pressure rise excellent agreement is illustrated for hybrid, vapor and gassy reactive systems.
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 200-208 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 209-212 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: HFC-227ea (CF3CHFCF3;1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-heptafluoropropane) is an effective replacement for Halon 1301 in fire suppression systems, providing rapid extinguishment of flames through a combination of physical and chemical mechanisms. The vast majority of applications for HFC-227ea involve the protection of Class A hazards, which are characterized by low fuel loadings and low energy output, with fire sizes often in the range of 5-10 kW. Mid- and large-scale testing has demonstrated that HFC-227ea, at its minimum design concentration of 7.0% v/v, is effective at extinguishing fires typical of those expected to occur in electronic data processing (EDP) facilities, telecommunication facilities and anechoic chambers. The levels of HF produced following extinguishment of typical Class a fires with HFC-227ea were well below the estimated mammalian LC50 and the human Dangerous Toxic Load (DTL), and do not appear to present a threat to electronic equipment.
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    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new method is described to enhance the management of process safety risks such that the number and type of safety systems protecting against any hazard are consistently predicated upon risk. Further, that such an assignment of safety systems can be made consistent throughout an organization. This consistency is gained through standardization of qualitative risk ranking and by setting company guidelines.
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    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 288-296 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An ammonia storage tank was built at the BASF Antwerp site in 1969 on land reclaimed from the sea. After several years of operation uneven foundation settlement, of up 2, occurred. In order to assure stability of this area for the next operation period (at least 10 years) measures were taken to ensure continued safe operation. One key measure was strain gauge monitoring at the location of maximum stress.
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  • 66
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    AIChE Journal 41 (1995), S. 135-147 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Research on exothermic reactor operation has been based mostly on the classic two-state continuous stirred tank reactor model, implicitly assuming that the cooling jacket temperature dynamics are negligible. In this case, the cooling jacket temperature is the manipulated input instead of the cooling jacket flow rate for feedback control of reactor temperature. Adding a cooling jacket energy balance results in much more complex behavior than a simple lag effect. A stabilizing inner-loop cascade controller is assumed in the two-state CSTR model, because the three-state model incorporating cooling jacket temperature dynamics may be open-loop unstable when the two-state model is open-loop stable. The influence of design parameters on the multiplicity behavior of a three-state model is considered. Elementary catastrophe theory is used to study the effect of process parameters such as the cooling jacket flow rate, heat-transfer coefficient, heat of reaction, and cooling jacket feed temperature on the steady-state multiplicity of the three-state model. This multiplicity analysis is particularly relevant for control because the primary bifurcation parameter is the cooling jacket flow rate, the manipulated input for feedback control in the three-state model. This multiplicity analysis guides improvements in process design and/or operation to eliminate difficult operating regions associated with steady-state multiplicities; the presence of multiple steady states results in safety and operation problems due to ignition/extinction phenomena. Reactor scale-up affects the presence of these infeasible reactor operating regions. Certain design parameter changes that remove multiplicities in the two-state model cannot remove multiplicities in the three-state model.
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  • 67
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    AIChE Journal 41 (1995), S. 159-165 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Microporous silica gels can be made by polymerizing partially hydrolyzed tetramethoxysilane sols present in the aqueous phase of bicontinuous microemulsions stabilized with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide. When vacuum-dried, the gels made in microemulsions have about twice the specific surface area of conventional vacuum-dried silica gels. They have 70% of the specific area of supercritically dried gels. Small-angle X-ray Scattering measurements in these gels show two characteristic sizes. One size, around 24Å, in the original microemulsion is retained during polymerization, but lost when the detergent is extracted. The second size grows with the square root of time during the polymerization, suggesting diffusion-controlled gelation.
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    AIChE Journal 41 (1995), S. 214-222 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Nucleation and growth of bubbles in porous media are important problems encountered in processes such as pressure depletion and boiling. Experiments and numerical simulations are studied in micromodel geometries to understand their basic aspects. Experiments of bubble growth by pressure depletion are carried out in 2-D etched-glass micromodels and in Hele-Shaw cells. Nucleation of bubbles and subsequent growth of gas clusters are visualized. Contrary to the bulk or Hele-Shaw cells, gas clusters in the micromodel have irregular and ramified shapes and share many of the features of an external invasion process (such as percolation during drainage). A pore network numerical model developed simulates the growth of multiple gas clusters under various conditions. It is based on the solution of the convection-diffusion equation and accounts for capillary and viscous forces, which play an important role in determining growth patterns. Numerical simulation agrees well with the experimental results.
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    AIChE Journal 41 (1995), S. 205-213 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The first quantitative, reproducible experimental results are presented for the compressive wave generated in a gas by a rapid rise in the temperature of a bounding solid surface. When a resistive-capacitive electrical circuit rapidly heats a thin foil constituting one end of a closed polyacetal cylindrical tube to a high temperature, the amplitude of the initial traveling peak in pressure is proportional to the maximum rise in temperature of the heated surface and depends critically on the heating rate. This amplitude is twice as high for argon as for helium, and is intermediate and essentially the same for nitrogen and air. For all conditions, the wave celerity is slightly greater than the adiabatic acoustic velocity. The waves have a very sharp front and a long region of decay, which is contradictory to the sinusoidal waves postulated by Rayleigh and the nearly symmetrical ones predicted by all prior numerical solutions as well as by the asymptotic solution of Trilling. Such compressive waves and their reflections increase the transient heating rate of a confined gas, may produce unsuspected and unwanted disturbances in otherwise static systems, and offer a possible means of remote detection of excursions in the temperature of a surface.
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    AIChE Journal 41 (1995), S. 223-228 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology