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  • Chemical Engineering  (17,980)
  • 1
    Keywords: Biomass conversion ; Biotechnology ; Chemical Engineering ; Chemistry industry ; Industrial Chemistry ; Kent ; Riegel ; biochemical engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: Substantially revising and updating the classic reference in the field, this handbook offers a valuable overview and myriad details on current chemical processes, products, and practices. No other source offers as much data on the chemistry, engineering, economics, and infrastructure of the industry. The Handbook serves a spectrum of individuals, from those who are directly involved in the chemical industry to others in related industries and activities. It provides not only the underlying science and technology for important industry sectors, but also broad coverage of critical supporting topics. Industrial processes and products can be much enhanced through observing the tenets and applying the methodologies found in chapters on Green Engineering and Chemistry (specifically, biomass conversion), Practical Catalysis, and Environmental Measurements; as well as expanded treatment of Safety, chemistry plant security, and Emergency Preparedness. Understanding these factors allows them to be part of the total process and helps achieve optimum results in, for example, process development, review, and modification. Important topics in the energy field, namely nuclear, coal, natural gas, and petroleum, are covered in individual chapters. Other new chapters include energy conversion, energy storage, emerging nanoscience and technology. Updated sections include more material on biomass conversion, as well as three chapters covering biotechnology topics, namely, Industrial Biotechnology, Industrial Enzymes, and Industrial Production of Therapeutic Proteins.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIV, 1562 pages)
    ISBN: 9780387278438
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 872-876 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the effects of vibration of the heat transfer surface in saturated pool boiling of water at atmospheric pressure. Wires of 0.01 in. diameter were heated electrically and vibrated electromagnetically at frequencies ranging from 20 to 115 cycles/sec. and amplitudes from 0.0118 to 0.0701 in. An increase in heat transfer up to a maximum of 200% at low ΔT was observed for an increase in frequency and/or amplitude. At a heat flux of 105 B.t.u./(hr.) (sq. ft.) high-speed motion pictures were taken at 4,800 frames/sec. of a wire vibrating at 45 cycles/sec. with an amplitude of 0.0492 in. Comparison of these films with those taken at the same heat flux without vibration showed that the generating period and diameters at break-off for the pulsed wire follow normal distribution. The waiting period is much longer and more fluctuating in nature. A slight increase in bubble emission frequency was also observed for pulsating wire.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 877-883 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The results of ideal and nonideal vapor-liquid equilibria of ammonia-water-nitrogen-hydrogen, a system of industrial importance, have been examined. Redlich-Kwong equation of state and the Gompertz equation have been used to determine the fugacities and activity coefficients in the vapor and liquid phases, respectively. The standard fugacity in the liquid phase is found by integrating the fundamental thermodynamic equation by using the Gamson-Watson expression.A trial and error procedure for the determination of a nonideal equilibrium system has been suggested. A comparison has been made between the available experimental values and the calculated ones. The importance of the use of fugacities which include deviations from ideality in calculating thermodynamic equilibria has been pointed out.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 883-889 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The chemical reaction and diffusion rate parameters were determined for the hydration of liquid isobutylene to t-butanol with a cation exchange resin catalyst. High reaction rates were found to result from a high diffusivity of isobutylene within the resin catalyst. Both the high value for diffusivity and its negative temperature coefficient are consistent with the transport mechanism within the resin, being that of surface diffusion of isobutylene in an adsorbed state.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 890-895 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: For a trial multistep mechanism for a heterogeneous catalytic reaction, it is suggested that dynamic experiments can be used to calculate the forward and reverse rate constants of individual steps. The experiments consist of the measurement of the composition of the effluent from a continuous stirred-tank catalytic reactor as a function of time as the input composition to the reactor is perturbed. The method of moments is used to obtain the kinetic constants for a trial mechanism from the experimental data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 896-902 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: While much attention has been given to second virial coefficients of nonpolar gases, experimental and theoretical studies on third virial coefficients are scarce. This work presents a correlation of third virial coefficients within the framework of the corresponding states principle. The correlation is useful for estimating third virial coefficients of pure and mixed nonpolar gases, including the quatum gases helium, hydrogen, and neon. The importance of third virial cross coefficients in phase equilibrium predictions is illustrated with calculations for the solid-gas, methane-hydrogen system at 76°K.Brief attention is given to the pressure series form of the virial equation. Because of fortuitous cancellations, it is shown that for reduced temperatures above 1.4, the pressure series, truncated after the second term, is applicable to a wider range of density than the density series truncated after the second term. However, when both series are truncated after the third term, the density series appears to be superior regardless of reduced temperature.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 903-908 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The pyrolysis of propane has been studied over the temperature range 830° to 1180°C. with a single-pulse shock tube employed to effect rapid heating and quenching. Both the uncatalyzed decomposition and the decomposition catalyzed by hydrogen sulfide were studied. First-order rate constants for the uncatalyzed reaction are in excellent agreement with published data obtained in nonisothermal, tubular reactors. The product distribution differs from that obtained in other studies. It is characterized by decomposition of propane via two routes at roughly equal rates, one route leading to propylene and hydrogen, the other to ethylene and methane or ethane. Propylene subsequently is converted, almost stoichiometrically, to ethylene and acetylene. Hydrogen sulfide accelerates the initial decomposition of propane, thus maintaining high propylene selectivity to high propane conversion. A free radical mechanism is used to explain the gross features of the pyrolysis.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 909-914 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Unsteady diffusion in the system methane-argon-hydrogen was studied in a Loschmidt apparatus with large changes in concentration. The mean concentration-time history was predicted within experimental error by the linearized equations of multicomponent mass transfer. In the calculations the Stefan-Maxwell equations were used to obtain the diffusivity matrix which was evaluated at the equilibrium concentration.Digital computer solutions to the nonlinear differential equations were also obtained for various systems and boundary conditions. The fluxes predicted by the linearized equations with the diffusivity matrix evaluated at the arithmetic average of the initial and boundary concentrations were in all cases within 5% of the numerical predictions.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 915-925 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The chlorination of propane was studied in a tubular flow reactor, with outside illumination, at atmospheric pressure. At chlorine concentrations of less than 1.5 mole % (and inert nitrogen above 94%) a second-order (in chlorine) rate expression was indicated. At higher chlorine or propane concentrations propane affects the rate. Two rate equations, based upon different termination steps for the chain carriers, were found to fit the data. For the low concentration region the apparent activation energy for the overall reaction was 3.4 kcal./g.-mole. Most of the measurements were carried out with polychromatic light, but data taken with a narrow band of radiation, over the range 2,200 to 5,400Ā, showed an increase in rate with decreasing wave length. As a first step toward reactor design, differential reactor data were used to predict the conversion for laminar flow, integral reactor conditions. A reactor model which included the effects of residence time distribution and radial variation in light intensity gave good agreement with experimental data. A plug-flow model was less satisfactory.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 931-935 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The general form of the equations describing a steady, two-dimensional flow of an incompressible liquid is reduced to a form containing only two parameters. The histories of stress and of deformation of a material element are written explicitly. A second-order, slow-flow approximation and a Maxwell type of constitutive equation are used to infer properties of the rheological behavior of viscoelastic liquids in such flows.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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