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  • Chemical Engineering  (17,980)
  • 1
    Keywords: Biomass conversion ; Biotechnology ; Chemical Engineering ; Chemistry industry ; Industrial Chemistry ; Kent ; Riegel ; biochemical engineering
    Description / Table of Contents: Substantially revising and updating the classic reference in the field, this handbook offers a valuable overview and myriad details on current chemical processes, products, and practices. No other source offers as much data on the chemistry, engineering, economics, and infrastructure of the industry. The Handbook serves a spectrum of individuals, from those who are directly involved in the chemical industry to others in related industries and activities. It provides not only the underlying science and technology for important industry sectors, but also broad coverage of critical supporting topics. Industrial processes and products can be much enhanced through observing the tenets and applying the methodologies found in chapters on Green Engineering and Chemistry (specifically, biomass conversion), Practical Catalysis, and Environmental Measurements; as well as expanded treatment of Safety, chemistry plant security, and Emergency Preparedness. Understanding these factors allows them to be part of the total process and helps achieve optimum results in, for example, process development, review, and modification. Important topics in the energy field, namely nuclear, coal, natural gas, and petroleum, are covered in individual chapters. Other new chapters include energy conversion, energy storage, emerging nanoscience and technology. Updated sections include more material on biomass conversion, as well as three chapters covering biotechnology topics, namely, Industrial Biotechnology, Industrial Enzymes, and Industrial Production of Therapeutic Proteins.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XIV, 1562 pages)
    ISBN: 9780387278438
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: Ethanol toxicity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae limits titer and productivity in the industrial production of transportation bioethanol. We show that strengthening the opposing potassium and proton electrochemical membrane gradients is a mechanism that enhances general resistance to multiple alcohols. The elevation of extracellular potassium and pH physically bolsters these gradients, increasing tolerance to higher alcohols and ethanol fermentation in commercial and laboratory strains (including a xylose-fermenting strain) under industrial-like conditions. Production per cell remains largely unchanged, with improvements deriving from heightened population viability. Likewise, up-regulation of the potassium and proton pumps in the laboratory strain enhances performance to levels exceeding those of industrial strains. Although genetically complex, alcohol tolerance can thus be dominated by a single cellular process, one controlled by a major physicochemical component but amenable to biological augmentation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401034/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4401034/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lam, Felix H -- Ghaderi, Adel -- Fink, Gerald R -- Stephanopoulos, Gregory -- R01 GM035010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM035010/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 3;346(6205):71-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1257859. Epub 2014 Oct 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA, USA. gfink@wi.mit.edu gregstep@mit.edu. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA. gfink@wi.mit.edu gregstep@mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25278607" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biofuels ; Cation Transport Proteins/genetics ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Chemical Engineering ; *Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics ; Ethanol/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Fermentation ; Genetic Engineering ; Glucose/metabolism ; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration ; Phosphates/*metabolism ; Potassium Compounds/*metabolism ; Proton Pumps/genetics ; Proton-Translocating ATPases/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects/genetics/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics ; Up-Regulation ; Xylose/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2007-11-17
    Description: Artificial biochemical circuits are likely to play as large a role in biological engineering as electrical circuits have played in the engineering of electromechanical devices. Toward that end, nucleic acids provide a designable substrate for the regulation of biochemical reactions. However, it has been difficult to incorporate signal amplification components. We introduce a design strategy that allows a specified input oligonucleotide to catalyze the release of a specified output oligonucleotide, which in turn can serve as a catalyst for other reactions. This reaction, which is driven forward by the configurational entropy of the released molecule, provides an amplifying circuit element that is simple, fast, modular, composable, and robust. We have constructed and characterized several circuits that amplify nucleic acid signals, including a feedforward cascade with quadratic kinetics and a positive feedback circuit with exponential growth kinetics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, David Yu -- Turberfield, Andrew J -- Yurke, Bernard -- Winfree, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2007 Nov 16;318(5853):1121-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Computation and Neural Systems, California Institute of Technology, MC 136-93, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA91125, USA. dzhang@dna.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18006742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Catalysis ; Chemical Engineering ; *Computers, Molecular ; DNA/*chemistry ; Entropy ; Equipment Design ; Feedback, Physiological ; Mice ; Nanotechnology ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; Rabbits
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: Exploiting binding affinities between molecules is an established practice in many fields, including biochemical separations, diagnostics, and drug development; however, using these affinities to control biomolecule release is a more recent strategy. Affinity-controlled release takes advantage of the reversible nature of noncovalent interactions between a therapeutic protein and a binding partner to slow the diffusive release of the protein from a vehicle. This process, in contrast to degradation-controlled sustained-release formulations such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres, is controlled through the strength of the binding interaction, the binding kinetics, and the concentration of binding partners. In the context of affinity-controlled release--and specifically the discovery or design of binding partners--we review advances in in vitro selection and directed evolution of proteins, peptides, and oligonucleotides (aptamers), aided by computational design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pakulska, Malgosia M -- Miersch, Shane -- Shoichet, Molly S -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):aac4750. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4750.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, and Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chemical Engineering ; Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques ; Delayed-Action Preparations/*chemistry ; Directed Molecular Evolution ; *Drug Design ; Humans ; Lactic Acid/*chemistry ; Microspheres ; Polyglycolic Acid/*chemistry ; Proteins/*administration & dosage
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2012-11-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Savage, Phillip E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2012 Nov 23;338(6110):1039-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1224310.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chemical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. psavage@umich.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23180853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Biofuels ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Chemical Engineering ; Chlorophyta/*chemistry/growth & development ; *Hot Temperature ; *Hydrostatic Pressure ; *Water
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Langer, Robert S -- Gura, Trisha -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 28;346(6213):1146. doi: 10.1126/science.346.6213.1146.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Trisha Gura is a freelance writer who lives in Boston. For more on life and careers visit www.sciencecareers.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430772" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Biotechnology ; *Career Choice ; Chemical Engineering ; *Entrepreneurship ; *Science
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 872-876 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the effects of vibration of the heat transfer surface in saturated pool boiling of water at atmospheric pressure. Wires of 0.01 in. diameter were heated electrically and vibrated electromagnetically at frequencies ranging from 20 to 115 cycles/sec. and amplitudes from 0.0118 to 0.0701 in. An increase in heat transfer up to a maximum of 200% at low ΔT was observed for an increase in frequency and/or amplitude. At a heat flux of 105 B.t.u./(hr.) (sq. ft.) high-speed motion pictures were taken at 4,800 frames/sec. of a wire vibrating at 45 cycles/sec. with an amplitude of 0.0492 in. Comparison of these films with those taken at the same heat flux without vibration showed that the generating period and diameters at break-off for the pulsed wire follow normal distribution. The waiting period is much longer and more fluctuating in nature. A slight increase in bubble emission frequency was also observed for pulsating wire.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 877-883 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The results of ideal and nonideal vapor-liquid equilibria of ammonia-water-nitrogen-hydrogen, a system of industrial importance, have been examined. Redlich-Kwong equation of state and the Gompertz equation have been used to determine the fugacities and activity coefficients in the vapor and liquid phases, respectively. The standard fugacity in the liquid phase is found by integrating the fundamental thermodynamic equation by using the Gamson-Watson expression.A trial and error procedure for the determination of a nonideal equilibrium system has been suggested. A comparison has been made between the available experimental values and the calculated ones. The importance of the use of fugacities which include deviations from ideality in calculating thermodynamic equilibria has been pointed out.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 883-889 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The chemical reaction and diffusion rate parameters were determined for the hydration of liquid isobutylene to t-butanol with a cation exchange resin catalyst. High reaction rates were found to result from a high diffusivity of isobutylene within the resin catalyst. Both the high value for diffusivity and its negative temperature coefficient are consistent with the transport mechanism within the resin, being that of surface diffusion of isobutylene in an adsorbed state.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 13 (1967), S. 890-895 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: For a trial multistep mechanism for a heterogeneous catalytic reaction, it is suggested that dynamic experiments can be used to calculate the forward and reverse rate constants of individual steps. The experiments consist of the measurement of the composition of the effluent from a continuous stirred-tank catalytic reactor as a function of time as the input composition to the reactor is perturbed. The method of moments is used to obtain the kinetic constants for a trial mechanism from the experimental data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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