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  • Cell & Developmental Biology  (36)
  • 1980-1984
  • 1925-1929  (36)
  • 1926  (36)
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Publisher
Years
  • 1980-1984
  • 1925-1929  (36)
Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 547-579 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The pelvic fins of the ancestors of the Chondrosteoidei possessed a metameric musculature and their skeleton consisted of a large number of metamerically arranged cartilaginous fin-rays, to which were attached osseous lepidotrichia. Evolution has involved the concrescence of separate elements to form the basal cartilage, the proximal end of which forms the girdle of the fin; the loss of a number of the fin-rays, and the atrophy of distal elements of the rays. The adult Chondrosteoidei have retained the primitive fin structure which characterized the elasmobranchs of the Palaeozoic period and which has disappeared in recent forms.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The lips of the animal are modified in relation to the act of passing seeds into the sac. The cheek-sacs are invaginations of the buccal mucosa, and their development as diverticula of the vestibulum oris is associated with the establishment of extrinsic muscles, derived from the platysma. The sac is invested by a coat of striated muscle. The epithelial lining of the sac attains a degree of complexity comparable to the epidermis of the skin, except that a stratum lucidum and stratum granulosum are not developed. No glands are developed in the mucous membrane of the sac.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Three groups of pure lines of diverse clones of Didinium nasutum were maintained in isolation cultures for 778, 786, and 457 generations, respectively, without exhibiting any decrease in fission rate or any increase in encystment rate or death rate. These lines were supplied with Paramecium caudatum in such numbers that a surplus of food was present at all times.Three other groups of lines of the same clones were established simultaneously and cultured in parallel with the preceding groups, but the food of each of these lines was limited to nine paramecia per line daily. The fission rate of these lines fell to zero and the encystment rate increased to 100 per cent after 155, 165, and 113 generations of culture, respectively. The death rate increased appreciably in these lines prior to encystment.Other groups of pure lines were cultured on a diet limited to six paramecia per line daily. These lines encysted after approximately fifteen generations of culture.This evidence indicates that there is nothing in the nature of a definite life-cycle in Didinium and that diminished vitality and encystment do not result from the passage of generations, but from inadequate and unfavorable cultural conditions-specifically, from in-sufficient food. It shows further that it is possible to induce cycles with reference to encystment in Didinium by limiting the food supply and to vary the length of the cycles by varying the quantity of food.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the blastula the region of accelerated cell division is on the ventral side of the egg, nearly opposite the site of the future beginning blastopore. The ventral wall of the blastocoele is thicker than the dorsal. In the very early gastrula a new region of accelerated cell division appears in the vicinity of the dorsal lip of the blastopore.A downward movement of material comprising the marginal zone of micromeres and the portion of the wall of the blastocoele immediately above it occurs during all the later blastula stages and continues until this material is carried below the level of the equator and involved in the process of gastrulation. On the dorsal side of the egg, this movement is more rapid than on the ventral side.In the late blastula stage there are evidences of growth in the region of smaller micromeres. In the very late blastula, a vertical groove appears at the dorsal margin of the floor of the blastocoele; this groove is believed to indicate the operation of factors concerned with gastrulation.In connection with the first nuclear division, evidences of cytoplasmic activity leading to the formation of the first cleavage furrow are described. As the blastomeres become smaller, progressive changes take place in the distribution of their cytoplasm.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The testis is differentiated from the indifferent gonad in embryos of fourteen days. The indifferent gonad and the sex cords contain large and small cells, both of which are derived from the coelomic epithelium. The large cells have generally been called primordial germ cells, they increase by mitosis and reach their maximum in embryos of seventeen days. But all the large cells degenerate and have completely disappeared by nine days after birth. The large cells, therefore, do not contribute to the formation of cells in the tubules of the adult testis. After the disappearance of the large cells, the solid seminiferous tubules are composed of indifferent epithelial cells of a uniform type, which are descendants of the small cells of the genital ridge, and which later form both the germ cells and the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules of the adult testis.Definitive spermatogonia begin to form fifteen days after birth, when the solid cords are becoming hollow tubules; spermatocytes occur at twenty-three days, when the testes are entering the inguinal canals; spermatids are first observed about thirty-three days, when the testes enter the scrotum, and perfect spermatozoa at forty-eight days. Sertoli cells cannot be clearly distinguished until almost puberty; these cells may be only indifferent epithelial cells. During the development of the seminiferous tubules, a good many cells of all stages of spermatogenesis degenerate.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 111-141 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Disintegration in killing agents was studied throughout development. In the unfertilized egg and cleavage stages the death gradient runs from animal to vegetal pole. In the late blastula stage the future dorsal surface and future point of gastrulation show heightened susceptibility. The gastrula has a gradient from anterior to posterior end along its dorsal surface, with a slight reverse gradient around the blastopore; lateral and ventral regions are least susceptible.Before and after the appearance of the neural groove, the dorsal surface shows increased susceptibility with gradient in it from anterior to posterior end. The neural tube is highly susceptible, with a death gradient from anterior to posterior end and a slight reverse gradient at its posterior end.During late stages and in the larva the double gradient is present; death begins at the two ends and progresses backward from head, forward from anus; from the former most rapidly. The least susceptible place is near the posterior end. The posterior reverse gradient is less developed in the lamprey than in other vertebrate embryos, due, probably, to its lack of a tail bud.Assuming that death differences indicate differences in rate of activity, it appears that such differences in activity may be causes and not results of developmental processes, for the development of certain parts (dorsal surface, blastopore, central nervous system) is indicated by heightened activity before it is evident morphologically.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Amoeba responds to a mechanical shock by a cessation of movement which occurs shortly after the application of the stimulus. The length of the reaction time, the period intervening between application of stimulus and the response, varies inversely with the magnitude of the shock. After stopping Amoeba remains quiescent for a short time, and the length of this period of quiescence varies directly with the magnitude of the shock. A certain amount of time must elapse after a reaction before another can be obtained; during this time the animal reverts to the physiological state which existed prior to the first shock.Partial recovery from the effects of a shock is manifested by a reaction time that is longer than after complete recovery, and a period of quiescence which is shorter. A shock which in itself is too slight to cause a cessation of movement may result in the lack of a response to a heavier one which follows immediately after it, although under other conditions the second shock would have called forth a reaction. If the second shock, however, is made sufficiently heavy, it will bring about a response, despite the effects of the first. This is what would be expected if the reactions take place in accordance with the Weber-Foechner law.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the golden-mantled ground-squirrel, Callospermophilus, a spatulate glandular area has been noted in the skin of the back. It has been found in the following species: C. l. lateralis, C. l. arizonensis, C. l. caryi, C. l. saturatus, C. l. tescorum, C. c. chrysodeirus, and C. bernardinus. Probably it is common to the genus.The individual glands making up this area are modified and enlarged sudoriparous glands. They are divided into a tightly coiled and branched fundus, a large sinus, and a duct which passes caudad and outward to its exit at the surface.The glands secrete a strongly smelling oil, which is probably left on vegetation and other objects in the animal's environment and serves as a source of information to other members of the species. The glands are more active in spring and summer than in winter. They are stimulated by excitement. While present in both sexes, both adult and juvenile, they are best developed in adult males.Callospermophilus has three anal glands. These have flat-topped, straight-sided nipples which are protruded from the anus if the animal is frightened. A milky substance with a very weak odor can be extruded.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The integument of the vermilion-spotted newt contains three kinds of pigment--yellow, red, and black. The yellow is uniform and continuous over the whole body; the red and black are discrete, and are chiefly in large spots. The pattern does not change measurably in an adult individual.Functional changes in contraction of the scattered dorsal melanophores were uncommon. The only efficient single factors found were a long subjection to low temperature (expansion) and injection of pituitrin (contraction).Removal of skin was followed by a rapid mass migration of dermal elements into the wound area. Melanophores were thus furnished to a dorsal wound, and after several months black spots formed from these. Red pigment never regenerated nor migrated into a wound. Yellow pigment was formed in situ after the wound had completely healed.Auto-, homo-, and heterotransplants lost their pigment patterns and were gradually reorganized so as to conform in gross appearance to the surrounding pattern of the individual host's skin. The transformation was never complete in eight months, but new black spots and new yellow pigment eventually formed.The behavior of melanophores during morphogenesis differed for specific areas of the integument. Their movements and aggregation were highly coordinated among themselves.
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  • 12
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 81-103 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Paramecium trichium varies from 50 μ to 105 μ long with most individuals between 80 μ and 90 μ. The width varies from one-third to one-half the length. It is somewhat depressed dorsoventrally. The broad buccal groove extends from the anterior left border diagonally across the ventral surface to the mouth, which is usually slightly anterior to the middle and to the right side of the median line. The mouth leads into a relatively long cytopharynx containing an undulating membrane. The cytopyge is subterminal and the small caudal tuft of longer cilia is subapical. The plastic ectosarc contains numerous trichocysts. A contractile vacuole apparatus occurs near either end. Each is deeply located and stains more intensely than surrounding protoplasm. In life there appear to be two alternately contracting vacuoles with smaller ones adjacent. Contractions are from fifteen to twenty-five per minute. The macronucleus is medium in size and the single micronucleus is of the ‘caudatum’ type.Binary fission appears to be initiated by a metaphase-like condition of the micronucleus. This is followed by great enlargement and the eventual separation of the chromatin threads into two anaphase groups. The metaphase thus appears to precede the changes which correspond to a prophase in other cases. During division of the body, the two old contractile vacuoles persist as the posterior ones for the daughters, new anterior ones being developed.
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  • 13
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 119-145 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The chromosome number in the domestic fowl is approximately thirty-five or thirty-six. It is difficult to determine the exact number, owing to the smallness of the shortest chromosomes of the complex and also to the tendency of the chromomeres to occasionally appear as discrete chromosomes rather than as parts of a whole.Difficulty experienced in fixing adult testes has prevented a satisfactory demonstration of all stages of spermatogenesis. However, satisfactorily preserved prophases of first spermatocytes have been observed which, together with the large amount of embryonic material available, have made it possible to work out the behavior of the sex-associated chromosomes with reasonable certainty. Measurements of the chromosomes indicate that the longest chromosome in the cell is single in the female and paired in the male. Two classes of eggs are therefore possible - one with and one without this long chromosome, while all the spermatozoa produced are alike in possessing the long chromatic element. The female is therefore heterozygous and the male homozygous in regard to this chromosome which affords a cytological parallel for the genetic evidence of the heterozygosity of the female.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Sixteen species of the genus Scyllium are here considered and arranged in groups according to the accessory structures present on the claspers as follows:1Canicula, sufflans, ventriosum.2Catulus, stellare, capense, variegatum (var. pantherinus), umbratile.3Burgerii, hispida, bivium, anale, natalense, edwardsii.4Marmoratum, laticeps.The structure of the wall of the oviduct and vagina is demonstrated, and it is shown that the epithelium of both is at first columnar, then ciliated in immature specimens; at maturity that of the vagina further undergoes by transitions a change to stratified. The walls are highly vascular, but contain no special glands.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The claspers of Centrina are adnate with the pelvic fin and bear a spine as in other Spinacidae. Mustelus canis resembles M. lunulatus rather than M. vulgaris. The claspers of Chiloscyllium end in a pointed spike. Pseudotriakis resembles the Carchariidae. The three North American Atlantic species of the genus Raia are considered, and R. laevis and R. erinacea are placed in the pseudogenus containing R. batis, and a new pseudogenus erected for R. ocellata. A gross and histological account is given of the Cowper's glands of Homo, and they are shown to be homoplastic with clasper glands, similar in structure, arrangement, development, and function.
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  • 16
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 453-471 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The activities of the larva and the responses and orientations it makes to external stimulation, and the structural organization by which these activities are produced, are described and figured.Existing systematic confusion of M. citrina with other species (M. manhattensis, M. nana, and M. microsiphonica) is cleared. The duration of the period of larval life is found to vary between 5 and 170 minutes. A proportionally small number retain the larval form a longer time. During larval life, periods of swimming movements alternate with periods of inactivity, the latter, at first of momentary duration, becoming longer and longer until activity ceases.No light receptor exists and no response to light is made. A statolith is found in the sensory vesicle, and frequent geonegative orientations are made during the free-swimming period. These are of short duration and tend to occur, 1) when it emerges from the parent; 2) at the beginning of each of the frequently recurring periods of swimming activity; 3) immediately upon making contacts. Unoriented movements follow each orientation and constitute much the greater part of behavior.The larva lacks definite organs of attachment. The entire surface of the tunic becomes adhesive at the time of metamorphosis. Only those structures that make up the action systems of the larva are fully differentiated, all other parts are embryonic in condition.
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  • 17
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The study is divided into three parts. Part I deals with the chromosome number and morphology in the amniotic cells of rabbit embryos. The number of chromosomes has been found essentially constant in amniotic cells of young, but more variable in older embryos. The somatic number is 44. Part II deals with the chromosomes of race crosses (Flemmish Giant X Polish) in which the homologous chromosomes were found to be alike. Part III deals with spermatogenesis. There are forty-four chromosomes in spermatogonia, and twenty-two in primary spermatocytes. The sex chromosomes are of the usual X-Y type.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: 1Monovalent cation salts induce reversal in the direction of the stroke of the cilia; bivalent and trivalent cation salts with a few exceptions do not. Some acids induce reversal, others do not.2The duration of reversed action varies with the kind of salt and with the concentration. As the concentration increases, the duration of reversed action increases to a maximum and then decreases to zero.3Bivalent and trivalent cation salts neutralize the effect of monovalent cation salts. The relative amount required varies with the kind of salt used and with the concentration.4The amount of a given salt required to neutralize another salt is not proportional to the concentration of the salt neutralized. Weber's law does not hold.5The results seem to indicate that ciliary reversal is associated with differential adsorption and consequent changes in electric potential, but that there are also other factors involved.
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  • 20
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 147-179 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Animal posture cannot be regarded as an actual inheritance, for it constitutes a current physiological interaction between gravity and an organism, according to the structure and physical powers of the latter. Hence, ‘inherited posture’ merely implies that in a given species physical qualifications are congenitally transmitted, which facilitate a certain characteristic position of the body. Evolution of posture, therefore, has inevitably been associated with corresponding evolutionary changes in organic structures.Evidence furnished by the application of biomechanics to studies of ancient and modern primate structures indicates that man's erectly supported body posture could only have originated from a vertically suspended posture (arboreal).The fact that the prehuman stem passed through an earlier arboreal and brachiating period is attested to by the grasping character of his hands, the ratio of arm-body length, the extreme mobility of the shoulder-joints, as well as the extension of his legs on the body.The semierect posture of the great apes is not an advance toward human bipedism, but a modern reversion toward quadrupedism.Postural evidence conforms with the many other lines of testimony which maintain the close relationship of the human and anthropoid stems, and signifies that man has been an erect terrestrial biped since the time of his physical origin.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The prochordal plate in the chick is a thickening of the entoderm in the anterior part of the area pellucida. It consists at first of several layers of yolk-charged cells, which finally lose their yolk and form a thin layer of entoderm.The prechordal plate (an area of mesodermal proliferation immediately anterior to the notochord) arises immediately anterior to the primitive streak (and head process when the latter appears) in a part of the region once occupied by the prochordal plate. Later the prechordal plate comes to lie upon the dorsal wall of the foregut.The premandibular cavities arise in condensations of the prechordal mesoderm. The cavities seem to appear during the rapid expansion of the prechordal mesoderm which occurs in response to a release from constraint imposed by surrounding structures. They are connected with one another across the midline by a usually solid bridge of mesoderm.Later, the cavities are replaced by a mesodermal condensation which serves as a mold, on the surface of which the oculomotor muscles appear, arising before the disappearance of the premandibular head cavities.Differences in the relations of notochord and hypophysis in the chick and robin may be explained by an analysis of the growth of the two forms. The analysis furnishes a basis for understanding the relations of the anterior end of the notochord in the mammal.
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  • 22
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 333-345 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In a leech infesting the Alaskan codfish germinal masses in the ovary proliferate secondary groups, comprising about forty cells in which a follicle and central supporting cell early differentiate. Active division results in approximately 500 cells which apparently develop ductules extending to a point on the surface of the egg. Granules of unknown origin then appear in each nurse cell, and are drawn down the ductules into the egg which can now be distinguished. Reasons are given for the belief that the nutritive material is drained from the nurse cells by amoeboid activity of the egg. In early stages the nutritive mateiral forms a loose reticulum which gradually becomes transformed into a more extensive network, persisting until the maturation divisions. In this latest period the follicle and nurse cells, which become shrunken as the ovum enlarges, usually are stripped off and soon disintegrate.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The blood of Perophora viridis is found to contain six types of cells: (1) Green cells, which have green-colored fatty bodies embedded in clear cytoplasm. (2) Orange cells, with orange-colored bodies of unknown composition in the cytoplasm. (3) Colorless berry-like cells, with fluid-filled vesicles in the cytoplasm. (4) Granular amoeboid cells. (5) Compartmental amoeboid cells, which have box-like vacuoles containing brownian granules of a fatty substance. (6) Vesicular, signet-ring type of cell having a single large vacuole. The cytological structure of these cells and their reaction to various dyes are described.An effort has been made to homologize the types of cells found in the blood of other ascidians with those found in Perophora.It is concluded that the variety of colors found in the cells of ascidian blood is due to the varying chemical states of the vanadium-containing chromogen present in the cells.
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  • 24
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 427-439 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Webbing of toes or fingers in man is produced by a local arrest of development, causing retention of the normal embryonic webbing. This type of digital fusion involves only the skin, the skeleton being unaffected. The extensor tendons of the toes may sometimes be fused.Webbed digits occur normally in some marsupials, rodents, and insectivores, in a number of lemurs and catarrhines, and in the siamang and gorilla. They also may occur in varying degree in other Primates, notably Hylobates. An analysis of five new pedigrees together with those already published demonstrates that webbing of toes in man may be inherited in either a mendelian or sex-linked manner. In one case this character follows the course of the Y-chromosome.
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  • 25
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926) 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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  • 26
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    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 83-109 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The summary of this paper is as follows:1A critical review of the developmental evidence shows that the branchial pouches are formed in cephalocaudal sequence subsequently to the segmentation of the dorsal mesoderm.2The pouches interrupt a continuous sheet of mesoderm to form the branchial arches.3The arches when formed do not correspond topographically to the dorsal somites.4Branchiomerism does not therefore coincide with somitic metamerism.3The branchial structures do not support the theory of head segmentation.3The nervi trigeminus, facialis, glossopharyngeus, and vagus cannot be regarded as segmental nerves.3There is no evidence that branchial pouches or arches have been elided from the series.3The problem of meristic homology is briefly discussed.
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  • 27
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    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 283-309 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A study of the development and seasonal changes of the testis in Diemyctylus viridescens shows that accessory testicular lobes arise as follows: Emptying of the caudal zone of the testis at mating is followed by degeneration of the lobules (tubules) of that region, reducing it to a slender cord consisting chiefly of duct system and residual spermatogonia. A regeneration of lobules at the distal end of this cord later gives rise to the second or accessory lobe.Accessory lobes develop in immature males after a similar reduction of the caudal end of the testis through spermatogonial degeneration or an abortive spermatogenesis. The caudal germ-cell cord thus formed is comparable to that resulting from extrusion of spermatozoa, and the development of new lobules at the distal end of this cord gives rise to a second lobe as in adult males. There is no evidence of the formation of a multiple testis by outgrowths from the primary lobe or by the junction of several lobes originally separate.A multiple testis occurs in Urodele species exhibiting two peculiarities of the spermatogenetic pattern: (1) a slow spermatogenetic wave and, (2) delayed regeneration of lobules emptied at mating or by degeneration of their germ cells. The number of lobes is correlated with the age of the individual. In Diemyctylus under 6 cm. the first accessory lobe has not yet developed.
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  • 28
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 347-425 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Amoeba proteus contains a central elongated fluid portion (plasmasol), a rigid layer surrounding this (plasmagel), a thin elastic surface layer (plasmalemma), and a hyaline layer between the plasmagel and the plasmalemma which is fluid at the tip of active pseudopods and in certain other regions.The plasmasol is an emulsion. It consists of a fluid in which various vacuoles and granuoles are suspended. The plasmagel is probably alveolar in structure. It contains the same kinds of substances as the plasmasol, but some of the fluid appears to be gelated so as to form alveoli. The plasmalemma probably consists of interwoven protein fibers and a lipoid which fills the interstices.The plasmasol is probably hypertonic; the plasmagel and the plasmalemma are probably semipermeable. This and other factors result in an excess inflow of water, stretching the plasmagel and the plasmalemma. When a pseudopod is formed, the inner portion of the plasmagel liquefies locally. This produces a local decrease in elastic strength resulting in the formation of a protuberance, a pseudopod. As this is formed there is contraction at the posterior end, resulting in forward flow of the plasmasol and extension of the pseudopod.If the pseudopod is attached, the plasmalemma, being attached to the substratum and to the adjoining plasmagel, slides over the plasmagel above and remains stationary below, rolling movement results. If it is free, the plasmalemma is stretched out with movement in it equal on all sides. If the free pseudopods become attached to the substratum at the tip after they are thus formed, walking movement results.During locomotion of either type, the plasmasol continuously gelates at the tip of the extending pseudopods forming plasmagel, and the plasmagel continuously solates at the posterior end forming plasmasol.Response is due largely to changes in the elastic strength of the plasmagel in the adhesiveness of the plasmalemma and in turgidity.Locomotion in Amoeba verrucosa is in principle the same as it is in Amoeba proteus.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 41 (1926), S. 441-546 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Embryological study of bullfrog tadpoles collected from various parts of the United States has shown the existence of local races which differ markedly in regard to the time of occurrence and character of the developmental processes involved in the formation of the definitive testis of the male individuals. Those races in which the gonads of the two sexes are easily distinguished in early larval stages are called differentiated. Other local races show a peculiar gonadic development chiefly affecting the males, the definitive testis sometimes not appearing until near the end of the second year of larval life. Such races are called undifferentiated, because the morphological features of the definitive testes are not established until late. The larvae first develop a peculiar gonad (progonad) which later degenerates and is replaced by the definitive testis. All male animals of the undifferentiated strains exhibit the gonad cycle.The progonad varies among the local frog races in regard to the length of persistence and degree of differentiation attained before undergoing degeneration. Its germ cells may exhibit a typical male maturation cycle ending in degeneration, or the cells may differentiate along both male and female lines or remain sexually neutral.The development and differentiation of the progonad in the various races are described and a detailed account given of the origin of the definitive testis. The problems of sex differentiation and continuity of the Keimbahn in anurans are discussed.
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  • 30
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 23-81 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The flagellate, Tetramitus rostratus Perty, appeared in cultures of certain amoebae obtained from the coecum of rats. In a typical life-cycle a cyst, planted in an appropriate medium, gives rise to an amoeba which may divide a number of times, but eventually some of the amoebae transform into flagellates identical with Tetramitus rostratus. These divide frequently through several days, sometimes for weeks or months, and then transform back to amoebae which become encysted.During excystment the smooth cyst wall dissolves. Usually both the amoeboid and flagellate phases pass into a “gel” state during division. A “gel” state sometimes occurs during transformation. The time required for transformations varies from a few minutes to several hours.Many culture media and methods have been tested. In certain cultures the flagellate phase was prolonged for weeks or months. These cultures were characterized by: 1) great variation in size, from minute “dwarfs” to oversized “monsters”; 2) frequent multiple fission; 3) pairing and fusion, and, 4) some evidence for the origin of secondary nuclei from chromidia. In cases of pairing and fusion, the process of maturation and union of nuclei could not be definitely proved, although suggested by the observations.The flagellate phase is more probably the “adult” phase because of its complex organization and possible sexual phenomena. This case is considered an extreme for this type amoeba-flagellate transformation.
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  • 31
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 143-195 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: On the basis of experimental study and observations on the morphology of the legs of spiders, P. Friedrich described a cutting device within the trochanter which would sever that appendage from the body when the leg was stimulated by injury.A reinvestigation of the problem yielded entirely contrary results. Experiments calculated to induce spontaneous amputation through an automatic reflex in the leg were negative on scorpions, harvestmen, and more than a dozen species of spiders. A detailed morphological study of the skeleton and musculature of the arachnid leg showed that no autotomizing device exists, either in the skeleton or in the arrangement of muscles (as is usually supposed). In all species studied, except the scorpion, severance of the leg from the body occurs most readily at some given point. The point at which severance readily occurs is directly correlated with a definite structural weakness in the skeleton and musculature. The spider itself removes an injured leg by grasping the stump with its mouth-parts. No such injured stump falls off spontaneously or without the application of tension. Scorpions do not autotomize appendages under any stimulation, nor do they show any anatomical weakness in the leg skeleton or musculature.Autotomy as an automatic reflex does not exist in the Arachnida.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chlamydoselachus resembles the Holocephali in possessing no siphon, but a cavity in the proximal portion of the clasper. The cartilages, musculature, and venous sinuses of the clasper are considered. An older specimen of Echinorhinus is proved to have a spine on a soft papilla; Scymnus has no spine; both have the general features of the Spinacidae. Two species of Cestracion are compared with C. philippi. Mustelus lunulatus lacks the pera and pseudosiphon of M. vulgaris. Dicerobatis has a peculiar scaphus, and the claspers end in a fimbriated manner. Pteroplatea resembles Trygon and Benthobatis and Astrape are both like Torpedo.The species are listed below.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A summary is given of the previous memoirs, and an attempt has been made, upon the three characters of this investigation, to arrange the genera into families, which agree, with two exceptions (Mitsukurina and Dicerobatis), with preexisting families. Some deductions are drawn as to relationships and attention is drawn to Cestracion galeatus and Triakis as connecting links. Separate families are erected for Dicerobatis and Mitsukurina, and the latter is placed near to Notidanus. Resemblances are shown between Chlamydoselachus and the Holocephali. The Trygonidae, Torpedinidae, and Rhinobatidae are singularly uniform families. An index is added both general and specific.
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  • 34
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 42 (1926), S. 523-560 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The different kinds of scales characteristic of the adult sturgeon are described and the facts of ontogenesis which throw light on the history of these structures are presented.The scales of Acipenser are exclusively mesenchymatous and therefore are not morphologically comparable with the placoid scales of elasmobranchs. Salensky ('80) drew erroneous conclusions as a result of failure to study the earlier stages of ontogenesis. Goodrich ('03) has correctly described the ontogenesis of the lepidotrichia.The original form of ganoid scale was that of an elongated rhomb with a longitudinal crest on its external surface. The various forms of scales of the adult sturgeon have been produced by the differentiation of such a scale by change in size, shape, and the fusion of the different elements.The conclusions are extended to the entire family of Acipenseridae.
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  • 35
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    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 43 (1926), S. 45-54 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The spermatogenesis of the domestic mouse has been studied. There are forty chromosomes in spermatogonia and twenty in primary spermatocytes. The sex chromosomes are of the usual X-Y type. Especial attention has been devoted to the study of chromosome morphology, both in spermatogonia and in primary spermatocytes.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In the epidermal cells of green-frog tadpoles (Rana clamitans) there are present coarse, conspicuous mitochondrial threads. In the dorsal body regions, epidermal cells of the middle layers also contain pigment granules, grouped in crescentic masses in the distal portions of the cells.Administration of thyroid extract results in permanent disappearance of the mitochondrial threads and disappearance to a large extent of the epidermal pigment granules. Processes of cellular dedifferentiation and proliferation occur rapidly over widespread areas, the mitochondria undergoing intracellular resorption. A new type of epidermis is developed containing many cutaneous glands, adapted for the approaching terrestrial life.Wound infliction induces similar processes of cellular dedifferentiation and proliferation in the epidermis in the immediate vicinity of the wound. Cells in this region lose their mitochondrial threads by intracellular resorption, and there is also some disappearance of pigment granules. The new epidermal cells in the early stages of regeneration produce neither mitochondrial threads nor pigment. This condition is not permanent, however, and in the later stages the larval characteristics appear again, both mitochondrial threads and pigment being redifferentiated.In the hyperthyroid animals there is also a significant mobilization of mesenchymal chromatophores, correlated to some extent with the loss of epidermal pigment.The significance of epidermal changes is discussed with reference to cutaneous abnormalities associated with hyperthyroid and hypothyroid conditions.
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