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  • Articles  (37)
  • Bolivien  (28)
  • J31  (8)
  • Educación
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)  (37)
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  • Articles  (37)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article analyzes the importance of firm characteristics to explain earnings in urban Bolivia. Initially I propose a new simple theoretical model of segmented labor market where, in equilibrium, individual and firm variables jointly determine earnings at the worker level. The key for achieving this equilibrium is that workers have both specific preferences and heterogonous skills provided by years of schooling, which are in turn associated to certain firms. Given the household surveys information, I estimate two alternative earnings functions from this model, one for unsalaried workers, for which there is detailed firm data and one for salaried workers, in which sector, size and formality are used as firm proxies. I find not only that firm characteristics are fundamental determinants of earnings but that regressions that include only individual characteristics present highly overestimated coefficients.
    Keywords: C26 ; J20 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings functions ; labor market segmentation ; firm characteristics ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente trabajo de investigación busca contextualizar la pobreza monetaria en Bolivia y, a partir de aquí, establecer la importancia de la situación laboral de los trabajadores del hogar. Las estimaciones muestran que la pobreza ha disminuido de manera importante entre 1999 y 2012; siendo más significativo -en términos agregados- el efecto crecimiento que el de redistribución. Estos cambios pueden asociarse al mejor desempeño de los ingresos laborales; una vez que éstos representan cerca del 90% de los ingresos totales del hogar. Por último, destaca también un mayor porcentaje de miembros de la familia trabajando en los hogares no-pobres comparativamente con los pobres, y una concentración relativa de los trabajadores pobres en la producción agropecuaria y los no-pobres en los servicios sociales (educación, salud, servicios comunales y otros).
    Keywords: I32 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Pobreza ; Ingreso laboral ; Ocupación
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We build a theoretical model that incorporates unionization in the labor market into a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework to investigate the impact of unionization on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. To capture the American economy case, we assume that unskilled labor in the manufactured goods sector is unionized, and that sector is intensive in skilled labor, and that trade liberalization increases the relative price of manufactured goods. In the HOS model, trade liberalization induces a reallocation of production towards the sector that uses intensively the country's most abundant factor. The resulting change in relative labor demand impacts wage bargaining in the unionized sector, which, in turn, has a dampening effect on the Stolper-Samuelson effect. Moreover, wages of unionized workers are even less responsive to trade liberalization. Through traditional mandated-wages regressions, we show that skilled-wage differentials changes were less pronounced among more unionized sectors in the U.S. economy for the 1979-1990 period.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem ; wage bargaining ; unionization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Este estudio analiza los desafíos que confronta el sistema educativo boliviano, que son necesarios abordar para que el país pueda reducir las brechas existentes en relación a los demás países de la región, que han alcanzado un mayor desarrollo y bienestar. Bolivia presenta brechas significativas en cuanto al nivel educativo alcanzado por la población, a la cobertura y calidad del sistema educativo, a los recursos que asigna en Estado a la educación, en términos de recursos humanos, físicos y gasto público. También se presentan brechas internas en el acceso a la educación a nivel regional y de género. La bonanza económica que ha disfrutado el país en los últimos años ha aumentado los recursos que se asignan al sector y mejorar algunos indicadores. Sin embargo, el sistema educativo Boliviano todavía presenta retos significativos que debe enfrentarlos en el futuro para que el sistema educativo permita en forma efectiva, mejorar el nivel de vida de la población.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación Bolivia ; Bildungswesen ; Bildungsstatistik ; Bildungspolitik ; Entwicklungspolitik ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes employment in Bolivian registered manufacturing firms during 1988 to 2007, establishing its relationship with labor regulation. Estimating job flows, we find that firms with high temporary worker rates (less labor regulation costs) are those with both higher job reallocation rates and higher net employment growth, and only they contributed to employment growth during the country economic downturn, 1998-1999. In addition, estimating demand functions, we find the following effects of recent changes in labor norms: i) the compulsory basic salary rise in 2006-2009 entailed costs in terms of job losses, 5.6 percent for production workers and 4.8 percent for non-production workers; iii) the major labor costs derived from the new pension law, enacted in 2010, decreased employment demand around 1 percent; and, iv) labor protection policies decreased production workers demand.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; job flows ; labor demand ; labor regulation ; translog function ; unbalanced panel ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El estudio analiza el empleo en las empresas manufactureras registradas bolivianas durante 1988-2007, estableciendo su relación con la regulación laboral a partir de indicadores de flujos y funciones de demanda. Los flujos de empleo muestran que las empresas con altas tasas de trabajadores temporales, comparativamente con aquellos permanentes asalariados, asociadas a menos costos derivados de la regulación, tienen las mayores tasas de reasignación y de crecimiento neto del empleo. Estas firmas fueron las únicas que contribuyeron con la creación de fuentes laborales en la crisis económica (1998- 1999). Las estimaciones de las funciones de demanda muestran que el incremento compulsorio del salario básico durante 2006-2009 y los mayores costos derivados de la nueva ley de pensiones habrían conducido a costos sociales en términos de pérdidas de empleos, siendo mayores para los obreros que para los restantes trabajadores. Además, las políticas de protección laboral también habrían afectado negativamente la demanda por obreros.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; Flujos de Empleo ; Demanda Laboral ; Regulación Laboral ; Bolivia ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper examines bureaucratic delay within the allocation of small infrastructure projects by sub-municipal governments in Bolivia, and it presents a randomized eld experiment designed to improve public service delivery by promoting voice, transparency, and accountability among grass- roots organizations. The experiment consists of randomly providing sub-municipal governments with a mailing tracking system, which provides public o cials and grassroots organizations real- time information about the processing of small infrastructure projects requests by sub-municipal governments. The objective of this intervention is twofold. First, is to facilitate the involvement of grassroots organizations in the process of reviewing, tracking, and monitoring small infrastructure project allocations. Second, is to explicitly alter the probability of detecting ine cient adminis- trative practices within district councils and, therefore, to implicitly increase the expected cost of engaging in such practices among public o cials. The ndings of this paper suggest that moni- toring tools that promote access to information by citizens might play a critical role in improving public service delivery outcomes. Yet, in settings where mechanisms of local accountability are subject to be captured by local elites or are weak, monitoring tools might have limited capacity to improve outcomes. In such settings, major transparency related reforms might be needed to improve public service delivery outcomes.
    Keywords: D73 ; C93 ; H76 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; transparency ; accountability ; local-level monitoring ; bureaucratic delay ; Kommunale Infrastruktur ; Infrastrukturpolitik ; Bürokratie ; Bürgerbeteiligung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 8
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La investigación analiza el desempeño de las exportaciones en Bolivia a la luz de los empleos que genera, directos e indirectos, con los siguientes resultados destacables: i) la creación de fuentes laborales se ha concentrado en los bienes no tradicionales ya que son intensivos en este factor de producción; ii) el buen desempeño del volumen de ventas al exterior en 1999-2010 posibilitó el incremento de la mano de obra derivada, empero con tasas modestas; iii) Los socios de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) ?Colombia, Ecuador y Perú? han sido los más importantes en términos de creación de empleos; mientras que el MERCOSUR, principalmente Brasil, se destaca con la mayor participación en las exportaciones; y iv) la caída de los empleos derivados de las menores exportaciones a Estados Unidos en los últimos años ha sido significativa, aunque parte de esta disminución habría sido compensada con las mayores ventas a Venezuela en el marco de los compromisos con Bolivia.
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian exports focusing on their jobs results. We find that: i) employment created by exports is mainly explained by untraditional goods exports, given that they are labor intensive; ii) the high rate of exports growth during 1999-2010 generated more jobs, however, with modest rates of growth; iii) the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) members - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru - have been the most important countries for generating jobs, while MERCOSUR, mainly Brazil, stands out by its corresponding export values; and iv) during the last years, the lower exports to U.S. has had a negative and significant impact on employment, although part of this has been offset by selling more to Venezuela, as part of special commitments.
    Keywords: F01 ; F16 ; J29 ; ddc:330 ; Exportaciones ; Empleo ; Bolivia ; Exports ; Employment ; Bolivia ; Export ; Beschäftigung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia tiene un gran potencial para mitigar el cambio climático a través de la reducción de la deforestación. Mientras que las posibles complicaciones han sido intensamente debatidas, se ha realizado poco análisis cuantitativo al respecto. Introducimos el modelo OSIRIS-Bolivia con el fin de crear una base cuantitativa para la toma de decisiones. OSIRIS-Bolivia es una herramienta en Excel capaz de analizar los efectos de los incentivos REDD en Bolivia. Esta herramienta está basada en un modelo econométrico-espacial de la deforestación en el periodo 2001-2005, y usa información sobre cobertura forestal, tasas de deforestación, condiciones geográficas, y causantes de la deforestación, como los costos de oportunidad agrícolas, para más de 120.000 píxeles en todo el país. Se trata de un modelo de equilibrio parcial, en el sentido que toma en cuenta el hecho de que reducciones en la deforestación en un lugar causarán una reducción en la oferta de productos agrícolas, que a su vez hará subir los precios agrícolas y aumentará la presión para deforestar en otro lugar (fugas de carbono). El modelo nos puede ayudar a resolver preguntas como: ¿Dónde es más probable que funcione REDD? ¿Cuánto dinero necesitamos para reducir la deforestación en cierto porcentaje? ¿Cuáles son los potenciales problemas de REDD?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; REDD ; Bolivia ; simulación ; impactos ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia has significant potential to abate climate change by reducing deforestation. This opportunity presents economic and environmental tradeoffs. While these tradeoffs have been hotly debated, they have as yet been the subject of little quantitative analysis. We introduce the OSIRIS-Bolivia model to provide a quantitative basis for decision-making. OSIRIS-Bolivia is an Excel-based tool for analyzing the potential effects of incentive payments to reduce emissions from deforestation (REDD) in Bolivia. It is based on a spatial econometric model of deforestation in Bolivia during the period 2001-2005, and uses information on forest cover, deforestation rates, geographical conditions, and drivers of deforestation, including agricultural opportunity costs, for more than 120,000 pixels covering the whole country. OSIRIS-Bolivia is based on a partial equilibrium model in which reductions in deforestation in one region reduce the supply of agricultural products to the domestic market, which in turn causes an increase in the price of agricultural products, making conversion of land to agriculture more attractive and thus stimulating an increase in deforestation in other regions (leakage). The model can help answer questions such as: Where in Bolivia are carbon incentive payments most likely to result in reduced deforestation? Who are most likely to benefit from REDD? How much money will it take to reduce deforestation by a given amount? To what extent might transaction costs or preferences for agricultural income undermine the goals of the REDD program?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestation, REDD ; environmental impacts ; socio-economic impacts ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In this article a process-tracing approach is used to explore how different factors have contributed to the development of healthcare policy in Bolivia, in light of the current proposal to introduce a unified public healthcare system. The main findings are that although international relations and state bureaucrats have been crucial to the process of formulating policies, the introduction of comprehensive reform will depend on the ability of groups who currently lack access to the healthcare system to form progressive coalitions promoting universalism, as well as the ability of those who benefit from the current arrangements to maintain the status quo. The ability to introduce comprehensive reforms is thus connected to the ongoing processes of decentralisation and democratisation of political decision-making in Bolivia. Although state-corporative welfare state institutions have been shown to be difficult to transform, low coverage levels in such systems combined with a process of increasing political inclusion of previously marginalised groups poses serious challenges to the status quo as the social aspect of citizenship is brought up on the agenda. In order to achieve universal coverage of the healthcare system, however, basic social rights of all citizens must be institutionalised at the same time as the scope and quality of services must be secured in order to avoid segmentation and to encourage the financial participation of the formal and middle income sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; health care ; social policy ; institutional change ; power resources ; policy diffusion ; Gesundheitsreform ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper seeks to establish the factors related to the Human Development Index, incorporating the spatial dimension in the analysis of its determinants. The variables were classified into four groups: geographic, socio-economic, demographic and infrastructure and services. The results show that the geographic and demographic variables are important in the socio-economic development of municipalities. In relation to economic variables, only the variable rural economic organizations is significant, showing the importance of these institutions. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, the variable municipal social spending per capita is not significant, suggesting that central government spending is more important in achieving better health and education indicators, and finally, the process of decentralization has not been able to reach these levels. On the other hand, the spatial dimension is relevant in human development at the municipal level, showing that there is a process in which events in one location are more likely to predict similar events in neighboring geographical units. In this regard, plans or projects of the municipalities should be made jointly and not individually.
    Keywords: R12 ; O18 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; Regional distribution ; Municipal development ; Spatial econometrics ; Bolivia ; Regionalökonomik ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Gemeindeentwicklung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Price controls are measures that can significantly affect the sectors subject to such policies. Using a dynamic general stochastic equilibrium model with two types of agents: farmers and city dwellers, calibrated to Bolivia, it is shown that with falling productivity in the agricultural sector, agricultural rural employment and agricultural production were impaired when there are price controls. Likewise, productivity improvements in the rural non-farm sector, represents lower incomes with fixed prices in relation to a mechanism that allows prices to adjust. In a simulation of the policies carried out in 2009 in Bolivia, we can see that they create imbalances in the markets causing shortages of agricultural products in substantial quantities.
    Keywords: O13 ; Q11 ; R13 ; ddc:330 ; Price Control ; Rural Employment ; Agriculture ; Beschäftigung ; Ländlicher Raum ; Agrarpreispolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the factors that explain earnings in levels and inequality in the urban areas of Bolivia, considering not only the usual individual characteristics (education, experience, gender, and ethnicity) but also firm characteristics. Given the information available at the firm level in the household surveys, two simple models were developed: one for independent workers (for which there is relatively detailed firm-level data), and the other for dependent workers (where firm variables were approximated by sector, size, and by the legal condition of the workers). The main econometric results show that: i) earnings regressions that include only individual variables present highly biased (overestimated) coefficients; ii) firm characteristics are fundamental factors for explaining earnings for independent workers, almost doubling R2 and explaining 45.5% of observed earnings inequality; and iii) firm proxies for dependent workers are also relevant; however, they explain wages at a lower percentage (11.8%), which may be due to non-detailed firm data and to the relatively higher importance of education for these workers. These new findings represent a contribution to the empirical literature on earnings determinants for urban Bolivia as well as to the vision of labor income and poverty problems.
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings (wages) ; firm characteristics ; inequality ; Bolivia ; Stadt ; Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Develops and sets a general equilibrium dynamic and stochastic model with 2 sectors, formal and informal, for the economy in Bolivia. The goal of the model is to evaluate the impact of recent labor market reforms on employment, wages and the product. Specifically, analyzes the effect of a tax increase in employment which serves for the creation of a semi - contributory fund with a redistributive character that is defined in the New Pension Law. On the other hand, analyzes the effect of an increase in firing and hiring costs, defined in the draft Labor Code. The results indicate that in the first case, the reform increases the informality, which causes decrease in the long term variations of the number of contributors to the new background, affecting its sustainability. In the second case, the reform reduces the mobility of formal and informal employment within each sector and across sectors. This increases the time required for product recovery in case of a recession or respond in case of an expansion.
    Keywords: E26 ; E32 ; J32 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; Labor economy ; Informality ; Adjustment costs ; Evaluation of labor market reforms ; DSGE. ; Informeller Sektor ; Arbeitskosten ; Arbeitsrecht ; Dynamisches Gleichgewicht ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 16
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This research examines the production of quinoa as an option for improving rural incomes in the Altiplano of Bolivia; due to, on one hand, the grain is aligned perfectly to the customs and traditions of work and family of the habitants of this region, on the other hand, international demand for the product has increased substantially generating good economic opportunities and better prices. Through microsimulation is observed that in the the Southern Highlands households would benefit from the production and marketing of quinoa, and may even significantly increase these revenues (decreasing poverty levels) increasing the productivity of the land or substituting other crops by it. However, in other highland areas the grain production has a modest impact in terms of income and poverty. These differences explain why just the Southern Highlands produces a variety high demand, la quinua real while in other areas the other agricultural activities are relatively more profitable alternatives.
    Keywords: J39 ; Q19 ; I39 ; ddc:330 ; Quinua ; Rural income ; Altiplano ; Bolivia ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This papers reviews main topics concerning sub-national revenues (intergovernmental transfers and taxes) and discusses some policy options to develop own sub-national revenues. The review covers the political-legal framework and the fiscal outcomes, finding that: i) intergovernmental transfers policies have expanded over time, generating inequity problems, principally at the departmental level; ii) sub-national revenues depend mostly on intergovernmental transfers; this has generated high levels of vertical imbalances, mainly for department governments whose revenues rely mostly on the hydrocarbons sector; and iii) lack of adequate tax policies that promote fiscal effort and equity led to large horizontal imbalances in municipal per capita tax collection, unrelated to poverty or human development differences. In this regard, policy options were discussed to increase own sub-national revenues, taking into account political and social discussions, the economic, fiscal and legal base, and relevant tax principles. The main recommendations are: i) to promote in-kind contributions (materials and labour) at the municipal level, especially in poor rural municipalities; ii) to improve municipal tax administration supporting the continuation of the RUAT's work and improving the registry with the new census; and iii) to evaluate the possibility of redefining the RC-IVA as a personal income tax shared between the central government and the departments.
    Keywords: H20 ; H71 ; H73 ; H77 ; K00 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; fiscal decentralization ; revenues ; taxes ; intergovernmental transfers ; Dezentralisierung ; Finanzausgleich ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Este documento analiza la oferta de trabajo no agrícola de los hogares rurales en Bolivia. Se observa que aproximadamente el 50% de todos los hogares en el área rural complementan sus ingresos a través del trabajo no agrícola, esta actividad tiende a ocurrir con más frecuencia en los hogares en tierras bajas que en las tierras altas. Dado que el trabajo no agrícola paga varias veces mejor que el trabajo agrícola, acceder a esta fuente de ingresos complementarios constituye una importante oportunidad para escapar de la pobreza rural.
    Keywords: J22 ; J43 ; R23 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; trabajo no agrícola. ; Ländlicher Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsangebot ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Millennium Development Goal number 8 (MDG8) concerns those external flows (Official Development Assistance, trade and debt relief) that ought to help developing countries achieve the MDGs by 2015. This paper reviews the role of these MDG8-related external flows in the case of Bolivia. Riding on high international prices for its major exports, and on fiscal expansion, remittances and debt forgiveness, Bolivia has experienced solid economic performance in the past few years. This economic performance coupled with the recent increase in social public expenditures by the government has increased the likelihood that the country will achieve all of the MDGs by 2015, except probably for MDG 2. These advances have been achieved in a period of radical change in Bolivia's dependence on MDG8-related external flows. The composition of external finance in public expenditure has shifted from domination by ODA and debt forgiveness in the first half of the decade to domination by trade, mainly through revenues from hydrocarbon exports. Our findings support the idea that the provision of additional financial resources may not be the priority with regard to organising support to MDG achievements. Spending efficiently and effectively seems to be a more important area for support in Bolivia. As far as trade is concerned, Bolivia already enjoys good market access in its main markets, thus better access through lower non-tariff barriers may be more relevant than improving access in terms of tariffs. Moreover access to markets would be easier if Bolivia were better integrated with world markets, with its regional neighbours in particular. This calls for the support of the international community through aid for trade (AfT), which has instead been worryingly dwindling in recent years. Finally, we argue that MDG8 could be pursued in Bolivia through support for improving access to technology and access to affordable drugs.
    Keywords: F35 ; O11 ; O54 ; P45 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; MDGs ; aid ; trade ; debt ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Millennium Development Goals ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of Green National Accounting by drawing out some interesting insights from the Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts recently elaborated by the Institute for Advanced Development Studies for the case of Bolivia. The paper uses the Green National Accounts to show the importance of environmental inputs in 7 different productive sectors and compares the corresponding natural resource rents to the level of producer taxes in each sector. The paper also analyses the evolution of total productive capital, in order to judge whether Bolivia's current development model can be considered sustainable. The paper finished with recommendations about interesting extensions that can be made to the Green National Accounts.
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q01 ; Q32 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Green Accounting ; Natural Resource Rents ; Bolivia ; Ökosozialprodukt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: It has been widely documented that fiscal policy can promote economic growth, when it is based on an efficient provision of pubic capital. But little work has been done, in Bolivia, in relation to the macroeconomic and sectoral impacts of increasing public investment in infrastructure. This paper develops a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model for a small open economy with five sectors: Non-tradable or services, importable or manufacturing, hydrocarbons, mining and agriculture. The model is parameterized and solved for the Bolivian economy and several interesting scenarios are simulated by changing government expenditures, taxes, country risk, Total Factor Productivity, effectiveness of public capital and terms of trade. This analysis is relevant for the Bolivian economy, because the government is using fiscal policy as one of its main tool to attack poverty and aims to put public investment as the foremost instruments to promote growth and welfare.
    Keywords: E62 ; H54 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Fiscal Policy ; Infrastructure ; Multisector Growth Model ; Finanzpolitik ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Dynamisches Gleichgewicht ; Kleines-offenes-Land ; Mehr-Sektoren-Modell ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 22
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper analyses the impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Bolivian economy. The PEP 1-1 Standard Model has been employed to analyze the effects of a reduction in (i) the world export prices of mining and agriculture, (ii) the world demand of textiles, and (iii) transfers to households (i.e., remittances) from abroad. The model has been calibrated to a new 2006 SAM for Bolivia. The households have been disaggregated according to their location (urban and rural) and ethnicity (indigenous and non-indigenous). The factors of production have been disaggregated into skilled and unskilled labor, capital, and natural resources. Not surprisingly, our results highlight the relevance of the decrease in the export price of natural gas in explaining the negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis.
    Keywords: C68 ; G01 ; E17 ; ddc:330 ; Computable General Equilibrium Model ; Financial Crisis ; Forecasting and Simulation ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; CGE-Modelling ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Social Accounting Matrix ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: E20 ; E60 ; J08 ; J20 ; J43 ; J83 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Sozialreform ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 24
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Städtischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohn ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 25
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Ökosozialprodukt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 26
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: After the 2000 Water-War, access to water in Bolivia has become a major social demand and thus a prime and contentious political issue. The event has revealed an overwhelming opposition to neo-liberal approaches to water management and has allowed the articulation of a new discourse that sees water not as an economic resource but as a human right. In this context, the paper reviews the two contrasting positions within the debate about whether or not water should be treated as an economic resource. In doing so, it presents the arguments underpinning each position which then allows the elaboration of some relevant conclusions.
    Keywords: Q20 ; Q25 ; ddc:330 ; Value of water ; Bolivia ; economic resource ; water-war ; market value ; indigenous knowledge ; cultural value ; Ressourcenökonomik ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen ; Wasser ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Klimaveränderung ; Energiewirtschaft ; Prognose ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: In this case study performed on the industrial sub-sector of manufacture of leather shoes in Bolivia, we use the Hsieh and Klenow model (2008) to determine the differences between productivity of larger and formal companies and productivity of smaller and informal companies. Our results reveal that there are not many differences in terms of productivity among these types of companies. We think that informality is indeed the most important factor that contributes to this phenomenon. Apparently, the decrease in costs associated with informality compensates to some extent the economies of scale of formal companies with bigger dimensions and better technology. A notable fact in the shoe manufacturing industry is that it had experienced an atomization process in the last years. This trend is the consequence of a progressive creation of many small informal companies instead of the consolidation of this industry in medium and large formal companies. In a way, informality has contributed to this process. First, because it allows the survival of less productive companies that if they were not informal, they would have to bear costs that would not allow them to continue in business. Second, because informality creates strong incentives for employees to start their own business. On the other hand, many costs associated with formality discourage legally operating companies to employ more people, raise capital and growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lederverarbeitende Industrie ; Schuhindustrie ; Produktivität ; Betriebsgröße ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: E31 ; E52 ; E61 ; C50 ; ddc:330 ; Wechselkurspolitik ; Inflationsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 30
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper evaluates the degree of social mobility in Bolivia, both by comparing to other Latin American countries, and by comparing social mobility at different points in time. While Bolivia had one of the lowest levels of social mobility in the region in 1997, the last 10 years have seen spectacular improvements, especially for rural and female teenagers. This is very good news, as it suggests that Bolivia has finally escaped the low mobility low growth equilibrium where it has been stuck for so long.
    Keywords: E60 ; I32 ; J12 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Social Mobility ; Bolivia ; Soziale Mobilität ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ökonometrisches Makromodell ; Klimaveränderung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 32
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The urban labor market in Bolivia can be divided into 4 main sectors: 1) the public sector, 2) the formal private sector, 3) self-employed informals, and 4) informal workers. Although incomes are generally higher in the public sector and in the formal private sector, there is a strong preference in Bolivia for being informally self-employed. Two thirds of both men and women in urban areas respond that they would prefer to be self-employed rather than a salaried employee, and few see any advantage of becoming formal under the current institutional set-up. Currently, half of all economically active women in urban areas are informally self-employed, while this is the case for only one third of men. This implies that women are actually closer to the desired state than men, according to their own preferences. The real problem for women is not that they are informally self-employed, but rather that the profitability of their informal enterprises is low. On average, monthly profits of female micro-entrepreneurs is about 40% lower than those of male micro-entrepreneurs. This report uses quantitative information from about 600 micro and small enterprises to break down and understand this gender gap in profitability, and the results show that almost the whole gap is due to the fact that women operate their businesses on a much smaller scale (with less productive capital and fewer employees) than men. Why do female entrepreneurs operate on a smaller scale? One partial explanation is that they do not want to grow, because the business then would loose some of the features that make a micro-business particularly attractive for women (not to depend on others, to be able to care for children simultaneously, flexible working hours, and daily revenues). More important, however, is the lack of access to capital. Micro and small businesses operated by women have only a third of the operating capital of male operated businesses. There are two main reasons for this. First, women generally have fewer opportunities to accumulate capital, both because their household and reproductive work takes time away from paid work, and because they tend to earn less than men when they do work for money. Second, they do not have access to credit on reasonable terms. Access by itself is not the problem, as there is a very active micro-credit industry in Bolivia, but the terms are so unattractive that women try to avoid it if at all possible. The interest rates are high (20-40% per year); the group-lending practices increases the risk for the borrower, as they may end up paying other group members debt also; and they are typically required to assist at compulsory training courses twice a month, which is demanding for busy women running both a business and a household. Banks offer loans at more reasonable terms, but the requirements are difficult for micro-entrepreneurs to comply with (especially proof of a monthly pay check) and the risk is large as an entire house is often put up as collateral for even a small loan. Capital and credit is not a binding constraint in all sectors, however. On average, returns to additional capital investments are estimated to be relatively high (internal rates of return of over 20%) in the food sales sector, the textile clothing sector, and the camelid clothing sector. In contrast, they are estimated to be negative for grocery stores and the transport sector, which have experienced overinvestment to the extent that the returns to both capital and labor in these two sectors have been severely depressed. Even in the sectors where returns to capital are relatively high, a doubling of productive capital would not lead to a doubling of monthly profits. In fact, estimation results show strongly diminishing returns to scale, which means that micro-enterprises have little incentive to grow. Under the current institutional setup in Bolivia, it makes more economic sense to have several identical micro-enterprises in the family rather than one larger enterprise, and this is indeed often observed in practice. This is partly due to the characteristics of the sectors (for example, several small stores can capture a larger market due to the geographical dispersion), but it is mostly due to the tax-system, which becomes very demanding, both in terms of bureaucratic procedures and in terms of tax burden, as soon as an enterprise grows past a certain threshold. Under the current institutional set up, micro-entrepreneurs perceive no benefits from becoming formal, and indeed estimation results confirm that formality would lower the monthly profits of micro-enterprises (less than 3 workers and less than $1000 in operating capital) by 30-40%. Slightly bigger firms (3-5 workers), however, may benefit from getting a NIT and thus be able to offer facturas to the clients.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; J31 ; J42 ; J48 ; J78 ; ddc:330 ; Informality ; Productivity ; Gender ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper estimates structural parameters of both a simple and an extended job separation model with the purpose of understanding constraints in the labor market in Bolivia. The results confirm the hypothesis that skilled labor is a scarce commodity in Bolivia, while unskilled labor is abundantly available. This implies that skilled employees shop around for alternative employment opportunities and quit their jobs when a better opportunity arises. The quit rate among skilled employees in the private sector is much higher than the quit rate among skilled employees in the public sector. The reverse is true for the lay-off rate, and together this suggests that the private sector has difficulties maintaining its skilled labor. The estimates of the wage sensitivity of job search effort parameters presented in this paper suggest that it would be difficult for the private sector to improve its capacity to retain skilled employees by increasing wages skilled employees in the private sector do not seem to reduce their on-the-job search in response to higher wages. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the public sector in Bolivia, inflated by high levels of foreign aid (about 10% of GDP), may be detracting scarce human resources from local productive sectors, potentially jeopardizing the opportunity for sustainable development.
    Keywords: J62 ; J63 ; J64 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Mobility ; on-the-job search ; labor markets ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 34
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 35
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Varios estudios realizados en Bolivia sugieren que los trabajadores calificados son escasos y que los puestos de trabajo en el sector público son tan atractivos que el sector privado no puede captar ni mantener los trabajadores calificados que necesita. Tal tendencia limita fuertemente el crecimiento económico y la reducción de la pobreza, puesto que el sector productivo tiene restricciones en la contratación eficaz de uno de sus factores de producción más importantes. El presente documento testea esta hipótesis a través de la estimación de modelos estructurales que permitan estudiar los patrones de comportamiento de búsqueda de trabajo de los empleados en Bolivia. Los resultados están consistentes con la hipótesis.
    Keywords: J62 ; J63 ; J64 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Movilidad ; mercado laboral ; búsqueda de trabajo ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las últimas dos décadas han visto mejoramientos sustanciales en la asistencia escolar de niñas en América Latina, hasta el punto que, en la mayoría de los países, más niñas que niños asisten a las escuelas. Sin embargo, Bolivia es una excepción, especialmente en áreas rurales donde la brecha educativa entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes todavía es significativa. El informe muestra que en 113 de los 314 municipios en Bolivia las niñas tienen menor acceso y/o permanencia en el sistema escolar que los niños, mientras que las niñas sólo tienen ventajes de acceso y/o permanencia en 2 municipios. En el resto de los municipios, los niños y las niñas tienen el mismo acceso y el mismo nivel de permanencia (medido a 15 años). La mayoría de los municipios con inequidades genéricas en contra de las niñas se encuentran en el altiplano en las zonas con mayor pobreza y mayor proporción de población Aymara. En términos absolutos, el problema de inasistencia de las niñas (y también de los niños) se concentra en cinco municipios grandes (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Sucre). En cuatro de estos cinco municipios hay problemas de desigualdad genérica en la permanencia escolar, sólo en el municipio de El Alto hay inequidad tanto en acceso como en permanencia.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Permanencia ; Acceso ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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