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  • Articles  (31)
  • Bolivien  (28)
  • Educación
  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)  (31)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Este estudio analiza los desafíos que confronta el sistema educativo boliviano, que son necesarios abordar para que el país pueda reducir las brechas existentes en relación a los demás países de la región, que han alcanzado un mayor desarrollo y bienestar. Bolivia presenta brechas significativas en cuanto al nivel educativo alcanzado por la población, a la cobertura y calidad del sistema educativo, a los recursos que asigna en Estado a la educación, en términos de recursos humanos, físicos y gasto público. También se presentan brechas internas en el acceso a la educación a nivel regional y de género. La bonanza económica que ha disfrutado el país en los últimos años ha aumentado los recursos que se asignan al sector y mejorar algunos indicadores. Sin embargo, el sistema educativo Boliviano todavía presenta retos significativos que debe enfrentarlos en el futuro para que el sistema educativo permita en forma efectiva, mejorar el nivel de vida de la población.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación Bolivia ; Bildungswesen ; Bildungsstatistik ; Bildungspolitik ; Entwicklungspolitik ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes employment in Bolivian registered manufacturing firms during 1988 to 2007, establishing its relationship with labor regulation. Estimating job flows, we find that firms with high temporary worker rates (less labor regulation costs) are those with both higher job reallocation rates and higher net employment growth, and only they contributed to employment growth during the country economic downturn, 1998-1999. In addition, estimating demand functions, we find the following effects of recent changes in labor norms: i) the compulsory basic salary rise in 2006-2009 entailed costs in terms of job losses, 5.6 percent for production workers and 4.8 percent for non-production workers; iii) the major labor costs derived from the new pension law, enacted in 2010, decreased employment demand around 1 percent; and, iv) labor protection policies decreased production workers demand.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; job flows ; labor demand ; labor regulation ; translog function ; unbalanced panel ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El estudio analiza el empleo en las empresas manufactureras registradas bolivianas durante 1988-2007, estableciendo su relación con la regulación laboral a partir de indicadores de flujos y funciones de demanda. Los flujos de empleo muestran que las empresas con altas tasas de trabajadores temporales, comparativamente con aquellos permanentes asalariados, asociadas a menos costos derivados de la regulación, tienen las mayores tasas de reasignación y de crecimiento neto del empleo. Estas firmas fueron las únicas que contribuyeron con la creación de fuentes laborales en la crisis económica (1998- 1999). Las estimaciones de las funciones de demanda muestran que el incremento compulsorio del salario básico durante 2006-2009 y los mayores costos derivados de la nueva ley de pensiones habrían conducido a costos sociales en términos de pérdidas de empleos, siendo mayores para los obreros que para los restantes trabajadores. Además, las políticas de protección laboral también habrían afectado negativamente la demanda por obreros.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; Flujos de Empleo ; Demanda Laboral ; Regulación Laboral ; Bolivia ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper examines bureaucratic delay within the allocation of small infrastructure projects by sub-municipal governments in Bolivia, and it presents a randomized eld experiment designed to improve public service delivery by promoting voice, transparency, and accountability among grass- roots organizations. The experiment consists of randomly providing sub-municipal governments with a mailing tracking system, which provides public o cials and grassroots organizations real- time information about the processing of small infrastructure projects requests by sub-municipal governments. The objective of this intervention is twofold. First, is to facilitate the involvement of grassroots organizations in the process of reviewing, tracking, and monitoring small infrastructure project allocations. Second, is to explicitly alter the probability of detecting ine cient adminis- trative practices within district councils and, therefore, to implicitly increase the expected cost of engaging in such practices among public o cials. The ndings of this paper suggest that moni- toring tools that promote access to information by citizens might play a critical role in improving public service delivery outcomes. Yet, in settings where mechanisms of local accountability are subject to be captured by local elites or are weak, monitoring tools might have limited capacity to improve outcomes. In such settings, major transparency related reforms might be needed to improve public service delivery outcomes.
    Keywords: D73 ; C93 ; H76 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; transparency ; accountability ; local-level monitoring ; bureaucratic delay ; Kommunale Infrastruktur ; Infrastrukturpolitik ; Bürokratie ; Bürgerbeteiligung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La investigación analiza el desempeño de las exportaciones en Bolivia a la luz de los empleos que genera, directos e indirectos, con los siguientes resultados destacables: i) la creación de fuentes laborales se ha concentrado en los bienes no tradicionales ya que son intensivos en este factor de producción; ii) el buen desempeño del volumen de ventas al exterior en 1999-2010 posibilitó el incremento de la mano de obra derivada, empero con tasas modestas; iii) Los socios de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) ?Colombia, Ecuador y Perú? han sido los más importantes en términos de creación de empleos; mientras que el MERCOSUR, principalmente Brasil, se destaca con la mayor participación en las exportaciones; y iv) la caída de los empleos derivados de las menores exportaciones a Estados Unidos en los últimos años ha sido significativa, aunque parte de esta disminución habría sido compensada con las mayores ventas a Venezuela en el marco de los compromisos con Bolivia.
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian exports focusing on their jobs results. We find that: i) employment created by exports is mainly explained by untraditional goods exports, given that they are labor intensive; ii) the high rate of exports growth during 1999-2010 generated more jobs, however, with modest rates of growth; iii) the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) members - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru - have been the most important countries for generating jobs, while MERCOSUR, mainly Brazil, stands out by its corresponding export values; and iv) during the last years, the lower exports to U.S. has had a negative and significant impact on employment, although part of this has been offset by selling more to Venezuela, as part of special commitments.
    Keywords: F01 ; F16 ; J29 ; ddc:330 ; Exportaciones ; Empleo ; Bolivia ; Exports ; Employment ; Bolivia ; Export ; Beschäftigung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia tiene un gran potencial para mitigar el cambio climático a través de la reducción de la deforestación. Mientras que las posibles complicaciones han sido intensamente debatidas, se ha realizado poco análisis cuantitativo al respecto. Introducimos el modelo OSIRIS-Bolivia con el fin de crear una base cuantitativa para la toma de decisiones. OSIRIS-Bolivia es una herramienta en Excel capaz de analizar los efectos de los incentivos REDD en Bolivia. Esta herramienta está basada en un modelo econométrico-espacial de la deforestación en el periodo 2001-2005, y usa información sobre cobertura forestal, tasas de deforestación, condiciones geográficas, y causantes de la deforestación, como los costos de oportunidad agrícolas, para más de 120.000 píxeles en todo el país. Se trata de un modelo de equilibrio parcial, en el sentido que toma en cuenta el hecho de que reducciones en la deforestación en un lugar causarán una reducción en la oferta de productos agrícolas, que a su vez hará subir los precios agrícolas y aumentará la presión para deforestar en otro lugar (fugas de carbono). El modelo nos puede ayudar a resolver preguntas como: ¿Dónde es más probable que funcione REDD? ¿Cuánto dinero necesitamos para reducir la deforestación en cierto porcentaje? ¿Cuáles son los potenciales problemas de REDD?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; REDD ; Bolivia ; simulación ; impactos ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia has significant potential to abate climate change by reducing deforestation. This opportunity presents economic and environmental tradeoffs. While these tradeoffs have been hotly debated, they have as yet been the subject of little quantitative analysis. We introduce the OSIRIS-Bolivia model to provide a quantitative basis for decision-making. OSIRIS-Bolivia is an Excel-based tool for analyzing the potential effects of incentive payments to reduce emissions from deforestation (REDD) in Bolivia. It is based on a spatial econometric model of deforestation in Bolivia during the period 2001-2005, and uses information on forest cover, deforestation rates, geographical conditions, and drivers of deforestation, including agricultural opportunity costs, for more than 120,000 pixels covering the whole country. OSIRIS-Bolivia is based on a partial equilibrium model in which reductions in deforestation in one region reduce the supply of agricultural products to the domestic market, which in turn causes an increase in the price of agricultural products, making conversion of land to agriculture more attractive and thus stimulating an increase in deforestation in other regions (leakage). The model can help answer questions such as: Where in Bolivia are carbon incentive payments most likely to result in reduced deforestation? Who are most likely to benefit from REDD? How much money will it take to reduce deforestation by a given amount? To what extent might transaction costs or preferences for agricultural income undermine the goals of the REDD program?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestation, REDD ; environmental impacts ; socio-economic impacts ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In this article a process-tracing approach is used to explore how different factors have contributed to the development of healthcare policy in Bolivia, in light of the current proposal to introduce a unified public healthcare system. The main findings are that although international relations and state bureaucrats have been crucial to the process of formulating policies, the introduction of comprehensive reform will depend on the ability of groups who currently lack access to the healthcare system to form progressive coalitions promoting universalism, as well as the ability of those who benefit from the current arrangements to maintain the status quo. The ability to introduce comprehensive reforms is thus connected to the ongoing processes of decentralisation and democratisation of political decision-making in Bolivia. Although state-corporative welfare state institutions have been shown to be difficult to transform, low coverage levels in such systems combined with a process of increasing political inclusion of previously marginalised groups poses serious challenges to the status quo as the social aspect of citizenship is brought up on the agenda. In order to achieve universal coverage of the healthcare system, however, basic social rights of all citizens must be institutionalised at the same time as the scope and quality of services must be secured in order to avoid segmentation and to encourage the financial participation of the formal and middle income sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; health care ; social policy ; institutional change ; power resources ; policy diffusion ; Gesundheitsreform ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper seeks to establish the factors related to the Human Development Index, incorporating the spatial dimension in the analysis of its determinants. The variables were classified into four groups: geographic, socio-economic, demographic and infrastructure and services. The results show that the geographic and demographic variables are important in the socio-economic development of municipalities. In relation to economic variables, only the variable rural economic organizations is significant, showing the importance of these institutions. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, the variable municipal social spending per capita is not significant, suggesting that central government spending is more important in achieving better health and education indicators, and finally, the process of decentralization has not been able to reach these levels. On the other hand, the spatial dimension is relevant in human development at the municipal level, showing that there is a process in which events in one location are more likely to predict similar events in neighboring geographical units. In this regard, plans or projects of the municipalities should be made jointly and not individually.
    Keywords: R12 ; O18 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; Regional distribution ; Municipal development ; Spatial econometrics ; Bolivia ; Regionalökonomik ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Gemeindeentwicklung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Price controls are measures that can significantly affect the sectors subject to such policies. Using a dynamic general stochastic equilibrium model with two types of agents: farmers and city dwellers, calibrated to Bolivia, it is shown that with falling productivity in the agricultural sector, agricultural rural employment and agricultural production were impaired when there are price controls. Likewise, productivity improvements in the rural non-farm sector, represents lower incomes with fixed prices in relation to a mechanism that allows prices to adjust. In a simulation of the policies carried out in 2009 in Bolivia, we can see that they create imbalances in the markets causing shortages of agricultural products in substantial quantities.
    Keywords: O13 ; Q11 ; R13 ; ddc:330 ; Price Control ; Rural Employment ; Agriculture ; Beschäftigung ; Ländlicher Raum ; Agrarpreispolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the factors that explain earnings in levels and inequality in the urban areas of Bolivia, considering not only the usual individual characteristics (education, experience, gender, and ethnicity) but also firm characteristics. Given the information available at the firm level in the household surveys, two simple models were developed: one for independent workers (for which there is relatively detailed firm-level data), and the other for dependent workers (where firm variables were approximated by sector, size, and by the legal condition of the workers). The main econometric results show that: i) earnings regressions that include only individual variables present highly biased (overestimated) coefficients; ii) firm characteristics are fundamental factors for explaining earnings for independent workers, almost doubling R2 and explaining 45.5% of observed earnings inequality; and iii) firm proxies for dependent workers are also relevant; however, they explain wages at a lower percentage (11.8%), which may be due to non-detailed firm data and to the relatively higher importance of education for these workers. These new findings represent a contribution to the empirical literature on earnings determinants for urban Bolivia as well as to the vision of labor income and poverty problems.
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings (wages) ; firm characteristics ; inequality ; Bolivia ; Stadt ; Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Develops and sets a general equilibrium dynamic and stochastic model with 2 sectors, formal and informal, for the economy in Bolivia. The goal of the model is to evaluate the impact of recent labor market reforms on employment, wages and the product. Specifically, analyzes the effect of a tax increase in employment which serves for the creation of a semi - contributory fund with a redistributive character that is defined in the New Pension Law. On the other hand, analyzes the effect of an increase in firing and hiring costs, defined in the draft Labor Code. The results indicate that in the first case, the reform increases the informality, which causes decrease in the long term variations of the number of contributors to the new background, affecting its sustainability. In the second case, the reform reduces the mobility of formal and informal employment within each sector and across sectors. This increases the time required for product recovery in case of a recession or respond in case of an expansion.
    Keywords: E26 ; E32 ; J32 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; Labor economy ; Informality ; Adjustment costs ; Evaluation of labor market reforms ; DSGE. ; Informeller Sektor ; Arbeitskosten ; Arbeitsrecht ; Dynamisches Gleichgewicht ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This research examines the production of quinoa as an option for improving rural incomes in the Altiplano of Bolivia; due to, on one hand, the grain is aligned perfectly to the customs and traditions of work and family of the habitants of this region, on the other hand, international demand for the product has increased substantially generating good economic opportunities and better prices. Through microsimulation is observed that in the the Southern Highlands households would benefit from the production and marketing of quinoa, and may even significantly increase these revenues (decreasing poverty levels) increasing the productivity of the land or substituting other crops by it. However, in other highland areas the grain production has a modest impact in terms of income and poverty. These differences explain why just the Southern Highlands produces a variety high demand, la quinua real while in other areas the other agricultural activities are relatively more profitable alternatives.
    Keywords: J39 ; Q19 ; I39 ; ddc:330 ; Quinua ; Rural income ; Altiplano ; Bolivia ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This papers reviews main topics concerning sub-national revenues (intergovernmental transfers and taxes) and discusses some policy options to develop own sub-national revenues. The review covers the political-legal framework and the fiscal outcomes, finding that: i) intergovernmental transfers policies have expanded over time, generating inequity problems, principally at the departmental level; ii) sub-national revenues depend mostly on intergovernmental transfers; this has generated high levels of vertical imbalances, mainly for department governments whose revenues rely mostly on the hydrocarbons sector; and iii) lack of adequate tax policies that promote fiscal effort and equity led to large horizontal imbalances in municipal per capita tax collection, unrelated to poverty or human development differences. In this regard, policy options were discussed to increase own sub-national revenues, taking into account political and social discussions, the economic, fiscal and legal base, and relevant tax principles. The main recommendations are: i) to promote in-kind contributions (materials and labour) at the municipal level, especially in poor rural municipalities; ii) to improve municipal tax administration supporting the continuation of the RUAT's work and improving the registry with the new census; and iii) to evaluate the possibility of redefining the RC-IVA as a personal income tax shared between the central government and the departments.
    Keywords: H20 ; H71 ; H73 ; H77 ; K00 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; fiscal decentralization ; revenues ; taxes ; intergovernmental transfers ; Dezentralisierung ; Finanzausgleich ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 15
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Este documento analiza la oferta de trabajo no agrícola de los hogares rurales en Bolivia. Se observa que aproximadamente el 50% de todos los hogares en el área rural complementan sus ingresos a través del trabajo no agrícola, esta actividad tiende a ocurrir con más frecuencia en los hogares en tierras bajas que en las tierras altas. Dado que el trabajo no agrícola paga varias veces mejor que el trabajo agrícola, acceder a esta fuente de ingresos complementarios constituye una importante oportunidad para escapar de la pobreza rural.
    Keywords: J22 ; J43 ; R23 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; trabajo no agrícola. ; Ländlicher Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsangebot ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Millennium Development Goal number 8 (MDG8) concerns those external flows (Official Development Assistance, trade and debt relief) that ought to help developing countries achieve the MDGs by 2015. This paper reviews the role of these MDG8-related external flows in the case of Bolivia. Riding on high international prices for its major exports, and on fiscal expansion, remittances and debt forgiveness, Bolivia has experienced solid economic performance in the past few years. This economic performance coupled with the recent increase in social public expenditures by the government has increased the likelihood that the country will achieve all of the MDGs by 2015, except probably for MDG 2. These advances have been achieved in a period of radical change in Bolivia's dependence on MDG8-related external flows. The composition of external finance in public expenditure has shifted from domination by ODA and debt forgiveness in the first half of the decade to domination by trade, mainly through revenues from hydrocarbon exports. Our findings support the idea that the provision of additional financial resources may not be the priority with regard to organising support to MDG achievements. Spending efficiently and effectively seems to be a more important area for support in Bolivia. As far as trade is concerned, Bolivia already enjoys good market access in its main markets, thus better access through lower non-tariff barriers may be more relevant than improving access in terms of tariffs. Moreover access to markets would be easier if Bolivia were better integrated with world markets, with its regional neighbours in particular. This calls for the support of the international community through aid for trade (AfT), which has instead been worryingly dwindling in recent years. Finally, we argue that MDG8 could be pursued in Bolivia through support for improving access to technology and access to affordable drugs.
    Keywords: F35 ; O11 ; O54 ; P45 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; MDGs ; aid ; trade ; debt ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Millennium Development Goals ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 17
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of Green National Accounting by drawing out some interesting insights from the Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts recently elaborated by the Institute for Advanced Development Studies for the case of Bolivia. The paper uses the Green National Accounts to show the importance of environmental inputs in 7 different productive sectors and compares the corresponding natural resource rents to the level of producer taxes in each sector. The paper also analyses the evolution of total productive capital, in order to judge whether Bolivia's current development model can be considered sustainable. The paper finished with recommendations about interesting extensions that can be made to the Green National Accounts.
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q01 ; Q32 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Green Accounting ; Natural Resource Rents ; Bolivia ; Ökosozialprodukt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: It has been widely documented that fiscal policy can promote economic growth, when it is based on an efficient provision of pubic capital. But little work has been done, in Bolivia, in relation to the macroeconomic and sectoral impacts of increasing public investment in infrastructure. This paper develops a Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model for a small open economy with five sectors: Non-tradable or services, importable or manufacturing, hydrocarbons, mining and agriculture. The model is parameterized and solved for the Bolivian economy and several interesting scenarios are simulated by changing government expenditures, taxes, country risk, Total Factor Productivity, effectiveness of public capital and terms of trade. This analysis is relevant for the Bolivian economy, because the government is using fiscal policy as one of its main tool to attack poverty and aims to put public investment as the foremost instruments to promote growth and welfare.
    Keywords: E62 ; H54 ; O41 ; ddc:330 ; Fiscal Policy ; Infrastructure ; Multisector Growth Model ; Finanzpolitik ; Infrastrukturinvestition ; Dynamisches Gleichgewicht ; Kleines-offenes-Land ; Mehr-Sektoren-Modell ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper analyses the impact of the Global Financial Crisis on the Bolivian economy. The PEP 1-1 Standard Model has been employed to analyze the effects of a reduction in (i) the world export prices of mining and agriculture, (ii) the world demand of textiles, and (iii) transfers to households (i.e., remittances) from abroad. The model has been calibrated to a new 2006 SAM for Bolivia. The households have been disaggregated according to their location (urban and rural) and ethnicity (indigenous and non-indigenous). The factors of production have been disaggregated into skilled and unskilled labor, capital, and natural resources. Not surprisingly, our results highlight the relevance of the decrease in the export price of natural gas in explaining the negative effects of the Global Financial Crisis.
    Keywords: C68 ; G01 ; E17 ; ddc:330 ; Computable General Equilibrium Model ; Financial Crisis ; Forecasting and Simulation ; Finanzmarktkrise ; Makroökonomischer Einfluss ; CGE-Modelling ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Social Accounting Matrix ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 20
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: E20 ; E60 ; J08 ; J20 ; J43 ; J83 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Sozialreform ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Städtischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohn ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 22
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Ökosozialprodukt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 23
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: After the 2000 Water-War, access to water in Bolivia has become a major social demand and thus a prime and contentious political issue. The event has revealed an overwhelming opposition to neo-liberal approaches to water management and has allowed the articulation of a new discourse that sees water not as an economic resource but as a human right. In this context, the paper reviews the two contrasting positions within the debate about whether or not water should be treated as an economic resource. In doing so, it presents the arguments underpinning each position which then allows the elaboration of some relevant conclusions.
    Keywords: Q20 ; Q25 ; ddc:330 ; Value of water ; Bolivia ; economic resource ; water-war ; market value ; indigenous knowledge ; cultural value ; Ressourcenökonomik ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen ; Wasser ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 24
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Klimaveränderung ; Energiewirtschaft ; Prognose ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: In this case study performed on the industrial sub-sector of manufacture of leather shoes in Bolivia, we use the Hsieh and Klenow model (2008) to determine the differences between productivity of larger and formal companies and productivity of smaller and informal companies. Our results reveal that there are not many differences in terms of productivity among these types of companies. We think that informality is indeed the most important factor that contributes to this phenomenon. Apparently, the decrease in costs associated with informality compensates to some extent the economies of scale of formal companies with bigger dimensions and better technology. A notable fact in the shoe manufacturing industry is that it had experienced an atomization process in the last years. This trend is the consequence of a progressive creation of many small informal companies instead of the consolidation of this industry in medium and large formal companies. In a way, informality has contributed to this process. First, because it allows the survival of less productive companies that if they were not informal, they would have to bear costs that would not allow them to continue in business. Second, because informality creates strong incentives for employees to start their own business. On the other hand, many costs associated with formality discourage legally operating companies to employ more people, raise capital and growth.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Lederverarbeitende Industrie ; Schuhindustrie ; Produktivität ; Betriebsgröße ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 26
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: E31 ; E52 ; E61 ; C50 ; ddc:330 ; Wechselkurspolitik ; Inflationsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 27
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper evaluates the degree of social mobility in Bolivia, both by comparing to other Latin American countries, and by comparing social mobility at different points in time. While Bolivia had one of the lowest levels of social mobility in the region in 1997, the last 10 years have seen spectacular improvements, especially for rural and female teenagers. This is very good news, as it suggests that Bolivia has finally escaped the low mobility low growth equilibrium where it has been stuck for so long.
    Keywords: E60 ; I32 ; J12 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Social Mobility ; Bolivia ; Soziale Mobilität ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ökonometrisches Makromodell ; Klimaveränderung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 29
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 30
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El Programa Reforma Educativa ha contribuido a que el Sistema Educativo Boliviano consiguiera pasar de la perspectiva de la administración a la de la gestión. Bajo esta nueva visión, la gestión educativa depende de los actores involucrados, como padres de familia, maestros, autoridades municipales, entre otros, que tienen la responsabilidad de conducir, planificar y ejecutar un plan educativo. En ese sentido, con la finalidad de contar con una evaluación parcial de impacto de esta nueva modalidad de administración, el objetivo del estudio es evaluar la gestión educativa y analizar sus impactos en dos resultados educativos: acceso a la educación pública primaria y factores asociados al rendimiento escolar.
    Keywords: I21 ; I22 ; ddc:330 ; Reforma educativa ; Educación ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Las últimas dos décadas han visto mejoramientos sustanciales en la asistencia escolar de niñas en América Latina, hasta el punto que, en la mayoría de los países, más niñas que niños asisten a las escuelas. Sin embargo, Bolivia es una excepción, especialmente en áreas rurales donde la brecha educativa entre hombres y mujeres jóvenes todavía es significativa. El informe muestra que en 113 de los 314 municipios en Bolivia las niñas tienen menor acceso y/o permanencia en el sistema escolar que los niños, mientras que las niñas sólo tienen ventajes de acceso y/o permanencia en 2 municipios. En el resto de los municipios, los niños y las niñas tienen el mismo acceso y el mismo nivel de permanencia (medido a 15 años). La mayoría de los municipios con inequidades genéricas en contra de las niñas se encuentran en el altiplano en las zonas con mayor pobreza y mayor proporción de población Aymara. En términos absolutos, el problema de inasistencia de las niñas (y también de los niños) se concentra en cinco municipios grandes (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, La Paz, El Alto, Cochabamba y Sucre). En cuatro de estos cinco municipios hay problemas de desigualdad genérica en la permanencia escolar, sólo en el municipio de El Alto hay inequidad tanto en acceso como en permanencia.
    Keywords: J11 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Permanencia ; Acceso ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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