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  • Bolivien  (76)
  • M14  (26)
  • ddc:300  (23)
  • Spanish  (125)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-24
    Description: This study aims to explore the key factors that may affect the entrepreneurial capacity of students of Higher Education Centers (CES). Once the factors were established, these were grouped into internal and external to the ESCs, then the AHP method was applied to determine the relative weights of each of the criteria to groups of experts belonging to different disciplines and Latin American countries. Through the consensus of the experts, the results indicate that internal factors that most influence the entrepreneurship of their students are "Entrepreneurial Spirit", "Work Experience" and "Performance of specific courses" and as external factors affect to a greater extent "The Networks", "Friends" and "Scope of development". The results of the study can be used as an important reference for educational establishments, to define strategies based on these factors, which help to improve ecosystems within their centers, effectively enhancing the entrepreneurial capacity of their students.
    Keywords: I23 ; M13 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; entrepreneurship ; Higher Education centers ; entrepreneurial capacity ; entrepreneurial ecosystem
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: Este artículo examina las dinámicas en torno a los mecanismos de participación ciudadana que se han activado en fronteras extractivas de Colombia desde 2004 con el fin de proteger las fuentes de agua, los territorios y los medios de vida campesinos. Los casos demuestran que ha habido dos olas de democratización ambiental en Colombia, que existe una sinergia entre los instrumentos de deliberación y de participación, tensiones entre la democracia participativa y la representativa, y que los discursos sobre el agua constituyen un hilo conductor que unifica la movilización para la democratización ambiental en el contexto de los conflictos socio ambientales. La emergencia de, y las barreras a, la democratización ambiental se analizan como dos tendencias opuestas constituidas por diferentes capas de lógicas y estrategias. Vistas en el contexto nacional, las movilizaciones sociales en las fronteras extractivas están reinterpretando la democracia, fortaleciendo las luchas por la justicia ambiental y poniendo de manifiesto las contradicciones del capitalismo. La respuesta de la sociedad en general a estas iniciativas tiene implicaciones importantes para el futuro de modelos económicos menos destructivos y para la democracia misma.
    Description: This article examines the dynamics around citizen participation mechanisms activated in the extractive frontiers of Colombia since 2004 to protect water sources, territories, and peasant livelihoods. The cases show that there have been two waves of environmental democratisation in Colombia; that there is synergy between the instruments of deliberation and participation, as well as tension between participatory and representative democracy; and that water discourses are a common thread that unifies mobilisation for environmental democratisation in the context of socio-environmental conflicts. The emergence of and barriers to environmental democratisation are analysed as two opposing trends constituted by different logics and strategies. Viewed in the national context, the social mobilisations emerging in extractive frontiers are reinterpreting democracy, strengthening claims for environmental justice, and making evident the contradictions of capitalism. The response of the broader society has important implications for the future of less destructive economic models and for democracy itself.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; environmental democratisation ; water ; extractive frontiers ; Colombia ; Latin America ; socio‐environmental conflicts
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: This research tested and empirically analyzes the in uence of certain intangibles business on the export performance of manufacturing SMEs. Specifically, the proposed research model assesses the relationship between participative management, entrepreneurial culture and innovative orientation, managerial capacity and export performance. Considering the innovative orientation as a key in these businesses to compete in foreign markets, and export performance as a measure of competitive success, elaborate on how it affects promote an entrepreneurial culture, and how it in uences managerial capacity to conquer external markets. The technique Partial Least Squares (PLS) has been applied in 180 manufacturing SMEs. The results show that the entrepreneurial culture is a mediating variable between participatory management style and innovative orientation of the company and managerial capacity affect export performance but not moderate the relationship between innovation and export performance orientation.
    Keywords: L21 ; M14 ; M3 ; ddc:330 ; entrepreneurial culture ; export performance ; innovative orientation ; participative management ; managerial ability
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: The importance of management systems for the integration of CSR in the company strategy is a vital resource that has been little studied in technology companies. In this paper a structural equation model is proposed in order to explain the in uence of CSR and its integration into the management system of the company. This in uence is facilitated by the existence of previous standardized management systems, and how this integration affects the strategy of the company and if this is a reflection on the economic performance of the technology company. The study was conducted in companies located in Spanish Science and Technology Parks. On the one hand, model results shows that there is a positive, direct and statistically significant relationship between the integration of CSR and strategy; on the other hand, performance and integration has also this relationship. Likewise, the model shows also some indirect evidence relations between Management System before the implementation of CSR and performance.
    Keywords: M14 ; ddc:330 ; structure equation modeling ; corporate social responsibility ; technology companies ; integration ; performance
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    A Coruña: Colegio de Economistas de A Coruña
    Publication Date: 2019-02-14
    Description: The maximization of profit as the main objective of companies is being criticized from different forums, advocating for an economic system in which the achievement of social sustainability will play a leading role. In the banking sector, after the outbreak of the crisis in 2008, financial bailouts that have used public funds to save various entities have provoked a current of opinion about the necessary social role that banking companies must develop. In this article, a case study is carried out analyzing the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in ABANCA, the financial institution with the largest presence in Galicia (northwest Spain), which has been rescued with public money, Identifying a series of objectives and actions carried out by said entity. The analyzes carried out show, among others, the importance of trust and transparency, as well as attention to intangibles.
    Keywords: G30 ; G38 ; L21 ; M14 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-12-20
    Description: Integrated reporting (IR) is one of the latest innovations regarding sustainability reporting and non-financial information in the world. Although some companies began IR practices in the 2000s (Eccles & Krzus, 2010), IR has only been recognized since 2010 as the best way to get a complete picture of the value of organizations, overcoming the limitations of traditional reports (Eccles & Krzus, 2010; Jensen & Berg, 2012; Abeysekera, 2013).Our research aims to analyze this innovative reporting trend. To do this, we first review some practices in the annual reports published by the pioneering companies in IR, then, we present the antecedents for the current IR framework. Finally we look into the process that the International Integrated Reporting Council has followed to develop the framework, pointing out some milestones for the widespread adoption of integrated reporting.Our findings suggest that reporting practices have been ahead both from theoretical developments and institutional efforts. However, private regulators continue to have a major influence on the theoretical definition of standards that are intended to guide IR and the development of accountability practices to stakeholders.
    Keywords: M14 ; M40 ; ddc:650 ; Integrated reporting ; Reporting ; Financial and non-financial information ; First integrated reporting practices ; International Integrated Reporting Council pilot programme ; The International Integrated Reporting Framework
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-11-02
    Description: Los recursos de naturaleza intangible se han convertido en los principales generadores de valor de manera sostenible en las empresas. En concreto, aquellos que permanecen ocultos en los balances debido a las dificultades que plantea su reconocimiento y medición (es decir, lo que se denomina capital intelectual). Si bien, el suministro por parte de las empresas de información voluntaria sobre estos recursos puede ayudar a reducir las posibles asimetrías de información y mejorar la transparencia informativa entre sus grupos de interés (stakeholders). En este sentido, los informes anuales son los principales medios de divulgación que tienen las empresas para suministrar información voluntaria. Sin embargo, en los últimos años, las memorias de sostenibilidad se han convertido en la principal vía de comunicación como mecanismo para legitimar las actuaciones de las empresas ante sus stakeholders. Así, nuestro objetivo es explorar y analizar el medio de comunicación que están empleando las empresas para suministrar información voluntaria sobre sus recursos intangibles ocultos. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que se ha producido un cambio en la política de información empresarial y las memorias de sostenibilidad se han convertido en el principal soporte para suministrar información voluntaria a los stakeholders, además de ser un buen medio para suministrar información de los recursos intangibles.
    Description: Intangible assets have become the main sustainable value creation of companies. Specifically,those assets which remain hidden in the accounting statement due to the difficulties in identification and measuring (ie what is called intellectual capital). Voluntary information disclosed by companies on these assets can help to reduce symmetries of information and improve information transparency among stakeholders. In this sense, annual reports are the primary tool of information disclosure that companies have for provide voluntary information. In recent years, sustainability reports have become in the main means of communication as a way to legitimize the actions of companies to their stakeholders. Thus, our aim is to explore and analyze the means of communication used by companies to provide voluntary information about their hidden intangible assets. Results obtained indicate that there has been a change in corporate information policy and sustainability reports have become the mainstay to provide information voluntarily to stakeholders as well as being a good way to provide information of intangible resources
    Keywords: M14 ; M19 ; M41 ; ddc:650 ; Intangibles ; Capital intelectual ; Divulgación de información ; Informe anual ; Memoria de sostenibilidad ; Intangibles ; Intellectual capital ; Disclosure ; Annual report ; Sustainability report
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-09-24
    Description: The Protocol for Socially Responsible Territory is the result of a local sustainability management experience, which has demonstrated the importance of public administration in social innovation. This article describes the process through which such protocol was obtained, its characteristics and its principles as well as the strengths that this protocol offers. The definition of Socially Responsible Territory (TSR) is presented as a contribution to the theoretical development of a new research area, whose prospects are favored by the potential practical effects on public and corporate alliances locally. This protocol offers competitive advantages to governments who are preparing to seize the opportunities from the Europe 2020 Strategy for Growth.
    Keywords: M14 ; R58 ; R11 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: This article presents a review of the studies on on boards of directors and corporate social responsibility practices in the banking industry. Several characteristics of bank boards, in particular independence and diversity, may impact their CSR commitments. By studying a sample of 159 banks in nine countries during the period 2004-2010, there is evidence that suggests that banks with more independent and diverse directors follow a path of socially responsible behaviour.
    Keywords: G21 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; Corporate governance ; Board of directors ; Corporate social responsibility ; Banks
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 10
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Este estudio analiza los desafíos que confronta el sistema educativo boliviano, que son necesarios abordar para que el país pueda reducir las brechas existentes en relación a los demás países de la región, que han alcanzado un mayor desarrollo y bienestar. Bolivia presenta brechas significativas en cuanto al nivel educativo alcanzado por la población, a la cobertura y calidad del sistema educativo, a los recursos que asigna en Estado a la educación, en términos de recursos humanos, físicos y gasto público. También se presentan brechas internas en el acceso a la educación a nivel regional y de género. La bonanza económica que ha disfrutado el país en los últimos años ha aumentado los recursos que se asignan al sector y mejorar algunos indicadores. Sin embargo, el sistema educativo Boliviano todavía presenta retos significativos que debe enfrentarlos en el futuro para que el sistema educativo permita en forma efectiva, mejorar el nivel de vida de la población.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación Bolivia ; Bildungswesen ; Bildungsstatistik ; Bildungspolitik ; Entwicklungspolitik ; Armutsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: This study analyses the social and environmental research published in Spanish journals between 2004 and 2012. The main areas of concern of the Spanish researcher are analysis of Spanish practices, external publication, attitude studies and the different theoretical frameworks. There are also encouraging changes in the methodological approaches used, placing greater importance on empirical research with the conducting of field and case studies, at the same time as analysis of different statistical relationships, from interviews and content analysis, although without the features of cooperation and interactivity typical of dynamic, and innovative knowledge production communities. There appears to be some difficulty in getting published in Spanish journals, and generating critical social and environmental research is even harder.
    Keywords: M14 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Research ; Methods ; Spain ; Corporate social responsibility ; Sustainable development
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
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    Berlin : Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-01-18
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
    Type: report , doc-type:report
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  • 16
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    München : Goethe-Inst.
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 17
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Pareciera que gestionar proyectos y liderar equipos a la distancia es lo que se avecina para los próximos tiempos, y tal vez podamos atribuir esta tendencia a las corporaciones o empresas, que instaladas en el territorio de la Argentina, utilizan recursos locales para implementar proyectos en otros países, donde el tipo de cambio (Dólar) es más que favorable para estos negocios, me refiero a Pagar salarios en Pesos Argentinos y Cobrar contratos en Dólares Americanos. Pero no hay que descuidar las tendencias en otros países, donde la situación cambiaria / financiera no es la misma que en Argentina. Es por ello, que también existen casos de empresas multinacionales que lideran proyectos regionales, y casos de empresas que por cuestiones de costos, hacen uso de las herramientas informáticas de avanzada (videoconferencias, chats, telefonía ip) para bajar los costos operativos, de logística y de recursos humanos. En la Argentina, en materia de Metodologías para la Administración de Proyectos, puede notarse que la organización con más presencia es sin duda el PMI –Project Management Institute. El PMI es una organización con alcance internacional y posee miles de personas “Certificadas” en Materia de Dirección de Proyectos o Project Management, e incluso posee distintos tipos de certificaciones, para diferenciar a personas especializadas en otras disciplinas como Program Management, Risk Management, entre otras. Si bien la metodología que establece el PMI no se encuentra focalizada únicamente para el ámbito de la Tecnología Informática, la misma puede aplicarse a otros ámbitos como por ejemplo la Construcción, la Ingeniería Espacial, la medicina, entre otros, pero existen otros organismos como PRINCE2 o CMMi que si se focalizan en una rama particular como la Ingeniería del Software. A lo largo de este trabajo se pretende focalizar en las metodologías del Project Management Institute (PMI), y en la metodología PRINCE2. Luego de analizar ambas metodologías en referencia a su modo tradicional de gestión, se analizará cómo aplica ambas metodologías el modelo de gestión de proyectos con equipos de trabajo distribuidos geográficamente en distintos países. Por último se propone un modelo adaptado de gestión a distancia, para minimizar los problemas detectados en la investigación que se ha realizado.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Virtuelles Team ; Projektmanagement ; Multinationales Unternehmen ; IKT-Sektor ; Erfrischungsgetränkeindustrie ; Argentinien ; Mexiko ; Bolivien ; Uruguay ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 18
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Este trabajo presenta el concepto de JIT (Just-In-Time, o justo a tiempo) y ofrece aplicaciones en la Argentina. En la Parte I, pone el JIT en el contexto de la gestión japonesa (management japonés): destaca las características de esta gestión, y resume su evolución a lo largo de las últimas décadas. Hace hincapié en la gestión de la producción y analiza los desafíos, críticas y las teorías de la convergencia con los sistemas occidentales que se han examinado a lo largo de los últimos 20 años. El artículo examina los desarrollos de la gestión japonesa en el extranjero y, en particular, las prácticas de la gestión japonesa en la Argentina. En particular, estudia las condiciones para el éxito o fracaso de la transferencia de este estilo de gestión en diversos países, incluyendo la Argentina. También estudia la posibilidad de transferencia parcial de algunos elementos del sistema y su aplicación en empresas japonesas y no japonesas. En la Parte II, se presenta un marco teórico del JIT como: (a) una filosofía; (b) un conjunto de técnicas productivas; (c) un método de la planificación y control de la producción. Finalmente, se trata con aplicaciones del JIT en las siguientes empresas: McDonald's, Wal-Mart, Zara, Alpargatas, Toyota, Becher Logística, Motor Parts y Master Trim. Como conclusión de estos estudios de caso, se llega a que el JIT es aplicable en la Argentina.
    Keywords: F23 ; M10 ; M11 ; M12 ; M14 ; P51 ; ddc:330 ; Just-In-Time ; gestión japonesa ; gestión japonesa en el extranjero ; transferibilidad de la gestión japonesa ; empresas internacionales ; empresas internacionales japonesas ; corporaciones multinacionales japonesas ; kanban
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: The aim of this paper is to analyze the phenomenon of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the Spanish banking sector through social responsibility reports. Based on the theories of legitimacy and Stakeholders justified the use of CSR to analyze the behavior information about its environment. As survey methodology used content analysis, in particular are analyzed and compared the information practices in relation to four pillars on which the RSC is organized: customers, community, employees and the environment. In particular, it proposes a content index of liability (IDR) that measures the quality and detail of information provided. The study concludes that the community and environment categories are the most generally reported, although nature are social institutions (savings banks and credit unions) more transparent about customers and community is concerned, on the evolution during the recent years have seen that the transparency of information does not increase, but remains stable or even decreased as in the case of the contents on customers, in addition, we find that the contents are related to the internal activity of the company remains concerned about the most institutions to address the impacts of their activities as financial intermediaries.
    Keywords: M14 ; ddc:330 ; Content analysis ; Financial institutions ; Global reporting initiative ; Corporate social responsibility
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-03-14
    Description: This research intends to show whether the prevalence of individualistic or collectivist cultures in an organization can moderate the effects of the human resource policies on business performance. To date, there is a lack of literature which analyzes this relationship. A sample of 102 companies, situated in southern of Spain, with more than 100 employees was used for this study. In accordance with the statistical analysis conducted using Structural Equation Modeling Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS) results reveal the existence of the moderating effect.
    Keywords: L25 ; M12 ; M14 ; M50 ; ddc:330 ; Human resource practices ; Employees commitment ; Organizational performance ; Individualism/collectivism
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 21
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: El desarrollo de proveedores es una actividad que enriquece la gestión de la cadena de suministro, dotándola de mayor valor a través del aporte mutuo entre empresas clientes y subcontratistas. Este aporte incluye nuevas tecnologías, know-how, herramientas de la calidad y organización del trabajo, además de negociaciones sobre la política de precios, entre otros temas. En este trabajo presentamos sus conceptos fundamentales. Nos basamos, ante todo, en la Guía para el Desarrollo de Proveedores de ONUDI, que analizamos con detenimiento como material de referencia obligado. Estudiamos las etapas de un programa de desarrollo de proveedores, que incluyen, entre otras, las siguientes: análisis de los requerimientos de los clientes; selección de los subcontratistas; diagnóstico de los productos, procesos y productividad de los subcontratistas; análisis de las facultades de los subcontratistas para cumplir con los requerimientos de sus clientes; formulación de las recomendaciones técnicas; capacitación de los subcontratistas; aplicación de las recomendaciones; y análisis de la posibilidad de establecer alianzas y fortalecer las existentes. Examinamos los objetivos principales del desarrollo de proveedores que son, fundamentalmente, tres: lograr la reducción de los costos, ajustar la política de precios, y mejorar la tecnología, en sentido amplio. También dedicamos atención a las normas de la serie ISO 9000, que hacen referencia al desarrollo de proveedores. Tratamos con cierto detalle las dificultades del desarrollo de proveedores; las describimos y presentamos algunas herramientas para facilitar la gestión del cambio. Entre estas incluimos la educación y el entrenamiento, la atención a la cultura organizacional, la motivación y las recompensas, y el ejercicio del liderazgo. Finalmente, presentamos el resumen de cuatro estudios de caso, tres de ellos reales y uno hipotético, para destacar los efectos económicos y de otro tipo del desarrollo de proveedores; el estudio hipotético, en particular, ofrece algunos principios orientadores del sistema de desarrollo de proveedores, sus elementos motivadores y breves consideraciones para mejorarlo, así como posibles contenidos de un programa. El artículo constituye una invitación a abordar el estudio y la aplicación de estas técnicas, dada la capacidad que tienen para mejorar la ecuación económica de la cadena de suministros y beneficiar a todos los interesados en su progreso.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; desarrollo de proveedores ; cadena de suministro ; contratista ; subcontratista ; gestión del cambio ; bolsas de subcontratación y de alianzas industriales ; educación y entrenamiento ; John Deere & Co. ; Maruti Udyog Ltd. ; FUJUDES
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 22
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La investigación analiza el desempeño de las exportaciones en Bolivia a la luz de los empleos que genera, directos e indirectos, con los siguientes resultados destacables: i) la creación de fuentes laborales se ha concentrado en los bienes no tradicionales ya que son intensivos en este factor de producción; ii) el buen desempeño del volumen de ventas al exterior en 1999-2010 posibilitó el incremento de la mano de obra derivada, empero con tasas modestas; iii) Los socios de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) ?Colombia, Ecuador y Perú? han sido los más importantes en términos de creación de empleos; mientras que el MERCOSUR, principalmente Brasil, se destaca con la mayor participación en las exportaciones; y iv) la caída de los empleos derivados de las menores exportaciones a Estados Unidos en los últimos años ha sido significativa, aunque parte de esta disminución habría sido compensada con las mayores ventas a Venezuela en el marco de los compromisos con Bolivia.
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian exports focusing on their jobs results. We find that: i) employment created by exports is mainly explained by untraditional goods exports, given that they are labor intensive; ii) the high rate of exports growth during 1999-2010 generated more jobs, however, with modest rates of growth; iii) the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) members - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru - have been the most important countries for generating jobs, while MERCOSUR, mainly Brazil, stands out by its corresponding export values; and iv) during the last years, the lower exports to U.S. has had a negative and significant impact on employment, although part of this has been offset by selling more to Venezuela, as part of special commitments.
    Keywords: F01 ; F16 ; J29 ; ddc:330 ; Exportaciones ; Empleo ; Bolivia ; Exports ; Employment ; Bolivia ; Export ; Beschäftigung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia tiene un gran potencial para mitigar el cambio climático a través de la reducción de la deforestación. Mientras que las posibles complicaciones han sido intensamente debatidas, se ha realizado poco análisis cuantitativo al respecto. Introducimos el modelo OSIRIS-Bolivia con el fin de crear una base cuantitativa para la toma de decisiones. OSIRIS-Bolivia es una herramienta en Excel capaz de analizar los efectos de los incentivos REDD en Bolivia. Esta herramienta está basada en un modelo econométrico-espacial de la deforestación en el periodo 2001-2005, y usa información sobre cobertura forestal, tasas de deforestación, condiciones geográficas, y causantes de la deforestación, como los costos de oportunidad agrícolas, para más de 120.000 píxeles en todo el país. Se trata de un modelo de equilibrio parcial, en el sentido que toma en cuenta el hecho de que reducciones en la deforestación en un lugar causarán una reducción en la oferta de productos agrícolas, que a su vez hará subir los precios agrícolas y aumentará la presión para deforestar en otro lugar (fugas de carbono). El modelo nos puede ayudar a resolver preguntas como: ¿Dónde es más probable que funcione REDD? ¿Cuánto dinero necesitamos para reducir la deforestación en cierto porcentaje? ¿Cuáles son los potenciales problemas de REDD?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; REDD ; Bolivia ; simulación ; impactos ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El estudio analiza el empleo en las empresas manufactureras registradas bolivianas durante 1988-2007, estableciendo su relación con la regulación laboral a partir de indicadores de flujos y funciones de demanda. Los flujos de empleo muestran que las empresas con altas tasas de trabajadores temporales, comparativamente con aquellos permanentes asalariados, asociadas a menos costos derivados de la regulación, tienen las mayores tasas de reasignación y de crecimiento neto del empleo. Estas firmas fueron las únicas que contribuyeron con la creación de fuentes laborales en la crisis económica (1998- 1999). Las estimaciones de las funciones de demanda muestran que el incremento compulsorio del salario básico durante 2006-2009 y los mayores costos derivados de la nueva ley de pensiones habrían conducido a costos sociales en términos de pérdidas de empleos, siendo mayores para los obreros que para los restantes trabajadores. Además, las políticas de protección laboral también habrían afectado negativamente la demanda por obreros.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; Flujos de Empleo ; Demanda Laboral ; Regulación Laboral ; Bolivia ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-01-15
    Description: Micro.enterprises have certain attributes that distinguish them from large companies and from those that see problems when adopting principles and social responsibility policies. However, the principles of social responsibility can and should be integrated into any organization, including micro.enterprises. In this paper, we study how cooperation networks could be an appropriate incentive for the micro.enterprises to implement social responsibility policies, strengthening some advantages and mitigating some disadvantages that micro.enterprises may have when dealing with such policies, and enhancing, ultimately, the level of development of their relational and structural capital. In preparing the study theoretical model is proposed that analyses the components of these types of capital in the company, adapted to the micro.enterprise as well as studying the influences that social responsibility policies and membership of cooperation networks can have on these components.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M13 ; M14 ; L14 ; ddc:650 ; networking ; micro-enterprise ; social responsibility ; relational and structural capital
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: In the past few decades a large number of studies have been carried out aimed at integrating and incorporating ethics into organizations, mainly highlighting the need to enhance ethical behavior within organizations. However, none of them makes any reference in their approach concerning the value which is generated as a consequence of organizational ethics, when not only several studies have been found supporting such statement but also a theoretical justification is found based on the perspectives of the Resource-Based View of the Firm and Dynamic Capabilities. Therefore, the authors of this study, starting from a model previously designed (Ruiz-Palomino y Ruiz-Amaya, 2011), have designed an integrating model as an attempt to link an ethical organizational culture to the business value generation by means of human resources. To be precise, attention in this paper is focused on the analysis of the direct and indirect effects that an ethical organizational culture has on the value job response of the employee. Discussion of the model, managerial implications and directions for future research are finally presented.
    Keywords: M1 ; M10 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; organizational culture ; resource-based view of the firm ; dynamic capabilities theory ; business value ; business ethics ; person-organization values fit
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: Here we describe the origins, evolution and classification of stakeholders. It highlights the relationship created between the credit institution as a social organization and its various stakeholders, analyzing the importance attached to them. The field work was conducted through a questionnaire answered by 57 Spanish institutions. The results show the sensitivity of banks to CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility), with regard to the entire Spanish financial sector. Our goal is to analyze the importance of the various stakeholders: shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, community and public administration for the Spanish credit institutions. Credit institutions focus their interest mainly on two interest groups: employees and customers. Transparency and open dialogue about performance, priorities and future plans for sustainability are actions to be implemented in order to inspire confidence and future.
    Keywords: G30 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; corporate social responsibility ; credit institutions ; stakeholders
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 28
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    Granada : Univ. de Granada | Wuppertal : Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: Spanish
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) meaning the active and voluntary contribution of firms to enhance welfare, is achieving a greater importance in Business administration as an intangible asset which management generates competitive advantages and promotes sustainable development. This work indentifies similarities between CSR management and Intellectual Capital management, this one meant as those activities which help us to manage the knowledge of the firm. Our aim is that firms understand the importance of considering CSR as a corporate strategy that enhances the value of the organization, and that they become conscious about its efficiency and efficacy.
    Keywords: M12 ; M14 ; M15 ; M48 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 30
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: This paper explores the relation between activities in the Bolivian economy as suppliers and demanders of intermediate inputs, this whit the purpose to determine which activities have great impact on the rest of the economy and which ones are less integrated. For this, Rasmussen indexes are used, that allow classifying them as independent, push, pull and key activities; this whit the help of the input-output matrix. The results based on 2008 data, show a little integrated economy, which is divided in 35 activities. There are no key activities, 8 activities are considered strategic and only trade is considered a pull sector. Something outstanding about the results is that trade generates great dynamism in the rest of activities through its indirect effects on transportation more than because of its direct demand of inputs.
    Keywords: C1 ; D2 ; L1 ; ddc:330 ; Índices de Rasmussen ; actividad clave ; actividad estratégica ; actividad de arrastre ; actividad independiente ; poder de dispersión ; sensibilidad de dispersión ; matriz insumo producto ; Input-Output ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 31
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Energiemarkt ; Regenerative Energie ; CGE-Modelling ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konjunktur ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: The present document analyzes the energy substitution elasticities in the short and long term in Bolivia. The inputs accounted are electricity, hydrocarbons and biomass. In order to measure and identify the direction of the elasticities we use a Transcendental Logarithmic Production Function, known as Translog, defined as block model. We also derive the short term model, known as pair model.
    Keywords: D29 ; C51 ; Q49 ; ddc:330 ; Energiesubstitution ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 34
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: C62 ; E32 ; ddc:330 ; Konjunktur ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 35
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Konjunktur ; Investition ; Akzelerator ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: En vista de la creciente competencia por el agua, existe el peligro que particularmente los pobres en las áreas rurales enfrenten cada día más dificultades para cubrir sus necesidades de agua para usos domésticos y productivos. El presente DIIS Working Paper fue elaborado con base a una encuesta llevada a cabo en el año 2008, en el municipio de Condega, Nicaragua; en él se expone un perfil de pobreza de los hogares rurales y se analiza el acceso al agua que tienen los hogares más pobres, menos pobres y no pobres; además de sus contactos con las instituciones que juegan un papel en la gobernanza de agua.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 37
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This research examines the production of quinoa as an option for improving rural incomes in the Altiplano of Bolivia; due to, on one hand, the grain is aligned perfectly to the customs and traditions of work and family of the habitants of this region, on the other hand, international demand for the product has increased substantially generating good economic opportunities and better prices. Through microsimulation is observed that in the the Southern Highlands households would benefit from the production and marketing of quinoa, and may even significantly increase these revenues (decreasing poverty levels) increasing the productivity of the land or substituting other crops by it. However, in other highland areas the grain production has a modest impact in terms of income and poverty. These differences explain why just the Southern Highlands produces a variety high demand, la quinua real while in other areas the other agricultural activities are relatively more profitable alternatives.
    Keywords: J39 ; Q19 ; I39 ; ddc:330 ; Quinua ; Rural income ; Altiplano ; Bolivia ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Price controls are measures that can significantly affect the sectors subject to such policies. Using a dynamic general stochastic equilibrium model with two types of agents: farmers and city dwellers, calibrated to Bolivia, it is shown that with falling productivity in the agricultural sector, agricultural rural employment and agricultural production were impaired when there are price controls. Likewise, productivity improvements in the rural non-farm sector, represents lower incomes with fixed prices in relation to a mechanism that allows prices to adjust. In a simulation of the policies carried out in 2009 in Bolivia, we can see that they create imbalances in the markets causing shortages of agricultural products in substantial quantities.
    Keywords: O13 ; Q11 ; R13 ; ddc:330 ; Price Control ; Rural Employment ; Agriculture ; Beschäftigung ; Ländlicher Raum ; Agrarpreispolitik ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 39
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Develops and sets a general equilibrium dynamic and stochastic model with 2 sectors, formal and informal, for the economy in Bolivia. The goal of the model is to evaluate the impact of recent labor market reforms on employment, wages and the product. Specifically, analyzes the effect of a tax increase in employment which serves for the creation of a semi - contributory fund with a redistributive character that is defined in the New Pension Law. On the other hand, analyzes the effect of an increase in firing and hiring costs, defined in the draft Labor Code. The results indicate that in the first case, the reform increases the informality, which causes decrease in the long term variations of the number of contributors to the new background, affecting its sustainability. In the second case, the reform reduces the mobility of formal and informal employment within each sector and across sectors. This increases the time required for product recovery in case of a recession or respond in case of an expansion.
    Keywords: E26 ; E32 ; J32 ; J38 ; ddc:330 ; Labor economy ; Informality ; Adjustment costs ; Evaluation of labor market reforms ; DSGE. ; Informeller Sektor ; Arbeitskosten ; Arbeitsrecht ; Dynamisches Gleichgewicht ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 40
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper seeks to establish the factors related to the Human Development Index, incorporating the spatial dimension in the analysis of its determinants. The variables were classified into four groups: geographic, socio-economic, demographic and infrastructure and services. The results show that the geographic and demographic variables are important in the socio-economic development of municipalities. In relation to economic variables, only the variable rural economic organizations is significant, showing the importance of these institutions. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, the variable municipal social spending per capita is not significant, suggesting that central government spending is more important in achieving better health and education indicators, and finally, the process of decentralization has not been able to reach these levels. On the other hand, the spatial dimension is relevant in human development at the municipal level, showing that there is a process in which events in one location are more likely to predict similar events in neighboring geographical units. In this regard, plans or projects of the municipalities should be made jointly and not individually.
    Keywords: R12 ; O18 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; Regional distribution ; Municipal development ; Spatial econometrics ; Bolivia ; Regionalökonomik ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Gemeindeentwicklung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2017-08-04
    Description: The management of stakeholders is becoming increasingly important to the corporate sustainability. The engagement of stakeholders gives legitimacy to the company, generating trust and credibility. The enterprises that are seeking sustainability in their activities must know stakeholders, promote dialogue, meet the demands and expectations, and be transparent in the accountability for their actions. The sustainable company triggers continuous improvement and innovation and seeks for social acceptance to achieve success in their activities. In this context, our focus is on thinking about the main challenges faced by companies pursueing sustainable development through effective management of their stakeholders. We further propose the use of flexible tools that aid employers in decision making and help them improve the stakeholder management.
    Keywords: M10 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; stakeholders ; corporate sustainability ; decision-making ; fuzzy logic
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: In the literature on business ethics a large number of studies can be found with a focus on establishing comprehension frameworks concerning the factors which make an individual behave ethically or unethically. However, the models proposed up to the present moment are excessively generalists, as there are no specifications on those factors which are presented as more prominent in terms of influence according to the empirical literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop an explanatory model that in addition to allowing a better comprehension of the main factors influencing on the individual's ethical behaviour. For this aim we review the most significant contributions in the literature on this aspect and raise a series of theoretical propositions which define the explanatory model. Finally we present the discussion of the model, thus drawing a series of conclusions and proposing future lines for research.
    Keywords: M1 ; M10 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; ethical/unethical behaviour ; organizational ethics ; individual characteristics context ; explanatory model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: This study focuses on the structure of the board of directors that is considered more suitable in terms of corporate social responsibility, and also on those contextual factors that could influence the socially responsible behavior of family firms. Empirical analysis on 535 non-listed Spanish firms leads to the identification of three clusters in terms of the variables related to boards´ structure: family dominated boards, professional boards and immature boards. Results show that the firms that have boards' structure with more potential for a socially responsible behavior (professional boards) are the ones who are bigger, older and with higher generational evolution.
    Keywords: M14 ; M19 ; ddc:330 ; family firm ; board of directors ; social responsibility ; stakeholders.
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  • 44
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: C01 ; L73 ; ddc:330 ; Abholzung ; Raumwirtschaftstheorie ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Numerosos conceptos se entrelazan para dar lugar al concepto de gobernancia de una empresa, tanto en el caso de las empresas cotizantes como el de las pequeñas y medianas empresas (pymes). Para que la gobernancia se concrete y sea efectiva, es necesario traducir sus conceptos en acciones que transformen la realidad de la firma y su entorno en el sentido exigido por los conceptos. Las empresas grandes, sobre todo si están bien organizadas, cuentan en general con mecanismos adecuados de planificación y control para llevar a la práctica sus acciones de gobernancia. Las pymes, por su parte, caracterizadas por menores recursos relativos, tienen grandes dificultades metodológicas y conceptuales para implementar y mantener una arquitectura de gobernancia. En las últimas tres o cuatro décadas, sin embargo, se han difundido en el mundo algunas técnicas japonesas de gestión que pueden aplicarse en la implementación y consolidación de la gobernancia. Estas aplicaciones, naturalmente, son posibles tanto en las grandes firmas como en las pequeñas, pero hacemos hincapié en estas últimas porque en ellas encontrarán un terreno fértil para la aplicación inmediata y fecunda. Esta aplicación, que permitirá realzar la gobernancia de la pyme en pocos meses, solo depende de la decisión de un gerente inquieto dispuesto a transformar su organización. En este trabajo, presentamos los conceptos básicos de gobernancia y su aplicación en las pymes, mostramos los rudimentos de algunas herramientas japonesas de gestión e ilustramos con breves ejemplos cómo estas herramientas pueden utilizarse para implementar y mejorar la gobernancia de una pyme. Las herramientas consideradas son: un indicador de gobernancia pyme, basado en la estructura –aunque no necesariamente los contenidos- del Premio Deming, el premio nacional japonés a la calidad; la gestión hoshin; y los sistemas de reuniones eficaces.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M14 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 46
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: In recent years, Bolivia has accumulated a significant level of international reserves due to favorable external environment and the exchange rate regimen (crawling peg). In this context arises the question of: Which one is the optimal level of international reserves? According to the traditional indicators of adequacy of reserves and according to a model that shows the role of the reserves as a reliever of adverse external shocks, optimal reserves are located below the actual saved in the central bank since 2007. This result holds even when gold and non-financial public sector deposits of foreign currency at the central bank are excluded from the actual reserves. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that optimal reserves may increase considerably if some macroeconomic fundamentals change.
    Keywords: F31 ; F32 ; F41 ; ddc:330 ; Währungsreserven ; Zahlungsbilanz ; Währungssubstitution ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Elektrizität ; Nachfrage ; Energiekonsum ; Neuronale Netze ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Este documento analiza la oferta de trabajo no agrícola de los hogares rurales en Bolivia. Se observa que aproximadamente el 50% de todos los hogares en el área rural complementan sus ingresos a través del trabajo no agrícola, esta actividad tiende a ocurrir con más frecuencia en los hogares en tierras bajas que en las tierras altas. Dado que el trabajo no agrícola paga varias veces mejor que el trabajo agrícola, acceder a esta fuente de ingresos complementarios constituye una importante oportunidad para escapar de la pobreza rural.
    Keywords: J22 ; J43 ; R23 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; trabajo no agrícola. ; Ländlicher Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsangebot ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 49
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Ökosozialprodukt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 50
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Städtischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohn ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 51
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: E20 ; E60 ; J08 ; J20 ; J43 ; J83 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; Sozialreform ; Wirtschaftsreform ; Wirkungsanalyse ; Arbeitsmarkt ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-10
    Description: This article analyzes the support for democracy in Chile from an economic, institutional and political perspective. It uses data from Latinobarómetro for the period 1996-2007 and a statistical method of estimation, 'ordered logit', in order to answer the question of why support for Chilean democracy is not connected with economic growth. The analysis generates three key results of interest. First, regardless of the fact that GDP per capita does not have any effect on the level of support for democracy, it does affect individuals' perceptions of economic performance, since the variable 'economic situation' is one of the most explanatory variable of the model. Second, the analysis demonstrates the importance of the degree of confidence in the Congress at the moment that perceptions of democracy are evaluated. Third, 'political ideology' is the most useful variable in explaining support for democracy, a fact which suggests that the adherents of the right wing do not support the democratic system. This is the most reliable reason for the moderate level of support for democracy in Chile.
    Description: Dieser Beitrag analysiert die Unterstützung der Demokratie in Chile im ökonomischen, institutionellen und politischen Kontext. Hierzu werden Daten des Unternehmens Latinobarómetro aus dem Zeitraum der Jahre 1996-2007 unter Anwendung des 'Ordered Logit'-Modells verwendet, um die Frage nach der Beziehung zwischen wirtschaftlichem Wachstum und Unterstützung der Demokratie zu beantworten. Die Analyse zeigt drei bedeutsame Ergebnisse: 1) Obwohl das nationale Pro-Kopf-BIP keinen Einfluss auf das Niveau der Unterstützung der Demokratie hat, zeigt sich in einer Analyse auf Individualebene gleichwohl, dass die Variable 'ökonomische Situation' eine der aussagekräftigsten ist, um die Einstellung der Individuen zur wirtschaftlichen Leistungsfähigkeit der Demokratie zu erklären. 2) Die Analyse weist nach, wie wichtig das Vertrauen in das Parlament im Moment der Befragung ist. 3) Die Variable 'politische Ideologie' erweist sich als die bedeutsamste in Hinblick auf die Unterstützung der Demokratie, was auf die mangelnde Unterstützung des demokratischen Systems durch die politische Rechte verweist. Dies ist der entscheidende Faktor, der das nur mäßige Niveau der Unterstützung der Demokratie in Chile erklärt.
    Keywords: ddc:300 ; Demokratie ; Meinung ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Ideologie ; Chile
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Öffentliche Investition ; Armut ; Armutspolitik ; CGE-Modelling ; Allgemeines Gleichgewicht ; Mikrosimulation ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the most relevant factors of organizational culture that appear in Global Manufacturing Virtual Networks (GMVNs). These organizations are formed by highly dynamic manufacturing companies, that may even be even competitors, which establish horizontal and vertical relations among themselves, and where it is not necessary to maintain internally many manufacturing assets but to manage and share efficiently network resources. This study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as the similarity of cultural practices, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the importance of trust in the network. By using the proposed theoretical model, it will analyzed the presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous values and cultural practices where network actors can feel indentified. Finally, in order to validate the proposed model, the case methodology will be applied to one of the most successful collaborations of GMVNs within the aeronautics industry, the collaboration between GE and SNECMA to manufacture the CFM56 engine.
    Keywords: L14 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; global manufacturing virtual networks ; inter-organizational culture ; aeronautics industry
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-19
    Description: This paper analyses financial performance of companies considered as highly socially responsible. For this purpose, companies that compose the Spanish sustainability index FTSE4Good IBEX (as well as other IBEX indices) are examined. Two basic results can be highlighted: first, stocks of companies that are socially responsible earn returns on excess over systematic risk, making them investment-attractive. Second, they have a higher systematic risk.
    Keywords: G30 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; corporate social responsibility ; socially responsible investment ; FTSE4Good IBEX ; sustainability index ; ethical alpha
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Hamburg: German Institute of Global and Area Studies (GIGA)
    Publication Date: 2018-10-26
    Description: This paper examines the representations of violence in Guatemalan and El Salvadoran lite- rature against the backdrop of persistently high levels of violence and crime following the civil wars in both countries. It adopts an interdisciplinary approach settled within cultural studies and uses two examples - De fronteras (2007) by Claudia Hernández and Días amarillos (2009) by Javier Payeras - to analyze the narrative strategies applied in the process of re- counting violence. The results of the literary analysis enable the author to draw conclusions concerning the way in which both societies deal with urban post-war violence. The texts refer to the ubiquity of violence and the hopelessness of the situation, as well as to the responsibil- ity of the mass media for reproducing violence and a general turning away from the public domain towards the private life.
    Description: In diesem Beitrag werden Darstellungen von Gewalt in der Literatur Guatemalas und El Salvadors vor dem Hintergrund der anhaltend hohen Gewaltkriminalität in der Nachkriegszeit untersucht. Dabei wird auf eine kulturwissenschaftliche und interdisziplinäre Herangehensweise zurückgegriffen. Anhand zweier Beispiele - De fronteras (2007) von Claudia Hernández und Días amarillos (2009) von Javier Payeras - wird betrachtet, welche narrativen Strategien beim Erzählen von Gewalt zum Einsatz kommen. Die Rückschlüsse, die diese literarischen Texte hinsichtlich des Umgangs beider Gesellschaften mit der urbanen Nachkriegsgewalt ermöglichen, beziehen sich sowohl auf die Allgegenwart von Gewalt und die Ausweglosigkeit der Situation als auch auf die Verantwortung der Massenmedien sowie die kla- re Abwendung von der staatlichen Ebene und den Rückzug ins Private.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: Este trabajo es un estudio de caso del sistema de reuniones de Tejedurías Naiberger, una empresa textil y de indumentaria argentina. Comenzamos resumiendo conceptos generales sobre las reuniones y pasamos luego a describir un sistema de reuniones eficaces, su estructura, su utilización y sus elementos constitutivos. A continuación, presentamos características generales de la empresa objeto del caso de estudio. Describimos su sistema de reuniones a través de una lectura del Manual del Sistema de Reuniones Eficaces, que reproducimos completamente en un apéndice, y evaluamos el funcionamiento del sistema en un lapso de más de diez años, desde la fecha de su implementación, en 1997. El caso incluye preguntas de discusión, apéndices conceptuales sobre el trabajo en equipo, ejemplos de minutas y agendas de reuniones, y otros, además de tres entrevistas de evaluación del sistema de reuniones realizadas a directivos de la empresa.
    Keywords: M10 ; M12 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; sistema de reuniones ; sistema de reuniones eficaces ; reuniones ; directorios ; agenda de reunión ; minuta de reunión ; trabajo en equipo
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Ökonometrisches Makromodell ; Klimaveränderung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Klimaveränderung ; Energiewirtschaft ; Prognose ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: E31 ; E52 ; E61 ; C50 ; ddc:330 ; Wechselkurspolitik ; Inflationsbekämpfung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    La Paz: Universidad Católica Boliviana, Instituto de Investigaciones Socio-Económicas (IISEC)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bildungsverhalten ; Studium ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Buenos Aires: Universidad del Centro de Estudios Macroeconómicos de Argentina (UCEMA)
    Publication Date: 2018-06-28
    Description: La cultura es la suma de los comportamientos atribuidos al ser humano más los objetos materiales que forman parte integral de estos comportamientos. Si limitamos el concepto al mundo de las empresas, hablamos hoy de la cultura corporativa, es decir, del dominio del cómo hacemos las cosas aquí. Más específicamente, hablamos también de la cultura de la manufactura, para revelar aspectos de cómo una empresa enfoca el trabajo y las técnicas de fabricación, así como las actitudes generales hacia ellos. En este artículo presentamos nuestra perspectiva del concepto de cultura de la manufactura y los elementos que la constituyen. Exploramos, también, las implicaciones que estas ideas tienen para los gerentes de producción y para los gerentes generales. Contrastamos dos modelos: la cultura de la manufactura tradicional y la cultura de la manufactura moderna. Aunque no es posible, estrictamente, pensar a la cultura tradicional -o a la moderna- como originaria exclusiva de un único país en un tiempo específico, simplificando el panorama podemos asociar a la cultura de la manufactura tradicional con los Estados Unidos de las primeras décadas del siglo XX, y a la cultura de la manufactura moderna con el Japón de la segunda mitad del mismo siglo. La cultura de la manufactura es un sistema integrado, según nuestra perspectiva, por los siguientes elementos: la gente, la calidad, la gestión de los materiales, las máquinas y su utilización, los proveedores, la higiene y seguridad en el trabajo, el cuidado del medio ambiente, la organización y la ejecución. El artículo detalla las relaciones entre estos elementos y contrasta su lugar en las distintas culturas. Nos preguntamos si hay culturas manufactureras mejores que otras, y respondemos afirmativamente. Hay, en cada cultura, aspectos propios que la caracterizan, que si son marginales no permiten juzgar la superioridad de una cultura sobre otra. Pero existen, además, principios básicos -que mencionamos en nuestro trabajo- que distinguen a una cultura manufacturera superior. ¿Cómo promover, entonces, el cambio hacia una cultura manufacturera superior? Entra aquí el tema del cambio organizacional, que tratamos brevemente al cerrar el artículo.
    Keywords: M10 ; M11 ; M14 ; ddc:330 ; cultura ; cultura corporativa ; cultura de la manufactura ; técnicas de fabricación ; elementos de la cultura de la manufactura ; cambio cultural ; Unternehmenskultur
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Recientemente un nuevo tipo de programa de conservación de los recursos naturales llamado 'Pago por Servicios Ambientales' (PSA) ha llegado al debate sobre cómo integrar conservación y desarrollo - específicamente el alivio de pobreza. El reto es que el objetivo principal de programas de PSA es conservar y/o generar servicios ambientales deseados, lo que no necesariamente coincide con el alivio de la pobreza. El objetivo del presente informe es identificar y analizar las dimensiones y niveles de pobreza en la Cordillera del Tunari en Bolivia, en base a percepciones locales de pobreza y en base a un amplio cuestionario que integra pobreza con temas de acceso y manejo de los recursos naturales. Con referencia al análisis de pobreza y la degradación ambiental en la región, el informe discuta las condiciones necesarias para la implementación de esquemas 'pro-pobres' de pago por servicios hidrológicos (EPSH) en la Cordillera. Los resultados del estudio muestran que hay oportunidades de integrar la implementación de EPSH en la Cordillera del Tunari, con objetivos de aliviar pobreza. Tenencia de la tierra es segura, también para los pobres (permitiendo inversiones de largo plazo para la conservación de los servicios ambientales), y la organización es fuerte e incluyente (disminuyendo costos de transacción de los pagos a numerosos pequeños agricultores y permitiéndoles participar en términos iguales). Sin embargo debido al tamaño minúscula de las tierras (50% de los pobres tienen menos que un cuarta de hectáreas - 23% no tiene tierra) y la falta de recursos económicos para implementar nuevas prácticas se sugiere que programas de PSH 'pro-pobre' en la región, serian más eficientes si enfocan en 1) compensación o retribución en la forma de capacitación, para mejorar la producción agrícola 2) creación de empleos en la implementación de EPSH y pago por adelantado apoyando las inversiones en conservación de los recursos naturales. Todo en combinación con un sistema de pago continúo que asegurar la condicionalidad del sistema.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Armutspolitik ; Wasserversorgung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics