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  • Articles  (69)
  • Bolivia  (64)
  • J31  (8)
  • J24  (6)
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  • La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)  (69)
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  • 1
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The study analyzes - direct and indirect - export employment in Bolivia, using information from both the national accounts of 2005, 2011 and 2014 and the population and housing censuses. The most important result is that the export boom, during 2005-2014, has created jobs modestly (at rates lower than the added value of the economy); given that exports have been concentrated in low labor-intensive sectors (hydrocarbons and mining). This also explains why, at the level of trading partners, MERCOSUR members accounted for 50% of total exports in 2014; but only for 11.7% of export employment.
    Keywords: F14 ; F16 ; J21 ; ddc:330 ; exports ; export employment ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Despite the efforts made to reduce neonatal mortality in the Plurinational State of Bolivia, and the implementation of the Universal Maternal and Child Health Insurance (SUMI), the data reveal that progress has been slower than achieved in terms of reducing infant mortality in general. In this context, the main interest of this research is to define the characteristics of neonatal mortality in the country. The study starts with the econometric analysis of data from the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey (ENDSA). The objective is to visualize how the place of origin affects the risk of death of the newborn. The findings reveal that, in the Plurinational State of Bolivia, the risk of neonatal death is conditioned by access to health services, due to territorial disparities at the urban and rural levels. These disparities translate into economic, geographic and exclusion barriers. Those barriers diminish equity in the access and use of health services. In addition, they reinforce the social determinants affecting the death of the newborn and limiting access to timely interventions and adequate in maternal-neonatal care.
    Keywords: I15 ; I14 ; J18 ; C25 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; neonatal mortality ; access to health services ; urban ; rural ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 3
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper calculates and analyzes key indicators from Bolivia's Green National Accounts during the period 1990 - 2015, which covers an entire Commodity Super Cycle. The first half includes the Great Commodities Depression while the second half of the period is characterized by an unprecedented commodities boom. We show that the contribution of ecosystem goods and services to the Bolivian economy remain relatively stable over the cycle, while the contribution of non-renewable resources increases by a factor of four between the bottom of the cycle (1993) and the top of the cycle (2011). Similarly, the differences between Net Capital Formation and Environmentally-adjusted Net Capital formation is small at the bottom of the Commodity Super Cycle (2.3% of GDP) but much larger at the top of the cycle (7.7% of GDP).
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q01 ; Q32 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Green Accounting ; Natural Resource Rents ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian Global Value Chains (GVC) for 2002, 2005 and 2011, using the Vertical Specialization Index (EV) of Hummels et al. (2001) and the measure of Upstreamness of Antràs y Chor (2011) (cited by Antràs et al., 2012b). Indicators show that trade patterns are represented by a concentration of raw materials, which have also taken advantage from those derived from GVC; while manufacturing sectors have been less important in this dynamic, and they even lost their relevance over time.
    Keywords: C02 ; F01 ; F14 ; ddc:330 ; Global Value Chains ; fragmentation indicators ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 5
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La estimación de las cuentas ambientales a nivel subnacional es importante en Bolivia, debido a la heterogénea distribución espacial de los activos ambientales en el territorio nacional, en particular para departamentos de escasa diversificación productiva, donde la extracción de recursos naturales constituye su principal base económica. El presente trabajo se concentra en el departamento de Pando en Bolivia. Aplica la metodología non-survey de regionalización de matrices insumo producto, a una clasificación adecuada de activos y recursos ambientales, para obtener el Producto Interno Bruto (PIB) ambientalmente ajustado del mencionado departamento, cuya desagregación según ingreso permite la estimación cuantitativa del aporte de la naturaleza en la generación del producto e ingreso departamental, medida a través del cálculo de la renta de los recursos naturales. Los resultados de la investigación también confirman la dependencia económica de Pando, respecto de los recursos naturales, al cuantificar su alto grado de apertura hacia mercados externos al departamento, superior al nacional y constituirse en exportador neto de recursos naturales.
    Keywords: Q56 ; R11 ; R15 ; ddc:330 ; Cuentas Ambientales ; Cuentas Regionales ; Matriz Insumo Producto ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 6
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper presents an analysis of the decentralization process that has been taking place in Bolivia over the last couple of decades. It starts with a review of the legal framework that determines the distribution of responsibilities and financial resources to the sub-national governments (9 departments and 339 municipalities), and continues with an analysis of the evolution and distribution of financing to these entities between 2001 and 2013. It then proceeds to describe the resulting progress in social indicators between 2001 and 2012 at the municipal level, and identifies the main remaining gaps in basic services by 2012. Finally, the paper offers an analysis of the factors that are most closely associated with progress in the main social indicator used by the Bolivian government - the Unsatisfied Basic Needs index. This provides the basis for a final section on recommendations for public investment in Bolivia.
    Keywords: H70 ; H71 ; I38 ; O54 ; R11 ; R58 ; ddc:330 ; Decentralization ; poverty reduction ; basic needs ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Los países de América Latina y el Caribe estan afectados por eventos climáticos extremos. En República Dominicana, Ecuador y Bolivia existe un incremento en el riesgo a sucesos extremos en general y a inundaciones en particular. El objetivo de este estudio es comparar los Sistemas de Alerta Temprana (SATs) para inundaciones, identificar los problemas, las lecciones aprendidas y a partir de ello hacer recomendaciones. Con este fin , se analizaron los indicadores relacionados a inundaciones y SATs. Desde septiembre de 2014 hasta julio de 2015, se realizaron 32 entrevistas estructuradas a los más destacados actores, de las principales instituciones, a nivel local y nacional. Encontramos que existen sistemas de monitoreo sólidos, y por ello, se ha trabajado en la mayoría de los casos fortaleciendo la parte técnica y de pronósticos para inundaciones. Sin embargo, en los tres países todavía existe una brecha entre el pronóstico técnico y la comunicación/respuesta de la comunidad. La diferencia entre un fenómeno natural y un desastre puede ser un Sistema de Alerta Temprana, que tome como eje central la participación de las comunidades y la coordinación con las autoridades. Es necesario fortalecer los SATs que existen localmente dando a las comunidades herramientas necesarias y coordinando los sistemas locales y nacionales para dar una alerta, reacción y acción oportunas.
    Keywords: Q54 ; Q51 ; Q52 ; ddc:330 ; Sistemas de Alerta Temprana ; inundaciones ; Bolivia ; Ecuador ; República Dominicana
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Este documento de investigación estima las emisiones netas de carbono provenientes del cambio en el uso de tierra en Bolivia durante los periodos 1990 - 2000 y 2000 - 2010 utilizando un modelo de contabilidad de carbono que incluye deforestación, degradación de bosques, regeneración de bosques, descomposición y recomposición gradual de carbono, así como la heterogeneidad de los contenidos de carbono sobresuelo y bajo-tierra en una grilla de 10 por 10 km. El enfoque permite elaborar mapas detallados de emisiones netas por región y por tipo de vegetación. Se estima que las emisiones netas de CO2 provenientes del cambio en el uso de tierra en Bolivia incrementaron de 65 millones de toneladas por año durante 1990-2000 a 93 millones de toneladas por año durante la década del 2000-2010, aproximadamente. Se encontró que las emisiones de CO2 per cápita y por unidad de PIB se mantienen estables entre los periodos señalados. Sin embargo, si se considera la evidencia de un incremento de la biomasa en bosques maduros, las emisiones netas de CO2 descienden hasta cerca de cero.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q24 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; regeneración de bosques ; emisiones de carbono ; modelo de contabilidad de carbono ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 9
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This article analyzes the importance of firm characteristics to explain earnings in urban Bolivia. Initially I propose a new simple theoretical model of segmented labor market where, in equilibrium, individual and firm variables jointly determine earnings at the worker level. The key for achieving this equilibrium is that workers have both specific preferences and heterogonous skills provided by years of schooling, which are in turn associated to certain firms. Given the household surveys information, I estimate two alternative earnings functions from this model, one for unsalaried workers, for which there is detailed firm data and one for salaried workers, in which sector, size and formality are used as firm proxies. I find not only that firm characteristics are fundamental determinants of earnings but that regressions that include only individual characteristics present highly overestimated coefficients.
    Keywords: C26 ; J20 ; J24 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings functions ; labor market segmentation ; firm characteristics ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the effects of economic growth on labor earnings in Bolivia during 1999-2012. More precisely, we develop a labor market model to capture both cycle and trend effects of prices, and production on earnings, which is estimated econometrically using pseudo-panel data methods. The results show that labor earnings have had a pro-cyclical behavior. In particular, we find that, in the short run, an increase of 1% in prices or production explains an earnings rise of around 0.5%, while, in the long run, a production increase of 1% is associated with an earnings variation of 0.4%. Furthermore, we find that labor earnings growth by sector follows, to some extent, the economic performance of its corresponding sector, which responds to the sector segmentation characteristics in the Bolivian labor market.
    Keywords: E29 ; E32 ; J29 ; J39 ; J42 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; earnings ; wages ; economic growth ; business cycle ; pseudo-panel
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 11
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: ¿Ayuda la existencia de recursos extractivos a la formación de recursos humanos, concretamente a la formación técnica? La evidencia empírica es poco concluyente. Para el caso de Bolivia se muestra que la actividad extractiva sin agregación de valor, no genera demanda por personas calificadas y por tanto no emite señales claras hacia el sistema educativo para formar este tipo de profesionales, aunque existan los recursos para ello. Por otra parte, la conformación del sistema educativo en medio de pugnas de grupos de poder en educación primaria y secundaria, donde el Estado históricamente no pudo asumir el rol de Principal en la formulación y manejo de la política educativa, desembocaron en la situación de descuido de la formación para el trabajo. La desconexión histórica de la política de desarrollo de la política educativa parece ser la principal explicación para la situación actual de la educación técnica en Bolivia.
    Keywords: D71 ; I2 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Formación Técnica ; Capital Humano ; Extractivismo ; Historia Económica ; Desarrollo Económico ; Teoría Principal Agente ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 12
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El presente trabajo de investigación busca contextualizar la pobreza monetaria en Bolivia y, a partir de aquí, establecer la importancia de la situación laboral de los trabajadores del hogar. Las estimaciones muestran que la pobreza ha disminuido de manera importante entre 1999 y 2012; siendo más significativo -en términos agregados- el efecto crecimiento que el de redistribución. Estos cambios pueden asociarse al mejor desempeño de los ingresos laborales; una vez que éstos representan cerca del 90% de los ingresos totales del hogar. Por último, destaca también un mayor porcentaje de miembros de la familia trabajando en los hogares no-pobres comparativamente con los pobres, y una concentración relativa de los trabajadores pobres en la producción agropecuaria y los no-pobres en los servicios sociales (educación, salud, servicios comunales y otros).
    Keywords: I32 ; J21 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Pobreza ; Ingreso laboral ; Ocupación
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Las MYPES son una parte importante de la economía nacional, los microempresarios identifican a la falta de capacitación como un factor determinante para mejorar su productividad; sin embargo, cuando se les pregunta qué tipo de capacitación necesitan, no existe consenso sobre sus necesidades. El presente estudio de caso busca mostrar la situación actual de las MYPES con respecto a sus necesidades de capacitación a través de un trabajo con la FEDEMYPE Santa Cruz. Entre las principales razones del porqué no existe consenso entre las necesidades de capacitación está la gran diversidad de las MYPES y el distanciamiento entre la oferta de capacitación brindada por instituciones gubernamentales y no gubernamentales con la demanda de capacitación de las micro y pequeñas empresas. Por otro lado, también se realizó una recapitulación de los tipos de capacitación que se socializó con la FEDEMYPE con el fin de complementar estudio.
    Keywords: J24 ; J49 ; L29 ; ddc:330 ; MYPE ; microempresa ; capacitación ; pequeña empresa ; informalidad ; habilidades ; microempresarios ; emprendedores ; habilidades productivas ; habilidades administrativas ; habilidades gerenciales
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper describes the construction of the most detailed, openly accessible Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Bolivia to date. In addition to allowing for 'standard' socio-economic analysis common for SAMs - like assessing the linkages between production, factor income distribution and households' incomes and expenditures - the SAM presented in this paper makes detailed economic assessments at the subnational level, by gender and at detailed agricultural subsector levels, possible. Sections 1-4 present the methodology and data sources used, explain assumptions and criteria adopted for SAM disaggregation, and discuss key findings with a focus on distributional features. Section 5 presents results from a simple SAM multiplier model and section 6 concludes. It is the authors' hope that this SAM database can make a contribution to evidence-based policy making that helps to further reduce poverty and food insecurity in Bolivia.
    Keywords: E16 ; ddc:330 ; Social Accounting Matrix ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El propósito de este documento es coadyuvar a hacer un uso sostenible del agua en las ciudades de La Paz y el Alto, identificando los puntos donde la economía de estas ciudades ejerce mayor presión sobre este recurso y las necesidades de intervención. Con este fin, hicimos una radiografía actual (2011) de los flujos físicos y monetarios relacionados al agua en estas ciudades y una revisión de fuentes de suministro de la última década. Empleamos la metodología del sistema de cuentas ambientales y económicas para el agua (SCAE-Agua) elaborado por las Naciones Unidas (2012) que permite la contabilización y relación de flujos de agua en términos físicos y monetarios. Los resultados muestran que se pierde en promedio más del 45% de agua en procesos de abducción, tratamiento y distribución. Por otro lado, los residentes de la ciudad de La Paz pagan 40% más por litro de agua desde el año 2007 que los de El Alto, donde se observa una mayor subvención de este recurso y un menor consumo industrial facturado. A pesar de que la principal fuente de agua para estas ciudades es la lluvia, no existen programas coordinados de cosecha de aguas, ni una estrategia de protección de reservorios naturales de este recurso.
    Keywords: Q25 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; SCAE ; SCAE-Agua ; Bolivia ; Pérdidas de Agua
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 16
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: We build a theoretical model that incorporates unionization in the labor market into a Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework to investigate the impact of unionization on the Stolper-Samuelson Theorem. To capture the American economy case, we assume that unskilled labor in the manufactured goods sector is unionized, and that sector is intensive in skilled labor, and that trade liberalization increases the relative price of manufactured goods. In the HOS model, trade liberalization induces a reallocation of production towards the sector that uses intensively the country's most abundant factor. The resulting change in relative labor demand impacts wage bargaining in the unionized sector, which, in turn, has a dampening effect on the Stolper-Samuelson effect. Moreover, wages of unionized workers are even less responsive to trade liberalization. Through traditional mandated-wages regressions, we show that skilled-wage differentials changes were less pronounced among more unionized sectors in the U.S. economy for the 1979-1990 period.
    Keywords: F16 ; J31 ; J51 ; ddc:330 ; Stolper-Samuelson Theorem ; wage bargaining ; unionization
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper investigates the potential of information technologies to improve public service delivery and empower citizens in the context of two unusual randomized natural experiments occurring within one particular bureaucratic process: the renewal of a national identification card by the Bolivian Police. The first experiment arises from the random assignment of both police officers and applicants to a manual or digital renewal process, which is identical in all aspects except that the digital renewal process makes use of information technologies as part of the renewal process. The second experiment arises by the existence of technical failures within the digital renewal process, which allows police officers to change from the digital to the manual renewal process randomly across renewal day. The efficiency of public service delivery is measured in terms of both renewal success rates (which average to a strikingly low rate of 72 percent in our sample) and time-it-takes to renew an identification card. The causal effect of information technologies on public service delivery is estimated using two different identification strategies. In the first one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to each one of these two renewal processes are compared after controlling for renewal day fixed effects. In the second one, applicant-police officer pairs randomly assigned to the digital process are compared to those randomly assigned to this same process but who experienced a technical failure within the process, which allows to directly control for unobserved heterogeneity at the police officer level. We find that information technologies significantly improve the quality of public service delivery. Applicants randomly assigned to the digital renewal process are on average 12 percentage points more likely to complete the renewal process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Further, successful applicants randomly assigned to the digital process take on average 31 percent less time to complete the process as compared to those randomly assigned to the manual one. Lastly, we find that information technologies significantly lower barriers in access to national identification cards by promoting a more equitable provision across the population. We discuss several channels through which technologies might be improving efficiency and promoting equity within this particular bureaucratic process. Overall, our findings suggest that information technologies might be achieving these goals by introducing efficiencies (such as reducing administrative shortcomings and transaction costs), and limiting the exercise of discretion by police officers within the renewal process.
    Keywords: C93 ; O38 ; J24 ; ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 18
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper proposes a simple way to measure livelihood diversification, and uses this measure together with income levels to classify Bolivian households by level of vulnerability. Regression analysis is then carried out to determine the factors and strategies associated with high resilience or high vulnerability. The results show that the single most important strategy for resilience is to have a working and income earning spouse in the household. This is still much too uncommon in Bolivia. A second important factor is the age of the head of household. Young families are considerably more vulnerable than more mature families, as they have not had time to build up assets that can provide alternative sources of livelihood. One of the most surprising results of the study is that urban households are considerably more vulnerable to adverse shocks than rural households, whereas gender and ethnicity are irrelevant. The paper finishes with a comprehensive list of policy recommendations.
    Keywords: D13 ; I32 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Livelihood diversification ; resilience ; vulnerability ; external shocks ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: The carbon sequestration potential of an unmanaged and previously unstudied Guadua angustifolia bamboo forest in the Carrasco National Park of Bolivia has been studied, by estimating the total aboveground biomass contained in the forest. It was found that the aboveground biomass consisting of stems, branches, and foliage, contains a total of 200 tons per hectare, leading to an estimated 100 tons of carbon being stored per hectare aboveground, which is comparable to some species of tree such as the Chinese Fir; this bamboo species therefore has the potential to play a significant role in the mitigation of climate change. The relation between the biomass, M, of each component (stems, branches, and foliage) and the diameter, d, of the plant was also studied, by fitting allometric equations of the form M = αdβ. It was found that all components fit this power law relation very well (R2 〉 0.7), particularly the stems (R2 〉 0.8) and branches (R2 〉 0.9) for which the relation is found to be almost linear.
    Keywords: Q23 ; Q54 ; ddc:330 ; Climate change ; mitigation ; carbon sequestration ; bamboo ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 20
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This document states the hypothesis that there are some cultural factors that are negatively related to health care utilization. Evidence of maternal health care is used to assess the hypothesis. Two different dependent variables are used, antenatal care and delivery assistance with a health professional. The set of covariates include predisposing factors (individual, household and cultural factors), characteristics of morbidity and characteristics of health system. Using the 2008 Demographic Health Survey (DHS) this document presents estimations of a logit model and average marginal effects. Results show that cultural factors are negatively related to health care utilization, through the estimation of its variables, self identification as native, first language and state. Yet, some individual characteristics as education and mainly wealth present higher significances. Therefore, short run policies should focus on improving wealth for selected groups of excluded women rather than other policies as improving education.
    Keywords: I15 ; I18 ; C25 ; ddc:330 ; maternal health ; antenatal care ; delivery assistance ; models for binary data ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 21
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: La investigación analiza el desempeño de las exportaciones en Bolivia a la luz de los empleos que genera, directos e indirectos, con los siguientes resultados destacables: i) la creación de fuentes laborales se ha concentrado en los bienes no tradicionales ya que son intensivos en este factor de producción; ii) el buen desempeño del volumen de ventas al exterior en 1999-2010 posibilitó el incremento de la mano de obra derivada, empero con tasas modestas; iii) Los socios de la Comunidad Andina de Naciones (CAN) ?Colombia, Ecuador y Perú? han sido los más importantes en términos de creación de empleos; mientras que el MERCOSUR, principalmente Brasil, se destaca con la mayor participación en las exportaciones; y iv) la caída de los empleos derivados de las menores exportaciones a Estados Unidos en los últimos años ha sido significativa, aunque parte de esta disminución habría sido compensada con las mayores ventas a Venezuela en el marco de los compromisos con Bolivia.
    Description: This paper analyzes Bolivian exports focusing on their jobs results. We find that: i) employment created by exports is mainly explained by untraditional goods exports, given that they are labor intensive; ii) the high rate of exports growth during 1999-2010 generated more jobs, however, with modest rates of growth; iii) the Andean Community of Nations (CAN) members - Colombia, Ecuador and Peru - have been the most important countries for generating jobs, while MERCOSUR, mainly Brazil, stands out by its corresponding export values; and iv) during the last years, the lower exports to U.S. has had a negative and significant impact on employment, although part of this has been offset by selling more to Venezuela, as part of special commitments.
    Keywords: F01 ; F16 ; J29 ; ddc:330 ; Exportaciones ; Empleo ; Bolivia ; Exports ; Employment ; Bolivia ; Export ; Beschäftigung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: Bolivia tiene un gran potencial para mitigar el cambio climático a través de la reducción de la deforestación. Mientras que las posibles complicaciones han sido intensamente debatidas, se ha realizado poco análisis cuantitativo al respecto. Introducimos el modelo OSIRIS-Bolivia con el fin de crear una base cuantitativa para la toma de decisiones. OSIRIS-Bolivia es una herramienta en Excel capaz de analizar los efectos de los incentivos REDD en Bolivia. Esta herramienta está basada en un modelo econométrico-espacial de la deforestación en el periodo 2001-2005, y usa información sobre cobertura forestal, tasas de deforestación, condiciones geográficas, y causantes de la deforestación, como los costos de oportunidad agrícolas, para más de 120.000 píxeles en todo el país. Se trata de un modelo de equilibrio parcial, en el sentido que toma en cuenta el hecho de que reducciones en la deforestación en un lugar causarán una reducción en la oferta de productos agrícolas, que a su vez hará subir los precios agrícolas y aumentará la presión para deforestar en otro lugar (fugas de carbono). El modelo nos puede ayudar a resolver preguntas como: ¿Dónde es más probable que funcione REDD? ¿Cuánto dinero necesitamos para reducir la deforestación en cierto porcentaje? ¿Cuáles son los potenciales problemas de REDD?
    Keywords: Q21 ; Q56 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; REDD ; Bolivia ; simulación ; impactos ; Entwaldung ; Umweltbelastung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper examines bureaucratic delay within the allocation of small infrastructure projects by sub-municipal governments in Bolivia, and it presents a randomized eld experiment designed to improve public service delivery by promoting voice, transparency, and accountability among grass- roots organizations. The experiment consists of randomly providing sub-municipal governments with a mailing tracking system, which provides public o cials and grassroots organizations real- time information about the processing of small infrastructure projects requests by sub-municipal governments. The objective of this intervention is twofold. First, is to facilitate the involvement of grassroots organizations in the process of reviewing, tracking, and monitoring small infrastructure project allocations. Second, is to explicitly alter the probability of detecting ine cient adminis- trative practices within district councils and, therefore, to implicitly increase the expected cost of engaging in such practices among public o cials. The ndings of this paper suggest that moni- toring tools that promote access to information by citizens might play a critical role in improving public service delivery outcomes. Yet, in settings where mechanisms of local accountability are subject to be captured by local elites or are weak, monitoring tools might have limited capacity to improve outcomes. In such settings, major transparency related reforms might be needed to improve public service delivery outcomes.
    Keywords: D73 ; C93 ; H76 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; transparency ; accountability ; local-level monitoring ; bureaucratic delay ; Kommunale Infrastruktur ; Infrastrukturpolitik ; Bürokratie ; Bürgerbeteiligung ; Bolivien
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: El estudio analiza el empleo en las empresas manufactureras registradas bolivianas durante 1988-2007, estableciendo su relación con la regulación laboral a partir de indicadores de flujos y funciones de demanda. Los flujos de empleo muestran que las empresas con altas tasas de trabajadores temporales, comparativamente con aquellos permanentes asalariados, asociadas a menos costos derivados de la regulación, tienen las mayores tasas de reasignación y de crecimiento neto del empleo. Estas firmas fueron las únicas que contribuyeron con la creación de fuentes laborales en la crisis económica (1998- 1999). Las estimaciones de las funciones de demanda muestran que el incremento compulsorio del salario básico durante 2006-2009 y los mayores costos derivados de la nueva ley de pensiones habrían conducido a costos sociales en términos de pérdidas de empleos, siendo mayores para los obreros que para los restantes trabajadores. Además, las políticas de protección laboral también habrían afectado negativamente la demanda por obreros.
    Keywords: D24 ; J01 ; J23 ; K31 ; ddc:330 ; Flujos de Empleo ; Demanda Laboral ; Regulación Laboral ; Bolivia ; Industrielle Beschäftigung ; Arbeitsmarktpolitik ; Bolivien
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  • 25
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: In this article a process-tracing approach is used to explore how different factors have contributed to the development of healthcare policy in Bolivia, in light of the current proposal to introduce a unified public healthcare system. The main findings are that although international relations and state bureaucrats have been crucial to the process of formulating policies, the introduction of comprehensive reform will depend on the ability of groups who currently lack access to the healthcare system to form progressive coalitions promoting universalism, as well as the ability of those who benefit from the current arrangements to maintain the status quo. The ability to introduce comprehensive reforms is thus connected to the ongoing processes of decentralisation and democratisation of political decision-making in Bolivia. Although state-corporative welfare state institutions have been shown to be difficult to transform, low coverage levels in such systems combined with a process of increasing political inclusion of previously marginalised groups poses serious challenges to the status quo as the social aspect of citizenship is brought up on the agenda. In order to achieve universal coverage of the healthcare system, however, basic social rights of all citizens must be institutionalised at the same time as the scope and quality of services must be secured in order to avoid segmentation and to encourage the financial participation of the formal and middle income sectors.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; health care ; social policy ; institutional change ; power resources ; policy diffusion ; Gesundheitsreform ; Bolivien
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  • 26
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This research examines the production of quinoa as an option for improving rural incomes in the Altiplano of Bolivia; due to, on one hand, the grain is aligned perfectly to the customs and traditions of work and family of the habitants of this region, on the other hand, international demand for the product has increased substantially generating good economic opportunities and better prices. Through microsimulation is observed that in the the Southern Highlands households would benefit from the production and marketing of quinoa, and may even significantly increase these revenues (decreasing poverty levels) increasing the productivity of the land or substituting other crops by it. However, in other highland areas the grain production has a modest impact in terms of income and poverty. These differences explain why just the Southern Highlands produces a variety high demand, la quinua real while in other areas the other agricultural activities are relatively more profitable alternatives.
    Keywords: J39 ; Q19 ; I39 ; ddc:330 ; Quinua ; Rural income ; Altiplano ; Bolivia ; Ländliches Einkommen ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 27
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper analyzes the factors that explain earnings in levels and inequality in the urban areas of Bolivia, considering not only the usual individual characteristics (education, experience, gender, and ethnicity) but also firm characteristics. Given the information available at the firm level in the household surveys, two simple models were developed: one for independent workers (for which there is relatively detailed firm-level data), and the other for dependent workers (where firm variables were approximated by sector, size, and by the legal condition of the workers). The main econometric results show that: i) earnings regressions that include only individual variables present highly biased (overestimated) coefficients; ii) firm characteristics are fundamental factors for explaining earnings for independent workers, almost doubling R2 and explaining 45.5% of observed earnings inequality; and iii) firm proxies for dependent workers are also relevant; however, they explain wages at a lower percentage (11.8%), which may be due to non-detailed firm data and to the relatively higher importance of education for these workers. These new findings represent a contribution to the empirical literature on earnings determinants for urban Bolivia as well as to the vision of labor income and poverty problems.
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; earnings (wages) ; firm characteristics ; inequality ; Bolivia ; Stadt ; Einkommen ; Bolivien
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  • 28
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This paper seeks to establish the factors related to the Human Development Index, incorporating the spatial dimension in the analysis of its determinants. The variables were classified into four groups: geographic, socio-economic, demographic and infrastructure and services. The results show that the geographic and demographic variables are important in the socio-economic development of municipalities. In relation to economic variables, only the variable rural economic organizations is significant, showing the importance of these institutions. Furthermore, contrary to expectations, the variable municipal social spending per capita is not significant, suggesting that central government spending is more important in achieving better health and education indicators, and finally, the process of decentralization has not been able to reach these levels. On the other hand, the spatial dimension is relevant in human development at the municipal level, showing that there is a process in which events in one location are more likely to predict similar events in neighboring geographical units. In this regard, plans or projects of the municipalities should be made jointly and not individually.
    Keywords: R12 ; O18 ; C21 ; ddc:330 ; Regional distribution ; Municipal development ; Spatial econometrics ; Bolivia ; Regionalökonomik ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Gemeindeentwicklung ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 29
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Description: This papers reviews main topics concerning sub-national revenues (intergovernmental transfers and taxes) and discusses some policy options to develop own sub-national revenues. The review covers the political-legal framework and the fiscal outcomes, finding that: i) intergovernmental transfers policies have expanded over time, generating inequity problems, principally at the departmental level; ii) sub-national revenues depend mostly on intergovernmental transfers; this has generated high levels of vertical imbalances, mainly for department governments whose revenues rely mostly on the hydrocarbons sector; and iii) lack of adequate tax policies that promote fiscal effort and equity led to large horizontal imbalances in municipal per capita tax collection, unrelated to poverty or human development differences. In this regard, policy options were discussed to increase own sub-national revenues, taking into account political and social discussions, the economic, fiscal and legal base, and relevant tax principles. The main recommendations are: i) to promote in-kind contributions (materials and labour) at the municipal level, especially in poor rural municipalities; ii) to improve municipal tax administration supporting the continuation of the RUAT's work and improving the registry with the new census; and iii) to evaluate the possibility of redefining the RC-IVA as a personal income tax shared between the central government and the departments.
    Keywords: H20 ; H71 ; H73 ; H77 ; K00 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; fiscal decentralization ; revenues ; taxes ; intergovernmental transfers ; Dezentralisierung ; Finanzausgleich ; Bolivien
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  • 30
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Este documento analiza la oferta de trabajo no agrícola de los hogares rurales en Bolivia. Se observa que aproximadamente el 50% de todos los hogares en el área rural complementan sus ingresos a través del trabajo no agrícola, esta actividad tiende a ocurrir con más frecuencia en los hogares en tierras bajas que en las tierras altas. Dado que el trabajo no agrícola paga varias veces mejor que el trabajo agrícola, acceder a esta fuente de ingresos complementarios constituye una importante oportunidad para escapar de la pobreza rural.
    Keywords: J22 ; J43 ; R23 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; trabajo no agrícola. ; Ländlicher Arbeitsmarkt ; Arbeitsangebot ; Bolivien
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  • 31
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: After the 2000 Water-War, access to water in Bolivia has become a major social demand and thus a prime and contentious political issue. The event has revealed an overwhelming opposition to neo-liberal approaches to water management and has allowed the articulation of a new discourse that sees water not as an economic resource but as a human right. In this context, the paper reviews the two contrasting positions within the debate about whether or not water should be treated as an economic resource. In doing so, it presents the arguments underpinning each position which then allows the elaboration of some relevant conclusions.
    Keywords: Q20 ; Q25 ; ddc:330 ; Value of water ; Bolivia ; economic resource ; water-war ; market value ; indigenous knowledge ; cultural value ; Ressourcenökonomik ; Erneuerbare Ressourcen ; Wasser ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 32
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Keywords: J20 ; J23 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Städtischer Arbeitsmarkt ; Lohn ; Bolivien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 33
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of Green National Accounting by drawing out some interesting insights from the Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounts recently elaborated by the Institute for Advanced Development Studies for the case of Bolivia. The paper uses the Green National Accounts to show the importance of environmental inputs in 7 different productive sectors and compares the corresponding natural resource rents to the level of producer taxes in each sector. The paper also analyses the evolution of total productive capital, in order to judge whether Bolivia's current development model can be considered sustainable. The paper finished with recommendations about interesting extensions that can be made to the Green National Accounts.
    Keywords: Q56 ; Q01 ; Q32 ; Q51 ; ddc:330 ; Green Accounting ; Natural Resource Rents ; Bolivia ; Ökosozialprodukt ; Bolivien
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  • 34
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: Millennium Development Goal number 8 (MDG8) concerns those external flows (Official Development Assistance, trade and debt relief) that ought to help developing countries achieve the MDGs by 2015. This paper reviews the role of these MDG8-related external flows in the case of Bolivia. Riding on high international prices for its major exports, and on fiscal expansion, remittances and debt forgiveness, Bolivia has experienced solid economic performance in the past few years. This economic performance coupled with the recent increase in social public expenditures by the government has increased the likelihood that the country will achieve all of the MDGs by 2015, except probably for MDG 2. These advances have been achieved in a period of radical change in Bolivia's dependence on MDG8-related external flows. The composition of external finance in public expenditure has shifted from domination by ODA and debt forgiveness in the first half of the decade to domination by trade, mainly through revenues from hydrocarbon exports. Our findings support the idea that the provision of additional financial resources may not be the priority with regard to organising support to MDG achievements. Spending efficiently and effectively seems to be a more important area for support in Bolivia. As far as trade is concerned, Bolivia already enjoys good market access in its main markets, thus better access through lower non-tariff barriers may be more relevant than improving access in terms of tariffs. Moreover access to markets would be easier if Bolivia were better integrated with world markets, with its regional neighbours in particular. This calls for the support of the international community through aid for trade (AfT), which has instead been worryingly dwindling in recent years. Finally, we argue that MDG8 could be pursued in Bolivia through support for improving access to technology and access to affordable drugs.
    Keywords: F35 ; O11 ; O54 ; P45 ; ddc:330 ; Bolivia ; MDGs ; aid ; trade ; debt ; Entwicklungshilfe ; Millennium Development Goals ; Bolivien
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  • 35
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper evaluates the degree of social mobility in Bolivia, both by comparing to other Latin American countries, and by comparing social mobility at different points in time. While Bolivia had one of the lowest levels of social mobility in the region in 1997, the last 10 years have seen spectacular improvements, especially for rural and female teenagers. This is very good news, as it suggests that Bolivia has finally escaped the low mobility low growth equilibrium where it has been stuck for so long.
    Keywords: E60 ; I32 ; J12 ; J13 ; ddc:330 ; Social Mobility ; Bolivia ; Soziale Mobilität ; Bolivien
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2018-12-10
    Description: This paper analyses non-agricultural work supplied by rural households in Bolivia. It is shown that roughly 50% of all rural households complement their incomes through non-agricultural work, but that households in the lowlands are more likely to do so than households in the highlands. Since non-agricultural work pays several times better than agricultural work, access to this source of complementary income constitutes an important opportunity to escape rural poverty.
    Keywords: J22 ; J43 ; R23 ; Q12 ; ddc:330 ; Rural labor markets ; Bolivia ; non-farm labor
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  • 37
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The global financial crisis (GFC) has had a negative effect on the Bolivian economy. The outbreak of the GFC has caused a drop in export commodity prices such as mining and hydrocarbons, and a reduction in remittances. Bolivia however, was in a relatively good position to deal with the negative effects of the GFC. The country has experienced in recent years an important commodity price boom, which significantly increased external revenues, public and private incomes and consumption levels. Although the GFC has had a mild effect on the Bolivian economy so far, there are important structural factors that could put at risk the long term sustainability of policies and of the macroeconomic equilibriums. Among these factors are: i) a low investment rates, which could risk growth prospects and employment creation; ii) a large dependency of Bolivia fiscal sector on the hydrocarbon rent, which makes the long term sustainability of macroeconomic policies and of the current economic situation questionable; iii) the lack of a favourable investment climate required to increase growth and employment, which depends among other factors of the rule of law, property rights, judicial security, clearer and more stable rules of the game, macroeconomic stability, etc. iv) lack of a clearer strategy in relation to the country external insertion is also necessary. Access to larger markets, with higher incomes and purchasing power, is necessary to promote sustainable growth and employment creation, and to reduce the vulnerability of the Bolivian economy to shocks. Trade agreements with the USA, European Union and other regions of the world are necessary to promote investment, growth and employment creation.
    Keywords: G01 ; ddc:330 ; Financial crisis ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 38
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This research examines selected Community Ecotourism projects in the Amboró National Park in Bolivia, which have been established by local environmental NGOs. The objective is to investigate the impact of these projects on the livelihoods and social relations in the communities. The main question that concerns us is if the projects have been effective in reducing or alleviating poverty and vulnerability, whilst providing environmental sustainability. The research also provides insight into the impact of the projects on social, cultural and economic structures of the communities. Furthermore, it will show whether the beneficiaries see Community Ecotourism projects as an important income and activity diversification option, and if they see the projects as environmentally sustainable. These issues can determine the final outcome of the project, and thus become decisive to evaluate if such projects can be used as a strategy to improve living conditions and reduce poverty. The research relies on interviews and data collected during fieldwork in Bolivia in July-August 2007. Four different Community Ecotourism projects in the Amboró National Park were visited, as well as key informants and stakeholders.
    Keywords: Q26 ; Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Ecotourism ; poverty ; sustainability ; Bolivia
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  • 39
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper studies the changes in inequality and poverty in the period 1999-2005 in Bolivia through the analysis of the changes in the labour market. A decomposition method based on micro-simulation techniques was applied. The decomposition works with an income generation model at the household level, which is a set of equations for the individual earnings and for the labour supply and occupational choices for each member of the household. We decomposed the observed change in inequality into four components: i) a shift in the income distribution related to a change in employment rates and the shares of wage and non-wage labour among the employed population (participation effect); ii) a shift related to changes in the remuneration of observed characteristics of the employed population (price effect); iii) a shift related to a change in the distribution of error terms of estimated earn-ings functions (error term effect); and iv) a residual change in inequality not cap-tured by the first three simulated changes in the income distribution. According to our results the increase in inequality of 3 points of the Gini coefficient, was ex-plained by approximately 1 point for the participation, price and error term effects and 2 points for the residual change. The increase in the unemployment rate, the shift in the participation of the non wage earners, the rise in wages and the more unequal distribution of unobserved productive talents deteriorated the income dis-tribution in this period in Bolivia. Regarding the poverty incidence, the observed variation was a reduction by 3 points explained mainly by the residual change. The low magnitude of the simulated effects as determinants of the decline in poverty in those years can be explained by the rising participation of the non labour incomes in the total household income.
    Keywords: O54 ; R20 ; P46 ; ddc:330 ; Poverty ; Inequality ; Microsimulation ; Bolivia
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: For about three decades now, development economics researchers have consistently claimed that third world resource-rich countries were not developing as well and/or as fast as they were expected to, given that their natural resources endowment was considered a great opportunity for development. The phenomenon of underperformances concerning primary commodity exporters relative to non resource-rich countries has been often referred to as to the Natural Resource Curse . The authors use an historical and political approach to the manifestations of the curse in the specific cases of Angola and Bolivia, both resource abundant countries, but suffering among the lowest development standards in their respective continents. In chapter one, the authors make a quick review of the literature explaining both causes and manifestations of the Resource Curse. The authors go beyond the classical Dutch Disease explanations and show how natural resources lead to behaviours of looting, rent-seeking and civil confrontations. In chapter two, the authors present the framework where they adjust the African Anti-growth Policy Syndromes described by Paul Collier to the specific case of the Natural Resource curse. In addition, they add some considerations of the negative effect of natural resource extraction by analysing externalities on environment, education and inequalities. Chapters three and four analyse the case studies of Angola and Bolivia respectively, emphasizing the role of historical context explaining policy behaviour and the critical impact of unexpected windfalls and sudden price collapses. The authors find that natural resources could sustain long lasting conflicts, but that conditions of fractionalization of society determine the possibility of conflict. A country divided in two rigid political factions is more prone to internal conflict, like in Angola, whether in countries where frontiers between blocks are blurried or the country is multi-polar, like in Bolivia, the risks of long-lasting civil war seem less important. Apart from conflict, the authors show that lack of institutions and inequality make of natural resources a source of political instability that has far more impact on economic performances than other factors.
    Keywords: N2 ; N5 ; O1 ; ddc:330 ; Natural Resource curse ; Rent-seeking ; Civil War ; Angola ; Bolivia
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  • 41
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper seeks to test to which extent geographical constraints can be blamed for Bolivia s poor growth performance during the last three decades. Although geographical characteristics are too stable to explain the dramatic fluctuations in growth rates over time in Bolivia, there are at least four factors that contribute to changing the importance of those characteristics over time: 1) internal migration, 2) infrastructure investments, 3) change in export partners, and 4) change in export products. The results show that Bolivia is indeed adjusting in all 4 dimensions in order to reduce the importance of geographical constraints, but not nearly fast enough.
    Keywords: Q56 ; R11 ; ddc:330 ; Geography ; Development ; Bolivia
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This report analyzes the importance of the hydrocarbon sector in Bolivia. The oil and gas sector currently represents a vital component of the Bolivian economy, accounting for 7 percent of the GDP in term of production and more than 30 percent of total government income. In addition, the hydrocarbon sector not only represents an important economic sector but also a political and social instrument for negotiations, mobilization and social participation. The hydrocarbon sector in Bolivia also plays a strategic geopolitical role in South America as it has the second largest reserves of natural gas in the region after Venezuela. However, the current Bolivian nationalization process has placed this privileged position of the country into question as Bolivia is trying to undo twenty years of neo-liberal policies with the adoption of more nationalistic policies, assuming the control of the sector and challenging the international community and the private sector to benefit its population. The report also exposes that the important hydrocarbon revenues are not evenly distributed across the country s regions. The most important instruments of taxation, royalties and the IDH, are creating a disequilibrium implying that regions with large populations get considerably fewer resources than less populated regions. In addition, the current distribution system, which is based on political criteria with some regional notion of fairness, is discriminatory in the allocation of resources with out taking into account poverty criteria. In a poor country like Bolivia with a strong political framework on poverty alleviation, the lack of poverty criteria in the distribution system of such significant resources makes 1.5 million poor people from La Paz get fewer resources than 300 thousand poor people from Pando in terms of per capita distribution ($16 dollars per capita in La Paz vs. $600 dollars per capita in Pando). The report has found that the distribution system of the hydrocarbon revenues needs serious changes to be more efficient and accomplish the goal of poverty reduction. The current system of revenue allocation creates significant per capita inequalities between regions and exacerbates the regional dependency on central transfers that depends on exhaustible and unstable hydrocarbon production (92 percent of the prefecturas revenues and 66 percent of the municipalities revenues come from government transfers). In addition, the decentralization process of the country has several weaknesses. It does not allow local governments to create their own tributary policies and generate their own resources, with exception of municipalities that to some extent can administrate and collect two regional taxes defined by the central government. This disequilibrium has the potential to seriously threaten the unity of the country as a nation. This situation will encourage producing regions to push for a large degree of decentralization in order to take advantage of the enormous inflows of resources that the sector is generating. In addition, non-producing regions will push for a significant share of those large resources given the severe degree of poverty in the country. This leads to two important questions to ask; first, who owns the natural resources, producing regions or the central government, and second, how those revenues should be distributed? 3 In general, those questions are hard to answer and in most cases the answers have significant political notions. In this aspect, the report presents results of a hypothetical calculation in which we combine to some extent the notion that producing regions have the right to a share of the revenues as does the central government. Because producing regions have solid arguments to claim ownership, like natural heritage and social cost reimbursement, we found undesirable and unviable the idea of completely draining those resources from them. Nonetheless, the central government also has significant arguments to have a share of those revenues, like income stability, fiscal equilibrium and macroeconomic considerations. Therefore, we found it important that the central government should benefit from a share of the natural wealth. However, the results of the hypothetical exercise presented in this report have the objective of opening the debate and dialogue for needed changes in the Bolivian hydrocarbon distribution system rather than suggesting a definitive answer for a distribution system in Bolivia.
    Keywords: E62 ; D63 ; Q34 ; Q38 ; ddc:330 ; Hydrocarbons ; Tributary System ; Resources Allocation ; Transfer System ; Bolivia
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The urban labor market in Bolivia can be divided into 4 main sectors: 1) the public sector, 2) the formal private sector, 3) self-employed informals, and 4) informal workers. Although incomes are generally higher in the public sector and in the formal private sector, there is a strong preference in Bolivia for being informally self-employed. Two thirds of both men and women in urban areas respond that they would prefer to be self-employed rather than a salaried employee, and few see any advantage of becoming formal under the current institutional set-up. Currently, half of all economically active women in urban areas are informally self-employed, while this is the case for only one third of men. This implies that women are actually closer to the desired state than men, according to their own preferences. The real problem for women is not that they are informally self-employed, but rather that the profitability of their informal enterprises is low. On average, monthly profits of female micro-entrepreneurs is about 40% lower than those of male micro-entrepreneurs. This report uses quantitative information from about 600 micro and small enterprises to break down and understand this gender gap in profitability, and the results show that almost the whole gap is due to the fact that women operate their businesses on a much smaller scale (with less productive capital and fewer employees) than men. Why do female entrepreneurs operate on a smaller scale? One partial explanation is that they do not want to grow, because the business then would loose some of the features that make a micro-business particularly attractive for women (not to depend on others, to be able to care for children simultaneously, flexible working hours, and daily revenues). More important, however, is the lack of access to capital. Micro and small businesses operated by women have only a third of the operating capital of male operated businesses. There are two main reasons for this. First, women generally have fewer opportunities to accumulate capital, both because their household and reproductive work takes time away from paid work, and because they tend to earn less than men when they do work for money. Second, they do not have access to credit on reasonable terms. Access by itself is not the problem, as there is a very active micro-credit industry in Bolivia, but the terms are so unattractive that women try to avoid it if at all possible. The interest rates are high (20-40% per year); the group-lending practices increases the risk for the borrower, as they may end up paying other group members debt also; and they are typically required to assist at compulsory training courses twice a month, which is demanding for busy women running both a business and a household. Banks offer loans at more reasonable terms, but the requirements are difficult for micro-entrepreneurs to comply with (especially proof of a monthly pay check) and the risk is large as an entire house is often put up as collateral for even a small loan. Capital and credit is not a binding constraint in all sectors, however. On average, returns to additional capital investments are estimated to be relatively high (internal rates of return of over 20%) in the food sales sector, the textile clothing sector, and the camelid clothing sector. In contrast, they are estimated to be negative for grocery stores and the transport sector, which have experienced overinvestment to the extent that the returns to both capital and labor in these two sectors have been severely depressed. Even in the sectors where returns to capital are relatively high, a doubling of productive capital would not lead to a doubling of monthly profits. In fact, estimation results show strongly diminishing returns to scale, which means that micro-enterprises have little incentive to grow. Under the current institutional setup in Bolivia, it makes more economic sense to have several identical micro-enterprises in the family rather than one larger enterprise, and this is indeed often observed in practice. This is partly due to the characteristics of the sectors (for example, several small stores can capture a larger market due to the geographical dispersion), but it is mostly due to the tax-system, which becomes very demanding, both in terms of bureaucratic procedures and in terms of tax burden, as soon as an enterprise grows past a certain threshold. Under the current institutional set up, micro-entrepreneurs perceive no benefits from becoming formal, and indeed estimation results confirm that formality would lower the monthly profits of micro-enterprises (less than 3 workers and less than $1000 in operating capital) by 30-40%. Slightly bigger firms (3-5 workers), however, may benefit from getting a NIT and thus be able to offer facturas to the clients.
    Keywords: J21 ; J24 ; J31 ; J42 ; J48 ; J78 ; ddc:330 ; Informality ; Productivity ; Gender ; Bolivia
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The high oil prices and the sharp increases in royalties mean that the natural gas boom in Bolivia has become very important for the economy, and particularly important as a source of government revenues. Using a CGE model, Andersen et al (2006) show that the natural gas boom is likely to boost GDP growth by about 1 percentage point per year. However, if the government continues with past spending and investment patterns, the boom is also likely to have a very adverse effect on the income distribution, so much so that the poorest half of the population is likely to experience absolute reductions in their real income levels compared to a scenario without gas boom. The present paper explores alternative uses of natural gas revenues in the CGE model to see if a better outcome can be engineered.
    Keywords: Q33 ; Q43 ; ddc:330 ; Natural Gas ; Inequality ; CGE model ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 45
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: En la actualidad, una variedad de países en desarrollo están evaluando las ventajas y desventajas de una economía de mercado, considerando que los resultados de las reformas estructurales fueron inferiores a las expectativas iniciales de los reformadores después de veinte años de experiencia. Este desempeño económico y social paupérrimo está contribuyendo al nacimiento de otras tendencias económicas como alternativas más factibles para los problemas de los países en desarrollo. En el caso de Bolivia, los cambios no están únicamente centrados en ámbito económico sino está buscando cambios en la Constitución Política del Estado (CPE). En ese sentido, la necesidad de impulsar un desarrollo económico sostenible, la presente investigación tiene como objetivo proporcionar una descripción y análisis técnico tomando como base información primaria y, principalmente, secundaria- sobre las características y potencialidades del país en materia productiva que sirva como insumo para la Construcción de la Visión Productiva de País .
    Keywords: O14 ; O25 ; O54 ; ddc:330 ; Desarrollo económico ; productividad ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento analiza la relación entre los cambios en el uso de suelo y los resultados económicos en el departamento de Santa Cruz en tres diferentes dimensiones: 1) en el tiempo, 2) por actor, y 3) por municipio. El análisis sobre cambios en el tiempo muestra que el sector agropecuario en Santa Cruz es muy volátil. Hay enormes fluctuaciones en precios y rendimientos de un año a otro, debido a factores casi completamente fuera del control del agricultor. La productividad de soya en Santa Cruz es relativamente estable y relativamente alta en comparación con otros cultivos, lo que explica la preferencia por este cultivo entre los agricultores modernos. Aunque el área convertida a usos agropecuarios en Santa Cruz se ha expandido considerablemente entre 1992 y 2004, el área sembrada y la producción agropecuaria se han expandido aún más (en términos porcentuales), lo que implica una intensificación en el uso de tierra. Aunque la tierra ahora descansa menos, no hay evidencia de que la productividad por hectárea sembrada está bajando sistemáticamente en el tiempo. Más bien parece que está mejorando. El análisis de los diferentes actores indica que, en general, los que usan más tierra logran mejores niveles socio-económicos. Los que menos han convertido, Agricultores Indígenas, son los más pobres; y los que más han convertido, Colonizadores Japoneses, son los más ricos. Sin embargo, pocos de los actores agropecuarios logran tener el mismo nivel de vida de los actores no-agropecuarios (excepto los colonizadores extranjeros). Esto implica que para lograr mayores niveles de vida con menor conversión de áreas naturales, urbanización e industrialización son alternativas que se debe considerar. Finalmente, del análisis municipal hemos visto que existen varios municipios con relativamente altos niveles de desarrollo humano al mismo tiempo mantienen prácticamente todas sus áreas naturales intactas. En general, urbanización, educación y concesiones forestales son variables que ayuda a los municipios a ser exitosos (más desarrollo humano y menos conversión de áreas naturales), mientras caminos primarios y alto gasto municipal tiende a reducir la probabilidad de éxito (causa más conversión pero no mejora el nivel de vida de manera significativo).
    Keywords: Q12 ; Q56 ; Q57 ; ddc:330 ; Deforestación ; Desarrollo ; Santa Cruz ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 47
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento revisa una gran variedad de instrumentos que se pueden usar para inducir cambios en los usos de recursos naturales con el fin de alinear los intereses de actores locales con otros intereses que también son afectados por estos usos. Los instrumentos se agrupan en cinco categorías principales: 1) Oportunidades para la conservación voluntaria sobre tierras privadas, 2) Proyectos Integrados de Conservación y Desarrollo, 3) Pagos para Servicios Ambientales, 4) Conservación por Mandamientos Legislativos, y 5) Herramientas Indirectas. El menú completo incluye decenas de diferentes herramientas, pero la manera más barata de promover la conservación sobre tierra que todavía está inaccesible y en un estado prístino simplemente es no hacer proyectos de ningún tipo no construir caminos, no proveer servicios básicos, ni siquiera pagar para la conservación. Este obviamente va muy en contra de otras políticas prioritarias como la reducción de la pobreza y el desarrollo humano y no es suficiente para tierras que ya están en un proceso de degradación. Sin embargo, es posible hacerlo en áreas específicas que son muy importantes para los servicios ambientales, asegurándose que la población local tiene la opción de trasladarse a lugares alternativos que mejor atienden a sus necesidades. Esto significa que el ordenamiento territorial y el manejo de la migración se vuelvan una de las tareas más importantes para las políticas de conservación con desarrollo. Aplicando una combinación de instrumentos repulsivos en algunas áreas y atractivos en otras, se puede asegurar que la gente se establezca donde ocasionan menor daño al medio ambiente y donde tengan más posibilidades para hacer actividades productivas que contribuyan al bienestar de su familia y al desarrollo del país. Otro tema sumamente importante para la conservación con desarrollo humano es el de títulos de tierra, ya que la falta de títulos causa muchos efectos adversos, no solamente para la conservación sino también para el desarrollo. La titulación también es un instrumento que se puede aplicar para dirigir la migración.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Los precios altos del petróleo y el significativo incremento de los ingresos públicos provenientes de su explotación han implicado que el gas natural se vuelva muy importante para la economía boliviana. Este trabajo utiliza un modelo de Equilibrio General Computarizado (EGC) para evaluar los impactos de este boom sobre las variables macroeconómicas claves así como respecto de la distribución de ingresos en la sociedad. Desde una perspectiva macroeconómica, el boom del gas natural parece ser una bendición, pues podría elevar en cerca de un punto porcentual las tasas de crecimiento del PIB durante por lo menos una década, incrementando vigorosamente los ingresos del gobierno para realizar gastos e inversiones públicas. Sin embargo, los segmentos más pobres de la población (pequeños agricultores e informales urbanos) podrían verse seriamente afectados, sufriendo reducciones en sus ingresos reales en comparación con el escenario opuesto, es decir, sin el boom del gas. Esto quiere decir que el boom del gas natural no sólo podría causar un aumento en la desigualdad sino también una expansión de la pobreza. Este trabajo termina con algunas recomendaciones en cuanto a políticas que sugieren cómo contrarestar los efectos secundarios negativos del boom de gas natural.
    Description: The high oil prices and the sharp increases in royalties mean that the natural gas boom in Bolivia has become very important for the economy. This paper uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts of this boom on key macroeconomic variables as well as the distribution of incomes in the society. From a macroeconomic perspective, the natural gas boom is a blessing, adding around 1 percentage point to GDP growth rates for at least a decade, and sharply increasing government revenues available for public spending and investment. However, the poorest segments of the population (rural small-holders and urban informals) suffer actual reductions in their real incomes, compared to the counterfactual scenario without the gas boom. This means that the natural gas boom not only causes an increase in inequality but also an increase in poverty. The paper finishes with some policy recommendations on how to counteract the negative side effects of the natural gas boom.
    Keywords: Q33 ; Q43 ; ddc:330 ; Gas Natural ; Desigualdad ; modelo EGC ; Bolivia
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio tiene la finalidad de analizar la incidencia del gasto social y del sistema tributario sobre la distribución del ingreso en Bolivia para la gestión 2004. El análisis está basado en la Encuesta Continua de Hogares (ECH), que fue realizada en el periodo noviembre 2003-noviembre 2004. Las variaciones en el índice de Gini revelan que la política fiscal provoca leves efectos distributivos positivos. Esta mejora en la distribución de los ingresos de los hogares es producto del impacto positivo del gasto social corriente. El impacto de los impuestos sobre la distribución es imperceptible. Las curvas e índice de concentración evidencian que la distribución de los impuestos y los gastos sociales son regresivos. Por una parte, la mitad de los impuestos es progresiva y la otra es regresiva en relación a la distribución del ingreso, aunque predomina la asignación regresiva. Por otra, los gastos sociales son progresivos en relación a la distribución del ingreso. La mejora en la distribución del ingreso de los hogares deberá provenir de una mayor equidad en la asignación del gasto social. Esto significaría que se debería construir criterios de asignación que tengan por objetivo final la disminución de la desigualdad, y por ende, de la pobreza. El régimen tributario puede contribuir a la mejora de la distribución, pero se lo deberá considerar como un instrumento que facilite la permanencia de la política de gasto público social. En ese sentido, el análisis en general muestra que la redistribución del ingreso a través de la política fiscal es baja.
    Keywords: H23 ; H50 ; ddc:330 ; Gasto social ; impuestos ; distribución de ingresos ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: This paper estimates structural parameters of both a simple and an extended job separation model with the purpose of understanding constraints in the labor market in Bolivia. The results confirm the hypothesis that skilled labor is a scarce commodity in Bolivia, while unskilled labor is abundantly available. This implies that skilled employees shop around for alternative employment opportunities and quit their jobs when a better opportunity arises. The quit rate among skilled employees in the private sector is much higher than the quit rate among skilled employees in the public sector. The reverse is true for the lay-off rate, and together this suggests that the private sector has difficulties maintaining its skilled labor. The estimates of the wage sensitivity of job search effort parameters presented in this paper suggest that it would be difficult for the private sector to improve its capacity to retain skilled employees by increasing wages skilled employees in the private sector do not seem to reduce their on-the-job search in response to higher wages. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the public sector in Bolivia, inflated by high levels of foreign aid (about 10% of GDP), may be detracting scarce human resources from local productive sectors, potentially jeopardizing the opportunity for sustainable development.
    Keywords: J62 ; J63 ; J64 ; J31 ; ddc:330 ; Mobility ; on-the-job search ; labor markets ; Bolivia
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: La reforma del sistema de pensiones boliviano transformó el esquema público de reparto, en un sistema de capitalización individual, sin embargo no planteó los incentivos para generar un proceso sostenible de afiliación, lo que generó que en la actualidad únicamente 4% de los afiliados al sistema de pensiones pertenezcan a la población independiente. En este trabajo se determinan las variables que condicionan el que un trabajador se afilie en forma activa en el sistema previsional divididas por género, etnia y zona donde vive. Los resultados concuerdan parcialmente con trabajos previos en el área donde las diferencias por género son menores en países en desarrollo (Barrientos, 1998 y Benavente y Molina, 2002) comparadas con aquellas encontradas para países desarrollados (Even and Macpherson 1994, Ginn and Harber, 1993). La explicación de las diferencias encontradas para el caso boliviano podrían responder a aspectos centrales de la actual coyuntura que vive el país, mostrando que la probabilidad de afiliación se encuentra alrededor del 2.4 %. En este trabajo se proponen técnicas que eliminan los sesgos de autoselección las que corrigen los problemas derivados de los supuestos normalmente utilizados en estudios similares.
    Keywords: H55 ; ddc:330 ; Pensiones ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El corredor de conservación Amboró-Madidi es de prioridad global debido a su alta biodiversidad y endemismo. Al mismo tiempo, las tierras fiscales de la región son apreciadas por migrantes sin tierra del altiplano. En este documento contrastamos la necesidad de tierra para actividades agrícolas con las prioridades de conservación, elaborando un mapa que identifica los siguientes tres tipos de áreas: 1) Áreas para uso agrícola y desarrollo humano, 2) Áreas de tension entre desarrollo humano y conservación, y 3) Áreas de conservación y protección que no requieren acciones de conservación.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The reform program and growth pattern exhibited by the Bolivian economy in the last decade did not favour employment creation and consequently not an effective reduction of poverty. During the last decade, those sectors where the bulk of employment is concentrated, presented the lowest growth rates of GDP, labour productivity and real incomes. The present paper analyzes in detail the two sectors where the bulk of employment and poverty is concentrated (agriculture and the urban informal sector) in order to determine the critical constraints to improvements in productivity, employment generation, and reductions in poverty.
    Keywords: J24 ; O54 ; o17 ; ddc:330 ; Employment ; Poverty ; Growth ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 54
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: El estudio analiza y evalúa la situación actual de la educación inicial, primaria y secundaria bajo la actual estructura del sector público y la participación ciudadana, especialmente enfatizando la gestión educativa y el financiamiento de la educación, esto con el propósito de elaborar lineamientos para la profundización de la descentralización educativa. El proceso de descentralización educativa fue lento por la falta de experiencia y capacidad técnica y organizativa de las unidades y direcciones del Ministerio de Educación, Prefecturas y Municipios. Los resultados muestran que la gestión educativa se caracterizó por la reorientación de las funciones técnicas y administrativas, que fueron lentos debido a falta de un marco legal para reorganizar el marco institucional. Además, que los beneficios fueron positivos sólo cuando existan equipos de gestión que promueven la articulación de los actores involucrados, junta escolares, escuela, distrito escolar y municipio. En cuanto al financiamiento, el gasto del gobierno central está promoviendo levemente la equidad horizontal distributiva; en cambio, el gasto de los municipios está limitando el logro de dicha equidad. La distribución del gasto centralizado con criterios de localización geográfica de la unidad educativa está ocasionando desequilibrios verticales. El estudio propone lineamientos de descentralización que consideran tres niveles en la provisión de servicio educativo para garantizar un equilibrio entre los criterios de eficiencia, equidad e igualdad de oportunidades.
    Keywords: I21 ; I28 ; ddc:330 ; Educación ; Descentralización ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
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  • 55
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    La Paz: Institute for Advanced Development Studies (INESAD)
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: The high oil prices and the sharp increases in royalties mean that the natural gas boom in Bolivia has become very important for the economy. This paper uses a Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts of this boom on key macroeconomic variables as well as the distribution of incomes in the society. From a macroeconomic perspective, the natural gas boom is a blessing, adding around 1 percentage point to GDP growth rates for at least a decade, and sharply increasing government revenues available for public spending and investment. However, the poorest segments of the population (rural small-holders and urban informals) suffer actual reductions in their real incomes, compared to the counterfactual scenario without the gas boom. This means that the natural gas boom not only causes an increase in inequality but also an increase in poverty. The paper finishes with some policy recommendations on how to counteract the negative side effects of the natural gas boom.
    Description: Los precios altos del petróleo y el significativo incremento de los ingresos públicos provenientes de su explotación han implicado que el gas natural se vuelva muy importante para la economía boliviana. Este trabajo utiliza un modelo de Equilibrio General Computarizado (EGC) para evaluar los impactos de este boom sobre las variables macroeconómicas claves así como respecto de la distribución de ingresos en la sociedad. Desde una perspectiva macroeconómica, el boom del gas natural parece ser una bendición, pues podría elevar en cerca de un punto porcentual las tasas de crecimiento del PIB durante por lo menos una década, incrementando vigorosamente los ingresos del gobierno para realizar gastos e inversiones públicas. Sin embargo, los segmentos más pobres de la población (pequeños agricultores e informales urbanos) podrían verse seriamente afectados, sufriendo reducciones en sus ingresos reales en comparación con el escenario opuesto, es decir, sin el boom del gas. Esto quiere decir que el boom del gas natural no sólo podría causar un aumento en la desigualdad sino también una expansión de la pobreza. Este trabajo termina con algunas recomendaciones en cuanto a políticas que sugieren cómo contrarestar los efectos secundarios negativos del boom de gas natural.
    Keywords: Q33 ; Q43 ; ddc:330 ; Natural Gas ; Inequality ; CGE model ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Este documento proporciona un análisis cuantitativo de la situación socio-económico y ambiental en el corredor Amboró-Madidi, incluyendo tendencias en el pasado y proyecciones para el futuro. La región esta relativamente bien conservada hasta ahora, pero hay amenazas que podrían llevar a la extinción de especies únicas en el futuro. Hasta 2001, se había convertido aproximadamente 7.6% del área de su forma natural a usos agropecuarios. En promedio, cada persona rural convierte 786 metros cuadrados de áreas naturales cada año. Si siguen así en el futuro, y tomando en cuenta el crecimiento esperado de la población rural, se llegaría a un nivel de conversión acumulado alrededor de 16% el año 2026. Varios municipios, sobre todo en Santa Cruz, han seguido una estrategia de desarrollo mucho más agresiva en términos de su impacto ambiental. Estas áreas han sido muy atractivas para migrantes, y si este tipo de estrategia se aplicaría en todos los municipios del corredor, se esperaría un influjo mucho más grande de gente rural y se podría llegar a convertir hasta 23% del área total el año 2026. Este sería un límite superior del impacto ambiental ya que gran parte del área tiene una topografía tan accidentada que una estrategia de desarrollo agresiva realmente no sería factible. El análisis muestra que no existe una contradicción inherente entre el desarrollo humano y la conservación del medio ambiente. Aunque sí existe una relación levemente negativa entre los dos objetivos, hay muchos ejemplos de municipios que han logrado relativamente altos niveles de desarrollo humano con impactos ambientales mínimos.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2018-12-11
    Description: Los enfoques de corredores de conservación han sido desarrollados, conceptualizados y analizados para su implementación tomando en cuenta criterios fundamentalmente relacionados a reconciliar e integrar actuales procesos de desarrollo sostenible, dentro de nuevas estrategias que permitan la integración y compatibilidad de estos criterios, y que coadyuven en lograr la conservación y uso sostenible de la biodiversidad y recursos renovables, Asimismo, la importancia creciente y reconocimiento hacia los beneficios de los servicios del ecosistema incorpora criterios y enfoques que garanticen la provisión de importantes servicios ambientales, generen un crecimiento económico con patrones sostenibles de uso, y promuevan beneficios socioeconómicos a comunidades indígenas y locales con impactos positivos adicionales regionales, nacionales y globales. Estos planteamientos buscan responder a las crecientes amenazas a los ecosistemas que se van produciendo, en los cuales diversos grados de degradación, fragmentación e impacto ambiental afectan las posibilidades de desarrollo sostenible. Tales criterios involucran una atención en los últimos años hacia los servicios ambientales de los ecosistemas, los mismos que son de gran importancia para el bienestar y el desarrollo humano, aunque lastimosamente son ignorados o no reconocidos en su totalidad. El presente documento de trabajo explora la evolución conceptual y práctica de los enfoques implementados y su aplicación en Bolivia, con énfasis en el área de estudio correspondiente al Corredor Amboró Madidi, y un análisis descriptivo y demostrativo de los beneficios que los servicios del ecosistema y la biodiversidad generan para el desarrollo humano sostenible.
    Keywords: Q01 ; Q32 ; ddc:330 ; Conservación ; Desarrollo Humano ; Amboro-Madidi ; Bolivia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: Spanish
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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