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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (83,670)
  • LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION  (14,409)
  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (13,095)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Polynitrogens have the potential for ultrahigh-performing explosives or propellants because singly or doubly bonded polynitrogens can decompose to triply bonded dinitrogen (N2) with an extraordinarily large energy release. The large energy content and relatively low activation energy toward decomposition makes the synthesis of a stable polynitrogen allotrope an extraordinary challenge. Many elements exist in different forms (allotropes)—for example, carbon can exist as graphite, diamond, buckyballs, or graphene. However, no stable neutral allotropes are known for nitrogen, and only two stable homonuclear polynitrogen ions had been isolated until now—namely, the N3− anion (1) and the N5+ cation (2). On page 374 of this issue, Zhang et al. (3) report the synthesis and characterization of the first stable salt of the cyclo-N5− anion, only the third stable homonuclear polynitrogen ion ever isolated. Author: Karl O. Christe
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-02-10
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2017-01-27
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-11-11
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    In: Science
    Publication Date: 2016-09-09
    Description: Author: Jake Yeston
    Keywords: Inorganic Chemistry
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Peptide Science 4 (1998), S. 15-20 
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: ion transport ; kinetics ; lithium ; NMR ; shift reagent ; vesicles ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ion transport across phospholipid vesicles was studied by 7Li and 23Na-NMR using an aqueous anionic paramagnetic shift reagent, dysprosium nitrilotriacetate [Dy(NTA)2]3-, mediated by ionophores, lasalocid A and A23187. The intra- and extracellular 7Li and 23Na-NMR signals were well separated (20 Hz) at mM concentration of the shift reagent. The observed data on the rate constant for lithium transport across DPPC vesicles at various concentrations of the ionophores indicated that lasalocid A is a more efficient carrier for lithium ion compared with the sodium ion transport by this ionophore, while A23187 was not specific to either of the ions (Li or Na). ©1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Cα,α-disubstituted amino acids ; crystal structure ; molecular dynamics ; conformation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The crystal structures of three fully protected tripeptides containing the Dφg residue (Cα,α-diphenylglycine) in the central position are reported, namely Z-Gly-Dφg-Gly-OMe (a), Z-Gly-Dφg-Aib-OMe (b) and Z-Aib-Dφg-Aib-OMe (c). The molecular conformations are quite unusual because the Dφg residue adopts a folded conformation in the 310-helical region when the following residue adopts a folded conformation of opposite handedness (peptidesbandc). In contrast, the Dφg residue adopts the more frequently observed fully extended conformation when the following residue adopts a semi-extended conformation (peptidea). These findings are in agreement with the theoretical calculations on Ac-Dφg-Aib-NHCH3 and Ac-Aib-Dφg-NHCH3 also reported in this work. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: α-hydroxymethylserine peptides ; isopropylidene protecting group ; crystal structure ; peptide conformation ; peptide synthesis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A synthetic methodology has been developed for peptide bond formation with α-hydroxmethylserine as the carboxyl or amino component and also for the preparation of homo-sequences. The key intermediate, O,O-protected α-hydroxymethylserine in the form of an isopropylidene derivative, is easily accessible and represents the first example of a heterocyclic Cα,α-disubstituted amino acid containing an 1,3-dioxane ring. The use of this intermediate facilitates protection of the sterically hindered amino and carboxyl groups and is advantageous for the coupling and deprotection steps. X-ray structure determination of Z-HmS(Ipr)-Ala-OMe revealed that the two crystallographically independent molecules present in the asymmetric unit adopt an S-shaped conformation. In the one molecule the achiral HmS(Ipr) residue has the torsion angle values (φ==61.4°,ψ=40.8°) in the left-handed helical region of the Ramachandran map, while in the second molecule the negative torsion angles (φ=-60.1°, ψ=-44.4°) are associated with the right-handed helix. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: conformational studies ; -OBg esters ; protein tyrosine kinase ; src-PTK ; synthetic peptides ; tyrosine phosphorylation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two Tyr residues are supposed to play a crucial role in the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family. Autophosphorylation of Src Tyr416 correlates with enzyme activation, while phosphorylation of C-terminal Tyr527 by Csk gives rise to inactive forms of Src kinases.It has previously been demonstrated that the Src-like tyrosine kinase expressed by the oncogenelyndisplays a particularly high affinity (Km20 μm) toward the dimeric linear and cyclic derivatives of the heptapeptide H-Glu-Asp-Asn-Glu-Tyr-Thr-Ala-OH which reproduces the main autophosphorylation site of most of the Src enzymes. Under the experimental conditions used only one Tyr residue of the dimeric sequence can be phosphorylated [P. Ruzza, A. Calderan, B.Filippi, B. Biondi, A. Donella Deana, L. Cesaro, L. A. Pinna & G. Borin (1995) Int. J. Peptide Protein Res. 45, 529-539].The present study addresses the problem of the efficiency displayed by Lyn towards the two Tyr residues located at positions 5 and 12 of the dimeric peptide. To this purpose, two tetradecapeptides were synthesized by the classical solution method, each containing one of the two Tyr residues alternatively replaced by Phe, and the corresponding univocal cyclic form. A possible correlation between the different structural properties induced by the modifications of the native sequence and the ability of the peptides to act as Lyn substrates was noted. The kinetic data obtained indicate that Lyn phosphorylates the residues located at different positions in the two linear analogues differently. In particular, while the Tyr5, Phe12 derivative presents aKmvalue similar to those obtained for the dimeric linear and cyclic unmodified analogues, theKmvalue of the Phe5, Tyr12 derivative is two-fold higher than those found for the above-mentioned peptides. Moreover, as previously reported for the linear and cyclic dimeric forms of the native sequence, in the mono-tyrosine containing series of dimers the still conformationally flexible cyclic derivative shows a phosphorylation efficiency two-fold higher than those found for the linear derivatives. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: circular dichroism ; FT-IR absorption ; glycopeptides ; 1H nuclear magnetic resonance ; oligo-peptides ; peptide conformation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Stepwise solution syntheses are described of the homo-oligomers Z-(Thr)n-NHCH3 (n=1-4, I1-4), Z-{[Gal(Ac)4β]Thr}n-NHCH3(n=1-5, II1-5) and Z-[(Galβ)Thr]n-NHCH3 (n=1-5, III1-5). Members of the III1-5 series were obtained by de-acetylation of the corresponding oligomers of the II1-5 series. The conformational preferences of the terminally protected homo-peptides of the three series were investigated by FT-IR absorption spectroscopy both in the solid state and in CDCl3 solution, at various concentrations. Proton NMR measurements in CDCl3 and in DMSO-d6 were also carried out and the effect of temperature variation on the chemical shifts of amide protons was determined in DMSO-d6 (range 298-335 K) and in CDCl3 (range 298-320 K). CD spectra were recorded in water and in TFE. Solubility problems prevented measurements in CDCl3 solution for Z-(Thr)4-NHCH3 and for the entire III1-5 series. The existence of unordered structures in the carbohydrate-free oligomers and of more or less extended, organized structures in the glycosylated derivatives is indicated by the NMR and IR measurements. The sugar moieties apparently show a structure-inducing effect on the peptide chain. ©1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 11
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Peptide Science 4 (1998), S. 1-14 
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Mitsunobu reaction ; N-alkyl amino acid synthesis ; amino acid derivatives synthesis ; β-lactam formation ; peptide oxazolines and thiazolines ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The Mitsunobu reaction - the nucleophilic substitution of an alcoholic hydroxyl group mediated by the redox system trialkylphosphine/dialkyl azodicarobxylate - is widely used in the chemistry of biologically active compounds. The paper deals with applications of the Mitsunobu reaction in amino acid and peptide chemistry. The process provides easy access to many unnatural amino acids and derivatives. Since the reaction occurs with complete inversion of the configuration at the carbinol chiral centre, it can be used for the synthesis of diastereoisomers of hydroxy- and tioprolines. Cyclization of β-hydroxy amino acid containing peptides under Mitsunobu reaction conditions leads to a constrained peptide that mimics the stabilizing reverse turn secondary structure. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: fluorescence quenched assay ; inhibitor library ; Trypanosoma cruzi ; cathepsin B and L inhibitors ; Parasitic protease inhibition ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A PEGA-resin was derivatized with a 3:1 mixture of hydroxymethyl benzoic acid and Fmoc-Lys(Boc)-OH and the fluorogenic substrate Ac-Y(NO2)KLRFSKQK(Abz)-PEGA was assembled on the lysine using the active ester approach. Following esterification of the hydroxymethyl benzoic acid with Fmoc-Val-OH a library XXX-k/r-XXXV containing approximately 200,000 beads was assembled by split synthesis. The resulting ‘one bead, two peptides’ library was subjected to extensive hydrolysis with cruzipain. One hundred darker beads were isolated and the 14 most persistently dark beads were collected and sequenced. The putative inhibitor peptides and several analogues were synthesized and found to be competitive μM to nM inhibitors of cruzipain in solution. The inhibitory activity was found to be unspecific to cruzipain when compared with cathepsins B and L and specific when compared with kallikrein. One of the inhibitors was docked into the active site of the cathepsin B and was found most probably to bind to the enzyme cavity in an unusual manner, owing to the inserted D-amino acid residue. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: NMR ; random coil ; rhinovirus ; synthetic vaccine ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The conformation of a [15]-peptide (H-VKAETRLNPDLQPTE-NH2) from VP2 of rhinovirus HRV2 complexed with a Fab fragment was previously shown by X-ray crystallographic studies to be similar to the one found in the corresponding region of HRV1A. Antibodies raised against this peptide bind to and neutralize HRV2. In order to identify structural features preserved in solution that may explain the ability of this short peptide to mimic the structure of the protein surface, the peptide has been studied by NMR in aqueous solution as well as under denaturing conditions.The peptide is shown to be a random coil in solution. However, the sequence forming a 310 helix in the complex is biased into a helical conformation according to NOE intensity data as well as from urea and pH titrations. This sequence adopts the same conformation in an unrelated protein. NOE data suggest that a β-turn found in the complex may be sampled in solution. Also, Glu4, interacting with Arg6 in the crystal, has a reduced pKa value in solution. It is concluded that the local structure present in the random coil state of VP2(156-170) contains enough information to direct the production of antibodies that bind to and neutralize HRV2. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: bradykinin ; antagonists ; dehydrophenylalanine ; smooth muscle contraction ; radio-ligand binding studies ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Continuing the studies on structural requirements of bradykinin antagonists, it has been found that analogues with dehydrophenylalanine (ΔPhe) or its ring-substituted analogues (ΔPhe(X)) at position 5 act as antagonists on guinea pig pulmonary artery, and on guinea pig ileum. Because both organs are considered to be bradykinin B2receptor tissues, the analogues with ΔPhe or ΔPhe(X) at position 5, but without any replacement at position 7, seem to represent a new structural type of B2receptor antagonist. All the analogues investigated act as partial antagonists; they inhibit the bradykinin-induced contraction at low concentrations and act as agonists at higher concentrations. Ring substitutions by methyl groups or iodine reduce both the agonistic and antagonistic activity. Only substitution by fluorine gives a high potency. Incorporation of ΔPhe into different representative antagonists with key modifications at position 7 does not enhance the antagonist activity of the basic structures, with one exception. Only the combination of ΔPhe at position 5 with DPhe at position 7 increases the antagonistic potency on guinea pig ileum by about one order of magnitude. Radio-ligand binding studies indicate the importance of position 5 for the discrimination of B2receptor subtypes. The binding affinity to the low-affinity binding site (KL) was not significantly changed by replacement of Phe by ΔPhe. In contrast, ring-methylation of ΔPhe results in clearly reduced binding to KL. The affinity to the high-affinity binding site (KH) was almost unchanged by the replacement of Phe in position 5 by ΔPhe, whereas the analogue with 2-methyl-dehydrophenylalanine completely failed to detect the KH-site. The peptides were synthesized on the Wang-resin according to the Fmoc/Butstrategy using Mtr protection for the side chain of Arg. The dehydrophenylalanine analogues were prepared by a strategy involving PyBop couplings of the dipeptide unit Fmoc-Gly-ΔPhe(X)-OH to resin-bound fragments. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Litoria genimaculata ; skin glands ; glandular secretions ; peptides ; antibiotic activity ; maculatins 1 ; caerin 1.1 ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Six peptides have been isolated and characterized from the dorsal glands of the tree frog Litoria genimaculata. One of these is the known hypotensive peptide caerulein; the others have been named maculatins. The amino acid sequences of the maculatin peptides have been determined using a combination of fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and automated Edman sequencing. Four of the maculatin peptides show antibiotic activity, with maculatin 1.1 [GLFGVLAKVAAHVVPAIAEHF(NH2;)] showing the most pronounced activity, particularly against Gram-positive organisms. Maculatin 1.1 resembles the known caerin 1 antibiotic peptides, except that four of the central amino acid residues (of the caerin 1 system) are missing in maculatin 1.1. A comparison of the antibiotic activity of maculatin 1.1 with those of caerin 1.1 is reported. ©1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: gelsolin ; actin ; capping proteins ; synthetic peptides ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Gelsolin is a protein that severs and caps actin filaments. The two activities are located in the N-terminal half of the gelsolin molecules. Severing and subsequent capping requires the binding of domains 2 and 3 (S2-3) to the side of the filaments to position the N-terminal domain 1 (S1) at the barbed end of actin (actin subdomains 1 and 3). The results provide a structural basis for the gelsolin capping mechanism. The effects of a synthetic peptide derived from the sequence of a binding site located in gelsolin S2 on actin properties have been studied. CD and IR spectra indicate that this peptide presented a secondary structure in solution which would be similar to that expected for the native full length gelsolin molecule. The binding of the synthetic peptide induces conformational changes in actin subdomain 1 and actin oligomerization. An increase in the polymerization rate was observed, which could be attributed to a nucleation kinetics effect. The combined effects of two gelsolin fragments, the synthetic peptide derived from an S2 sequence and the purified segment 1 (S1), were also investigated as a molecule model. The two fragments induced nucleation enhancement and inhibited actin depolymerization, two characteristic properties of capping. In conclusion, for the first time it is reported that the binding of a small synthetic fragment is sufficient to promote efficient capping by S1 at the barbed end of actin filaments. ©1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 17
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Synthetic peptide library ; one-bead-one-compound ; partial cleavage ; soluble phase screening ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A library system was developed for the discovery of bioactive peptides. Library synthesis and peptide sequencing was performed on a solid support while the screening for bioactivity was done with peptides in solution. The peptides were synthesized by split and mix, one-bead-one-peptide library synthesis, using a Tentagel S-NH2 solid support with a loading of approximately 100 pmol/bead. The major part of the peptide was connected to the support by a single acid-labile linker and a minor part of the peptide was acid-stabile attached to the polymer. The percentage of acid-stabile attached peptides could easily be controlled during modification of the amino functionalities of the resin at the start of the process. The cleavage rate of the acid-labile attached peptide from the resin depends on the composition of the cleavage mixture. When cleavage conditions were carefully controlled, a three-step partial cleavage protocol allowed for convergent bioactivity screening on peptide libraries using only one type of acid-labile linker. The partial cleavage and convergent screening procedure was repeated three times, after which the bead containing the bioactive peptide was sequenced. As such a bead still contained acid-stabile attached peptide, the Edman sequencing was straightforward and repetitive yields were excellent because the immobilized peptide was not washed out. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Bradykinin antagonist ; dimer ; diaminodicarboxylic acid ; bridge residue ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Enhancement of a ligand's interaction with a receptor through presenting the ligand in multimeric form is a topic of general interest. Thus dimerization of single-chain bradykinin antagonist peptides has previously been shown to be beneficial in terms of potency and duration of action. While crosslinking polypeptides at terminal positions using suitable dicarboxylic acids and diamines is comparatively straightforward synthetically, internal dimerizations are usually achieved through oxidation or double S-alkylations of cysteine residues, resulting in metabolically unfavourable disulphide and thioether cross-links. Using suitably modified standard solid-phase peptide synthesis protocols, dimeric bradykinin antagonist peptides [H-(d-Arg)-Arg-Pro-Hyp-Gly-Phe]2-X-[(d-Phe)-Leu-Arg-OH]2 were synthesized where X corresponds to a l,l-2,7-diaminosuberic or l,l-2,9-diaminosebacic acid residue, respectively. The biological activity of these peptides was comparable to that of conventional dimeric bradykinin antagonists cross-linked through cystine or bis(succinimido)alkyl bridges. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Peptide Science 4 (1998), S. 300-304 
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Cryochemistry ; frozen organic solution ; peptide coupling ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The freezing effect on peptide coupling in organic solutions of different polarity has been investigated and compared with the results obtained in liquid phase. The model reaction of DCC-activated coupling of Boc-Ala-Phe-OH with H-Ala-OBut has been carried out in dioxane, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide, as well as in mixtures (90%/10%, v/v) of dioxane with acetonitrile, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and formamide.The reactions have been traced and evaluated by RP-HPLC analysis. Freezing the reaction mixture resulted in all cases in a significant suppression of the N-dipeptidylurea side-product formation together with a slight decrease of tripeptide epimerization. The coupling yields and the side effects depended on the solvent, with the dioxane and dioxane/acetonitrile mixture produced the best results. The role of freezing and solvent in the improved results is discussed. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: Coloured neurotensin analogues ; coloured peptides ; coloured peptide libraries ; peptide labelling with chromophores ; peptide synthesis on coloured support ; solubilizing tags ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Several methods were developed for the solid-phase synthesis (SPPS) of coloured peptides and peptide libraries. At first a bifunctional red compound, 4-(4-(N-ethyl-N-(3-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)aminopropyl)amino)phenylazo)benzoic acid (Boc-EPAB), was coupled with chloromethyl resin to obtain a new solid support suitable for SPPS using Boc chemistry. Peptides synthesized on this coloured resin had the chromophore at their C-termini. N-terminally coloured peptides were synthesized on a traditional solid support, coupled with chromophoric carboxylic acid before cleavage. A model pentapeptide, Phe-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly, and its ten derivatives were synthesized and their properties studied. It was found that the presence of chromophores decreases the water solubility of peptides. However, insertion of solubilizing tags (penta-lysine sequences or polyoxyethyl chains) into the molecule of any coloured derivative resulted in enhancement of the solubility. The RP-HPLC hydrophobicity indexes (ϕ0) of the coloured peptides were also determined because ϕ0 values are closely related to their water solubility. A coloured pentapeptide library was synthesized using the portioning-mixing method. Each component of this library contained the red azo dye (EPAB) and the penta-lysine tag. Before the last coupling step the samples were not mixed. All of the 19 sub-libraries obtained after cleavage were readily soluble in water, giving intense red solutions.The effect of chromophore (EPAB) and/or penta-lysine solubilizing tag on the biological activity was also studied. Potencies of the bovine neurotensin 8-13 fragment and its different coloured and penta-lysine derivatives were compared in isolated longitudinal muscle strips of guinea pig ileum. It was shown that the hexapeptide with penta-lysine tag had almost the same activity as the 8-13 fragment itself. The activity of the EPAB-derivative was found to be rather low. However, the presence of the solubilizing tag in the coloured hexapeptide compensated the negative effect of the chromophore. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 1075-2617
    Keywords: ion channels ; amphipathicity ; α-helices ; bilayers ; SDS micelles ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Synthetic alamethicin analogs, in which all Aib residues had been replaced by Leu (L2) then proline 14 replaced by an alanine (L5), were studied in SDS micelles using circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy. Nuclear Overhauser effects were used as constraints for molecular modelling. The structures determined for both peptides in SDS micelles were compared with those previously obtained in methanol in order to establish a secondary structure/ionophore activity relationship. Our results indicated that a shortening of peptide helices could be responsible for the observed decrease in ion channel lifetimes. However, the length of helices may not by itself explain the drastic destabilization of channels when Pro14 of alamethicin is replaced by Ala in L5. Indeed analysis of the helical wheel of L5 reveals heterogeneity in the amphipathicity depending on the medium. Thus, loss of amphipathicity seems to underly the observed destabilization of channels. © 1998 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: stopped-flow ; chemiluminescence ; multicomponent analysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The stopped-flow technique was employed to measure chemiluminescent emission from the reaction of a mixture of oxalate and proline with a chemiluminescence reagent, tris(2,2′-bipyridine)ruthenium(III), or Ru(bpy)33+. Ru(bpy)33+ is a versatile reagent and is often used in bioanalytical applications, including the detection of certain drugs and their metabolites, for example. Unfortunately, Ru(bpy)33+ has not yet been fully examined as a possible chemiluminescence reagent for simultaneous kinetic determinations. In this work, a differential reaction rate method, based on simple least squares regressions of the pseudo-first order decay data, was used to resolve two compounds, oxalate and proline, reacting simultaneously with Ru(bpy)33+. Our results indicate that stopped-flow analyses with Ru(bpy)33+ could provide a viable method for simultaneous determinations of unresolvable analytes of environmental and pharmaceutical importance. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: chemiluminescent immunoassay ; acridinium ester ; fish ; salmon ; growth hormone ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An immune complex transfer two-site chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) for salmon growth hormone (GH) was developed to measure serum GH in alevin chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) using a chemiluminescent acridinium ester as a label. The immune complex transfer method dramatically reduced non-specifically bound of acridinium ester-labelled antibody without a decrease in the specific binding. Consequently, we could detect lower levels of GH than achieved previously in a two-site CLIA for salmon GH. The detection limit of the assay was 7.8 fg/mL and the standard curve was linear up to 250 fg/mL. Coefficients of variation were 2.2-7.7% within-assay and 5.3-9.1% between-assay. We have developed a highly sensitive and reproducible GH method and applied it to measurement of GH in alevin chum salmon. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 24
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 198-210 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Xanthan fermentation ; agitator speed ; caverns ; dissolved oxygen ; specific oxygen uptake rate ; specific Xanthan production rate ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Agitation speed affects both the extent of motion in Xanthan fermentation broths because of their rheological complexity and the rate of oxygen transfer. The combination of these two effects causes the dissolved oxygen concentration and its spatial uniformity also to change with agitator speed. Separating these complex interactions has been achieved in this study in the following way. First, the influence of agitation speeds of 500 and 1000 rpm has been investigated at a constant nonlimiting dissolved oxygen concentration of 20% of air saturation using gas blending. Under these controlled dissolved oxygen conditions, the results demonstrate that the biological performance of the culture was independent of agitation speed as long as broth homogeneity could be ensured. With the development of increasing rheological complexity lending to stagnant regions at Xanthan concentrations 〉20 g/L, it is shown that the superior bulk mixing achieved at 1000 rpm, compared with 500 rpm, leading to an increased proportion of the cells in the fermentor to be metabolically active and hence higher microbial oxygen uptake rates, was responsible for the enhanced performance. Second, the effects of varying dissolved oxygen are compared with a control in each case with an agitator speed of 1000 rpm to ensure full motion, but with a fixed, nonlimiting dissolved oxygen of 20% air saturation. The specific oxygen uptake rate of the culture in the exponential phase, determined using steady-state gas analysis data, was found to be independent of dissolved oxygen above 6% air saturation, whereas the specific growth rate of the culture was not influenced by dissolved oxygen, even at levels as low as 3%, although a decrease in Xanthan production rate could be measured. In the production phase, the critical oxygen level was determined to be 6% to 10%, so that, below this value, both specific Xanthan production rate as well as specific oxygen uptake rate decreased significantly. In addition, it is shown that the dynamic method of oxygen uptake determination is unsuitable even for moderately viscous Xanthan broths. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 57: 198-210, 1998.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: protein ; conformational memory ; organic solvent ; molecular imprinting ; enzyme ; catalysis ; transition state analogue ; bovine serum albumin ; β-lactoglobulin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The induction of catalytic activity in proteins by lyophilization in the presence of a transition state analogue (biomolecular imprinting) has been attempted. It was shown that proteins which were freeze-dried with n-isopropyl-4-nitrobenzyl-amine (a transition state analogue for the reaction of dehydrofluorination of 4-fluoro-4-[p-nitrophenyl] butan-2-one) displayed higher β-elimination activity as compared to their-non-imprinted counterparts. It was also found that native bovine serum albumin has a high dehydrofluorination activity towards the above substrate with kinetic parameters rather similar to those of a catalytic antibody prepared by Shokat et al. (1989). A comparison of the kinetic parameters determined in this study with those obtained for analogous catalytic antibodies and imprinted polymers was made. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 57: 211-215, 1998.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: waste gas treatment ; trickle-bed reactor ; toluene ; biomass removal ; biofilm ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new reactor for biological waste gas treatment was developed to eliminate continuous solvents from waste gases. A trickle-bed reactor was chosen with discontinuous movement of the packed bed and intermittent percolation. The reactor was operated with toluene as the solvent and an optimum average biomass concentration of between 5 and 30 kg dry cell weight per cubic meter packed bed (m3pb). This biomass concentration resulted in a high volumetric degradation rate. Reduction of surplus biomass by stirring and trickling caused a prolonged service life and prevented clogging of the trickle bed and a pressure drop increase. The pressure drop after biomass reduction was almost identical to the theoretical pressure drop as calculated for the irregular packed bed without biomass. The reduction in biomass and intermittent percolation of mineral medium resulted in high volumetric degradation rates of about 100 g of toluene m-3pb h-1 at a load of 150 g of toluene m-3pb h-1. Such a removal rate with a trickle-bed reactor was not reported before. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 497-503, 1998.
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  • 27
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 505-509 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: lipases ; Candida antarctica lipase ; emulsifiers ; food additives ; glucose ; surfactants ; synthesis in organic solvents ; glucose fatty acid esters ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Selective production of emulsifiers from glucose and fatty acids has been achieved using an immobilized Candida antarctica lipase. Optimization of process selectivity considers the solubilities of the sugar and its monoesters in acetone at different temperatures, the percentage of this organic solvent in the reaction mixture, and the reaction temperature. The solvent (acetone) is both easily eliminated and accepted by the European Community for use in the manufacture of foods and/or food additives. Different fatty acids with a longer length chain than that of caprylic acid may be employed. For saturated fatty acids longer than lauric acid, continuous precipitation of the monoester as it is formed at 40°C permits nearly complete conversion (98%) of glucose to the monoester within 2-3 days. The procedure does not require total dissolution of the sugar, and precipitation of the monoester permits selective conversion of charges of glucose higher than 100 mg/mL solvent. A scaleup of the process under the optimum conditions gives high yields of 6-O-lauroyl glucose, which may be readily prepared on a gram scale. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 505-509, 1998.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: NAD(H) retention ; coenzyme regeneration ; coupled reactions ; glucose dehydrogenase ; lactate dehydrogenase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: NAD(H) was retained in a noncharged ultrafiltration membrane reactor for the simultaneous and continuous production of l-lactate and gluconate with coenzyme regeneration. Polyethyleneimine (PEI), a 50-kDa cationic polymer, achieved coenzyme retentions above 0.8 for PEI/NAD(H) molar ratios higher than 5. The ionic strength of the inlet medium caused a decrease of NAD(H) retention that can be counterbalanced by an initial addition of 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA). Continuous reactor performance in the presence of PEI and BSA showed that NAD(H), glucose dehydrogenase, and lactate dehydrogenase were retained by 10-kDa ultrafiltration membranes; l-lactate and gluconate were produced at conversions higher than 95%. PEI enhanced the thermal stability of the enzymes used and increased the catalytic efficiency of glucose dehydrogenase, while no effect was found on the kinetic parameters of lactate dehydrogenase. A model that implements the kinetic equations of the two enzymes describes the reactor behavior satisfactorily. In brief, the use of PEI to retain NAD(H) is a new interesting approach to be widely applied in continuous synthesis with the large number of known dehydrogenases. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 510-517, 1998.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: ammonium ; UDP-GlcNAc ; N -glycosylation ; BHK-21 cells ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of different ammonium concentrations and glucosamine on baby hamster kidney (BHK)-21 cell cultures grown in continuously perfused double membrane bioreactors was investigated with respect to the final carbohydrate structures of a secretory recombinant glycoprotein. The human interleukin-2 (IL-2) mutant glycoprotein variant IL-Mu6, which bears a novel N-glycosylation site (created by a single amino acid exchange of Gln100 to Asn), was produced under different defined protein-free culture conditions in the presence or absence of either glutamine, NH4Cl, or glucosamine. Recombinant glycoprotein products were purified and characterized by amino acid sequencing and carbohydrate structural analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, and methylation analysis. In the absence of glutamine, cells secreted glycoprotein forms with preponderantly biantennary, proximal fucosylated carbohydrate chains (85%) with a higher NeuAc content (58%). Under standard conditions in the presence of 7.5 mM glutamine, complex-type N-glycans were found to be mainly biantennary (68%) and triantennary structures (33%) with about 50% containing proximal α1-6-linked fucose; 37% of the antenna were found to be substituted with terminal α2-3-linked N-acetylneuraminic acid. In the presence of 15 mM exogenously added NH4Cl, a significant and reproducible increase in tri- and tetraantennary oligosaccharides (45% of total) was detected in the secretion product. In glutamin-free cultures supplemented with glucosamine, an intermediate amount of high antennary glycans was detected. The increase in complexity of N-linked oligosaccharides is considered to be brought about by the increased levels of intracellular uridine diphosphate-GlcNAc/GalNAc. These nucleotide sugar pools were found to be significantly elevated in the presence of high NH3/NH4+ and glucosamine concentrations. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 518-528, 1998.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: bacteriophage λ ; Q - mutant ; Escherichia coli ; recombinant protein ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We previously demonstrated that the λ system integrated into the host chromosome can overcome the instability encountered in continuous operations of unstable plasmid-based expression vectors. High stability of a cloned gene in a lysogenic state and a high copy number in a lytic state provide cloned-gene stability and overexpression in a two-stage continuous operation. But the expression by the commonly used S- mutant λ was only twice as high as that of the single copy. To increase the expression in the λ system, we constructed a Q- mutant λ vector that can be used in long-term operations such as a two-stage continuous operation. The Q- mutant phage λ is deficient in the synthesis of proteins involved in cell lysis and λ DNA packaging, while the S- mutant is deficient in the synthesis of one of two phage proteins required for lysis of the host cell and liberation of the progeny phage. Therefore, it is expected that the replicated Q- λ DNA containing a cloned gene would not be coated by a phage head and would remain naked for ample expression of the cloned gene and host cells would not lyse easily and consequently would produce larger amounts of cloned-gene products. The β-galactosidase expression per unit cell by the Q- mutant in a lytic state was about 30 times higher than that in a lysogenic state, while the expression by the commonly used S- mutant in a lytic state was twice as high as that in a lysogenic state. The optimal switching time of the Q- mutant from the lysogenic state to the lytic state for the maximum production of β-galactosidase was 5.3 h, which corresponds to an early log phase in the batch operation. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 529-535, 1998.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: biofilm ; streamers ; biofouling ; drag ; fast Fourier transform analysis ; hydrodynamics ; oscillations ; pressure drop ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mixed population biofilms consisting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. fluorescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae were grown in a flow cell under turbulent conditions with a water flow velocity of 18 cm/s (Reynolds number, Re, =1192). After 7 days the biofilms were patchy and consisted of cell clusters and streamers (filamentous structures attached to the downstream edge of the clusters) separated by interstitial channels. The cell clusters ranged in size from 25 to 750 μm in diameter. The largest clusters were approximately 85 μm thick. The streamers, which were up to 3 mm long, oscillated laterally in the flow. The motion of the streamers was recorded at various flow velocities up to 50.5 cm/s (Re 3351) using confocal scanning laser microscopy. The resulting time traces were evaluated by image analysis and fast Fourier transform analysis (FFT). The amplitude of the motion increased with flow velocity in a sigmoidal shaped curve, reaching a plateau at an average fluid flow velocity of approximately 25 cm/s (Re 1656). The motion of the streamers was possibly limited by the flexibility of the biofilm material. FFT indicated that the frequency of oscillation was directly proportional to the average flow velocity (u(ave)) below 9.5 cm/s (Re 629). At u(ave) greater than 9.5 cm/s, oscillation frequencies were above our measurable frequency range (0.12-6.7 Hz). The oscillation frequency was related to the flow velocity by the Strouhal relationship, suggesting that the oscillations were possibly caused by vortex shedding from the upstream biofilm clusters. A loss coefficient (k) was used to assess the influence of biofilm accumulation on pressure drop. The k across the flow cell colonized with biofilm was 2.2 times greater than the k across a clean flow cell. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 536-544, 1998.
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  • 32
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 545-551 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: enzyme array ; pulsed amperometric detection ; carbohydrate analysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The introduction of an enzyme array-electrochemical detection method for carbohydrate analysis is demonstrated by using two complex and one high mannose N-linked oligosaccharides. Instead of measuring the remaining uncleaved oligosaccharides in enzymatic digestion, released monosaccharides are directly quantified by pulsed amperometric detection at a gold electrode. The measured monosaccharide concentrations in combination with the enzyme array analysis provide structural characterization of oligosaccharides. The enzyme array-electrochemical detection method does not require any separation procedure or any prior labeling of oligosaccharides. However, this method is limited by the use of purified oligosaccharide samples and the nature of the enzyme array. The development of more sophisticated enzyme arrays relies upon the introduction of a bank of highly specific (bond, arm, aglycon) exoglycosidases. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 545-551, 1998.
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  • 33
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 557-570 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Alcaligenes eutrophus ; polyhydroxyalkanoates ; metabolic engineering ; mathematical modeling ; enzyme kinetics ; regulation of metabolism ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A mathematical model describing intracellular polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) synthesis in Alcaligenes eutrophus has been constructed. The model allows investigation of issues such as the existence of rate-limiting enzymatic steps, possible regulatory mechanisms in PHB synthesis, and the effects different types of rate expressions have on model behavior. Simulations with the model indicate that activities of all PHB pathway enzymes influence overall PHB flux and that no single enzymatic step can easily be identified as rate limiting. Simulations also support regulatory roles for both thiolase and reductase, mediated through AcCoA/CoASH and NADPH/NADP+ ratios, respectively. To make the model more realistic, complex rate expressions for enzyme-catalyzed reactions were used which reflect both the reversibility of the reactions and the reaction mechanisms. Use of the complex kinetic expressions dramatically changed the behavior of the system compared to a simple model containing only Michaelis-Menten kinetic expressions; the more complicated model displayed different responses to changes in enzyme activities as well as inhibition of flux by the reaction products CoASH and NADP+. These effects can be attributed to reversible rate expressions, which allow prediction of reaction rates under conditions both near and far from equilibrium. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 557-570, 1998.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: baroenzymology ; reversed micelles ; α-chymotrypsin ; catalytic activity and stability ; effect of pressure, temperature, and glycerol ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Thermostability of α-chymotrypsin at normal pressure in reversed micelles depends on both an effective surfactant solvation degree and glycerol content in the system. The difference in α-chymotrypsin stability in reversed micelles at various glycerol concentrations [up to 60% (v/v)] was more pronounced at high surfactant degrees of solvation, R ≥ 16. After a 1-h incubation at 40°C in “aqueous” reversed micelles (in the absence of glycerol), α-chymotrypsin retained only 1% of initial catalytic activity and 10, 22, 59, and 48% residual activity in glycerol-solvated micelles with 20, 30, 50, and 60% (v/v) glycerol, respectively. The explanation of the observed effects is given in the frames of micellar matrix structural order increasing in the presence of glycerol as a water-miscible cosolvent that leads to the decreasing mobility of the α-chymotrypsin molecule and, thus the increase of its stability. It was found that glycerol or hydrostatic pressure could be used to stabilize α-chymotrypsin in reversed micelles; a lower pressure is necessary to reach a given level of enzyme stability in the presence of glycerol. ©1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 552-556, 1998.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: structured model ; morphology ; DiOC6 ; image analysis ; Aspergillus oryzae ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A morphologically structured model is well suited for obtaining a good description of growth and product formation of filamentous fungi for use in a process model, for example. This article describes a new morphologically structured model and its application to an α-amylase producing strain of Aspergillus oryzae. The model is based on a division of the fungal hyphae into three different regions: an extension zone, representing the tips of the hyphae; an active region, which is responsible for growth and product formation; and an inactive hyphal region. Two metamorphosis reactions describing branching and inactivation are included in the model, and the kinetics of branching and tip extension are based on known experimentally verified models of fungal microscopic morphology. To verify the structure of the model a double-staining method, based on a combination of fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis, has been developed for measuring the fraction of active cells. The method employs the fluorescent dye 3,3′-dihexyloxocarbocyanin to stain organelles inside the hyphae and Calcoflour White to stain the cell wall. The ratio between the projected areas of the organelles and of the entire hyphal element is then taken to be proportional to the fraction of active cells. When applied to chemostat and fed-batch experiments, the double-staining method seemed to confirm the basic morphological structure of the model. The model is able to produce accurate simulations of steady-state and transient conditions in chemostats, of batch cultivations, and even the formation of a single hyphal element from a spore, all with the same values of the model parameters. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 321-329, 1998.
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  • 36
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 330-341 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: brewers' yeast ; collision theory ; flocculation ; modeling ; surface erosion ; floc splitting ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Flocculation of yeast cells occurs during the fermentation of beer. Partway through the fermentation the cells become flocculent and start to form flocs. If the environmental conditions, such as medium composition and fluid velocities in the tank, are optimal, the flocs will grow in size large enough to settle. After settling of the main part of the yeast the green beer is left, containing only a small amount of yeast necessary for rest conversions during the next process step, the lagering. The physical process of flocculation is a dynamic equilibrium of floc formation and floc breakup resulting in a bimodal size distribution containing single cells and flocs.The floc size distribution and the single cell amount were measured under the different conditions that occur during full scale fermentation. Influences on flocculation such as floc strength, specific power input, and total number of yeast cells in suspension were studied. A flocculation model was developed, and the measured data used for validation. Yeast floc formation can be described with the collision theory assuming a constant collision efficiency. The breakup of flocs appears to occur mainly via two mechanisms, the splitting of flocs and the erosion of yeast cells from the floc surface. The splitting rate determines the average floc size and the erosion rate determines the number of single cells. Regarding the size of the flocs with respect to the scale of turbulence, only the viscous subrange needs to be considered. With the model, the floc size distribution and the number of single cells can be predicted at a certain point during the fermentation. For this, the bond strength between the cells, the fractal dimension of the yeast, the specific power input in the tank and the number of yeast cells that are in suspension in the tank have to be known. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 330-341, 1998.
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: biodegradation kinetics ; naphthalene ; nonaqueous phase liquid ; mass transfer ; naphthoquinone ; coaltar ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A model is formulated to describe dissolution of naphthalene from an insoluble nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) and its subsequent biodegradation in the aqueous phase in completely mixed batch reactors. The physicochemical processes of equilibrium partitioning and mass transfer of naphthalene between the NAPL and aqueous phases were incorporated into the model. Biodegradation kinetics were described by Monod's microbial growth kinetic model, modified to account for the inhibitory effects of 1,2-naphthoquinone formed during naphthalene degradation under certain conditions. System parameters and biokinetic coefficients pertinent to the NAPL-water systems were determined either by direct measurement or from nonlinear regression of the naphthalene mineralization profiles obtained from batch reactor tests with two-component NAPLs comprised of naphthalene and heptamethylnonane. The NAPLs contained substantial mass of naphthalene, and naphthalene biodegradation kinetics were evaluated over the time required for near complete depletion of naphthalene from the NAPL. Model predictions of naphthalene mineralization time profiles compared favorably to the general trends observed in the data obtained from laboratory experiments with the two-component NAPL, as well as with two coal tars obtained from the subsurface at contaminated sites and composed of many different PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds). The effects of varying the NAPL mass and the naphthalene mole fractions in the NAPL are discussed. It was observed that the time to achieve a given percent removal of naphthalene does not change significantly with the initial mass of naphthalene in a fixed volume of the NAPL. Significant changes in the mineralization profiles are observed when the volume (and mass) of NAPL in the system is changed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 356-366, 1998.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: methanogenic population dynamics ; anaerobic digesters ; solid waste ; biosolids ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An aggressive start-up strategy was used to initiate codigestion in two anaerobic, continuously mixed bench-top reactors at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. The digesters were inoculated with mesophilic anaerobic sewage sludge and cattle manure and were fed a mixture of simulated municipal solid waste and biosolids in proportions that reflect U.S. production rates. The design organic loading rate was 3.1 kg volatile solids/m3/day and the retention time was 20 days. Ribosomal RNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to determine the methanogenic community structure in the inocula and the digesters. Chemical analyses were performed to evaluate digester performance. The aggressive start-up strategy was successful for the thermophilic reactor, despite the use of a mesophilic inoculum. After a short start-up period (20 days), stable performance was observed with high gas production rates (1.52 m3/m3/day), high levels of methane in the biogas (59%), and substantial volatile solids (54%) and cellulose (58%) removals. In contrast, the mesophilic digester did not respond favorably to the start-up method. The concentrations of volatile fatty acids increased dramatically and pH control was difficult. After several weeks of operation, the mesophilic digester became more stable, but propionate levels remained very high. Methanogenic population dynamics correlated well with performance measures. Large fluctuations were observed in methanogenic population levels during the start-up period as volatile fatty acids accumulated and were subsequently consumed. Methanosaeta species were the most abundant methanogens in the inoculum, but their levels decreased rapidly as acetate built up. The increase in acetate levels was paralleled by an increase in Methanosarcina species abundance (up to 11.6 and 4.8% of total ribosomal RNA consisted of Methanosarcina species ribosomal RNA in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters, respectively). Methanobacteriaceae were the most abundant hydrogenotrophic methanogens in both digesters, but their levels were higher in the thermophilic digester. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 342-355 1998.
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  • 39
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 57 (1998), S. 631-641 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: ceramic membrane ; water-oil ; shear rate ; transmembrane pressure ; pore size ; lumen diameter ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Recovery of an aqueous bioconversion product from complex, two-phase Pseudomonas putida broths containing 20% (v/v) soybean oil presents a significant challenge for downstream processing. Although not used before in multiple-phase separation for complex biotech products, crossflow filtration employing ceramic filters is one of the most attractive options which allow the design of integrated, continuous bioconversion processes. As a first attempt, we studied multichannel, monolithic ceramic membranes of different nominal pore sizes and lumen diameters under steady-state conditions. The best performance was obtained with 0.2-μm-pore/3-mm-lumen membrane, which completely rejected both cells and oil droplets from the permeate, creating a clear aqueous product stream. Although the same separation was achieved, the 50K molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) ultrafilter showed greater irreversible but similar reversible resistance, in addition to an order-of-magnitude higher membrane resistance. Larger nominal pore microfilters, such as 0.45 and 1.0 μm, experienced both cell and oil leakage even at low transmembrane pressure (10 psig). Attributed to greater shear at the same recirculation rate, smaller lumen filters did provide greater permeate flux. However, for practical purposes, the 0.2-μm-pore/4-mm-lumen ceramic membrane was chosen for further evaluation. Transmembrane pressures up to 50 psig provided only marginal gains in filtration performance, whereas increasing shear rate resulted in linear increases in steady-state flux, presumably due to formation of shear-sensitive, complex gel/oil/cell layer near the membrane surface. A nominal shear rate of 9200 s-1 and 20 psig transmembrane pressure were chosen as optimal operating conditions. Additional studies in a clean system revealed that as low as 5% (v/v) soybean oil in deionized (DI) water resulted in an order-of-magnitude decline in steady-state permeate flux. Breakthrough of oil droplets occurred at 35 psig transmembrane pressure. The severe fouling and breakthrough phenomena disappeared in the presence of washed cells for transmembrane pressure up to 43 psig, implying an oil/cell layer coating the membrane surface, thus preventing oil penetration. Serious membrane fouling was also experienced in microfiltration of oil-free, cell-free supernatant and oil-free whole broth. Consequently, soluble proteins/surfactants were suspected to be the major membrane foulants. Interestingly, soybean oil up to 30% (v/v) enhanced the flux, presumably through complicated interactions with the major foulants. Regeneration of membrane was best achieved with protease and hot caustic/bleach treatments, supporting the hypothesized fouling mechanisms mentioned above. This work provides process and system information for batch microfiltration runs in the future, to be reported elsewhere as Part II of this work. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 631-641, 1998
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: islets of Langerhans ; microencapsulation ; poly(ethylene glycol) ; photopolymerization ; hydrogels ; bioartificial organs ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A method has been defined to interfacially photopolymerize poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylates (PEG diacrylates) to form a crosslinked hydrogel membrane upon the surfaces of porcine islets of Langerhans to serve as an immune barrier for allo- and xenotransplantation. A sensitivity study of six key parameters in the interfacial photopolymerization process was performed to aid in determination of the optimal encapsulation conditions, leading to the most uniform hydrogel membranes and viable islets. The key parameters included the concentrations of the components of the initiation scheme, namely eosin Y, triethanolamine, and 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidinone. Other parameters investigated included the duration and flux of laser irradiation and the PEG diacrylate molecular weight. Each parameter was doubled and halved from the standard conditions used in the encapsulation process while holding all the remaining parameters at the standard conditions. The effects of changing each parameter on islet viability, encapsulation efficiency, and gel thickness were quantified. Islet viability was sensitive to the duration of laser illumination, viability significantly increasing as the duration was reduced. Encapsulation efficiency was sensitive to the concentrations of eosin Y, triethanolamine, and 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidinone, to the laser flux, and to the PEG diacrylate molecular weight. Increasing the concentration of eosin Y significantly improved the encapsulation efficiency, while decreasing the concentration of 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidinone and increasing the concentration of triethanolamine had the greatest effects in significantly reducing the encapsulation efficiency. Gel thickness was sensitive to the concentrations of triethanolamine and 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidinone, to the duration of laser illumination, and to the PEG diacrylate molecular weight. Increasing the PEG diacrylate molecular weight significantly increased the gel thickness, while decreasing the concentration of 1-vinyl 2-pyrrolidinone and increasing the concentration of triethanolamine had the greatest effects in significantly reducing the gel thickness. From this sensitivity study, conditions were determined to encapsulate porcine islets, resulting in greater than 90% islet viability and greater than 90% encapsulation efficiency. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 655-665, 1998
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: NMR spectroscopy ; enzyme hydration ; organic solvents ; subtilisin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Multinuclear NMR spectroscopy has been used to study water bound to subtilisin Carlsberg suspended in tetrahydrofuran (THF), with the water itself employed as a probe of the hydration layer's physicochemical and dynamic characteristics. The presence of the enzyme did not affect the intensity, chemical shift or linewidth of water (up to 8% v/v) added to THF, as measured by 17O- and 2H-NMR. This finding suggests that hydration of subtilisin can be described by a three-state model that includes tightly bound, loosely bound, and free water. Solid-state 2H-NMR spectra of enzyme-bound D2O support the existence of a non-exchanging population of tightly bound water. An important implication is that the loosely-bound water is the same as free water from an NMR viewpoint. This loosely bound water must also be the water responsible for the large increase in catalytic activity observed in previous hydration studies. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 686-693, 1998
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: methanogenesis ; sulfate reduction ; acetate ; competition ; simulation ; granular sludge ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The competition between acetate utilizing methane-producing bacteria (MB) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was studied in mesophilic (30°C) upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors (upward velocity 1 m h-1; pH 8) treating volatile fatty acids and sulfate. The UASB reactors treated a VFA mixture (with an acetate:propionate:butyrate ratio of 5:3:2 on COD basis) or acetate as the sole substrate at different COD:sulfate ratios. The outcome of the competition was evaluated in terms of conversion rates and specific methanogenic and sulfidogenic activities. The COD:sulfate ratio was a key factor in the partitioning of acetate utilization between MB and SRB. In excess of sulfate (COD:sulfate ratio lower than 0.67), SRB became predominant over MB after prolonged reactor operation: 250 and 400 days were required to increase the amount of acetate used by SRB from 50 to 90% in the reactor treating, respectively, the VFA mixture or acetate as the sole substrate. The competition for acetate was further studied by dynamic simulations using a mathematical model based on the Monod kinetic parameters of acetate utilizing SRB and MB. The simulations confirmed the long term nature of the competition between these acetotrophs. A high reactor pH (±8), a short solid retention time (〈150 days), and the presence of a substantial SRB population in the inoculum may considerably reduce the time required for acetate-utilising SRB to outcompete MB. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 676-685, 1998
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Trametes versicolor ; sinapic acid ; dehydrodisinapic acid dilactone ; polyphenol oxidase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Sinapic acid (SA), 3,5-dimethoxy,4-hydroxy cinnamic acid, was incubated with a crude polyphenol oxidase from the fungus Trametes versicolor. Some products of this transformation were isolated and their structures identified using mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. It was found that the enzymatic oxidation of SA includes two distinct phases. In the initial phase SA is enzymatically transformed to r-1H-2c,6c-bis-(4′-hydroxy-3′,5′-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo-[3,3,0]-octane-4,8-dione, dehydrodisinapic acid dilactone. The mechanism of this reaction may involve coupling of two phenoxy radicals by the β-β mode and subsequent intramolecular nucleophilic attack. In the second phase dehydrodisinapic acid dilactone is transformed by polyphenol oxidase into several intermediate products, including 4-(4-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadienyliden)-1,4-dihydroxy-(E)-2-butenylidene)-2,6-dimethoxy-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one. The final product of the overall transformation of SA is 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone. The obtained results were used to propose a part of the transformation pathway for the enzymatic oxidation of SA by polyphenol oxidase. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 694-703, 1998
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: lignin peroxidase ; manganese peroxidase ; LIP ; MNP ; Phanerochaete chrysosporium ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The lignin peroxidases (LIP) and manganese peroxidases (MNP) of Phanerochaete chrysosporium catalyze a wide range of lignin depolymerization reactions with lignin models and synthetic lignins in solution. However, their ability to degrade insoluble natural lignin in aqueous media has not been demonstrated. Insoluble isolated poplar lignin similar to natural lignin was treated in vitro in aqueous media for 12 h with LIP, MNP, and both. Treatment with MNP alone slightly increased the solid mass and produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived 2,6-dimethoxyhydroquinone and 2-methoxyhydroquinone but did not appreciably decrease the total lignin content. Treatment with LIP alone did not decrease the mass but produced measurable amounts of lignin-derived p-hydroxybenzoic acid and slightly decreased the lignin content. Finally, treatment with LIP and MNP together decreased the solid mass by 11%, decreased the lignin content by 5%, and released low-concentration compounds with mass spectra containing the typical lignin-derived electron-impact fragments of mass 107, 137, 151, 167, and 181. These results suggest that MNP increases the effectiveness of LIP-mediated lignin degradation. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 704-717, 1998
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: plant cell suspension ; polysaccharide ; mathematical model ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Symphytum officinale L cells were grown in Erlenmeyer flasks at four different temperatures: 15, 20, 25, and 30°C. A mathematical model of the culture growth is presented. The intracellular and extracellular products are considered in separate equations. An interrelation between fresh weight, dry weight, and viability is considered in the balances. The model includes a description of the changes in time of wet and dry biomass, cell viability, substrate concentration and polysaccharide concentration, both intra- and extracellular. The model was tested by fitting the numerical results to the data obtained. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 732-740, 1998
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: biofilm ; modeling ; reaction-diffusion-growth ; cellular automata ; immobilized cells ; structure ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The theoretical basis and quantitative evaluation of a new approach for modeling biofilm growth are presented here. Soluble components (e.g., substrates) are represented in a continuous field, whereas discrete mapping is used for solid components (e.g., biomass). The spatial distribution of substrate is calculated by applying relaxation methods to the reaction-diffusion mass balance. A biomass density map is determined from direct integration in each grid cell of a substrate-limited growth equation. Spreading and distribution of biomass is modeled by a discrete cellular automaton algorithm. The ability of this model to represent diffusion-reaction-microbial growth systems was tested for a well-characterized system: immobilized cells growing in spherical gel beads. Good quantitative agreement with data for global oxygen consumption rate was found. The calculated concentration profiles of substrate and biomass in gel beads corresponded to those measured. Moreover, it was possible, using the discrete spreading algorithm, to predict the spatial two- and three-dimensional distribution of microorganisms in relation to, for example, substrate flux and inoculation density. The new technique looks promising for modeling diffusion-reaction-microbial growth processes in heterogeneous systems as they occur in biofilms. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 718-731, 1998
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: nitrate removal ; Klebsiella oxytoca ; Arthrobacter globiformis ; dinitroethylene glycol ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Two strains, a gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 and a gram-positive, mycelium-forming bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis CECT 4500, tolerant to up to 1 M nitrate, were isolated from the grounds of a munitions factory. Under strict aerobic conditions and with appropriate C-sources, growth of these bacteria took place when the nitrate concentration in the medium was below 150 mM. Optimal growth conditions regarding the culture medium composition for the biological removal of nitrate were established in batch cultures. Then, the system was scaled up to a 40-L pilot plant and operated under continuous conditions in a factory with direct waste streams from dinitroethylene glycol production after appropriate dilution with nontreated groundwaters. The level of nitrate in the effluent was below 0.5% of the initial N-load. Nitrite and ammonium were undetectable and the level of the C-source in the effluent was below 50 mg per L. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the system worked on site satisfactorily. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 510-514, 1998.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: smooth muscle ; polyglycolic acid ; biodegradable ; tissue engineering ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The engineering of functional smooth muscle (SM) tissue is critical if one hopes to successfully replace the large number of tissues containing an SM component with engineered equivalents. This study reports on the effects of SM cell (SMC) seeding and culture conditions on the cellularity and composition of SM tissues engineered using biodegradable matrices (5 × 5 mm, 2-mm thick) of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers. Cells were seeded by injecting a cell suspension into polymer matrices in tissue culture dishes (static seeding), by stirring polymer matrices and a cell suspension in spinner flasks (stirred seeding), or by agitating polymer matrices and a cell suspension in tubes with an orbital shaker (agitated seeding). The density of SMCs adherent to these matrices was a function of cell concentration in the seeding solution, but under all conditions a larger number (approximately 1 order of magnitude) and more uniform distribution of SMCs adherent to the matrices were obtained with dynamic versus static seeding methods. The dynamic seeding methods, as compared to the static method, also ultimately resulted in new tissues that had a higher cellularity, more uniform cell distribution, and greater elastin deposition. The effects of culture conditions were next studied by culturing cell-polymer constructs in a stirred bioreactor versus static culture conditions. The stirred culture of SMC-seeded polymer matrices resulted in tissues with a cell density of 6.4 ± 0.8 × 108 cells/cm3 after 5 weeks, compared to 2.0 ± 1.1 × 108 cells/cm3 with static culture. The elastin and collagen synthesis rates and deposition within the engineered tissues were also increased by culture in the bioreactors. The elastin content after 5-week culture in the stirred bioreactor was 24 ± 3%, and both the elastin content and the cellularity of these tissues are comparable to those of native SM tissue. New tissues were also created in vivo when dynamically seeded polymer matrices were implanted in rats for various times. In summary, the system defined by these studies shows promise for engineering a tissue comparable in many respects to native SM. This engineered tissue may find clinical applications and provide a tool to study molecular mechanisms in vascular development. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 46-54, 1998.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: synthetic antimicrobial peptide ; prochymosin ; recombinant ; expression ; purification ; fusion protein ; inclusion bodies ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A fusion protein was genetically engineered that contains an antimicrobial peptide, designated P2, at its carboxy terminus and bovine prochymosin at its amino terminus. Bovine prochymosin was chosen as the fusion partner because of its complete insolubility in Escherichia coli, a property utilized to protect the cells from the toxic effects of the antimicrobial peptide. This fusion protein was purified by centrifugation as an insoluble inclusion body. A methionine linker between prochymosin and the P2 peptide enabled P2 to be released by digestion with cyanogen bromide. Cation exchange HPLC followed by reversed-phase HPLC were used to purify the P2 peptide. The recombinant P2 peptide's molecular mass was confirmed by mass spectrometry to within 0.1% of the theoretical value (2480.9 Da), and the antimicrobial activity of the purified recombinant P2 against E. coli D31 was determined to be identical to that of the chemically synthesized peptide (minimal inhibitory concentration of 5 mg/mL). Although the yield of the fusion protein after expression by the cells was high (16% of the total cell protein), the percentage recovery of the P2 peptide in the inclusion bodies was relatively low, which appears to be due to losses in the cyanogen bromide digestion step. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 55-61, 1998.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: plasmid stability ; recombinant microorganism ; continuous culture ; Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 pFRC20P ; degradation of aromatic compounds ; chlorobenzoate ; methylbenzoate ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Plasmid stability of recombinant Pseudomonas sp. B13 FR1 pFRC20P, a strain capable of mineralizing 3- and 4-chlorobenzoate and 4-methylbenzoate, was investigated in continuous culture. The hybrid cosmid pFRC20P enables the strain to mineralize 4-methylbenzoate. Rapid plasmid loss was observed under nonselective conditions using 3-chlorobenzoate as the substrate. Plasmid stability decreased with increasing dilution rate. Despite the growth advantage of the generated plasmid free cells a total depletion of plasmid bearing cells was not observed. After approximately 50 generations the fraction of plasmid bearing cells reached a constant level of 10%, which was stably maintained during the next 25 generations. Cells from this stage were used to inoculate a new culture that resulted in a stable level of 50% plasmid bearing cells. By a temporary substrate change to selective conditions (4-methylbenzoate), this level could be further increased to 70%. Literature models on plasmid stability could not be applied to describe the experimental data. Therefore, a new but unstructured model was developed to describe the experimental results. The model is based on the existence of three subpopulations: a plasmid free one, an original plasmid bearing one with a growth disadvantage compared to plasmid free cells, and a second plasmid bearing subpopulation with increased stability that is generated from the original one and has a growth rate comparable to the plasmid free cells. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 62-70, 1998.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: acetate ; E. coli ; metabolic flux ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The productivity of Escherichia coli as a producer of recombinant proteins is affected by its metabolic properties, especially by acetate production. Two commercially used E. coli strains, BL21 (λDE3) and JM109, differ significantly in their acetate production during batch fermentation at high initial glucose concentrations. E. coli BL21 grows to an optical density (OD, 600 nm) of 100 and produces no more than 2 g/L acetate, while E. coli JM109 grows to an OD (600 nm) of 80 and produces up to 14 g/L acetate. Even in fed-batch fermentation, when glucose concentration is maintained between 0.5 and 1.0 g/L, JM109 accumulates 4 times more acetate than BL21. To investigate the difference between the two strains, metabolites and enzymes involved in carbon utilization and acetate production were analyzed (isocitrate, ATP, phosphoenolpyruvate, pyruvate, isocitrate lyase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase). The results showed that during batch fermentation isocitrate lyase activity and isocitrate concentration were higher in BL21 than in JM109, while pyruvate concentration was higher in JM109. The activation of the glyoxylate shunt pathway at high glucose concentrations is suggested as a possible explanation for the lower acetate accumulation in E. coli BL21. Metabolic flux analysis of the batch cultures supports the activity of the glyoxylate shunt in E. coli BL21. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 57: 71-78, 1998.
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  • 52
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: fluoroether surfactants ; liquid CO2 ; high pressure ; emulsion ; solubilization ; subtilisin Carlsberg ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Carbon dioxide is a naturally abundant, environmentally benign solvent whose use, like water, in a process is not regulated by either EPA or FDA. Unfortunately, polar compounds such as amino acids and proteins are essentially insoluble in carbon dioxide. Further, alkyl-functional surfactants, which have been shown to allow extraction of proteins into conventional organic solvents, exhibit very poor or negligible solubility in CO2 at pressures below 50 MPa. Consequently, highly CO2-soluble fluoroether-functional surfactants have been generated and used to solubilize subtilisin Carlsberg from aqueous buffer and cell culture medium into CO2, with recovery accomplished by depressurization. Both the amount of protein solubilized in the emulsion and the extent of activity retention by the protein following recovery are functions of the initial protein concentration in the buffer. This, plus the observation that the presence of protein affects the stability of the emulsion, suggests that some of the protein is sacrificed to act as a stabilizer in these systems. In addition to solubilization via an inverse emulsion, it has also been shown that one can strip protein-surfactant aggregates from a middle phase emulsion using pure CO2, suggesting an ion-pairing type mechanism. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 572-580, 1998.
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: metabolism analysis ; AB fermentation equations ; on-line physiological state diagnosis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Fermentation equations for acetone-butanol (AB) were applied in a metabolic analysis of the reaction network under various conditions; that is, at different pHs and a high NADH2 turnover rate using methyl viologen, in a Clostridium acetobutylicum culture. The results disclosed variations in the pattern of rate changes that reflected changes in the physiological state. A linear relationship was found to exist between NADH2 generation and butanol production rate. By coupling an automated measurement system with the fermentation model, on-line estimation of the culture state was accomplished. Based on the AB fermentation model, new parameters were defined for on-line diagnosis of the physiological state and determination of the best timing for amplifying NADH2 generation by the addition of methyl viologen to obtain a high level of butanol productivity. A potential means of achieving optimal control for a high level of solvent production, involving the correlation of certain rates, is proposed. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 561-571, 1998.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: apolipoprotein B ; immunoadsorbent ; microencapsulation ; affinity chromatography ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We have developed a solid-phase immunoadsorbent based on encapsulated goat anti-apolipoprotein B polyclonal antibodies previously crosslinked with a 0.25% glutaraldehyde solution, and designed to remove by immunoaffinity the excess of apolipoproteins B from the plasma of patients affected by familial hypercholesterolemia. Compared to a classical immunoadsorbent prepared by activation of Sepharose CL-4B with cyanogen bromide, the resulting immunoadsorbent exhibits both optimal adsorption capacity and stability over the entire range of chemical and biochemical conditions during its practical handling. This approach will serve as a model system to demonstrate the applicability of microparticles as immunoadsorbents, which can be achieved for other encapsulated crosslinked proteins. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 581-586, 1998.
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: biotransformation ; membrane bioreactor ; silicone rubber ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Membrane Bioreactor for Biotransformations (MBB) is based on the aqueous/organic two-phase system, and uses a tubular silicone rubber membrane to separate the two liquid phases. This avoids the key problem associated with direct contact two-phase processes, specifically, product emulsification. The baker's yeast mediated reduction of geraniol to citronellol was used as a model biotransformation to demonstrate MBB operation. Values for the overall mass transfer coefficient were determined for geraniol, (2.0 × 10-5 ms-1), and for citronellol, (2.1 × 10-5 ms-1) diffusion across the silicone rubber membrane. Using these values, and the specific activity of the biocatalyst (5 nmols-1g biomass-1), a suitable membrane surface area: biomass ratio was determined as 2.4 × 10-3 m2g biomass-1. The bioreactor was operated at this surface area: biomass ratio and achieved a product accumulation rate 90-95% that of a conventional direct contact two-phase system. The slight reduction in product accumulation rate was shown not to be due to mass transfer limitations with respect to reactant delivery or product extraction. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 587-594, 1998.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: turbulent jet ; plant cells ; Morinda citrifolia ; shear damage ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Cell suspensions of Morinda citrifolia were subjected to turbulent flow conditions in a submerged jet apparatus, to investigate their hydrodynamic shear susceptibility. The suspensions were exposed to repeated, pressure-driven passages through a submerged jet. Two nozzles, of 1 mm and 2 mm diameter, were employed. Average energy dissipation rates were in the range 103-105 W/kg and cumulative energy dissipation in the range 105-107 J/m3. System response to the imposed conditions was evaluated in terms of suspension viability (determined using a dye exclusion technique) and variations in both chain length distribution and maximum chain length. Viability loss was well-described by a first-order model, and a linear relationship was identified between the specific death rate constant and the average energy dissipation rate. This relationship was consistent with results obtained using the same suspension cultures in a turbulent capillary flow device. Morphological measurements indicated that exposure to the hydrodynamic environment generated in the jet resulted in a significant reduction in both the average and maximum chain lengths, and the reduction in the maximum chain length was identified as an appropriate measure of sustained damage. Analysis of both viability and chain length in terms of cumulative energy dissipated revealed good agreement with results reported by other authors for morphologically different plant cell systems. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 595-604, 1998.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: solar irradiance ; tubular photobioreactor ; microalgal culture ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A macromodel is developed for estimating the year-long biomass productivity of outdoor cultures of microalga in tubular photobioreactors. The model evaluates the solar irradiance on the culture surface as a function of day of the year and the geographic location. In a second step, the geometry of the system is taken into account in estimating the average irradiance to which the cells are exposed. Finally, the growth rate is estimated as a function of irradiance, taking into account photoinhibition and photolimitation. The model interconnects solar irradiance (an environmental variable), tube diameter (a design variable), and dilution rate (an operating variable). Continuous cultures in two different tubular photobioreactors were analyzed using the macromodel. The biomass productivity ranged from 0.50 to 2.04 g L-1 d-1, and from 1.08 to 2.76 g L-1 d-1, for the larger and the smaller tube diameter photobioreactors, respectively. The quantum yield ranged from 1.1 to 2.2 g E-1; the higher the incident solar radiation, the lower the quantum yield. Simultaneous photolimitation and photoinhibition of outdoor cultures was observed. The model reproduced the experimental results with less than 20% error. If photoinhibition was neglected, and a growth model that considered only photolimitation was used to fit the data, the error increased to 45%, thus reflecting the inadequacy of previous outdoor growth models that disregard photoinhibition. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 58: 605-616, 1998.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: thermoacidophile ; chemolithotroph ; heat shock ; chemical stress ; continuous culture ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The biooxidation capacity of an extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula (DSMZ 5348) was examined under bioenerge