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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (2,788)
  • 1985-1989  (2,788)
  • 1950-1954
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Year
  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The untimely death of Marlene DeLuca in 1987 has deprived the scientific community of an outstanding expert on bioluminescence. Earlier in that year she was honoured as thethirty-ninth recipient of the Otto Mitchell Smith Lectureship Award at Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma.On 20 March 1987 Dr DeLuca presented a scientific lecture entitled ‘Firefly Luciferase-Mechanism of Action, Cloning, and Expression of the Active Enzyme’ and a popular lecture at the banquet that evening entitled ‘Light and Life’. She was selected for her excellence in research, her oral presentation ability, and her personableness. Marlene was the first woman so honoured.To honour Dr Otto M. Smith the Alpha Delta Chapter of Phi Lambda Upsilon, a national chemistry honorary organization, inaugurated The Otto Mitchell Smith Lectureship in 1948 at Oklahoma State University. Former awardees include Nobel Laureates H. C. Brown, Stanford Moore, and Arthur Kornberg and the following prominent biochemists/molecular biologists: Robert A. Alberty, University of Wisconsin; Daniel E. Koshland, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Sol Spiegelman, University of Illinois; Carl Djerassi, Stanford University; and John T. Edsall, Harvard University. The lectureship honours Dr O. M. Smith, who was Director of the Research Foundation, professor, and Head of the Departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering.As a tribute to Dr DeLuca's outstanding contibution to bioluminescence we reproduce here the edited text of her Otto Mitchell Smith Lectureship and a selected bibliography of her work on firefly bioluminescence.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Phenol-enhanced chemiluminescence ; luminol ; horseradish peroxidase ; hydrogen peroxide ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Phenols which markedly enhance chemiluminescence in the horseradish peroxidase catalysed oxidation of luminol by hydrogen peroxide show anomalously high reactivity (by factors of ∼102 compared with published Hammett correlations) in the reduction of the enzyme intermediates, Compound I and Compound II. The results support the hypothesis that efficient production of phenoxy radicals from phenols is a necessary criterion for chemiluminescence enhancer action.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Allowing for the lipid nature of firefly luciferase we have developed a new method for obtaining high-activity and high-stability enzyme preparations for bioluminescent microassay. The method includes the step of differential centrifugation in presence of stabilizing additives which entails a partial purification of the enzyme and its essential stabilization likely due to the fact that luciferase retains its lipid environment which plays an important role in catalysis. The resultant luciferase preparation is stable in solution at 4 °C for 2-3 months and allows the detection of down to 10-11M ATP.A new method has been offered for luciferase immobilization on film carriers precoated with a phospholipid layer. By sorption of the enzyme on such carriers, the samples of immobilized luciferase have been obtained suitable for constructing chemiluminescent biosensors, in the form of luciferase-containing films. There are many-fold applications for detection of ATP micro-quantities.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence ; polymorphonuclear leukocytes ; ofloxacin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We measured the chemiluminescence (CL) of human neutrophils (PMNLs) exposed to different concentrations of ofloxacin (2, 4, and 6 μg/ml) readily achievable in therapy. CL reaction during zymosan phagocytosis by PMNLs obtained from human healthy volunteers was registered in a computer-linked LKB 1251 luminometer. Ofloxacin did not induce significant variations on the respiratory burst of PMNLs.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Lipid peroxidation ; lipid hydroperoxide assay ; chemiluminescence-HPLC ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A combined system of chemiluminescence detection and high performance liquid chromatography (CL-HPLC) was developed to determine primary peroxidation products in biological tissues, such as phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide (PCOOH). The CL-HPLC assay consists of separation of lipid classes with HPLC and detection of hydroperoxide-specific chemiluminescence. Hydroperoxides react with heme compounds to produce oxidants as suggested by our early studies on tissue low-level chemiluminescence in which singlet molecular oxygen is generated as one of the excited species in several biological systems involving free radical events. In the CL-HPLC method, a cytochrome c-luminol mixture was used as a hydroperoxide-specific luminescent reagent, and the quantification of hydroperoxide was performed by detecting chemiluminescence due to the luminol oxidation caused by the oxidant produced during the lipid hydroperoxides with heme. The detection limit of PCOOH was 10 pmole hydroperoxide-O2. PCOOH in normal human blood was found to be 10-500 pmol/ml plasma and significantly higher levels of PCOOH were observed in some hospitalized patients.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Advent of the multichannel plate and position sensitive detector has made possible true single photon counting imaging tubes. We have investigated the application of these detectors in studies of the ultraweak light emission of biological materials. Initially, we focussed our efforts on two objectives: (1) obtaining single photon counting images of living tissues using only the light (chemiluminescence) emitted by the specimen and (2) developing means of obtaining well-resolved spectra of weakly emitting sources. We have obtained a variety of images. One striking result of this work is the first observation of tissue specific localization of photon emission in situ. Using this detector we have also obtained the first well-resolved spectra of some important ultraweak emission processes. These results illustrate the potential use of single photon imaging in bioluminescence and chemiluminescence research.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luminescence ; chromatography ; detection ; quantitative analysis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An overview is presented of the physicochemical basis of luminescence, and its application to the detection of chemicals (drugs, biomedically important compounds, environmentally active substances) in liquid chromatographic systems.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: CCD-imaging luminometer ; chemiluminescence ; quantitative imaging immunoassays ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We describe the application of a CCD Imaging Luminometer (CCDIL) for the detection and quantitation of rapid, simultaneous, peroxidase-linked chemiluminescent immunoassays of multiple samples of human serum alphafetoprotein (AFP). Results from some analogous immunoassays (total IgE, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)) are included for comparison.Values for precision and antigen concentration obtained using the CCDIL and colorimetric versions of the immunoassays, on human serum samples, were in good agreement.The flexibility of the CCDIL is demonstrated; its ability to detect and quantitate antigen (particularly AFP) on a variety of solid phases is indicated.The work on the AFP immunoassays illustrates not only the flexibility of the CCDIL for sample presentation on a variety of solid phase systems, but also some relative merits of such systems.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A novel optical biosensor for homogeneous immunoassay has been developed on the basis of the finding that electrochemical luminescence of pyrene-labelled antigen is extremely inhibited by immunochemical complexation. Electrochemical luminescence homogeneous immunoassay for human serum albumin (HSA), as a model analyte, was performed with a platinum plate electrode which was located in the vicinity of an optical fibre tip. HSA was determined in the concentration range of 3-25 × 10-6 mol/I.To improve electrochemical luminescence measurement an optical fibre electrode has been developed by fabricating a transparent platinum film on the top of an optical fibre. The minimum detectable limit of luminol was 10-11 mol/l with the optical fibre electrode. Luminol was applied as a label for homogeneous immunoassay.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay ; non-separation or homogeneous assay ; urinary steroid ; drug metabolites ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We describe the principles of a new generation of sequential or simultaneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays, namely, simple, rapid, liquid-phase non-separation procedures which may be applied to the measurement of urinary steroid and drug metabolites. As an example, a method for the measurement of estrone-3-glucuronide in undiluted urine is reported. This method has a similar sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to a conventional separation fluoroimmunoassay or radioimmunoassay but in terms of speed, convenience, precision, reliability and clinical utility the new method has many advantages. The labelled antigen is a novel fluorescent europium chelate covalently linked to estrone-3-glucuronide. The antibody-binding reaction involves the incubation of the labelled antigen (2ng) with a limited concentration of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies to estrone-3-glucuronyl-6-BSA and an aliquot of standard or sample (undiluted urine; 10 μl) in microtitre wells. After a 10 min incubation, the fluorescence which emanates from the antibody-free label is measured in a time-resolved fluorometer and is proportional to the concentration of estrone-3-glucuronide in the standard or sample. The method may be applied for the monitoring of ovarian function in women.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Peroxidase ; triplet carbonyl ; chemiexcitation ; energy transfer ; neutrophils ; lipid peroxidation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Peroxidases, acting as oxidase upon appropriate substrates, generate carbonyl compounds in the electronically excited triplet state. These excited species can transfer energy as demonstrated by the appearance of the acceptor fluorescence or induced photochemistry concomitant with the disappearance of phosphorescence. Cholorophyll, an efficient emissive acceptor, either naturally present or artificially incorporated into organelles and cells, allows the in situ detection of biologically generated excited species.With neutrophils, the myeloperoxidase promoted acetone phosphorescence can readily be detected. In other cases, e.g. triplet benzaldehyde, it is possible to observe emission from lipid peroxidation initiated by the triplet carbonyl compound.
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  • 13
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Singlet oxygen ; peroxidase ; oxygenase ; peroxy radical ; superoxide anion ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Singlet oxygen generation is reported from (1) enzymatic reaction and (2) electron transfer reactions of the superoxide anion measured directly with an ultrasensitive near-IR emission spectrophotometer by monitoring the O2(1Δg) → O2 (3Σg-) transition at 1268 nm. Near-IR emission spectra from the myeloperoxidase and lactoperoxidase enzymatic systems show only emission of singlet oxygen at 1268nm. The lipoxygenase/Na-linoleate enzymatic reaction exhibits two emissions, 1268 nm and 1288 nm. The latter emission is identified as originating from a peroxy radical. Spectral and kinetic data giving evidence of singlet oxygen generation is obtained from the reaction of potassium superoxide solubilized by 18-crown-6-ether in acetonitrile with a series of organometallic coordination compounds.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luminescence immunoassay ; thyrotropin ; coated tube ; monoclonal antibody ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A recently available chemiluminescence immunoassay (LIA-MAT) for TSH, set up by Byk-Sangtec Diagnostica, has been evaluated and compared with IRMA methods. The system LIA-MAT uses two monoclonal antibodies: one coated on tubes and the other labelled with isoluminol. To compute the within-assay precision profile, we estimated the response error relationship from all the duplicates (420) of eleven experiments. The CV of the response was 4-5% from the maximal response until 10,000 RLU (corresponding to about 1 μlU/ml); in the lower response range the CV worsened up to 8%. The sensitivity, derived from the precision profile, was 0.052 μlU/ml similar to that found in IRMA-MAT (0.044 μlU/ml); the working range extended from 0.33 to 100 μlU/ml. Results from LIA-MAT in the concentration range 1-30 μlU/ml were compared with the consensus mean produced by users of IRMA methods (IRMA-MAT, IRMA-Behring, Maiaclone Serono) participating in an inter-laboratory survey; a good correlation with IRMA techniques was found. The distribution of TSH determinations produced by LIA-MAT on 62 low concentration sample (〈0.3 μlU/ml) from patients unresponsive to TRH test, was found similar to that observed for the kit IRMA Boots-Celltech assumed as reference.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemiluminescence ; absolute quantum yields ; pentachlorophenyl oxalate ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Absolute chemiluminescence quantum yields (φCL) for reactions of bis-(pentachlorophenyl) oxalate (PCPO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 9:10 diphenyl anthracene (DPA) have been determined. A fully corrected chemiluminescence monitoring spectrometer was calibrated for spectral sensitivity using the chemiluminescence of the bis-(pentachlorophenyl) oxalate system as a liquid light source, the total photon output of which had previously been determined by chemical actinometry. At high (PCPO)/(H2O2) ratios φCL was found to be independent of PCPO and H2O2 concentrations.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luminometer ; evaluation ; rapid microbiology ; ATP assay ; firefly luciferase ; photometer ; radiometer ; comparison ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An assessment has been carried out of the relative performance of ten instruments for quantification of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the firefly luciferase assay. The instruments evaluated were Amersham Amerlite Analyser, Dynatech Tube Luminometer, Dynatech Multiplate Luminometer, Dynatech Camera Luminometer, Hamilton Lumicon, LKB 1250 Luminometer, LKB 1251 Luminometer, Lumac Biocounter M2010A, Turner 20 TD Luminometer and a prototype version of the CLEAR Speed Tech 2000. An 800-fold difference in sensitivity was found between the most sensitive (Lumac, Turner) and the least sensitive (Dynatech Tube) of the conventional instruments. The Dynatech Camera Luminometer which worked on a completely different principle to the other instruments was about 5000 times less sensitive than the best of the photomultiplier tube instruments. The relative sensitivity of the instruments was maintained regardless of whether solutions of ATP in water or trichloroacetic acid extracts of bacteria were analysed. An analysis of 960 ATP bioluminescence assays showed that data obtained from such measurements are normally distributed.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 19
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 20
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Bioluminescence ; chemiluminescence ; acridinium ester ; firefly luciferase ; kinetics ; photographic film ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Frozen assay reagents have been used to reduce the rate of light emission from the rapid chemiluminescent acridinium ester and the bioluminescent firefly luciferase reactions. Melting of the assay reagent delays the initiation of the light emission, thus eliminating the need to initiate these rapid reactions by injection of the assay reagents in front of the photodetector.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Diabetes ; albuminuria ; chemiluminescent immunoassay ; acridinium ester ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A simple chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) for urinary albumin has been developed based on the use of a chemiluminescent acridinium ester-labelled human albumin and a commercially available antiserum. It includes two incubation steps and a second polyethylene glycol-assisted antibody separation. The sensitivity of detection is 0.016 mg/l, the assay working range is 0.1-5 mg/l, and the inter-assay CVs are ≤ 15%. Using 10- and 50-fold sample dilutions in assay buffer, a wide working range (1-250 mg/l) is obtained covering normal and pathological conditions. Timed overnight urine samples (bed rest conditions) were collected on three consecutive days for each patient. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was 4.7 ± 2.7 μg/min (x ± SD), range 1-15.9 μg/min in 36 healthy subjects (17♂, 19♀, ages 4-56 years), with day-to-day variations of 28.5 ± 20% (x ± SD), range 3.3-76.1%. The use of an acridinium ester as a chemiluminescent (CL) label overcomes the disadvantages of short shelf-life and health and safety hazards associated with radioisotopes. Results compare favourably with those obtained using a commercially available RIA kit.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemiluminescence ; excitation energy transfer ; oxidative polymerization ; eumelanins ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The catechol oxidase-catalysed and autoxidative transformation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to eumelanin have been studied by oxygen consumption, energy transfer, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Formation of transient dopachrome (λmax = 480 nm) and dopalutin (λex = 423 nm, λem = 491 nm) have been found in the enzymatic and autoxidative reaction. In the enzymatic reaction, neither a photon emission with quantum yield Φ 〉 10-13 nor energy transfer to triplet and singlet energy acceptors (sensitizers such as anthracene derivatives, xanthene dyes and chlorophyll-a) in water and micellar solutions have been found. The autoxidative reaction is chemiluminescent (Φ = 10-9), the emission occurring in the 400-600 nm range. The excitation energy is not transferred to sensitizers. The effect of various enzymes and traps of active oxygen species as well as the spectral distribution of chemiluminescence indicate that there is no emission from oxygen dimoles. Carbonates and active species of oxygen are shown to participate in the chemiexcitation reaction.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luminol ; chemiluminescent label ; heparin ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Acylated derivatives of luminol (5-amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione) bearing a carboxyl or amino group can be linked by amide bonds to a macromolecule requiring labelling. Though themselves of low quantum yield these compounds are alkali-labile and can be detected at a similar level of sensitivity to the parent compound luminol. These cheap, readily accessible compounds are less hydrophobic than other currently employed chemiluminescent labels. They also lack a positively charged nitrogen atom which could complicate their covalent linkage to polyanionic compounds. They thus appear well suited for labelling heparin and other macromolecules which interact with the luminal surface of blood vessels.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Lux genes ; T7 phage promoter ; luxF ; flavoproteins ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The lux genes from Photobacterium phosphoreum (NCMB844) have been cloned into Escherichia coli in a plasmid containing the T7-bacteriophage promoter. By specific expression in vivo under the T7 promoter, five structural genes (luxA-E) coding for the fatty acid reductase and luciferase polypeptides were identified as well as a new gene, designated as luxF, which codes for a 26kDa polypeptide. This new gene is located between luxB and luxE and thus disrupts the structural gene order of luxCDABE found in the Vibrio genus. The luxF gene and the protein it codes for have recently been identified in other Photobacterium species and so appears to be widely distributed within this genus. Nucleotide sequencing of the luxF gene has shown it to code for a protein homologous to the luciferase subunits, coded by the luxA and luxB genes. Although this gene is not necessary for light emission in all luminescent bacteria, it must play an essential role in the biochemistry, physiology, or ecology of the luminescent system in species of the Photobacterium genus.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Gene regulation ; bacterial bioluminescence ; Vibrio fischeri ; Vibrio harveyi ; lux genes ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Comparison of the nucleotide sequences and gene organization of the lux systems from Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio fischeri has demonstrated that the location and order of the lux structural genes are highly conserved whereas considerable divergence has arisen in the location and/or presence of lux regulatory genes in the two marine bacteria. The order of the lux structural genes (luxCDABE) are identical in the two bacteria with the three fatty acid reductase genes (luxCDE) required for aldehyde biosynthesis flanking the luciferase genes (luxAB). Complementation in trans of the upstream V. fischeri DNA containing the luxC and luxD structural genes with the downstream luxA, B and E genes of V. harveyi resulted in luminescent Escherichia coli that did not require any exogenous aldehyde. These results indicate that the light-emitting systems are very similar in the two bacteria.However, the lux regulatory systems in these two bacteria appear to have clearly diverged. In V. harveyi, an open reading frame of 〉40 codons does not exist within 600 bp of the start of luxC in contrast to the luxl regulatory gene present in the V. fischeri lux system. An open reading frame of 615 bp is present farther upstream of luxC with the same direction of transcription and approximate location as the luxR regulatory gene of V. fischeri; however, apparent homologies do not exist between the two genes. The similarities in organization of the lux structural genes and the differences in the existence and/or location of lux regulatory genes in the two Vibrio species raises the question of how these marine bacteria can have a similar growth-dependent regulation of luminescence expression.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Regulatory mutants ; autoinducer ; luminescence ; Vibrio harveyi ; luciferase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Regulatory mutants of the luminescent bacterium, Vibrio harveyi, have been isolated whose light emission can be stimulated by extracts of the growth media. Chloroform extracts of conditioned media in which V. harveyi has been grown can increase light emission in one of the dark mutants, D34, over 103-fold. An increase in the level of the mRNA and the enzymes associated with the lux system can also be demonstrated.Analysis of the expression of the lux system in Escherichia coli transformed with DNA from the D34 regulatory mutant demonstrates that the mutation resides outside the luciferase structural genes. The results suggest that the decrease in light emission in the regulatory mutants may be due to a mutation in synthesis of an autoinducer analogous to that found for the Vibrio fischeri lux system.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: FIVET ; LIA ; estrone-3-glucuronide ; chemiluminescence ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: This study compares urinary E1-3G and serum E2 measurements in monitoring ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization programme (FIVET).We used an RIA kit, ESTR.CTK2 (Sorin, Italy), for the daily determination of serum E2, and an LA kit, Fertilux (Bouty, Milan), for the determination of E1-3G in early morning urine samples using a timed and measured volume urine collection procedure.A significant correlation was found between serum E2 as measured by RIA and urinary E1-3G as measured by LIA.Considering the RIA disadvantages (the short half-life of the reagents, the hazards of handling radioactive materials, the inconvenience of frequent venepuncture for the patients) the LIA measurement seems to be a useful method in a FIVET programme.
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  • 29
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luminous bacteria ; toxicity test ; outer membrane ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Mutants of the luminescent bacterial strain NRRL B-11177 were isolated with pleiotropic hypersensitivity towards hydrophobic antimicrobial agents. SDS-PAGE analyses of outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharides revealed that the outer membrane structure of the ahs-mutants was altered. QSAR analysis showed that the inhibitory effect of chloro-substituted phenols on bioluminescence of the ahs-mutants depended on their hydrophobicity. The effect of chlorinated phenols and detergents on bioluminescence was increased in the ahs-mutants. The potential use of these mutants in bioluminescent toxicity tests was discussed.
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Ultrasensitive immunoassay ; fluorescent microspot immunoassay ; confocal microscopy ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The sensitivities of immunoassays relying on conventional radioisotopic labels (i.e. radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)) permit the measurement of analyte concentrations above ca 107 molecules/ml. This limitation primarily derives, in the case of ‘competitive’ or ‘limited reagent’ assays, from the manipulation errors arising in the system combined with the physicochemical characteristics of the particular antibody used; however, in the case of ‘non-competitive’ systems, the specific activity of the label may play a more important constraining role. It is theoretically demonstrable that the development of assay techniques yielding detection limits significantly lower than 107 molecules/ml depends on: 1the adoption of ‘non-competitive’ assays designs;2the use of labels of higher specific activity than radioisotopes;3highly efficient discrimination between the products of the immunological reactions involved.Chemiluminescent and fluorescent substances are capable of yielding higher specific activities than commonly used radioisotopes when used as direct reagent labels in this context, and both thus provide a basis for the development of ‘ultra-sensitive’, non-competitive, immunoassay methodologies. Enzymes catalysing chemiluminescent reactions or yielding fluorescent reaction products can likewise be used as labels yielding high effective specific activities and hence enhanced assay sensitivities.A particular advantage of fluorescent labels (albeit one not necessarily confined to them) lies in the possibility they offer of revealing immunological reactions localized in ‘microspots’ distributed on an inert solid support. This opens the way to the development of an entirely new generatio of ‘ambient analyte’ microspot immunoassays perrnitting the simultaneous measurement of tens or even hundreds of different analytes in the same small sample, using (for example) laser scanning techniques. Early experience suggests that microspot assays with sensitivities surpassing that of isotopically based methodologies can readily be developed.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luciferin ; luciferin derivatives ; luciferase ; bioluminescence ; enzyme immunoassay ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ultrasensitive bioluminescence immunoassays for the determination of peptides and proteins (illustrated with human urinary kallikrein, bradykinin and the determination of human urinary kallikrein antibody titres) have been developed. The usable ranges of the standard curves are from 5 pg to 5000 pg per litre. The relative intra-assay coefficients of variation of the tests were between 2% and 6%, and the inter-assay coefficients of variation between 4% and 12%.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemiluminescent substrates ; enzymes ; immunoassays ; sensitive detection ; enhancement ; 1,2-dioxetane ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have synthesized and studied two 1,2-dioxetane-based chemiluminescent enzyme substrates: 3-(2′-spiroadamantane)-4-methoxy-4-(3″-phosphoryloxy)phenyl-1,2-dioxetane (AMPPD), and, 3-(2′-spiroadamantane)-4-methoxy-4- (3″-β-D′-galactopyrano-yloxy)phenyl-1,2-dioxetane (AMPGD), which can be activated to chemiluminescence at 470 nm by alkaline phosphatase and βD-galactosidase, respectively. In addition, we observed that certain macromolecules enhance the luminescence of AMPPD. For example, the addition of 0.1% bovine serum albumin amplifies the luminescent signal and improves the detection limit for alkaline phosphatase by approximately one order of magnitude under certain conditions. This effect is due to the presence of a hydrophobic microenvironment provided by the enhancer which ‘stabilizes’ the dephosphorylated AMPPD emitter.Alkaline phosphatase catalysed chemiluminescence from AMPPD is constant for a prolonged period of time. Using AMPPD we were able to detect 0.01 attomole quantities of alkaline phosphatase immobilized on membrane supports and imaged on photographic film and, in solution, measured in a luminometer.AMPPD and AMPGD offer alternatives to colorimetric and fluorescent subsrates for alkaline phosphatase and β-D-galactosidase labels used in enzyme immunoassays. The simplicity and sensitivity of this chemiluminescent readout allowed the development of rapid clinical assays (e.g. β-hCG, LH, TSH and others).
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Chemiluminescence ; enzyme ; xanthine oxidase ; long-term signal ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A new enzyme label system is described which is superior to all existing chemiluminescence labels used in immunoassays. The system consists of the enzyme xanthine oxidase with hypoxanthine as substrate. The signal reagent contains perborate, an Fe-EDTA complex and luminol. The enzyme preparation and the signal reagent are very stable upon storage. The main features of the system are a long duration of the chemiluminescent signal (half-life time of 30 hours) and a very low limit of detection (about 3 amol). Possibilities and implications for the use of various measuring system are discussed.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Streptavidin ; biotin ; chemiluminescence ; universal marker ; immunoassay ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The tetrameric structure of streptavidin and its exceptionally strong affinity to biotin (Ka = 1015M-1) can be exploited to achieve an amplification of the signal in immunoassays. In the approach described here streptavidin (STAV) labelled with aminobutylethyl-isoluminol (ABEI) served as a universal marker in immunoassays for both haptens and big antigens. The advantageous features of streptavidin can be applied to any immunoassay using biotinylated antibodies as the primary probe.In two-site immunometric assays for larger antigens the liquid phase ‘tracer’ antibody is biotinylated. In hapten assays the solid phase antigen technique (Wood et al., 1982) is employed, in which sample-antigen and solid phase-antigen compete for a biotinylated antibody. In this paper we demonstrate the use of STAV-ABEI as a universal chemiluminescent label in steroid assays and in an immunometric assay using human growth hormone (hGH) as an example.
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Luminescent labels ; acridinium-9-thiocarboxylates ; acridinium-9-(N-sulphonyl)carboxamides ; emission kinetics ; tracer stabilities ; immunoassays ; hCG ; TSH ; AFP ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: ELISA ; FITC ; chemiluminescence ; anti-HBs ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A chemiluminescent enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) in human serum has been developed. Polystyrene microtitre plates were coated with recombinant, yeast-derived hepatitis B surface antigen (rec-HBsAg). Patient serum samples and appropriate controls were added to the rec-HBsAg-coated wells and incubated to bind anti-HBs. The wells were then washed and a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugate of a human plasma-derived hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was added. Following incubation and further washing the bound FITC-labelled HBsAg was detected after addition of a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugate of a monoclonal anti-FITC antibody and assaying for the enzyme. The activity of the HRP was measured using luminol and hydrogen peroxide as substrates and iodophenol as a chemiluminescence enhancer. The luminescence was recorded using a camera luminometer.Preliminary tests have shown the assay to be suitable for the detection of antibody in sera from both vaccinees and also from individuals with a past hepatitis B virus infection. The use of the FITC-anti-FITC system together with the measurement of a chemiluminescence signal makes possible the completion of this assay in a few hours. The assay has been shown to be both specific and sensitive and provides a permanent photographic record.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0884-3996
    Keywords: Thyroxine (T4) ; thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) ; luminescent immunoassay ; xanthine oxidase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The use of xanthine oxidase in immunoanalysis has never been reported. We describe here a procedure in which the xanthine oxidase dependent luminescence of luminol is enhanced in the presence of Fe-EDTA complex, providing an highly sensitive assay (3 amol of enzyme) and a long-term signal.This specific amplification has been applied to T4 and ultrasensitive TSH solid phase immunoassays, with T4-XO and anti-TSH monoclonal antibody-XO conjugates as tracers. The performances of these assays are at least equivalent to those obtained with iodinated tracers, using the same solid phases and the same calibrators. The major advantages of these immunoassays are: (1) the long-term signal which can be repeatedly recorded over several days, (2) the high detection sensitivity, (3) the long-term stability of the luminescence reagent and (4) the stability of the conjugates.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The optimal glucose feeding policy for the fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces carlsbergensis is presented. The biphasic nature of growth results in a singular feed rate policy that is unique to this organism. When the operating cost is high, the reduction in operating time forces the cells to utilize both glucose and ethanol toward the end of fermentation time and results in a decreasing rate of glucose addition, unlike the normally observed in creasing feed rate. The optimal feeding policy depends heavily on the initial conditions and is highly sensitive to changes in kinetic parameters. A semiempirical scheme for feedback optimization is suggested for the fed-batch yeast culture.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A multivariable adaptive optimization algorithm that uses transient data to improve the optimization speed was successfully implemented on-line to maximize the steady-state cellular productivity of a continuous culture of baker's yeast. The algorithm was shown to be stable even during periods of oscillatory growth and was able to reoptimize the culture when planned disturbances were introduced. Although adaptive tuning of the forgetting factor improved the performance, further refinements in the adaptive forgetting factor algorithm are necessary for completely satisfactory results.
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  • 41
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 32-38 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process has been evaluated in a laboratory investigation as a means for effective treatment of cyanide-laden wastewaters, with phenols used as the organic carbon sources for denitrification reactions. The performance of the process was evaluated at different levels of feed cyanide concentration and mean cell residence time (MCRT). The results obtained indicate that the phenolic compounds used can be effectively used as the organic carbon sources to promote denitrification reactions. The effects of cyanide inhibition on overall TOC removal can be alleviated at longer MCRTs. Between 1.2 and 2.2 g TOC can be utilized per gram NO2 + NO3- -N removed in the anoxic chamber depending on the prevailing MCRT. Microbial oxidation of cyanide and thiocyanate which yields ammonia is the main mechanism responsible for the removal of cyanide and thiocyanate observed in the anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process. Excellent removal efficiencies have been observed with feed concentrations up to 60 mg CN-/L and 100 mg SCN-/L Frequent exposure of autotrophic and aerobic cyanideutilizing microbes does not impede their activities in the oxic environment. Good nitrification and denitrification efficiencies are attainable in the anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process in the presence of high feed cyanide and thiocyanate concentrations, provided that MCRT is maintained at a desirable level. As a result, the microbial degradation of cyanide and thiocyanate in conjunction with nitrification and denitrification to produce innocuous nitrogen gas is feasible in the anoxic-oxic activated-sludge process.
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  • 42
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 104-114 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Two novel, nitrogen-limited and oxygen-limited, perturbed transient experiments were performed to examine the presence of active transport of methanol and study the effect on methanol uptake by a methanol-utilizing bacterium, L3, in a batch bioreactor. Transient limitations of both ammonium ions and O2 in batch cultures were found to cause methanol leakages out of the cells, suggesting the presence of an active transport of methanol in L3. Such experimental results were used to indirectly estimate the intracellular levels of methanol during a batch growth of L3. The results of our analysis indicate that the intracellular methanol level is high and show an increasing trend during the unbalanced phase, but falls to a constant low level in the balanced phase of a typical batch growth8 of L3. A simple modelling analysis suggests that a four-parameter “pump-and-extrusion” model could be used to adequately describe the transport of methanol between the extra cellular and intracellular phases of batch cultures of L3.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 44
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 157-163 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A number of experimental studies on deposition and detachment of bacterial cells of Pseudomonas sp. was performed in an inclined plate apparatus 2.3 m long. In each run, ca. 108cells were introduced into a layer of flowing water at Reynolds numbers of ca. 1000 and 1300. After a preset time, the flow was stopped and the position of attached cells measured. Spatial pattern of attached cells was initially aggregative and remained so for lower flow rates. For higher flow rates the pattern tended towards randomness, perhaps as a result of cell detachment. Overall sticking efficiency of cells was very small (ca. 10-5).
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  • 45
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 183-190 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Shearing experiments were conducted in a stirred tank reactor with 0.1% lipase solutions of Candida cylindracea. Inactivation of the lipase solutions were observed at various shear rates from 50 to 150 s-1 after continuous shearing for ca. 30-240 min under optimal pH and temperature conditions. However, there was no shear stress denaturation of the lipase when it was subjected to shear stresses of 0.72-109.2 kg/m/s2 and shear rate of 100 s-1. In the presence of polypropylene glycol, the rate of denaturation of the lipase decreased by 93%. When the lipase solution was filled to the brim, the rate of denaturation of the lipase decreased by 97% compared to that when reactor was half-filled. The rate of denaturation of the lipase decreased by 61% when probes in the fermentor were removed. There was no significant difference in the rate of denaturation of the lipase under ambient conditions compared with that in the absence of oxygen, or in the absence of free metal ions. Recovery of lipase activity from the first hour of shearing was observed at a shear rate of 150 s-1. The native lipase and the lipase which had recovered its activity showed similar pH profiles, temperature profiles, and activation energies. Temperature was found to have no effect in the rate of shear-induced denaturation of the lipase in the range 20 to 30°C during shearing at 100 s -1and optimal pH. Above 30°C, the rate of denaturation of the lipase increased drastically as a function of temperature. The significance of the findings in the de sign of reactor systems for hydrolysis or esterification of oils by lipase will be discussed.
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  • 46
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 207-210 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The energy requirements associated with conventional mechanical size reduction of poplar and aspen wood are compared to a new method of size reduction employing a wood planer. Although the planer requires about 2.3 times less energy to achieve the same size reduction as conventional methods, large-scale equipment to implement this approach does not currently exist. Explosive depressurization was also compared to conventional mechanical size reduction. The conventional mechanical methods require roughly 70% more energy to achieve the same size reduction as explosive depressurization. Thus, explosive depressurization appears to be the preferred method and has the added benefit of altering the chemical structure of the wood to enhance the enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulose fraction.
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  • 47
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 216-220 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 48
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    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 49
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 251-255 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The estimation of the size of each reactor of a series of CSTR's performing a Michaelis-Menten reaction in the liquid phase can be obtained to advantage via an optimization technique leading to the minimum overall capital cost. The cost scaleup is assumed to be described by a power rule on the equipment capacity. Various contributions are lumped into the exponent, thus leading to values above unity. The analytical development leading to the optimal intermediate concentrations of substrate according to the foregoing criterion is presented. A short-cut method based on an empirical expression that approximates the numerical solution is reported. This correlation is found to be exact at the asymptotic behaviors, and to give accurate results within an acceptable error level for the range with physical interest. Therefore, it is particularly useful during the predesign steps of equipment for the biochemical industry.
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  • 50
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 313-320 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A simple growth model is proposed for plant cell aggregates which accounts for leakage of a single intermediate metabolite from the aggregates to the medium. This model predicts a lag phase in the growth curve whose extent is determined by the intermediate metabolite leakage coefficient and its equilibrium distribution coefficient between the medium and the cell aggregates, the size of the inoculum relative to the system total water content, and the initial intermediate metabolite content in the medium. The model thus provides for an interaction between growing plant cells and their environment in a way that has heretofore been unquantified. Preliminary validation of the model has been made against literature data of Dioscorea deltoidea grown in batch suspension cell culture on sucrose, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.997. The predicted glucose + fructose concentration in the medium agrees reasonably well with experimental measurements after ca, 3.5 days of culture, although a discrepancy exists between model prediction and experiment immediately after startup. Further validation of the model is suggested on this and other plant species.
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  • 51
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 293-299 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A novel technique has been developed to immobilize plant cells. The cells are deposited on a surface of manmade fibrous material that provides for strong binding of the plant tissue biomass growing in the submerged culture. The immobilized plant cells remain fully viable. Relatively uniform biomass loadings of up to 20 mg d.w. plant cells/cm2 support material have been attained. All plant cells from the inoculum suspension became attached within the first 24-48 h depending on the support matrix configuration and hydraulic culture conditions. The advantages and scale-up potential of this technique are discussed and compared to other culturing modes.
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  • 52
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 369-373 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The objective of this article is to propose an algorithm for the on-line estimation of the specific growth rate in a batch or a fed-batch fermentation process. The algorithm shows the practical procedure for the estimation method utilizing the macroscopic balance and the extended Kalman filter. A number of studies of the on line estimation have been presented. However, there are few studies discussing about the selection of the observed variables and for the tuning of some parameters of the extended Kalman filter, such as covariance matrix and initial values of the state.The beginning of this article is devoted to explain the selection of the observed variable. This information is very important in terms of the practical know-how for using technique. It is discovered that the condition number is a practically useful and valid criterion for number is a practically useful and valid criterion for choosing the variable to be observed.Next, when the extended Kalman filter in applied to the online estimation of the specific growth rate, which is directly unmeasurable, criteria for judging the validity of the estimated value from the observed data are proposed. Based on the proposed criterial, the system equation of the specific growth rate is selected and initial value of the state variable and covariance matrix of the system noises are adjusted. From many experiments, it is certified that the specific growth rate in the batch or fed -batch fermentation can be estimated accurately by means of the algorithm proposed here. In these experiments, that is, when the cell concentration is measured directly, the extended Kalman filter using the convariance matrix with a constant element can estimate more accurately values of the specific growth rate than the adaptive extended Kalman filter does.
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Escherichia coli harboring a recombinant plasmid was grown in a fermenter to study the effects of selected process parameters on the growth of the microbe and on plasmid amplification with chloramphenicol treatment. Eighteen fermentations were carried out according to a statistical experimental design in which the fermentation temperature, pH, and turbidity of culture at the onset of plasmid amplification were the selected independent process variables. Static regression models describing the process were derived from the experimental results. It turned out that recombinant plasmid copy numbers could be influenced by controlling fermentation temperature and pH. The maximal copy number during bacterial growth phase and the optimal plasmid production were found to require fermentation conditions different from those needed for optimal bacterial growth and cell division. The conditions also differed significantly from those routinely used in research laboratories for plasmid preparation. The chloramphenicol treatment increased the plasmid copy number compared with chromosome numbers up to fivefold. Some of the data suggest that under certain conditions the number of chromosome molecules in E. coli cells may rise during the plasmid amplification stage. Statistical experimental design, a nucleic acid sandwich hybridization technique for plasmid quantification, and regression models proved to be useful in this study.
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  • 55
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 394-405 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Rate and yield expressions relating to biomass and xanthan formation and to nitrogen, glucose, and oxygen consumption were established for Xanthomonas campestris batch fermentations in a bubble column. Microbial growth was described by the logistic rate equation, characterized by a maximum specific growth rate μM = 0.5 h-1 and a maximum attainable cell concentration provided by nitrogenous compounds. With regard to carbon metabolism, the decrease with time in experimental yields and in the experimental specific rates of xanthan production and glucose assimilation demonstrated the inadequacy of the Luedeking-Piret model. These decreases were connected to the simultaneous drop in dissolved-oxygen tension observed during xanthan synthesis. The knowledge of metabolic pathways and energetic balance were used to establish the relationships between substrate utilization, ATP generation, and xanthan production. The model was structured by assuming the oxygen limitation of both the respiration rate and the efficiency of the oxidative phosphorylation mechanism (P/O ratio). Consequently, the specific rates and yield expressions became dependent on the dissolved-oxygen tension, i.e., of the volumetric oxygen transfer in the fermentor.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The saccharification of the polysaccharides of barley, oat, and wheat straws and Solka Floc was studied using the extracellular enzyme system synthesized by mutant strain NTG III/6 of the fungus Penicillium pinophilum 87160iii. The enzymes obtained in cultures containing Solka Floc or barley straw as the carbon source were compared. Solka Floc at 10% (w/v) concentration was hydrolyzed to the extent of 70% in 72 h at 50°C using a reaction mixture containing 7 filter paper units/mL of cellulase induced on Solka Floc, but hydrolysis was increased to 90% when the enzyme induced on barley straw was used. Under the same conditions, the polysaccharides in barley, oat, and wheat straws were hydrolyzed, respectively, in 72 h, to the extent of 42-48%, 62%, and 52%, but hydrolysis was increased to 93%, 100%, and 92%, respectively, after treatment of the substrates with alkaline-H2O2 reagent at room temperature.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: It is well established that pure and simple microbial competitors cannot coexist at a steady state if their environment is homogeneous. For the case of two microbial populations competing purely and simply in two interconnected chemostats having time-invariant input(s), it is known from the literature that a stable steady state of coexistence arises in domains of the operating parameters space and is attributed to the spatial heterogeneities of the system, which allow a different species to have the competitive advantage in each one of the two sub-environments. This article investigates whether the aforementioned result can be extended to the case of three species competing in three interconnected vessels. By studying all possible alternate configurations of the three-chemostat system, it is shown that coexistence of the three species is impossible, except possibly for some discrete values of the operating parameters. Some potential explanations for the results are discussed.
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The culture fluorescence of two recombinant Escherichia coli strains with high plasmid copy number were studied and compared to both the host and low copy number varieties of the corresponding strains. Culture fluorescence data are related to the concentration of reduced intracellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide within a cell, and can therefore be used as a means for detecting changes in metabolic states. Correlation curves relating culture fluorescence to biomass show that the recombinant system maintains a larger pool of intracellular NADH at high plasmid copy numbers than either the host or the recombinant system at low copy numbers. These results demonstrate the ability of a fluorescence probe to detect differences in the metabolic demands made on an over-producing recombinant organism.
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  • 59
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The modeling of growth and production of methanol oxidase (MOX) by Hansenula polymorpha CBS 4732 has been studied to provide a mathematical description of such production processes. Two kinds of mathematical models were constructed for growth on methanol and on mixtures of methanol and glucose. The model for growth on methanol as the sole carbon source consists of kinetics expressions, a limited number of key steps incorporating substrate and production inhibition. This model was used to predict and simulate the culture dynamics at the start-up, the most critical step in continuous cultivation. The growth on mixtures of methanol and glucose was modeled assuming virtually independent metabolic pathways. The induction and production of MOX could be described by adaptation of various repression equations for various data from the literature. The models describe both experimental data and literature data on growth of H. polymorpha CBS 4732 on glucose-methanol mixtures satisfactorily. All parameters for the induction-repression model for growth of H. polymorpha CBS 4732 on glucose-methanol mixtures yielded evidence that a similar induction-repression pattern is involved in MOX production. Catalase, however, is repressed by a different mechanism.
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Digitalis lanata cell cultures grown as small undifferentiated aggregates in suspension culture can be redifferentiated into green embryos that produce cardenolides. The possibility of using a statistical (Box-Wilson) experimental design to study the effects of four different variables on growth, differentiation, and cardenolide production of D. lanata tissue cultures are investigated. The results of the analyses were processed by linear regression analysis. Mathematical models explaining the effects of the variables were developed. The concentration of maltose and the NO3-—NH4+ ratio were found to be significant variables for both growth and cardenolide production. The size of the inoculum was also important.
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  • 62
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 33 (1989), S. 584-591 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article presents a calculation procedure useful for the optimization and scale up of batch sterilization cycles in large-scale fermentors. This technique determines the sterilization temperature and hold-time necessary to minimize nutrient damage in a specific fermentor. The method can also be used for “scaledown” experiments to eliminate sterilization conditions as a scale up parameter. A method for the systematic evaluation of different sterilization conditions on product yield is also presented. This procedure is useful in determining if scale up of sterilization conditions is important for a given process. The validity of the techniques presented are supported by data showing significant yield improvements in a 1.2 × 105 L antibiotic fermentation.
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  • 63
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Methods of measuring oxygen solubility in culture media are scarce, and those available are tedious to apply. A simple colorimetric assay was developed and applied to the analysis of oxygen solubility during alcoholic fermentation. The method was based on the consumption of oxygen by glucose oxidase activity and the production of the pink quinone of syringaldazine by coupled peroxidase activity. Color formation at 526 nm progressed through an optimum that was a linear function of the oxygen added to the assay. Sensitivity was maximized by operating at pH 7 and limiting the medium sample volume added. Each assay took 10-15 min to prepare and react. Reaction time was minimized by using abundant glucose and enzyme concentrations. Data obtained by the assay developed showed good agreement with published oxygen solubilities in water and selected media at various temperatures. Subsequent analyses of fermentation broths indicated falling sugar concentration to be primarily responsible for increases in oxygen solubility during fermentation. For example, during fermentations started with 230 g/L xylose or glucose, oxygen solubility could increase by 41% due to sugar consumption alone. This procedure can provide the solubility data needed to accurately calibrate in-line electronic probes for monitoring dissolved oxygen concentration during fermentation processes.
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