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  • Biochemistry and Biotechnology  (404)
  • 1980-1984  (404)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1983  (404)
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  • 1980-1984  (404)
  • 1925-1929
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The macromolecular compounds excreted during growth by yeasts as exocellular fractions were studied and found to contain a high proportion of carbohydrates. On the basis of the specificity of these fractions, an attempt was made to distinguish between nine strains of a single species of yeast - Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Each strain came from a different source. The electrophoretic patterns of the exocellular fractions tested made it possible to distinguish between the nine strains, on the basis of Lodder's criteria for the morphological and physiological identification of yeasts. We considered that strains giving exocellular fractions distinguishable by electrophoresis belonged to distinct clones. Consequently, this technique enables us to go further than diagnosis of the species.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A stable immobilized preparation of fumarase (EC 4.2.1.2) was obtained by entrapment of rat liver mitochondria in acrylamide polymerized by using gamma irradiation (100 kR). The enhanced stability and the efficiency of the entrapped enzyme have shown potential for repeated use for the production of L-malic acid from fumaric acid. The possible formation of succinic acid in the system could be controlled by incorporating malonate along with detergents such as sodium deoxycholate or sodium dodecylsulfate in the reactor system.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In this work an evaluation was made of a wide variety of single and multiple pretreatment methods for enhancing the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw. A multiple pretreatment consisted of a physical pretreatment followed by a chemical pretreatment. The structural features of wheat straw, including the specific surface area, crystallinity index, and lignin content, were measured to understand the mechanism of the enhancement in the hydrolysis rate upon pretrement. It has been found that, in general, multiple pretreatments were not promising, since the hydrolysis rates rarely exceeded those achieved by single pretreatments. Ballmilling pretreatment was found to be effective in increasing the specific surface area and decreasing the crystallinity index. Treatment with ethylene glycol was highly effective in increasing the specific surface area, in addition to a high degree of delignification. Peracetic acid pretreatment was highly effective in delignifying substrate. Among multiple pretreatments, those involving peracetic acid treatment generally had lower crystallinity indices and lignin content values. The relationship between the hydrolysis rate and the set of structural features indicated that an increase in surface area and a decrease in the crystallinity and lignin content enhance the hydrolysis; the specific surface area is the most influential of the structural features, followed by the lignin content.
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  • 4
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 201-215 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Selected samples of waste microbial biomass used in industrial fermentation processes and wastewater biological treatment plants have been studied for their radium biosorption ability from aqueous solutions. Equilibrium biosorption isotherms have been used to quantify the radium uptake capacity of the various types of biomass which were also compared to two types of activated carbon. Solution pH affected the observed uptake significantly. In general, the biomass types that showed appreciable sorption capacity exhibited maximum uptake between pH 7 and 10. The uptake was reduced considerably at pH 4 and little or no uptake was observed at pH 2. Radium biosorptive uptake capacities of the order of 4.5 × 104 nCi/g, at pH 7 and at an equilibrium radium concentration of 1000 pCi/L, were determined for a mixed culture, while the biomass of Penicillium chrysogenum adsorbed 5 × 104 nCi/g radium under the same conditions. The highest uptake value for a sample of F-400 granular activated carbon was 3600 nCi/g at pH 7 and 1000 pCi/L radium concentration. The biosorptive radium uptake of microbial biomass is compared to literature values for other types of adsorbents. The most effective biomass types studied exhibited radium removals in excess of 99% of the radium in solution.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: To broaden the practicality of on-line growth monitoring and control, its application in fedbatch penicillin fermentation using high corn steep liquor (CSL) concentration (53 g/L) is demonstrated. By employing a calculation method that considers the vagaries of CSL consumption, overall and instantaneous carbon-balancing equations are successfully used to calculate, on-line, the cell concentration and instantaneous specific growth rate in the penicillin production phase. As a consequence, these equations, together with a feedback control strategy, enable the computer control of glucose feed and maintenance of the preselected production-phase growth rate with error less than 0.002 h-1.
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  • 6
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 301-306 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We formulate a variant of the “double Monod model” which takes explicit account of endogenous metabolism. Using parameter values appropriate to carbohydrate-limited substrate, bacterial prey, and protozoan predator, we study the stability of steady states under chemostat conditions. We conclude that the predator's endogenous metabolism may have a stabilizing effect at low dilution rates.
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  • 7
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 8
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 329-340 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Lysine decarboxylase (L-lysine carboxylyase, E.C.4.1.1.18) is immobolized on a carbon dioxide gas-sensing electrode, by copolymerization with gelatin using the bifuncitional agent glutaraldehyde. The enzyme electrodes thus prepared are used in a continuous flow system to measure the concentration of L-lysine in a mixture of amino acids. The measuring time for each sample is about 3 min, including response and rinsing times. The electrode response is linear between 0.01-1 g/L and has a high specificity for L-lysine. The enzyme electrode response to lysine at concentrations below 0.5 g/L is stable on repeated use for at least 500 assays.
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  • 9
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 559-568 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Potentiometric and amperometric measurements were made with microbial fuel cells containing E. coli or yeast as the anodic reducing agent and glucose as the oxidizable substrate. The catalytic effects of thionine and resorufin on the anode reaction were investigated. Results on the potentiometry, polarization, and coulombic output of the cells support a mediator-coupled mechanism for the transfer of electrons from the organism to the electrode in preference to a mechanism of “direct” electrochemical oxidation of glucose or its degradation products. Experiments with 14C-labeled glucose show that when a microbial fuel cell produces a current under load, exogenous glucose is metabolized to produce 14CO2. The Coulombic yields of the cells indicate a high degree of energy conversion in these systems.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: With carrot cells grown in semicontinuous culture with phosphate as limiting nutrient. Dougall and Weyrauch (1980) found that the steady-state culture density was different at different dilution rates. They suggested that the yield constant for biomass was different at different dilution rates. Here the yield constant for biomass for PO43-, NH4+, Mg2+, and glucose-limited semicontinuous cultures has been measured directly at two dilution rates. The yield constants for PO43-, NH4+, and Mg2+ but not for glucose are different at the two dilution rates. The effects of pH and temperature on the biomass yield constant was measured to extend the number of system parameters examined. Biomass yield constant was changed little with change from 25 to 28°C or from pH 4.2 to pH 5.5. The steady-state levels of anthocyanin were also measured. The responses of anthocyanin levels to the system parameters are different to the biomass responses. The data suggest that at different values of each of the system parameters, the composition and metabolic activities of the cells at steady state in semicontinuous cultures are different.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: NO Abstract.
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  • 12
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 13
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 631-646 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In the microbial production of useful products, it is important to understand the allocation of substrate energy for maintanance, growth, and product formation. Methods are presented to obtain point and 95% confidence interval estimates for the true growth yield parameter, true product yield parameter, and the maintenance parameter. Methods are presented which allow all data to be used simultaneously for those cases where more than the minimum number of measurements are made at each specific growth rate (or dilution rate). Three estimation methods and two forms of the energy allocation equations are investigated. Point estimates are similar for the three methods, but interval estimates are considerably larger for one of the three methods. The results depend on the form of the equations.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Nα-Palmitoyl-L-lysyl-L-lysine-ethyl ester dihydrochloride (PLL) has antimicrobial properties and may be useful as a food preservative. This study was conducted to see if PLL can inhibit growth and synthesis of aflatoxin by Aspergillus parasiticus. Growth of mold and accumulation of aflatoxins were monitored for up to 15 days. To compare these data with those of a known inhibitor of aflatoxin synthesis, dichlorvos was added to media, and mold growth and aflatoxin accumulation were monitored. The kinetic model of Brown and Vass that correlates growth and formation of secondary metabolites was applied to results of this study, and values for maturation time (tm) and aflatoxin accumulation rate constant (α) were calculated. Values of tm decreased when cultures contained PLL, whereas presence of dichlorvos resulted in a considerable increase. The lag phase of mold growth increased in the presence of PLL. The values of α increased with an increasing amount (up to 300 ppm) of PLL in media. Higher concentrations of PLL decreased the value of α. All levels of dichlorvos tested decreased the value of α. The aflatoxin accumulation rate constant (α) as a function of concentration of additive (C) followed the general equation: \documentclass{article}\pagestyle{empty}\begin{document}$$\alpha = \frac{{\alpha _m C\exp (- {C \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {C {K_i }}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} {K_i }})}}{{C + K_a }}$$\end{document} where αm, Ka, and Ki are constants.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Five different types of reactors were employed for glucose isomerization using shrimp shell as the support on which to immobilize the glucose isomerase. The Michaelis-Menten constants and effective diffusivity of glucose in the immobilized enzyme bed were experimentally determined and used in a theoretical analysis of the radial-flow reactor. The fractional conversions of the radial-flow, fluidizedbed, and packed-bed reactors with the same -residence time were found experimentally to be almost the same. This result reveals that the use of radial-flow and fluidized-bed reactors for this immobilized enzyme system is highly feasible.
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  • 16
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 735-744 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The characteristics of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) immobilized onto Sepharose by a photochemical-initiated graft copolymerization are presented. Active copolymers were synthesized using different amounts of glycidylmethacrylate (GMA), bisacryloylpiperazine (BAP), or 1,3,5-hexhydrotriacryloyl-s-triazine (HTsT) as functional monomer. The activities, the K′m values (pGMA) copolymers: 0.53-0.76 × 10-4M; pBAP copolymers: 0.90-1.4 × 10-4; pHTsT copolymers: 1.8-2.6 × 10-4M and the thermal stabilities of the enzyme copolymers were strictly connected to the type of polymer. By varying the polymer amount present in a given copolymer, significant differences were found in the thermostability properties of pBAP and pHTsT copolymers both when checked in water or in phosphate buffer. No differences were found for pGMA copolymers. The samples in which there are the lowest pBAP or pHTsT content resulted the most stable. The activity retained after 240 min at 60°C by free HRP and pGMA-HRP was 30% whereas by pBAP-HRP and pHTsT-HRP it was 50 and 75% of the original. Operational stability of the materials was in agreement with thermostability data. These results are discussed in terms of enzyme microenvironment which is strongly affected by the different network of the three polymers.
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  • 17
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 771-779 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A polymeric-resin-based microbiological assay is shown to yield results consistent with classical inhibition zone theory. This novel assay is applicable to cycloheximide, an antifungal antibiotic, at concentrations below 1.0 μg/mL and up to 800 μg/mL. Addition of ethanol to the cut-out wells of the assay plate helps to release the antibiotic and drastically increases the inhibition zone size. The antibiotic concentrations of both two component and multicomponent systems can be determined using this method. The use of polymeric-resin beads to monitor antibiotic concentrations is shown to be an effective technique for fermentation monitoring.
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  • 18
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 699-711 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A new technique is outlined for the rapid settling of yeast cells in fermentation media. The technique involved the addition of dense, inert particles (nickel powder) to a yeast suspension (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at pH 4.5 and a rapid change of pH to 8.0-9.0. When the pH was changed large flocs formed immediately and settled rapidly, leaving a clear supernatant. On returning the pH to 4.5 the flocs were destroyed. This technique gave larger flocs and higher settling rates than the constant pH method, and much lower nickel/yeast ratios were required. Good flocculation also occurred in a fermentation medium. The technique was used to recycle yeast cells to a semicontinuous ethanol fermentation. Application of the technique to this and similar systems is discussed. The factors affecting yeast/inert powder flocculation are also discussed and a model is proposed to explain the observed experimental behavior for flocculation with a rapid change in pH.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effect of chaotropic salts on the dissociation of ribonucleic acid from yeast nucleoprotein complex was studied. The effectiveness of various salts on the dissociation of ribonucleic acid followed the chaotropic series; i.e., Cl3CCOONa = NaClO4 〉 NaBr 〉 NaCl. Treatment of the nucleoprotein complex with 0.5M Cl3CCOONa or NaClO4 resulted in RNA removal of about 80%, whereas NaCl and NaBr removed only about 10 and 25%, respectively. Based on the results presented, a simple and novel method for industrial-scale preparation of single-cell proteins with low levels of nucleic acid is proposed.
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  • 20
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 797-808 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Thirteen yeast species belonging to nine genera were screened for the production of single-cell protein (SCP) using cheese whey as the substrate. Cheese whey supplemented with minerals and yeast extract proved to the best medium for yield, lactose utilization, biomass production, and conversion efficiency. Production of β-galactosidase was studied in Brettanomyces anomalus, Kluyveromyces fragilis, Trichosporon cutaneum, and Wingea robertsii; the last proved to be the best strain combining high yield with shorter incubation period.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: An experimental device was constructed to allow nearly simultaneous measurements to be made on temperature and gas composition at different depths in a solid-substrate fermentation bed. The time-dependent values of temperature, mol % O2 and mol % CO2 were measured at five positions in beds 6.35 cm (2.5 in.) deep. With a tempeh fermentation (Rhiopus oligosporus growing on soybeans) the temperature gradient could be as steep as 3°C/cm during active mold growth and concentration of CO2 could reach 21 vol. % in the bottom layer.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Butyribacterium methylotrophicum is an anaerobic bacterium that can convert methanol to butyrate. This ability to produce longer-chain carbon compounds from C1 substrates could be of commercial significance. The fermentation rates and product formation depend on the methanol/bicarbonate ratios during fermentation. The kinetics of batch fermentation fit the Luedeking-Piret model with growth and maintenance associated product formation. Butyrate yield of 0.256 mol/mol methanol (ca. 85% of theoretical yield) has been obtained in batch fermentation.
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  • 23
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1083-1093 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The production of the extracellular nuclease secreted by Staphylococcus aureus (Foggi strain) was studied in a fermentor in an attempt to improve yield and allow large-scale production of the enzyme. In shake flask cultures, 600 units/mL of the enzyme were produced routinely. However, only 450 units/mL of the enzyme at best were obtained in a small-scale fermentor (3 L). The supplementation of the air supply to the fermentor with carbon dioxide [20% (v/v)] increased levels of enzyme in the culture medium to 770 units/mL. Subsequently, this result was reproduced in larger fermentors (10 and 150 L). The possible mechanisms of the effect of carbon dioxide upon the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (Foggi) and the production of the enzyme are discussed.
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 26
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 687-697 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A novel technique for settling microorganisms has been described. The technique involves adding a dense, inert powder to a suspension of microorganisms under conditions where flocculation of the microorganism with the inert poweder occurs. The flocs formed are small and relatively dense and settle rapidly. Suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast have been flocculated with several different inert seed materials achieving rapid settling and separations of up to 99.9%. Nickel powder was used as a seed material for most experiments described here, and iron sand showed promise as a cheaper seed for large-scale use. The degree of flocculation and cell separation obtained depended largely on the seed concentration and the components in solution. Temperature and pH had little effect. When the method was initially applied to a practical fermentation, flocculation was poor because of inhibiting compounds in the fermentation medium, but modification of the technique produced good flocculation in the medium.
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  • 27
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 713-724 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Styrene-methacrylic acid copolymers of varying combinations crosslinked with p-DVB (1-2%) and porous structure were synthesized to be used as carriers in trypsin immobilization. The styrene-methacrylic acid copolymers containing free carboxy groups were activated by conversion into the mixed carbonic anhydride with N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ) at pH 4.0. The degree of activation of copolymers were determined from the amount of p-aminobenzoic acid each could bind. The activated copolymers were incubated with trypsin in phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 4°C for 24 h. The optimum conditions for enzymatic activity measurements determined and the activity tests were carried out in 1.5 × 10-2M CaCl2 solution (pH 8.0) at 0.05 ionic strength with a pH-stat instrument. The dependence of the activity of styrene-methacrylic acid (SMA)/trypsin derivatives to pH was investigated and it was observed that the optimum pH of the immobilized trypsin derivatives moved to the basic region compared to the native trypsin. It was found that as the ionic strength increased, the shift in the optimum pH decreased and the activity increased. The Michaelis constants for the SMA-trypsin derivatives were determined with aid of Lineweaver-Burk diagrams. The thermal, storage, and operational stabilities of SMA-trypsin derivatives were assessed. It was found that the above stabilities for all the immobilized trypsin derivatives were better than that for the native trypsin.
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article is concerned with the development of a model to plan a strategy for an enzymatic batch process where enzyme is subjected to deactivation described by the inverted linear decay model. The particular system studied is the enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin to 6-amino penicillanic acid (6 APA), but the model can be utilized with other batch systems as long as the decay of the immobilized enzyme (IME) preparation is described by the inverted linear decay model. The model developed is eminently practical and simple and several example of its application are shown. Experimental data obtained in a small pilot plant batch recirculated reactor on the average are well fitted by this model. For IME systems whose decay is best described by the first-order decay model, it is not possible to use the same approach.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A structured model for the penicillin fermentation is presented. This model includes three different cell types: (1) hyphae tips, (2) penicillin-producing cells, and (3) degenerated, metabolically inactive cells. Cell degeneration has been described previously as a gradual loss of cytoplasmic material by endogenous metabolism. The rate at which such loss of cytoplasm (and activity) proceeds can be expressed as a linear function of the specific growth rate. At growth rates above some minimum value (0.0115 h-1) cell degeneration can be prevented. This model served as the control basis during open-loop as well as closed-loop computer control of the fermentation. Closed-loop control was achieved through feedback information of biomass concentration using a filtration probe and was required when complex nutrients contributed significantly to the overall biomass production.
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  • 30
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 857-861 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 31
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 867-868 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 32
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 881-885 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
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  • 34
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 901-918 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Floc breakup in biological wastewater treatment occurs in response to hydrodynamic stresses imposed by aeration, recirculation, and mixing. This size reduction is of particular concern because it leads to solids carry-over and adversely affects process controllability. A laboratory study of floc size reduction has shown how the hydrodynamic environment causes breakup and the extent to which it proceeds at particular levels of dissipation. The structure of jet flows was found to be well-suited for the reduction of floc size.
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  • 35
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In an effort to alter the filamentous morphology of Penicillium chrysogenum cells, a technique was developed to confine the growth of the mycelia to porous celite beads. The pore matrix of these beads was found to be very effective for entrapping mycelial cells and spores. The entrapped spores were used to initiate the fermentations in shake flask cultures. Significant increases in final cell densities were obtained in the confined cell cultures reaching up to 60 g/L cells. This is nearly double the cell concentration attainable in free cell cultures grown in the absence of beads. Cell loadings up to 0.55 g cells per bead were obtained in the confined cell cultures. In the later stages of the fermentations, the specific oxygen uptake rates in the confined cell cultures were found to decrease with respect to free cell cultures.
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  • 36
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 985-990 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A graphical method is proposed for batch fermentation process optimization. Its objective function is the maximum output of the product when the time of process is fixed or free. The technique of optimization is based on Bellman's dynamic programming concepts and the assumption that the process can be described by mathematical models of generalized structure. An example of the proposed technique's application is presented.
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  • 37
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1027-1047 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Specific activities and the amounts of active immobilized enzyme were determined for several different preparations of α-chymotrypsin immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of free and immobilized enzyme with a spin label coupled to the active site was used to probe the effects of different immobilization conditions on the immobilized enzyme active site configuration. Specific activity of active enzyme decreased and rotational correlation time of the spin label increased with increasing immobilized enzyme loading. Enzyme immobilized using an intermediate six-carbon spacer arm exhibited greater specific activity and spin label mobility than directly coupled enzyme. The observed activity changes due to immobilization were completely consistent with corresponding active site structure alterations revealed by EPR spectroscopy.
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  • 38
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 999-1011 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Whole cells of Escherichia coli B 10 having high tryptophan synthetase activity were used directly as an enzyme source to produce L-tryptophan from indole and L- or D,L-serine. This strain is tryptophan auxotrophic, which is tryptophanase negative and, in addition, L- and D-serine deaminase negative under production conditions. To avoid inhibition of tryptophan synthetase by a high concentration of indole, nonaqueous organic solvents, Amberlite XAD-2 adsorbent, and nonionic detergents were used as reservoirs of indole in the reaction mixture for the production of L-tryptophan. As a result, different effects were observed on the production of L-tryptophan. Particularly, among the nonionic detergents, Triton X-100 was very efficient. Using Triton X-100 for production of L-tryptophan from indole and L- or D,L-serine by whole cells of Escherichia coli B 10, 14.14 g/100 mL and 14.2 g/100 mL of L-tryptophan were produced at 37°C for 60 h.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Exomaltohexaohydrolase (E.C.3.2.1.98) was immobilized by radiocopolymerization of some synthetic monomers which were mixed in various combinations. Irradiation was carried out while the mixture of monomers and enzymes was frozen in petroleum ether-dry-ice bath. Recovery of the immobilized enzyme was 44-75%.The optimum pH of the enzyme slightly shifted to the acidic side. The pH stability was improved remarkably by immobilization. The enzyme was stable retaining more than 90% of its original activity in the range pH 4-11. The optimum reaction temperature of the enzyme increased about 2°C. Heat stability was also improved by immobilization, and that the enzyme retained about 40% of its original activity after treatment at 75°C for 15 min. The immobilized enzyme was stable to the repeated use of 20 cycles. The Km value of the enzyme for short-chain amylose was almost the same as that of native enzyme. When soluble starch was used as the substrate, the Km, value of the enzyme was three times as large as that of native enzyme. Effects of various metal ions and inhibitors on the immobilized enzyme were also studied compared to the native enzyme.
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  • 40
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1401-1418 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A general model of the transient behaviour of an oxygen probe is derived on more general assumptions than those previously considered. The present state of the art is shorly discussed in its relation to the newly derived equations: (1) the reducibility of the three-layer diffusional model to two-layer ones is discussed, and the two-layer model considering the membrane and the liquid film is verified experimentally, (2) experimental and theoretical treatments of transient probe characteristics determination are examined, and (3) the influence of chemical reactions of the first order as well as of zero order (microorgaganism respiration) in measured media on transientd probe characteristics is quantified.
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  • 41
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1419-1421 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 42
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1435-1439 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Experimental runs on the inversion of sucrose by means of immobilized β-fructooxidase are reported. External mass-transfer and axial dispersion phenomena have been analyzed. It has been observed that external mass-transfer plays a significative role in the overall kinetics, while axial dispersion phenomena are negligible.
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  • 43
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Glucoamylase and glucose oxidase have been immobilized on carbodiimide-treated activated carbon particles of various sizes. Loading data indicate nonuniform distribution of immobilized enzyme within the porous support particles. Catalysts with different enzyme loading and overall activities have been prepared by varying enzyme concentration in the immobilizing solution. Analysis of these results by a new method based entirely upon experimentally observable catalyst properties indicates that intrinsic catalytic activity is reduced by immobilization of both enzymes. Immobilized glucoamylase intrinsic activity decreases with increasing enzyme loading, and similar behavior is suggested by immobilized glucose oxidase data analysis. The overall activity data interpretation method should prove useful in other immobilized enzyme characterization research, especially in situations where the intraparticle distribution of immobilized enzyme is nonuniform and unknown.
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  • 44
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2025-2040 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: In order to further refine and support the uranium biosorption mechanism hypothesis proposed for Rhizopus arrhizus, uranium competitive equilibrium uptake isotherms by chitin were determined at two different solution pH levels and in the presence of different concentrations of competing ions, namely, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. The co-ion effect became more poronounced as the co-ion concentration in solution and pH increased. Obtained equilibrium data are in agreement with uranium biosorption data reported earlier. Infrared, mass, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of chitin before and after uranium uptake in the presence of the competing ions Cu2+, Zn2+, and Fe2+ were recorded. The combination of the spectral data and the information from equilibrium studies supported the hypothesis advanced earlier on the mechanism of uranium uptake by R.arrhizus. In addition, the data suggested the participation of a free radical in uranium coordination by the cell wall chitin. The mechanism of reduction of the uranium uptake capacity of the biomass in the presence of competing ions was also elucidated further.
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Alkali treatment of corn stover improves the avaliability of cellulose and hemicellulose for enzymatic attack. Treatments were carried out for 1 to 60 min at temperatures and NaOH concentrations ranging from 100 to 150°C and 0 to 2%, respectively. Solubilization of the stover and sugar production by enzymatic hydrolysis (Trichoderma viride cellulase) of the solid residue and the dissolved solids were used to measure the effect of caustic treatment. At 150°C and 2% NaOH concentration, 65% of the original stover was dissolved after 5 min and 52% saccharificatin (g sugar/g stover) of the residue and dissolved solids by enzymatic hydrolysis was achieved compared to 20% for untreated corn stover.
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  • 46
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1359-1372 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Three established cell lines were examined for growth on a newly developed microcarrier which consists of glass beads. The cells were simultaneously exmined for growth on commercially available microcarriers made from DEAE-dextran and from plastic. Cell yields on the glass microcarriers were comparble to the cell yields on the commercially available products. Cells grown on the glass microcarriers were easily separated from the substratum by trypsinization (as were the cells grown on the plastic substratum) while the cells grown on the DEAE-dextran particles were much more trypsin resistant. After removal of cells from the glass microcarriers, the cells reattached and spread out in plastic flasks as readily as cells harvested from monolayer. Scanning electron microscopy revealed dramatic differences in the appearence of the cell grown on the glass microcarriers and cells grown on the DEAE-dextran microcarriers. On the glass microcarriers, cells attached to the substratum through lond, slender filopodia while on the DEAE-dextran microcarriers, the entire edge of the cell appeared to be in contact with the substratum. This dissimilarity in attachment could underly the difference in sensitivity to trypsin-mediated detachment. Finally, the glass microcarriers were washed after being used once and retested for their ability to support cell growth a second time. Nearly identical results were obtained with the reprocessed beads as with previously unused ones.
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  • 47
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A methodology has been developed for the quantitative assessments of the individual effects of precipitation and chelation of metal ions in an anaerobic digester.
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  • 48
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
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    Notes: The filtration characteristics of the penicillin broth can be monitored semicontinuously using an automatic filtration probe. This probe operates aseptically and the broth samples (filtrate and filter cake) are recycled to the fermentor after each filtration. The collected data - filtrate volume and filter cake volume versus filtration time - can be related to the total biomass concentration in the fermentor.
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  • 49
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2007-2023 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Alcohol fermentation was studied with an emphasis on the separation of cell growth and alcohol production stages. Experiments were conducted to establish the optimal conditions for alcohol production in batch fermentations and to simulate continuous fermentations with cell feeding at various stages. It was found that the glucose concentration should be kept under 10% (w/v), and the temperature should be between 40 and 42.5°C for maximum specific alcohol productivity. If the cell concentration is increased, a decrease in specific alcohol productivity is observed. Higher cell concentrations are needed for higher final alcohol concentrations. Among the cell feeding procedures into alcohol production stages, a cocurrent design was found to be better than recycle and countercurrent designs.
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2085-2089 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 51
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2099-2101 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 52
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2165-2176 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Activated sludge treatment of a pentachlorophenol (PCP)-containing synthetic waste was examined. With a waste containing some sugars, and 40-120 mg/L PCP, laboratory activated sludge required about seven days for acclimation. However, the prior addition of a quasipure culture of PCP-metabolizing Arthrobacter resulted in immediate acclimation. Even with acclimated sludge, however, the system was upset for two days by a simple step change from 40 to 120 mg/L of PCP. The stability of the system to such a shock load was considerably improved when a chemostat culture of the PCP-metabolizing Arthrobacter was fed slowly into the mixed liquor. Kinetic models were developed to describe the dynamic response of the system in terms of growth parameters, hydraulic detention time, sludge age, and bleed-in rate from the chemostat.
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  • 53
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2177-2208 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A systematic method is presented which is capable of both detecting the presence of grossly biased measurement errors and locating the source of these errors in a bioreactor through statistical hypothesis testing. Equality constraints derived from material and energy balances are employed for the detection of data inconsistencies and for the subsequent identification of the suspect measurements by a process of data analysis and rectification. Maximum likelihood techniques are applied to the estimation of the states and parameters of the bioreactor after the suspect measurements have been eliminated. The level of significance is specified by the experimenter while the measurments are assumed to be randomly, normally distributed with zero mean and known variances. Two different approaches of data analysis, batchwise and sequential, that lead to a consistent set of adjustments on the experimental values, are discussed. Several examples based on the fermentation data taken from literature sources are presented to demonstrate the utility of the proposed method, and one set of data is solved numerically to illustrate the computational aspect of the algorithm.
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  • 54
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  • 55
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2127-2148 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Distiller's wet grain (DWG) and 95% ethanol were produced from corn in a farm-scale process involving batch cooking-fermentation and continuous distillation-centrifugation. The energy balance was 2.26 and the cost was $1.86/gal (1981 cost). To improve the energy balance and reduce costs, various modifications were made in the plant. The first change, back-end (after liquefaction) serial recycling of stillage supernatant at 20 and 40% strengths, produced beers with 0.2 and 0.4% (v/v) more ethanol, respectively, than without recycling. This increased the energy balance by 0.22-0.43 units and reduced costs by $0.07-$0.10/gal. The DWGs from back-end recycling had increased fat. The second change, increasing the starch content from 17-19% to 27.5%, increased the ethanol in the beer from 10.5-14.9% at a cost saving of $0.41/gal. The energy balance increased by 1.08 units. No significant change was seen in DWG composition. The third change, using continuous cascade rather than batch fermentation, permitted batch-levels of ethanol (10%) in the beer but only at low dilution rates. Both the cost and energy balance were decreased slightly. The DWG composition remained constant. The last change, replacing part of the corn and all of the tap water in the mash with whole whey and using Kluyveromyces fragilis instead of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation, resulted in an energy balance increase of 0.16 units and a $0.27/gal cost reduction. Here, 10% ethanolic beers were produced and the DWGs showed increased protein and fat. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are provided.
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  • 56
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Whole cells of Escherichia coli containing the enzyme penicillinamidohydrolase EC 3.5.1.11 were immobilized on the surface of modified macroporous copolymers of glycidylmethacrylate with ethylenedimethacrylate and of copolymers of methacrylaldehyde (MA) with divinylbenzene (DVB) by means of glutaraldehyde. These polymeric carriers were modified before cell binding by using ammonia or polyamines, especially ethylenediamine and hexamethylenediamine (HMDA). The highest specific activity and the largest yield in cell immobilization were achieved with the macroporous copolymer of MA and DVB modified with HMDA. The material thus obtained was used in repeated conversions of benzylpenicillin to 6-aminopenicillanic acid in a stirred batch reactor.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Rates of glucose oxidation were measured with the use of a fluidized-bed column placed in a magnetic field and magnetite-containing beads of immobilized glucose oxidase and catalase. Its performance was predicted from the volumetric coefficient for liquid-phase mass transfer and the kinetic constants for glucose oxidation. Effusion of beads was negligible under the operating conditions employed.
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  • 58
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2347-2358 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: This article concerns the development of a simple and effective least-squares procedure for estimating the kinetic parameters in Monod expressions from batch culture data. The basic approach employed in this work was to translate the problem of parameter estimation to a mathematical model containing a single decision variable. The resulting model was then solved by an efficient one-dimensional search algorithm which can be adapted to any microcomputer or advanced programmable calculator. The procedure was tested on synthetic data (substrate concentrations) with different types and levels of error. The effect of endogeneous respiration on the estimated values of the kinetic parameters was also assessed. From the results of these analyses the least-squares procedure developed was concluded to be very effective.
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  • 59
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A novel 2.0-L columnar reactor has been developed for the production of thienamycin by cells of Streptomyces cattleya attached to celite particles. Successful immobilization of cells was achieved by operating the column continuously at a high dilution rate during the growth phase. Scanning electron micrographs of the celite particles indicate the involvement of subcellular fibrils in the attachment of cells to the solid surfaces. Reactor operation was divided into two distinct phases-a growth phase and a production phase. The kinetics of attached growth and thienamycin production were found to be strongly influenced by nutrient concentrations. The influences of nutrient concentration on CO2 production and thienamycin production during both the growth phase and the production phase are discussed.
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  • 60
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    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The O2 evolution activity of immobilized chloroplast membranes in different environments (albumin-glutaraldehyde matrix, urethane polymer and alginate beads) is presented. As previously shown, the stability of photosystem II (PS II) of lettuce thylakoids appears to be increased by the immobilization process. For understanding such stability, some spectral investigations have been made about the energy distribution between the immobilized photosystems. The low-temperature (77 K) fluorescence emission and photoacoustic spectroscopy are well adapted to solid particle studies. Especially, it has been shown that the fluorescence ratio (F735/F695) and photoacoustic ratio (PA676/PA440) are good indicators of the functional level of native and immobilized thylakoids. Such ratios are also given after storage and after continuous illumination conditions. Some results about the role played by glutaraldehyde (in the case of albumin-glutar-aldehyde matrix) in the stabilization process are also reported.
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  • 61
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The work describes the action of a heterogenous multisubstrate enzymatic system under conditions involving inactivation of the enzyme. A nonsteady-state kinetic model has been suggested for description of the system. It has been found that the time dependence of the product flow from the membrane is a curve with a maximum which falls on a time equal to the reverse inactivation constant. It has been shown that the efficiency of such systems increases as does the time of the operation of the enzyme.
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  • 63
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 2577-2590 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The effects of moderate-temperature aqueous butanol pretreatment of rice straw on several organic catalysts have been studied. Maximum delignification was obtained with an aromatic organic acid catalyst. Presoaking of straw in aqueous improved delignification, particularly in high solid-liquid rations. However, due to the difficulty of penetration of lignin into the solvent phase, an increase in the solid-liquid ratio appears to affect delignification. A two-stage catalytic solvent process involving presoaking at 80°C followed by delignification at 120°C resulted in 83% removal of lignin in aqueous-butanol, whereas 75% lignin removal was possible in ethanol. Higher reduction in the crystallinity was possible with etanol. Lignin produced by the solvent process offers desirable physical properties for polymer applications compared to Kraft lignin.
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  • 64
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    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 3163-3176 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A study was performed to characterize a sample of reverse-forward, tar-sand combustion process water, and to conduct an initial evaluation of activated sludge treatment of the process water. No pretreatment of the wastewater was considered necessary prior to biological oxidation other than addition of ca. 0.006M caustic/L influent to maintain reactor pH in the desired range of 7.0-7.5. The process water was treated successfully by biological oxidation, achieving an 88% reduction of both COD and soluble organic carbon and a 97% reduction of BOD. The disposition of about 150 organic compounds was evaluated and it was shown that a variety of carboxylic acids and aromatic compounds were removed by treatment. Quinolines and certain higher molecular weight carboxylic acids were not removed as effectively as other compounds. These preliminary results should assist in the design of future investigations with tar-sand process water for purposes of optimizing process treatment and improving sample characterization.
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  • 65
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1057-1070 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The single-celled alga, Porphyridium cruentum, was assessed by means of chromatographic separation and mass spectral analysis of its fatty acids to be a potentially competetive source of arachidonic (5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic) acid. Models for both cell growth and production of the prostaglandin precursor at various temperatures and light intensities are presented. Increasing the light intensity within the range 1700-8000 lux increases the cell growth rate without affecting the arachidonic acid yield per cell; increasing the cultivation temperature from 18°C to ca. 32°C lowers the yield of arachidonic acid per cell but increases the rate of its production per unit volume and time. The increase of the weight ratio of arachidonic:palmitic acids at low temperatures is interpreted as a means of controlling the microviscosities of cellular membranes. In addition, the arachidonic acid content of cells decreases with the culture's age, despite increases in unit cell dry weight. The maximum rate of 0.46 mg arachidonic acid L-1 h-1 was calculated by means of the model to occur at ca. 32°C and 8000 lux in liquid cultures of 12 × 109 cells/L. Estimates of the cost of producing arachidonic acid by means of this alga range from $0.15/g to $1.00/g of arachidonic acid. Cells grown at 18°C in the presence of 0.3% linoleic acid swelled and produced gorlic (13-cyclopent-2-enyltridec-6-enoic) acid and another compound not normally observed. An estimated threefold increase of arachidonic acid content also occurred, but no significant lipogenesis was induced at 23°C in the presence of 1% kerosene or 0.3% palmitic, stearic, oleic, or linoleic acids.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 67
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A bubble column fitted with an ejector has been tested for its physical and biological performance. The axial diffusion coefficient of the liquid phase in the presence of electrolytes and ethanol was measured by a stimulus-response technique with subsequent evaluation by means of a diffusion model. In contrast to ordinary bubble columns, the coefficient of axial mixing is inversely dependent on the superficial air velocity. The liquid velocity acts in an opposite direction to the backmixing flow in the column. The measurement of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient in the presence of electrolytes and ethanol was performed using a dynamic gassing-in method adapted for a column. The data were correlated with the superficial air and liquid velocities, total power input, and power for aeration and mixing; the economy coefficient of oxygen transfer was used for finding an optimum ratio of power for aeration and pumping. Growth experiments with Candida utilis on ethanol confirmed some of the above results. Biomass productivity of 2.5 g L-1 h-1 testifies about a good transfer capability of the column. Columns fitted with pneumatic and/or hydraulic energy input may be promising for aerobic fermentations considering their mass transfer and mixing characteristics.
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  • 68
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    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 25 (1983), S. 1295-1310 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Flow cytometry is a fast and sensitive method that allows monitoring of different cellular parameters on large samples of a population. Protein distributons give relevant information on growth dynamics, since they are related to the age distribution and depend on the law of growth of the population and the law of protein accumulation during the cell cycle. We analyzed protein distributions to evaluate alternative growth models for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to monitor the changes in population dynamics that result from environmental modifications; such an analysis could potentially give parameters useful in the control of biotechnological processes. Theoretical protein distributions (taking into account the unequal division of yeast cells and the exponential law of protein accumulation during a cell cycle) quantitatively fit experimental distributions, once appropriate variability sources are introduced. Best fits are obtained when the protein threshold required for bud emergence increases at each new generation of parent cells.
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  • 69
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