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  • Binding Sites  (1,445)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (1,445)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (1,445)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (306)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: p97 is a hexameric AAA+ adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) that is an attractive target for cancer drug development. We report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-bound, full-length, hexameric wild-type p97 in the presence and absence of an allosteric inhibitor at resolutions of 2.3 and 2.4 angstroms, respectively. We also report cryo-EM structures (at resolutions of ~3.3, 3.2, and 3.3 angstroms, respectively) for three distinct, coexisting functional states of p97 with occupancies of zero, one, or two molecules of adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS) per protomer. A large corkscrew-like change in molecular architecture, coupled with upward displacement of the N-terminal domain, is observed only when ATPgammaS is bound to both the D1 and D2 domains of the protomer. These cryo-EM structures establish the sequence of nucleotide-driven structural changes in p97 at atomic resolution. They also enable elucidation of the binding mode of an allosteric small-molecule inhibitor to p97 and illustrate how inhibitor binding at the interface between the D1 and D2 domains prevents propagation of the conformational changes necessary for p97 function.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Banerjee, Soojay -- Bartesaghi, Alberto -- Merk, Alan -- Rao, Prashant -- Bulfer, Stacie L -- Yan, Yongzhao -- Green, Neal -- Mroczkowski, Barbara -- Neitz, R Jeffrey -- Wipf, Peter -- Falconieri, Veronica -- Deshaies, Raymond J -- Milne, Jacqueline L S -- Huryn, Donna -- Arkin, Michelle -- Subramaniam, Sriram -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):871-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7974. Epub 2016 Jan 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Small Molecule Discovery Center, Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; University of Pittsburgh Chemical Diversity Center, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. ; Leidos Biomedical Research Inc., Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91107, USA. ; Laboratory of Cell Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ss1@nih.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26822609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Diphosphate/chemistry ; Adenosine Triphosphatases/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry ; Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives/chemistry ; Allosteric Regulation ; Binding Sites ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Enzyme Inhibitors ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Nuclear Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Sequencing of exomes and genomes has revealed abundant genetic variation affecting the coding sequences of human transcription factors (TFs), but the consequences of such variation remain largely unexplored. We developed a computational, structure-based approach to evaluate TF variants for their impact on DNA binding activity and used universal protein-binding microarrays to assay sequence-specific DNA binding activity across 41 reference and 117 variant alleles found in individuals of diverse ancestries and families with Mendelian diseases. We found 77 variants in 28 genes that affect DNA binding affinity or specificity and identified thousands of rare alleles likely to alter the DNA binding activity of human sequence-specific TFs. Our results suggest that most individuals have unique repertoires of TF DNA binding activities, which may contribute to phenotypic variation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825693/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825693/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barrera, Luis A -- Vedenko, Anastasia -- Kurland, Jesse V -- Rogers, Julia M -- Gisselbrecht, Stephen S -- Rossin, Elizabeth J -- Woodard, Jaie -- Mariani, Luca -- Kock, Kian Hong -- Inukai, Sachi -- Siggers, Trevor -- Shokri, Leila -- Gordan, Raluca -- Sahni, Nidhi -- Cotsapas, Chris -- Hao, Tong -- Yi, Song -- Kellis, Manolis -- Daly, Mark J -- Vidal, Marc -- Hill, David E -- Bulyk, Martha L -- P50 HG004233/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003985/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1450-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2257. Epub 2016 Mar 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Center for Cancer Systems Biology (CCSB), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Center for Human Genetics Research and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Center for Cancer Systems Biology (CCSB), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013732" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Computer Simulation ; DNA/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Exome/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/*genetics ; Genetic Variation ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Mutation ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Protein Array Analysis ; Protein Binding ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/metabolism
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-01-03
    Description: Proton-pumping complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is among the largest and most complicated membrane protein complexes. The enzyme contributes substantially to oxidative energy conversion in eukaryotic cells. Its malfunctions are implicated in many hereditary and degenerative disorders. We report the x-ray structure of mitochondrial complex I at a resolution of 3.6 to 3.9 angstroms, describing in detail the central subunits that execute the bioenergetic function. A continuous axis of basic and acidic residues running centrally through the membrane arm connects the ubiquinone reduction site in the hydrophilic arm to four putative proton-pumping units. The binding position for a substrate analogous inhibitor and blockage of the predicted ubiquinone binding site provide a model for the "deactive" form of the enzyme. The proposed transition into the active form is based on a concerted structural rearrangement at the ubiquinone reduction site, providing support for a two-state stabilization-change mechanism of proton pumping.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zickermann, Volker -- Wirth, Christophe -- Nasiri, Hamid -- Siegmund, Karin -- Schwalbe, Harald -- Hunte, Carola -- Brandt, Ulrich -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 2;347(6217):44-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1259859.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Structural Bioenergetics Group, Institute of Biochemistry II, Medical School, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Cluster of Excellence Frankfurt "Macromolecular Complexes," Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. zickermann@med.uni-frankfurt.de carola.hunte@biochemie.uni-freiburg.de ulrich.brandt@radboudumc.nl. ; Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ZBMZ, BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. ; Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK. Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ; Structural Bioenergetics Group, Institute of Biochemistry II, Medical School, Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ; Cluster of Excellence Frankfurt "Macromolecular Complexes," Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Institute of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Center for Biomolecular Magnetic Resonance, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ; Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, ZBMZ, BIOSS Centre for Biological Signalling Studies, University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. zickermann@med.uni-frankfurt.de carola.hunte@biochemie.uni-freiburg.de ulrich.brandt@radboudumc.nl. ; Cluster of Excellence Frankfurt "Macromolecular Complexes," Goethe-University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Nijmegen Center for Mitochondrial Disorders, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, Netherlands. zickermann@med.uni-frankfurt.de carola.hunte@biochemie.uni-freiburg.de ulrich.brandt@radboudumc.nl.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554780" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Electron Transport Complex I/*chemistry/ultrastructure ; Mitochondria/*enzymology ; Mitochondrial Membranes/*enzymology ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protons ; Ubiquinone/chemistry ; Yarrowia/enzymology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-07-04
    Description: Lactic acid racemization is involved in lactate metabolism and cell wall assembly of many microorganisms. Lactate racemase (Lar) requires nickel, but the nickel-binding site and the role of three accessory proteins required for its activation remain enigmatic. We combined mass spectrometry and x-ray crystallography to show that Lar from Lactobacillus plantarum possesses an organometallic nickel-containing prosthetic group. A nicotinic acid mononucleotide derivative is tethered to Lys(184) and forms a tridentate pincer complex that coordinates nickel through one metal-carbon and two metal-sulfur bonds, with His(200) as another ligand. Although similar complexes have been previously synthesized, there was no prior evidence for the existence of pincer cofactors in enzymes. The wide distribution of the accessory proteins without Lar suggests that it may play a role in other enzymes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Desguin, Benoit -- Zhang, Tuo -- Soumillion, Patrice -- Hols, Pascal -- Hu, Jian -- Hausinger, Robert P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 3;349(6243):66-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aab2272.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. ; Institute of Life Sciences, Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. hujian1@msu.edu hausinge@msu.edu. ; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. hujian1@msu.edu hausinge@msu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26138974" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/genetics ; Binding Sites ; Carbon/chemistry ; Catalysis ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Histidine/chemistry ; Holoenzymes/chemistry ; Lactic Acid/*biosynthesis/chemistry ; Lactobacillus plantarum/*enzymology/genetics ; Ligands ; Lysine/chemistry ; Metalloproteins/*chemistry/genetics ; Niacin/*chemistry ; Nickel/*chemistry ; Nicotinamide Mononucleotide/analogs & derivatives/chemistry ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Racemases and Epimerases/*chemistry/genetics ; Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization ; Sulfur
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-01-31
    Description: The 18-kilodalton translocator protein (TSPO), proposed to be a key player in cholesterol transport into mitochondria, is highly expressed in steroidogenic tissues, metastatic cancer, and inflammatory and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. TSPO ligands, including benzodiazepine drugs, are implicated in regulating apoptosis and are extensively used in diagnostic imaging. We report crystal structures (at 1.8, 2.4, and 2.5 angstrom resolution) of TSPO from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and a mutant that mimics the human Ala(147)--〉Thr(147) polymorphism associated with psychiatric disorders and reduced pregnenolone production. Crystals obtained in the lipidic cubic phase reveal the binding site of an endogenous porphyrin ligand and conformational effects of the mutation. The three crystal structures show the same tightly interacting dimer and provide insights into the controversial physiological role of TSPO and how the mutation affects cholesterol binding.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Fei -- Liu, Jian -- Zheng, Yi -- Garavito, R Michael -- Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh -- ACB-12002/PHS HHS/ -- AGM-12006/PHS HHS/ -- GM094625/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM26916/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 30;347(6221):555-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1260590.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. fergus20@msu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635101" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Cholesterol/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Isoquinolines/metabolism ; Ligands ; Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Porphyrins/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protoporphyrins/metabolism ; Receptors, GABA/chemistry/genetics ; Rhodobacter sphaeroides/*chemistry
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-01-31
    Description: Translocator proteins (TSPOs) bind steroids and porphyrins, and they are implicated in many human diseases, for which they serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. TSPOs have tryptophan-rich sequences that are highly conserved from bacteria to mammals. Here we report crystal structures for Bacillus cereus TSPO (BcTSPO) down to 1.7 A resolution, including a complex with the benzodiazepine-like inhibitor PK11195. We also describe BcTSPO-mediated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) reactions, including catalytic degradation to a previously undescribed heme derivative. We used structure-inspired mutations to investigate reaction mechanisms, and we showed that TSPOs from Xenopus and man have similar PpIX-directed activities. Although TSPOs have been regarded as transporters, the catalytic activity in PpIX degradation suggests physiological importance for TSPOs in protection against oxidative stress.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4341906/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4341906/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guo, Youzhong -- Kalathur, Ravi C -- Liu, Qun -- Kloss, Brian -- Bruni, Renato -- Ginter, Christopher -- Kloppmann, Edda -- Rost, Burkhard -- Hendrickson, Wayne A -- GM095315/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM107462/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM107462/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM075026/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 30;347(6221):551-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. New York Structural Biology Center, Synchrotron Beamlines, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA. ; The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. Department of Informatics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Garching 85748, Germany. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. New York Structural Biology Center, Synchrotron Beamlines, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA. Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. wayne@xtl.cumc.columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635100" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Bacillus cereus/*chemistry ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Isoquinolines/metabolism ; Ligands ; Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry ; Protoporphyrins/metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Tryptophan/analysis
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-03-15
    Description: TREK-2 (KCNK10/K2P10), a two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel, is gated by multiple stimuli such as stretch, fatty acids, and pH and by several drugs. However, the mechanisms that control channel gating are unclear. Here we present crystal structures of the human TREK-2 channel (up to 3.4 angstrom resolution) in two conformations and in complex with norfluoxetine, the active metabolite of fluoxetine (Prozac) and a state-dependent blocker of TREK channels. Norfluoxetine binds within intramembrane fenestrations found in only one of these two conformations. Channel activation by arachidonic acid and mechanical stretch involves conversion between these states through movement of the pore-lining helices. These results provide an explanation for TREK channel mechanosensitivity, regulation by diverse stimuli, and possible off-target effects of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor Prozac.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dong, Yin Yao -- Pike, Ashley C W -- Mackenzie, Alexandra -- McClenaghan, Conor -- Aryal, Prafulla -- Dong, Liang -- Quigley, Andrew -- Grieben, Mariana -- Goubin, Solenne -- Mukhopadhyay, Shubhashish -- Ruda, Gian Filippo -- Clausen, Michael V -- Cao, Lishuang -- Brennan, Paul E -- Burgess-Brown, Nicola A -- Sansom, Mark S P -- Tucker, Stephen J -- Carpenter, Elisabeth P -- 084655/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 092809/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 13;347(6227):1256-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1261512.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Target Discovery Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. ; Pfizer Neusentis, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GS, UK. ; OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. liz.carpenter@sgc.ox.ac.uk stephen.tucker@physics.ox.ac.uk. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. liz.carpenter@sgc.ox.ac.uk stephen.tucker@physics.ox.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766236" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Arachidonic Acid/pharmacology ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fluoxetine/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Humans ; *Ion Channel Gating ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Potassium/metabolism ; Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain/antagonists & ; inhibitors/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-10-17
    Description: Transcriptional enhancers direct precise on-off patterns of gene expression during development. To explore the basis for this precision, we conducted a high-throughput analysis of the Otx-a enhancer, which mediates expression in the neural plate of Ciona embryos in response to fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and a localized GATA determinant. We provide evidence that enhancer specificity depends on submaximal recognition motifs having reduced binding affinities ("suboptimization"). Native GATA and ETS (FGF) binding sites contain imperfect matches to consensus motifs. Perfect matches mediate robust but ectopic patterns of gene expression. The native sites are not arranged at optimal intervals, and subtle changes in their spacing alter enhancer activity. Multiple tiers of enhancer suboptimization produce specific, but weak, patterns of expression, and we suggest that clusters of weak enhancers, including certain "superenhancers," circumvent this trade-off in specificity and activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Farley, Emma K -- Olson, Katrina M -- Zhang, Wei -- Brandt, Alexander J -- Rokhsar, Daniel S -- Levine, Michael S -- GM46638/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 16;350(6258):325-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac6948.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, Genomics and Development, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. msl2@princeton.edu ekfarley@princeton.edu. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, Genomics and Development, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0688, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, Genomics and Development, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472909" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Ciona intestinalis/genetics/*growth & development ; Consensus Sequence ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics/*physiology ; Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein/metabolism ; Fibroblast Growth Factors/*metabolism ; GATA Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Organ Specificity/genetics/physiology ; Otx Transcription Factors/*metabolism
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: Although it is generally accepted that cellular differentiation requires changes to transcriptional networks, dynamic regulation of promoters and enhancers at specific sets of genes has not been previously studied en masse. Exploiting the fact that active promoters and enhancers are transcribed, we simultaneously measured their activity in 19 human and 14 mouse time courses covering a wide range of cell types and biological stimuli. Enhancer RNAs, then messenger RNAs encoding transcription factors, dominated the earliest responses. Binding sites for key lineage transcription factors were simultaneously overrepresented in enhancers and promoters active in each cellular system. Our data support a highly generalizable model in which enhancer transcription is the earliest event in successive waves of transcriptional change during cellular differentiation or activation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681433/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681433/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arner, Erik -- Daub, Carsten O -- Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer -- Andersson, Robin -- Lilje, Berit -- Drablos, Finn -- Lennartsson, Andreas -- Ronnerblad, Michelle -- Hrydziuszko, Olga -- Vitezic, Morana -- Freeman, Tom C -- Alhendi, Ahmad M N -- Arner, Peter -- Axton, Richard -- Baillie, J Kenneth -- Beckhouse, Anthony -- Bodega, Beatrice -- Briggs, James -- Brombacher, Frank -- Davis, Margaret -- Detmar, Michael -- Ehrlund, Anna -- Endoh, Mitsuhiro -- Eslami, Afsaneh -- Fagiolini, Michela -- Fairbairn, Lynsey -- Faulkner, Geoffrey J -- Ferrai, Carmelo -- Fisher, Malcolm E -- Forrester, Lesley -- Goldowitz, Daniel -- Guler, Reto -- Ha, Thomas -- Hara, Mitsuko -- Herlyn, Meenhard -- Ikawa, Tomokatsu -- Kai, Chieko -- Kawamoto, Hiroshi -- Khachigian, Levon M -- Klinken, S Peter -- Kojima, Soichi -- Koseki, Haruhiko -- Klein, Sarah -- Mejhert, Niklas -- Miyaguchi, Ken -- Mizuno, Yosuke -- Morimoto, Mitsuru -- Morris, Kelly J -- Mummery, Christine -- Nakachi, Yutaka -- Ogishima, Soichi -- Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko -- Okazaki, Yasushi -- Orlando, Valerio -- Ovchinnikov, Dmitry -- Passier, Robert -- Patrikakis, Margaret -- Pombo, Ana -- Qin, Xian-Yang -- Roy, Sugata -- Sato, Hiroki -- Savvi, Suzana -- Saxena, Alka -- Schwegmann, Anita -- Sugiyama, Daisuke -- Swoboda, Rolf -- Tanaka, Hiroshi -- Tomoiu, Andru -- Winteringham, Louise N -- Wolvetang, Ernst -- Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo -- Yoneda, Misako -- Zabierowski, Susan -- Zhang, Peter -- Abugessaisa, Imad -- Bertin, Nicolas -- Diehl, Alexander D -- Fukuda, Shiro -- Furuno, Masaaki -- Harshbarger, Jayson -- Hasegawa, Akira -- Hori, Fumi -- Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi -- Ishizu, Yuri -- Itoh, Masayoshi -- Kawashima, Tsugumi -- Kojima, Miki -- Kondo, Naoto -- Lizio, Marina -- Meehan, Terrence F -- Mungall, Christopher J -- Murata, Mitsuyoshi -- Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi -- Sahin, Serkan -- Nagao-Sato, Sayaka -- Severin, Jessica -- de Hoon, Michiel J L -- Kawai, Jun -- Kasukawa, Takeya -- Lassmann, Timo -- Suzuki, Harukazu -- Kawaji, Hideya -- Summers, Kim M -- Wells, Christine -- FANTOM Consortium -- Hume, David A -- Forrest, Alistair R R -- Sandelin, Albin -- Carninci, Piero -- Hayashizaki, Yoshihide -- P30 CA010815/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 27;347(6225):1010-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1259418. Epub 2015 Feb 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25678556" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Cattle ; Cell Differentiation/*genetics ; Dogs ; *Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Mice ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-11-21
    Description: Eukaryotic cells coordinate growth with the availability of nutrients through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master growth regulator. Leucine is of particular importance and activates mTORC1 via the Rag guanosine triphosphatases and their regulators GATOR1 and GATOR2. Sestrin2 interacts with GATOR2 and is a leucine sensor. Here we present the 2.7 angstrom crystal structure of Sestrin2 in complex with leucine. Leucine binds through a single pocket that coordinates its charged functional groups and confers specificity for the hydrophobic side chain. A loop encloses leucine and forms a lid-latch mechanism required for binding. A structure-guided mutation in Sestrin2 that decreases its affinity for leucine leads to a concomitant increase in the leucine concentration required for mTORC1 activation in cells. These results provide a structural mechanism of amino acid sensing by the mTORC1 pathway.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698039/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698039/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Saxton, Robert A -- Knockenhauer, Kevin E -- Wolfson, Rachel L -- Chantranupong, Lynne -- Pacold, Michael E -- Wang, Tim -- Schwartz, Thomas U -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F30 CA189333/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA180271/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA189437/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR029205/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):53-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2087. Epub 2015 Nov 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. sabatini@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586190" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Leucine/*chemistry/metabolism ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Nuclear Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2015-10-31
    Description: Transcription factors (TFs) bind specific sequences in promoter-proximal and -distal DNA elements to regulate gene transcription. RNA is transcribed from both of these DNA elements, and some DNA binding TFs bind RNA. Hence, RNA transcribed from regulatory elements may contribute to stable TF occupancy at these sites. We show that the ubiquitously expressed TF Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) binds to both gene regulatory elements and their associated RNA species across the entire genome. Reduced transcription of regulatory elements diminishes YY1 occupancy, whereas artificial tethering of RNA enhances YY1 occupancy at these elements. We propose that RNA makes a modest but important contribution to the maintenance of certain TFs at gene regulatory elements and suggest that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that contributes to the stability of gene expression programs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720525/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720525/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sigova, Alla A -- Abraham, Brian J -- Ji, Xiong -- Molinie, Benoit -- Hannett, Nancy M -- Guo, Yang Eric -- Jangi, Mohini -- Giallourakis, Cosmas C -- Sharp, Phillip A -- Young, Richard A -- HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 20;350(6263):978-81. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3346. Epub 2015 Oct 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. young@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516199" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Cell Line ; Consensus Sequence ; DNA/metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; *Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Mice ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; RNA, Messenger/*metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic ; YY1 Transcription Factor/*metabolism
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-04-04
    Description: Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) synthesize mitochondrially encoded membrane proteins that are critical for mitochondrial function. Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 55S mitoribosome at 3.8 angstrom resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry. The structure of the 28S subunit in the complex was resolved at 3.6 angstrom resolution by focused alignment, which allowed building of a detailed atomic structure including all of its 15 mitoribosomal-specific proteins. The structure reveals the intersubunit contacts in the 55S mitoribosome, the molecular architecture of the mitoribosomal messenger RNA (mRNA) binding channel and its interaction with transfer RNAs, and provides insight into the highly specialized mechanism of mRNA recruitment to the 28S subunit. Furthermore, the structure contributes to a mechanistic understanding of aminoglycoside ototoxicity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Greber, Basil J -- Bieri, Philipp -- Leibundgut, Marc -- Leitner, Alexander -- Aebersold, Ruedi -- Boehringer, Daniel -- Ban, Nenad -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 17;348(6232):303-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3872. Epub 2015 Apr 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Auguste-Piccard-Hof 1, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Systems Biology, Auguste-Piccard-Hof 1, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. Faculty of Science, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biophysics, Otto-Stern-Weg 5, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ban@mol.biol.ethz.ch.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25837512" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aminoglycosides/chemistry ; Animals ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry ; Binding Sites ; GTP-Binding Proteins/chemistry ; Humans ; Mitochondria/*ultrastructure ; Mitochondrial Membranes/ultrastructure ; Mitochondrial Proteins/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Mutation ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; RNA, Messenger/chemistry ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/chemistry ; RNA, Transfer/chemistry ; Ribosomal Proteins/chemistry ; Ribosome Subunits, Large/chemistry/physiology/*ultrastructure ; Swine
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2014-03-08
    Description: The excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate induces modulatory actions via the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlus), which are class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We determined the structure of the human mGlu1 receptor seven-transmembrane (7TM) domain bound to a negative allosteric modulator, FITM, at a resolution of 2.8 angstroms. The modulator binding site partially overlaps with the orthosteric binding sites of class A GPCRs but is more restricted than most other GPCRs. We observed a parallel 7TM dimer mediated by cholesterols, which suggests that signaling initiated by glutamate's interaction with the extracellular domain might be mediated via 7TM interactions within the full-length receptor dimer. A combination of crystallography, structure-activity relationships, mutagenesis, and full-length dimer modeling provides insights about the allosteric modulation and activation mechanism of class C GPCRs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991565/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3991565/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, Huixian -- Wang, Chong -- Gregory, Karen J -- Han, Gye Won -- Cho, Hyekyung P -- Xia, Yan -- Niswender, Colleen M -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Meiler, Jens -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Conn, P Jeffrey -- Stevens, Raymond C -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK097376/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM080403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM099842/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH062646/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH090192/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS031373/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R21 NS078262/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS031373/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):58-64. doi: 10.1126/science.1249489. Epub 2014 Mar 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24603153" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation ; Allosteric Site ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Benzamides/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Cholesterol ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Humans ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Thiazoles/*chemistry/*metabolism
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2014-03-08
    Description: The yeast mitochondrial ABC transporter Atm1, in concert with glutathione, functions in the export of a substrate required for cytosolic-nuclear iron-sulfur protein biogenesis and cellular iron regulation. Defects in the human ortholog ABCB7 cause the sideroblastic anemia XLSA/A. Here, we report the crystal structures of free and glutathione-bound Atm1 in inward-facing, open conformations at 3.06- and 3.38-angstrom resolution, respectively. The glutathione binding site includes a residue mutated in XLSA/A and is located close to the inner membrane surface in a large cavity. The two nucleotide-free adenosine 5'-triphosphate binding domains do not interact yet are kept in close vicinity through tight interaction of the two C-terminal alpha-helices of the Atm1 dimer. The resulting protein stabilization may be a common structural feature of all ABC exporters.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Srinivasan, Vasundara -- Pierik, Antonio J -- Lill, Roland -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 7;343(6175):1137-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1246729.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut fur Zytobiologie, Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Robert-Koch-Strasse 6, 35032 Marburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24604199" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/*chemistry ; Adenosine Triphosphate/chemistry ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Glutathione/*chemistry ; Mitochondria/*metabolism ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Stability ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*chemistry
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: The field of optogenetics uses channelrhodopsins (ChRs) for light-induced neuronal activation. However, optimized tools for cellular inhibition at moderate light levels are lacking. We found that replacement of E90 in the central gate of ChR with positively charged residues produces chloride-conducting ChRs (ChloCs) with only negligible cation conductance. Molecular dynamics modeling unveiled that a high-affinity Cl(-)-binding site had been generated near the gate. Stabilizing the open state dramatically increased the operational light sensitivity of expressing cells (slow ChloC). In CA1 pyramidal cells, ChloCs completely inhibited action potentials triggered by depolarizing current injections or synaptic stimulation. Thus, by inverting the charge of the selectivity filter, we have created a class of directly light-gated anion channels that can be used to block neuronal output in a fully reversible fashion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wietek, Jonas -- Wiegert, J Simon -- Adeishvili, Nona -- Schneider, Franziska -- Watanabe, Hiroshi -- Tsunoda, Satoshi P -- Vogt, Arend -- Elstner, Marcus -- Oertner, Thomas G -- Hegemann, Peter -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 25;344(6182):409-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1249375. Epub 2014 Mar 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Biology, Experimental Biophysics, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin, D-10115 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24674867" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; CA1 Region, Hippocampal/cytology ; Chloride Channels/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Chlorides/*metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Ion Channel Gating ; Light ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Mutation ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Engineering ; Pyramidal Cells/metabolism ; Rats ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry ; Rhodopsin/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Transfection
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2014-03-22
    Description: The 18-kilodalton translocator protein TSPO is found in mitochondrial membranes and mediates the import of cholesterol and porphyrins into mitochondria. In line with the role of TSPO in mitochondrial function, TSPO ligands are used for a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications in animals and humans. We present the three-dimensional high-resolution structure of mammalian TSPO reconstituted in detergent micelles in complex with its high-affinity ligand PK11195. The TSPO-PK11195 structure is described by a tight bundle of five transmembrane alpha helices that form a hydrophobic pocket accepting PK11195. Ligand-induced stabilization of the structure of TSPO suggests a molecular mechanism for the stimulation of cholesterol transport into mitochondria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jaremko, Lukasz -- Jaremko, Mariusz -- Giller, Karin -- Becker, Stefan -- Zweckstetter, Markus -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 21;343(6177):1363-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1248725.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max-Planck-Institut fur Biophysikalische Chemie, 37077 Gottingen, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24653034" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Biological Transport ; Cholesterol/metabolism ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Isoquinolines/*chemistry/metabolism ; Ligands ; Mice ; Micelles ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Mitochondrial Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Receptors, GABA/*chemistry/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2014-10-18
    Description: Potassium channels selectively conduct K(+) ions across cellular membranes with extraordinary efficiency. Their selectivity filter exhibits four binding sites with approximately equal electron density in crystal structures with high K(+) concentrations, previously thought to reflect a superposition of alternating ion- and water-occupied states. Consequently, cotranslocation of ions with water has become a widely accepted ion conduction mechanism for potassium channels. By analyzing more than 1300 permeation events from molecular dynamics simulations at physiological voltages, we observed instead that permeation occurs via ion-ion contacts between neighboring K(+) ions. Coulomb repulsion between adjacent ions is found to be the key to high-efficiency K(+) conduction. Crystallographic data are consistent with directly neighboring K(+) ions in the selectivity filter, and our model offers an intuitive explanation for the high throughput rates of K(+) channels.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kopfer, David A -- Song, Chen -- Gruene, Tim -- Sheldrick, George M -- Zachariae, Ulrich -- de Groot, Bert L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 17;346(6207):352-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1254840.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biomolecular Dynamics Group, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. sc3210@gmail.com u.zachariae@dundee.ac.uk bgroot@gwdg.de. ; Department of Structural Chemistry, University of Gottingen, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; School of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN, UK. College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. sc3210@gmail.com u.zachariae@dundee.ac.uk bgroot@gwdg.de. ; Biomolecular Dynamics Group, Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. sc3210@gmail.com u.zachariae@dundee.ac.uk bgroot@gwdg.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25324389" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Potassium Channels/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; *Static Electricity ; Water
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2014-09-06
    Description: Coupled translocation of messenger RNA and transfer RNA (tRNA) through the ribosome, a process catalyzed by elongation factor EF-G, is a crucial step in protein synthesis. The crystal structure of a bacterial translocation complex describes the binding states of two tRNAs trapped in mid-translocation. The deacylated P-site tRNA has moved into a partly translocated pe/E chimeric hybrid state. The anticodon stem-loop of the A-site tRNA is captured in transition toward the 30S P site, while its 3' acceptor end contacts both the A and P loops of the 50S subunit, forming an ap/ap chimeric hybrid state. The structure shows how features of ribosomal RNA rearrange to hand off the A-site tRNA to the P site, revealing an active role for ribosomal RNA in the translocation process.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4242719/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4242719/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Jie -- Lancaster, Laura -- Donohue, John Paul -- Noller, Harry F -- GM-17129/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM59140/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM017129/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM059140/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM105404/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 5;345(6201):1188-91. doi: 10.1126/science.1255030.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Molecular Biology of RNA and Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. ; Center for Molecular Biology of RNA and Department of Molecular, Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA. harry@nuvolari.ucsc.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190797" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anticodon/chemistry/metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Catalysis ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Peptide Elongation Factor G/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Biosynthesis ; Protein Conformation ; RNA, Messenger/*chemistry/metabolism ; RNA, Transfer/*chemistry/metabolism ; Ribosome Subunits, Large, Bacterial/*chemistry/metabolism ; Thermus thermophilus
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2014-09-06
    Description: Lineage-specific stem cells are critical for the production and maintenance of specific cell types and tissues in multicellular organisms. In Arabidopsis, the initiation and proliferation of stomatal lineage cells is controlled by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). SPCH-driven asymmetric and self-renewing divisions allow flexibility in stomatal production and overall organ growth. How SPCH directs stomatal lineage cell behaviors, however, is unclear. Here, we improved the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and profiled the genome-wide targets of Arabidopsis SPCH in vivo. We found that SPCH controls key regulators of cell fate and asymmetric cell divisions and modulates responsiveness to peptide and phytohormone-mediated intercellular communication. Our results delineate the molecular pathways that regulate an essential adult stem cell lineage in plants.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4390554/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4390554/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lau, On Sun -- Davies, Kelli A -- Chang, Jessica -- Adrian, Jessika -- Rowe, Matthew H -- Ballenger, Catherine E -- Bergmann, Dominique C -- 1R01GM086632/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- 5T32GM007276/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM086632/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007276/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 26;345(6204):1605-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1256888. Epub 2014 Sep 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. dbergmann@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25190717" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology ; Arabidopsis/*cytology/genetics/metabolism ; Arabidopsis Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Cell Communication/drug effects/genetics ; Cell Differentiation/drug effects/*genetics ; Cell Division/drug effects/genetics ; Cell Lineage/drug effects/genetics ; Chromatin Immunoprecipitation ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genome, Plant/genetics ; Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology/physiology ; Plant Stomata/*cytology/genetics/metabolism ; Transcriptome
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: Human mitochondrial ribosomes are highly divergent from all other known ribosomes and are specialized to exclusively translate membrane proteins. They are linked with hereditary mitochondrial diseases and are often the unintended targets of various clinically useful antibiotics. Using single-particle cryogenic electron microscopy, we have determined the structure of its large subunit to 3.4 angstrom resolution, revealing 48 proteins, 21 of which are specific to mitochondria. The structure unveils an adaptation of the exit tunnel for hydrophobic nascent peptides, extensive remodeling of the central protuberance, including recruitment of mitochondrial valine transfer RNA (tRNA(Val)) to play an integral structural role, and changes in the tRNA binding sites related to the unusual characteristics of mitochondrial tRNAs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246062/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4246062/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brown, Alan -- Amunts, Alexey -- Bai, Xiao-chen -- Sugimoto, Yoichiro -- Edwards, Patricia C -- Murshudov, Garib -- Scheres, Sjors H W -- Ramakrishnan, V -- 096570/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- MC_U105184332/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_A025_1012/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_UP_A025_1013/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- WT096570/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 7;346(6210):718-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1258026. Epub 2014 Oct 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; Medical Research Council, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ramak@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25278503" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Humans ; Mitochondria/genetics/*metabolism ; Mitochondrial Proteins/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Mutation ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Conformation ; RNA, Transfer, Val/analysis/*chemistry ; Ribosome Subunits/*chemistry/genetics/*ultrastructure
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2014-03-08
    Description: Although substantial progress has been achieved in the structural analysis of exporters from the superfamily of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, much less is known about how they selectively recognize substrates and how substrate binding is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. We have addressed these questions through crystallographic analysis of the Atm1/ABCB7/HMT1/ABCB6 ortholog from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444, NaAtm1, at 2.4 angstrom resolution. Consistent with a physiological role in cellular detoxification processes, functional studies showed that glutathione derivatives can serve as substrates for NaAtm1 and that its overexpression in Escherichia coli confers protection against silver and mercury toxicity. The glutathione binding site highlights the articulated design of ABC exporters, with ligands and nucleotides spanning structurally conserved elements to create adaptable interfaces accommodating conformational rearrangements during the transport cycle.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151877/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151877/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Jonas Y -- Yang, Janet G -- Zhitnitsky, Daniel -- Lewinson, Oded -- Rees, Douglas C -- GM45162/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM045162/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM045162/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 7;343(6175):1133-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1246489.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Mail Code 114-96, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24604198" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Glutathione/chemistry ; Inactivation, Metabolic ; Metals, Heavy/*metabolism/*toxicity ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Sphingomonadaceae/*metabolism ; Substrate Specificity
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2014-05-09
    Description: Molecular chaperones prevent aggregation and misfolding of proteins, but scarcity of structural data has impeded an understanding of the recognition and antiaggregation mechanisms. We report the solution structure, dynamics, and energetics of three trigger factor (TF) chaperone molecules in complex with alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) captured in the unfolded state. Our data show that TF uses multiple sites to bind to several regions of the PhoA substrate protein primarily through hydrophobic contacts. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation experiments show that TF interacts with PhoA in a highly dynamic fashion, but as the number and length of the PhoA regions engaged by TF increase, a more stable complex gradually emerges. Multivalent binding keeps the substrate protein in an extended, unfolded conformation. The results show how molecular chaperones recognize unfolded polypeptides and, by acting as unfoldases and holdases, prevent the aggregation and premature (mis)folding of unfolded proteins.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070327/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4070327/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Saio, Tomohide -- Guan, Xiao -- Rossi, Paolo -- Economou, Anastassios -- Kalodimos, Charalampos G -- GM073854/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM073854/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 9;344(6184):1250494. doi: 10.1126/science.1250494.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Integrative Proteomics Research and Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24812405" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alkaline Phosphatase/*chemistry ; Binding Sites ; Escherichia coli Proteins/*chemistry ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Intrinsically Disordered Proteins/*chemistry ; Molecular Chaperones/*chemistry ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Peptides/chemistry ; Peptidylprolyl Isomerase/*chemistry ; Protein Binding ; *Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-05-31
    Description: N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors belong to the family of ionotropic glutamate receptors, which mediate most excitatory synaptic transmission in mammalian brains. Calcium permeation triggered by activation of NMDA receptors is the pivotal event for initiation of neuronal plasticity. Here, we show the crystal structure of the intact heterotetrameric GluN1-GluN2B NMDA receptor ion channel at 4 angstroms. The NMDA receptors are arranged as a dimer of GluN1-GluN2B heterodimers with the twofold symmetry axis running through the entire molecule composed of an amino terminal domain (ATD), a ligand-binding domain (LBD), and a transmembrane domain (TMD). The ATD and LBD are much more highly packed in the NMDA receptors than non-NMDA receptors, which may explain why ATD regulates ion channel activity in NMDA receptors but not in non-NMDA receptors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4113085/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4113085/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Karakas, Erkan -- Furukawa, Hiro -- MH085926/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM105730/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH085926/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):992-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1251915.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, W. M. Keck Structural Biology Laboratory, One Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA. ; Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, W. M. Keck Structural Biology Laboratory, One Bungtown Road, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA. furukawa@cshl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876489" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Calcium/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Rats ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/*chemistry/metabolism
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2014-11-15
    Description: In certain human cancers, the expression of critical oncogenes is driven from large regulatory elements, called super-enhancers, that recruit much of the cell's transcriptional apparatus and are defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac). In a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, we found that heterozygous somatic mutations are acquired that introduce binding motifs for the MYB transcription factor in a precise noncoding site, which creates a super-enhancer upstream of the TAL1 oncogene. MYB binds to this new site and recruits its H3K27 acetylase-binding partner CBP, as well as core components of a major leukemogenic transcriptional complex that contains RUNX1, GATA-3, and TAL1 itself. Additionally, most endogenous super-enhancers found in T-ALL cells are occupied by MYB and CBP, which suggests a general role for MYB in super-enhancer initiation. Thus, this study identifies a genetic mechanism responsible for the generation of oncogenic super-enhancers in malignant cells.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720521/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720521/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mansour, Marc R -- Abraham, Brian J -- Anders, Lars -- Berezovskaya, Alla -- Gutierrez, Alejandro -- Durbin, Adam D -- Etchin, Julia -- Lawton, Lee -- Sallan, Stephen E -- Silverman, Lewis B -- Loh, Mignon L -- Hunger, Stephen P -- Sanda, Takaomi -- Young, Richard A -- Look, A Thomas -- 1R01CA176746-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5P01CA109901-08/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- 5P01CA68484/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA114766/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA120215/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA167124/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA29139/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA30969/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA98413/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA98543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA109901/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA014051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1373-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1259037. Epub 2014 Nov 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Haematology, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Pediatrics, Benioff Children's Hospital, University of California San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/BMT, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. ; Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, and Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, 117599, Singapore. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. thomas_look@dfci.harvard.edu young@wi.mit.edu. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Boston Children's Hospital, MA 02115, USA. thomas_look@dfci.harvard.edu young@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394790" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Base Sequence ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/*genetics ; Binding Sites ; Cell Line, Tumor ; *DNA, Intergenic ; *Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Histones/metabolism ; Humans ; *INDEL Mutation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Mutation ; Oncogenes ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/*genetics ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*genetics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb/metabolism
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2014-05-31
    Description: Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinases (PI4Ks) and small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) are essential for processes that require expansion and remodeling of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P)-containing membranes, including cytokinesis, intracellular development of malarial pathogens, and replication of a wide range of RNA viruses. However, the structural basis for coordination of PI4K, GTPases, and their effectors is unknown. Here, we describe structures of PI4Kbeta (PI4KIIIbeta) bound to the small GTPase Rab11a without and with the Rab11 effector protein FIP3. The Rab11-PI4KIIIbeta interface is distinct compared with known structures of Rab complexes and does not involve switch regions used by GTPase effectors. Our data provide a mechanism for how PI4KIIIbeta coordinates Rab11 and its effectors on PI4P-enriched membranes and also provide strategies for the design of specific inhibitors that could potentially target plasmodial PI4KIIIbeta to combat malaria.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4046302/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4046302/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Burke, John E -- Inglis, Alison J -- Perisic, Olga -- Masson, Glenn R -- McLaughlin, Stephen H -- Rutaganira, Florentine -- Shokat, Kevan M -- Williams, Roger L -- MC_U105184308/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- PG/11/109/29247/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- PG11/109/29247/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- R01AI099245/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM064337/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):1035-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1253397.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. jeburke@uvic.ca rlw@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk. ; Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24876499" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antimalarials/chemistry/pharmacology ; Binding Sites ; Cell Line ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Design ; Humans ; I-kappa B Kinase/*chemistry ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/*chemistry/genetics ; Plasmodium/drug effects/growth & development ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; rab GTP-Binding Proteins/*chemistry
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2013-05-25
    Description: Ca(2+)/cation antiporters catalyze the exchange of Ca(2+) with various cations across biological membranes to regulate cytosolic calcium levels. The recently reported structure of a prokaryotic Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX_Mj) revealed its overall architecture in an outward-facing state. Here, we report the crystal structure of a H(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (CAX_Af) in the two representatives of the inward-facing conformation at 2.3 A resolution. The structures suggested Ca(2+) or H(+) binds to the cation-binding site mutually exclusively. Structural comparison of CAX_Af with NCX_Mj revealed that the first and sixth transmembrane helices alternately create hydrophilic cavities on the intra- and extracellular sides. The structures and functional analyses provide insight into the mechanism of how the inward- to outward-facing state transition is triggered by the Ca(2+) and H(+) binding.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nishizawa, Tomohiro -- Kita, Satomi -- Maturana, Andres D -- Furuya, Noritaka -- Hirata, Kunio -- Kasuya, Go -- Ogasawara, Satoshi -- Dohmae, Naoshi -- Iwamoto, Takahiro -- Ishitani, Ryuichiro -- Nureki, Osamu -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 12;341(6142):168-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1239002. Epub 2013 May 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23704374" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antiporters/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Archaeal Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Archaeoglobus fulgidus/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Calcium/chemistry/metabolism ; Cation Transport Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Hydrogen/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2013-11-02
    Description: The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer contains the receptor binding sites and membrane fusion machinery that introduce the viral genome into the host cell. As the only target for broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs), Env is a focus for rational vaccine design. We present a cryo-electron microscopy reconstruction and structural model of a cleaved, soluble Env trimer (termed BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140) in complex with a CD4 binding site (CD4bs) bnAb, PGV04, at 5.8 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals the spatial arrangement of Env components, including the V1/V2, V3, HR1, and HR2 domains, as well as shielding glycans. The structure also provides insights into trimer assembly, gp120-gp41 interactions, and the CD4bs epitope cluster for bnAbs, which covers a more extensive area and defines a more complex site of vulnerability than previously described.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954647/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954647/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lyumkis, Dmitry -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- de Val, Natalia -- Cupo, Albert -- Potter, Clinton S -- Klasse, Per-Johan -- Burton, Dennis R -- Sanders, Rogier W -- Moore, John P -- Carragher, Bridget -- Wilson, Ian A -- Ward, Andrew B -- GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI082362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI82362/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI36082/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI036082/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 20;342(6165):1484-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1245627. Epub 2013 Oct 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24179160" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/chemistry/immunology ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry ; Antibodies, Viral/chemistry ; Antigens, CD4/*chemistry/immunology ; Binding Sites ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Glycosylation ; Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry/immunology ; *Models, Molecular ; Polysaccharides/chemistry ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Quaternary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/*chemistry/immunology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2013-10-19
    Description: The majority of disease-associated variants lie outside protein-coding regions, suggesting a link between variation in regulatory regions and disease predisposition. We studied differences in chromatin states using five histone modifications, cohesin, and CTCF in lymphoblastoid lines from 19 individuals of diverse ancestry. We found extensive signal variation in regulatory regions, which often switch between active and repressed states across individuals. Enhancer activity is particularly diverse among individuals, whereas gene expression remains relatively stable. Chromatin variability shows genetic inheritance in trios, correlates with genetic variation and population divergence, and is associated with disruptions of transcription factor binding motifs. Overall, our results provide insights into chromatin variation among humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075767/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075767/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kasowski, Maya -- Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia -- Grubert, Fabian -- Zaugg, Judith B -- Kundaje, Anshul -- Liu, Yuling -- Boyle, Alan P -- Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff -- Zakharia, Fouad -- Spacek, Damek V -- Li, Jingjing -- Xie, Dan -- Olarerin-George, Anthony -- Steinmetz, Lars M -- Hogenesch, John B -- Kellis, Manolis -- Batzoglou, Serafim -- Snyder, Michael -- R01 HG004037/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 HG000044/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32GM07205/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL107393/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 8;342(6159):750-2. doi: 10.1126/science.1242510. Epub 2013 Oct 17.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24136358" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromatin/*genetics/*metabolism ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Genetic Variation ; Histones/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-07-28
    Description: A systematic, efficient means of producing diverse libraries of asymmetrically branched N-glycans is needed to investigate the specificities and biology of glycan-binding proteins. To that end, we describe a core pentasaccharide that at potential branching positions is modified by orthogonal protecting groups to allow selective attachment of specific saccharide moieties by chemical glycosylation. The appendages were selected so that the antenna of the resulting deprotected compounds could be selectively extended by glycosyltransferases to give libraries of asymmetrical multi-antennary glycans. The power of the methodology was demonstrated by the preparation of a series of complex oligosaccharides that were printed as microarrays and screened for binding to lectins and influenza-virus hemagglutinins, which showed that recognition is modulated by presentation of minimal epitopes in the context of complex N-glycans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3826785/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3826785/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Zhen -- Chinoy, Zoeisha S -- Ambre, Shailesh G -- Peng, Wenjie -- McBride, Ryan -- de Vries, Robert P -- Glushka, John -- Paulson, James C -- Boons, Geert-Jan -- AI058113/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI058113/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41 RR005351/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103390/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR005351/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090269/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM090269/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jul 26;341(6144):379-83. doi: 10.1126/science.1236231.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, 315 Riverbend Road, Athens, GA 30602, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23888036" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Carbohydrate Conformation ; Carbohydrate Sequence ; Epitopes ; Glycosylation ; Glycosyltransferases/*metabolism ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry/*metabolism ; Lectins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Mass Spectrometry ; Microarray Analysis ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Oligosaccharides/biosynthesis/*chemical synthesis/*chemistry/metabolism ; Plant Lectins/chemistry/metabolism ; Ribosome Inactivating Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-02-16
    Description: Allostery is well documented for proteins but less recognized for DNA-protein interactions. Here, we report that specific binding of a protein on DNA is substantially stabilized or destabilized by another protein bound nearby. The ternary complex's free energy oscillates as a function of the separation between the two proteins with a periodicity of ~10 base pairs, the helical pitch of B-form DNA, and a decay length of ~15 base pairs. The binding affinity of a protein near a DNA hairpin is similarly dependent on their separation, which-together with molecular dynamics simulations-suggests that deformation of the double-helical structure is the origin of DNA allostery. The physiological relevance of this phenomenon is illustrated by its effect on gene expression in live bacteria and on a transcription factor's affinity near nucleosomes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586787/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586787/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Sangjin -- Brostromer, Erik -- Xing, Dong -- Jin, Jianshi -- Chong, Shasha -- Ge, Hao -- Wang, Siyuan -- Gu, Chan -- Yang, Lijiang -- Gao, Yi Qin -- Su, Xiao-dong -- Sun, Yujie -- Xie, X Sunney -- DP1 OD000277/OD/NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 15;339(6121):816-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1229223.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23413354" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Allosteric Regulation ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; DNA, B-Form/*chemistry ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*chemistry ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/chemistry ; Escherichia coli/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Lac Repressors/chemistry ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Nucleosomes/chemistry ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Receptors, Glucocorticoid/chemistry ; Transcription Factors/*chemistry ; Viral Proteins/chemistry
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-01-26
    Description: Cutaneous melanoma occurs in both familial and sporadic forms. We investigated a melanoma-prone family through linkage analysis and high-throughput sequencing and identified a disease-segregating germline mutation in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase. The mutation creates a new binding motif for Ets transcription factors and ternary complex factors (TCFs) near the transcription start and, in reporter gene assays, caused up to twofold increase in transcription. We then screened the TERT promoter in sporadic melanoma and observed recurrent ultraviolet signature somatic mutations in 125 of 168 (74%) of human cell lines derived from metastatic melanomas, 45 of 53 corresponding metastatic tumor tissues (85%), and 25 of 77 (33%) primary melanomas. The majority of those mutations occurred at two positions in the TERT promoter and also generated binding motifs for Ets/TCF transcription factors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Horn, Susanne -- Figl, Adina -- Rachakonda, P Sivaramakrishna -- Fischer, Christine -- Sucker, Antje -- Gast, Andreas -- Kadel, Stephanie -- Moll, Iris -- Nagore, Eduardo -- Hemminki, Kari -- Schadendorf, Dirk -- Kumar, Rajiv -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 22;339(6122):959-61. doi: 10.1126/science.1230062. Epub 2013 Jan 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Molecular Genetic Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23348503" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Female ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Germ-Line Mutation ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Male ; Melanoma/*genetics/secondary ; Pedigree ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Skin Neoplasms/*genetics/pathology ; Telomerase/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Transcription Initiation Site ; Transcription, Genetic ; ets-Domain Protein Elk-1/metabolism ; ets-Domain Protein Elk-4/metabolism
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-03-23
    Description: Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) regulates a wide spectrum of human physiology through the 5-HT receptor family. We report the crystal structures of the human 5-HT1B G protein-coupled receptor bound to the agonist antimigraine medications ergotamine and dihydroergotamine. The structures reveal similar binding modes for these ligands, which occupy the orthosteric pocket and an extended binding pocket close to the extracellular loops. The orthosteric pocket is formed by residues conserved in the 5-HT receptor family, clarifying the family-wide agonist activity of 5-HT. Compared with the structure of the 5-HT2B receptor, the 5-HT1B receptor displays a 3 angstrom outward shift at the extracellular end of helix V, resulting in a more open extended pocket that explains subtype selectivity. Together with docking and mutagenesis studies, these structures provide a comprehensive structural basis for understanding receptor-ligand interactions and designing subtype-selective serotonergic drugs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3644373/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3644373/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Chong -- Jiang, Yi -- Ma, Jinming -- Wu, Huixian -- Wacker, Daniel -- Katritch, Vsevolod -- Han, Gye Won -- Liu, Wei -- Huang, Xi-Ping -- Vardy, Eyal -- McCorvy, John D -- Gao, Xiang -- Zhou, X Edward -- Melcher, Karsten -- Zhang, Chenghai -- Bai, Fang -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Yang, Linlin -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Roth, Bryan L -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Xu, H Eric -- P50 GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA027170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DA27170/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK071662/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061887/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH61887/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19 MH082441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U19 MH82441/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 3;340(6132):610-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1232807. Epub 2013 Mar 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23519210" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dihydroergotamine/chemistry/*metabolism ; Ergotamine/chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Ligands ; Lysergic Acid Diethylamide/chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Docking Simulation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis ; Norfenfluramine/chemistry/metabolism ; Pindolol/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; Propranolol/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1B/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Tryptamines/chemistry/metabolism
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-11-30
    Description: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a Hepacivirus, is a major cause of viral hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 mediate fusion and entry into host cells and are the primary targets of the humoral immune response. The crystal structure of the E2 core bound to broadly neutralizing antibody AR3C at 2.65 angstroms reveals a compact architecture composed of a central immunoglobulin-fold beta sandwich flanked by two additional protein layers. The CD81 receptor binding site was identified by electron microscopy and site-directed mutagenesis and overlaps with the AR3C epitope. The x-ray and electron microscopy E2 structures differ markedly from predictions of an extended, three-domain, class II fusion protein fold and therefore provide valuable information for HCV drug and vaccine design.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954638/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954638/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kong, Leopold -- Giang, Erick -- Nieusma, Travis -- Kadam, Rameshwar U -- Cogburn, Kristin E -- Hua, Yuanzi -- Dai, Xiaoping -- Stanfield, Robyn L -- Burton, Dennis R -- Ward, Andrew B -- Wilson, Ian A -- Law, Mansun -- AI071084/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI079031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI080916/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI071084/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI079031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI080916/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- RR017573/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094586/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Nov 29;342(6162):1090-4. doi: 10.1126/science.1243876.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24288331" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry ; Antigens, CD81/chemistry ; Antiviral Agents/chemistry ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Design ; Epitopes/chemistry/genetics ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry ; Mutagenesis, Site-Directed ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Viral Envelope Proteins/*chemistry/immunology ; Viral Hepatitis Vaccines/chemistry/immunology
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-01-05
    Description: Microtubule-stabilizing agents (MSAs) are efficacious chemotherapeutic drugs widely used for the treatment of cancer. Despite the importance of MSAs for medical applications and basic research, their molecular mechanisms of action on tubulin and microtubules remain elusive. We determined high-resolution crystal structures of alphabeta-tubulin in complex with two unrelated MSAs, zampanolide and epothilone A. Both compounds were bound to the taxane pocket of beta-tubulin and used their respective side chains to induce structuring of the M-loop into a short helix. Because the M-loop establishes lateral tubulin contacts in microtubules, these findings explain how taxane-site MSAs promote microtubule assembly and stability. Further, our results offer fundamental structural insights into the control mechanisms of microtubule dynamics.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Prota, Andrea E -- Bargsten, Katja -- Zurwerra, Didier -- Field, Jessica J -- Diaz, Jose Fernando -- Altmann, Karl-Heinz -- Steinmetz, Michel O -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Feb 1;339(6119):587-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1230582. Epub 2013 Jan 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Biomolecular Research, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23287720" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Binding Sites ; Bridged Compounds/chemistry/pharmacology ; Cattle ; Chickens ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Epothilones/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Macrolides/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Microtubules/*drug effects ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Taxoids/chemistry/pharmacology ; Tubulin/*chemistry ; Tubulin Modulators/*chemistry/pharmacology
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-09-14
    Description: The CCR5 chemokine receptor acts as a co-receptor for HIV-1 viral entry. Here we report the 2.7 angstrom-resolution crystal structure of human CCR5 bound to the marketed HIV drug maraviroc. The structure reveals a ligand-binding site that is distinct from the proposed major recognition sites for chemokines and the viral glycoprotein gp120, providing insights into the mechanism of allosteric inhibition of chemokine signaling and viral entry. A comparison between CCR5 and CXCR4 crystal structures, along with models of co-receptor-gp120-V3 complexes, suggests that different charge distributions and steric hindrances caused by residue substitutions may be major determinants of HIV-1 co-receptor selectivity. These high-resolution insights into CCR5 can enable structure-based drug discovery for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819204/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3819204/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tan, Qiuxiang -- Zhu, Ya -- Li, Jian -- Chen, Zhuxi -- Han, Gye Won -- Kufareva, Irina -- Li, Tingting -- Ma, Limin -- Fenalti, Gustavo -- Li, Jing -- Zhang, Wenru -- Xie, Xin -- Yang, Huaiyu -- Jiang, Hualiang -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Liu, Hong -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Zhao, Qiang -- Wu, Beili -- R01 AI100604/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM071872/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM094612/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Sep 20;341(6152):1387-90. doi: 10.1126/science.1241475. Epub 2013 Sep 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CAS Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 555 Zuchongzhi Road, Pudong, Shanghai, China 201203.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24030490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Binding Sites ; Cyclohexanes/*chemistry/pharmacology ; HIV Envelope Protein gp120/metabolism ; HIV Fusion Inhibitors/*chemistry/pharmacology ; HIV-1/*drug effects/physiology ; Humans ; Ligands ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, CCR5/*chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR4/chemistry ; Triazoles/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Virus Internalization/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-06-01
    Description: Chromosome segregation during mitosis requires assembly of the kinetochore complex at the centromere. Kinetochore assembly depends on specific recognition of the histone variant CENP-A in the centromeric nucleosome by centromere protein C (CENP-C). We have defined the determinants of this recognition mechanism and discovered that CENP-C binds a hydrophobic region in the CENP-A tail and docks onto the acidic patch of histone H2A and H2B. We further found that the more broadly conserved CENP-C motif uses the same mechanism for CENP-A nucleosome recognition. Our findings reveal a conserved mechanism for protein recruitment to centromeres and a histone recognition mode whereby a disordered peptide binds the histone tail through hydrophobic interactions facilitated by nucleosome docking.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3763809/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3763809/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kato, Hidenori -- Jiang, Jiansheng -- Zhou, Bing-Rui -- Rozendaal, Marieke -- Feng, Hanqiao -- Ghirlando, Rodolfo -- Xiao, T Sam -- Straight, Aaron F -- Bai, Yawen -- R01 GM074728/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- ZIA AI000960-07/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 May 31;340(6136):1110-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1235532.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23723239" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Autoantigens/metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Centromere/*metabolism ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/genetics/*metabolism ; Conserved Sequence ; Drosophila ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleosomes/*metabolism ; Protein Structure, Secondary
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-12-07
    Description: The 2013 outbreak of avian-origin H7N9 influenza in eastern China has raised concerns about its ability to transmit in the human population. The hemagglutinin glycoprotein of most human H7N9 viruses carries Leu(226), a residue linked to adaptation of H2N2 and H3N2 pandemic viruses to human receptors. However, glycan array analysis of the H7 hemagglutinin reveals negligible binding to humanlike alpha2-6-linked receptors and strong preference for a subset of avian-like alpha2-3-linked glycans recognized by all avian H7 viruses. Crystal structures of H7N9 hemagglutinin and six hemagglutinin-glycan complexes have elucidated the structural basis for preferential recognition of avian-like receptors. These findings suggest that the current human H7N9 viruses are poorly adapted for efficient human-to-human transmission.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954636/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954636/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Xu, Rui -- de Vries, Robert P -- Zhu, Xueyong -- Nycholat, Corwin M -- McBride, Ryan -- Yu, Wenli -- Paulson, James C -- Wilson, Ian A -- GM62116/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41RR001209/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI099275/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Dec 6;342(6163):1230-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1243761.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24311689" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Birds ; Carbohydrate Conformation ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/*metabolism/*pathogenicity ; Influenza in Birds/transmission/virology ; Influenza, Human/transmission/virology ; Ligands ; Microarray Analysis ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Polysaccharides/chemistry/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/chemistry/*metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-05-04
    Description: Recent studies have identified several mutations in the hemagglutinin (HA) protein that allow the highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A virus to transmit between mammals by airborne route. Here, we determined the complex structures of wild-type and mutant HAs derived from an Indonesia H5N1 virus bound to either avian or human receptor sialic acid analogs. A cis/trans conformational change in the glycosidic linkage of the receptor analog was observed, which explains how the H5N1 virus alters its receptor-binding preference. Furthermore, the mutant HA possessed low affinities for both avian and human receptors. Our findings provide a structural and biophysical basis for the H5N1 adaptation to acquire human, but maintain avian, receptor-binding properties.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Wei -- Shi, Yi -- Lu, Xishan -- Shu, Yuelong -- Qi, Jianxun -- Gao, George F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1463-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1236787. Epub 2013 May 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23641058" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Birds ; Carbohydrate Conformation ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype ; Models, Molecular ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Mutation ; Oligosaccharides/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Stability ; Receptors, Cell Surface/chemistry/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/chemistry/*metabolism ;