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  • Base Sequence  (2,121)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (2,121)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (2,121)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
  • Nature Publishing Group (NPG)  (207)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: To explore the distinct genotypic and phenotypic states of melanoma tumors, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to 4645 single cells isolated from 19 patients, profiling malignant, immune, stromal, and endothelial cells. Malignant cells within the same tumor displayed transcriptional heterogeneity associated with the cell cycle, spatial context, and a drug-resistance program. In particular, all tumors harbored malignant cells from two distinct transcriptional cell states, such that tumors characterized by high levels of the MITF transcription factor also contained cells with low MITF and elevated levels of the AXL kinase. Single-cell analyses suggested distinct tumor microenvironmental patterns, including cell-to-cell interactions. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating T cells revealed exhaustion programs, their connection to T cell activation and clonal expansion, and their variability across patients. Overall, we begin to unravel the cellular ecosystem of tumors and how single-cell genomics offers insights with implications for both targeted and immune therapies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tirosh, Itay -- Izar, Benjamin -- Prakadan, Sanjay M -- Wadsworth, Marc H 2nd -- Treacy, Daniel -- Trombetta, John J -- Rotem, Asaf -- Rodman, Christopher -- Lian, Christine -- Murphy, George -- Fallahi-Sichani, Mohammad -- Dutton-Regester, Ken -- Lin, Jia-Ren -- Cohen, Ofir -- Shah, Parin -- Lu, Diana -- Genshaft, Alex S -- Hughes, Travis K -- Ziegler, Carly G K -- Kazer, Samuel W -- Gaillard, Aleth -- Kolb, Kellie E -- Villani, Alexandra-Chloe -- Johannessen, Cory M -- Andreev, Aleksandr Y -- Van Allen, Eliezer M -- Bertagnolli, Monica -- Sorger, Peter K -- Sullivan, Ryan J -- Flaherty, Keith T -- Frederick, Dennie T -- Jane-Valbuena, Judit -- Yoon, Charles H -- Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit -- Shalek, Alex K -- Regev, Aviv -- Garraway, Levi A -- 1U24CA180922/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DP2 OD020839/OD/NIH HHS/ -- K99 CA194163/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K99CA194163/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01CA163222/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30-CA14051/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50GM107618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R35CA197737/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54CA112962/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 8;352(6282):189-96. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0501.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. bizar@partners.org aregev@broadinstitute.org levi_garraway@dfci.harvard.edu. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Department of Chemistry, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Center for Cancer Precision Medicine, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Program in Therapeutic Sciences, Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. ; HMS LINCS Center and Laboratory of Systems Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Surgical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Surgical Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Program in Therapeutic Sciences, Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. HMS LINCS Center and Laboratory of Systems Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Ludwig Center at Harvard, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Division of Medical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Department of Chemistry, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Immunology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology and Koch Institute, MIT, Boston, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD 20815, USA. bizar@partners.org aregev@broadinstitute.org levi_garraway@dfci.harvard.edu. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. bizar@partners.org aregev@broadinstitute.org levi_garraway@dfci.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27124452" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Cell Communication ; Cell Cycle ; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/genetics ; Endothelial Cells/pathology ; Genomics ; Humans ; Immunotherapy ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Melanoma/*genetics/*secondary/therapy ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Neoplasm Metastasis ; RNA/genetics ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Skin Neoplasms/*pathology ; Stromal Cells/pathology ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology/pathology ; Transcriptome ; *Tumor Microenvironment
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: Computation can be performed in living cells by DNA-encoded circuits that process sensory information and control biological functions. Their construction is time-intensive, requiring manual part assembly and balancing of regulator expression. We describe a design environment, Cello, in which a user writes Verilog code that is automatically transformed into a DNA sequence. Algorithms build a circuit diagram, assign and connect gates, and simulate performance. Reliable circuit design requires the insulation of gates from genetic context, so that they function identically when used in different circuits. We used Cello to design 60 circuits forEscherichia coli(880,000 base pairs of DNA), for which each DNA sequence was built as predicted by the software with no additional tuning. Of these, 45 circuits performed correctly in every output state (up to 10 regulators and 55 parts), and across all circuits 92% of the output states functioned as predicted. Design automation simplifies the incorporation of genetic circuits into biotechnology projects that require decision-making, control, sensing, or spatial organization.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nielsen, Alec A K -- Der, Bryan S -- Shin, Jonghyeon -- Vaidyanathan, Prashant -- Paralanov, Vanya -- Strychalski, Elizabeth A -- Ross, David -- Densmore, Douglas -- Voigt, Christopher A -- P50 GM098792/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):aac7341. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7341.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Biological Design Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Biological Design Center, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20817, USA. ; Synthetic Biology Center, Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. cavoigt@gmail.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algorithms ; Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; *Biotechnology ; DNA/*genetics ; Escherichia coli/*genetics ; *Gene Regulatory Networks ; Programming Languages ; Software ; Synthetic Biology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Sequencing of exomes and genomes has revealed abundant genetic variation affecting the coding sequences of human transcription factors (TFs), but the consequences of such variation remain largely unexplored. We developed a computational, structure-based approach to evaluate TF variants for their impact on DNA binding activity and used universal protein-binding microarrays to assay sequence-specific DNA binding activity across 41 reference and 117 variant alleles found in individuals of diverse ancestries and families with Mendelian diseases. We found 77 variants in 28 genes that affect DNA binding affinity or specificity and identified thousands of rare alleles likely to alter the DNA binding activity of human sequence-specific TFs. Our results suggest that most individuals have unique repertoires of TF DNA binding activities, which may contribute to phenotypic variation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825693/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4825693/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barrera, Luis A -- Vedenko, Anastasia -- Kurland, Jesse V -- Rogers, Julia M -- Gisselbrecht, Stephen S -- Rossin, Elizabeth J -- Woodard, Jaie -- Mariani, Luca -- Kock, Kian Hong -- Inukai, Sachi -- Siggers, Trevor -- Shokri, Leila -- Gordan, Raluca -- Sahni, Nidhi -- Cotsapas, Chris -- Hao, Tong -- Yi, Song -- Kellis, Manolis -- Daly, Mark J -- Vidal, Marc -- Hill, David E -- Bulyk, Martha L -- P50 HG004233/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG003985/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1450-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2257. Epub 2016 Mar 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Center for Cancer Systems Biology (CCSB), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Cancer Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Center for Human Genetics Research and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Committee on Higher Degrees in Biophysics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Program in Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Center for Cancer Systems Biology (CCSB), Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013732" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Computer Simulation ; DNA/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Exome/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Genetic Diseases, Inborn/*genetics ; Genetic Variation ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Mutation ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Protein Array Analysis ; Protein Binding ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/metabolism
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: Recent studies have implicated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as regulators of many important biological processes. Here we report on the identification and characterization of a lncRNA, lnc13, that harbors a celiac disease-associated haplotype block and represses expression of certain inflammatory genes under homeostatic conditions. Lnc13 regulates gene expression by binding to hnRNPD, a member of a family of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). Upon stimulation, lnc13 levels are reduced, thereby allowing increased expression of the repressed genes. Lnc13 levels are significantly decreased in small intestinal biopsy samples from patients with celiac disease, which suggests that down-regulation of lnc13 may contribute to the inflammation seen in this disease. Furthermore, the lnc13 disease-associated variant binds hnRNPD less efficiently than its wild-type counterpart, thus helping to explain how these single-nucleotide polymorphisms contribute to celiac disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara -- Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora -- Kratchmarov, Radomir -- Luo, Xiaobing -- Bhagat, Govind -- Green, Peter H R -- Schneider, Robert -- Kiledjian, Megerditch -- Bilbao, Jose Ramon -- Ghosh, Sankar -- R01-AI093985/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01-DK102180/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM067005/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37-AI33443/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):91-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0467.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Physical Anthropology, and Animal Physiology, University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), BioCruces Research Institute, Leioa 48940, Basque Country, Spain. ; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Center for Celiac Disease, Department of Medicine, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. Alexandria Center for Life Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Alexandria Center for Life Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA. sg2715@columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034373" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Celiac Disease/*genetics/pathology ; Down-Regulation ; Gene Expression Regulation ; *Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Haplotypes ; Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins/genetics ; Humans ; Inflammation/*genetics ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; RNA, Long Noncoding/*genetics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-07-15
    Description: The carnivoran giant panda has a specialized bamboo diet, to which its alimentary tract is poorly adapted. Measurements of daily energy expenditure across five captive and three wild pandas averaged 5.2 megajoules (MJ)/day, only 37.7% of the predicted value (13.8 MJ/day). For the wild pandas, the mean was 6.2 MJ/day, or 45% of the mammalian expectation. Pandas achieve this exceptionally low expenditure in part by reduced sizes of several vital organs and low physical activity. In addition, circulating levels of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) averaged 46.9 and 64%, respectively, of the levels expected for a eutherian mammal of comparable size. A giant panda-unique mutation in the DUOX2 gene, critical for thyroid hormone synthesis, might explain these low thyroid hormone levels. A combination of morphological, behavioral, physiological, and genetic adaptations, leading to low energy expenditure, likely enables giant pandas to survive on a bamboo diet.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nie, Yonggang -- Speakman, John R -- Wu, Qi -- Zhang, Chenglin -- Hu, Yibo -- Xia, Maohua -- Yan, Li -- Hambly, Catherine -- Wang, Lu -- Wei, Wei -- Zhang, Jinguo -- Wei, Fuwen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 10;349(6244):171-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aab2413.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. ; Beijing Key Laboratory of Captive Wildlife Technologies, Beijing Zoo, Beijing, China. ; Institute of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. ; Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. weifw@ioz.ac.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26160943" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Body Temperature ; Cattle ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Diet/veterinary ; Dogs ; *Eating ; Energy Metabolism/genetics/*physiology ; Gastrointestinal Tract ; Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Motor Activity ; NADPH Oxidase/*genetics ; Organ Size ; Sasa ; Thyroxine/blood ; Triiodothyronine/blood ; Ursidae/anatomy & histology/*genetics/*physiology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-27
    Description: Bacterial adaptive immunity uses CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-associated (Cas) proteins together with CRISPR transcripts for foreign DNA degradation. In type II CRISPR-Cas systems, activation of Cas9 endonuclease for DNA recognition upon guide RNA binding occurs by an unknown mechanism. Crystal structures of Cas9 bound to single-guide RNA reveal a conformation distinct from both the apo and DNA-bound states, in which the 10-nucleotide RNA "seed" sequence required for initial DNA interrogation is preordered in an A-form conformation. This segment of the guide RNA is essential for Cas9 to form a DNA recognition-competent structure that is poised to engage double-stranded DNA target sequences. We construe this as convergent evolution of a "seed" mechanism reminiscent of that used by Argonaute proteins during RNA interference in eukaryotes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jiang, Fuguo -- Zhou, Kaihong -- Ma, Linlin -- Gressel, Saskia -- Doudna, Jennifer A -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 26;348(6242):1477-81. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1452.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Physical Biosciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Innovative Genomics Initiative, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. doudna@berkeley.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113724" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Argonaute Proteins/*chemistry ; Base Sequence ; *CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Caspase 9/*chemistry/genetics ; *Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA/chemistry ; *DNA Cleavage ; Enzyme Activation ; Evolution, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; RNA Interference ; RNA, Guide/*chemistry ; Streptococcus pyogenes/*enzymology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-06-27
    Description: Morphinan alkaloids from the opium poppy are used for pain relief. The direction of metabolites to morphinan biosynthesis requires isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline. Characterization of high-reticuline poppy mutants revealed a genetic locus, designated STORR [(S)- to (R)-reticuline] that encodes both cytochrome P450 and oxidoreductase modules, the latter belonging to the aldo-keto reductase family. Metabolite analysis of mutant alleles and heterologous expression demonstrate that the P450 module is responsible for the conversion of (S)-reticuline to 1,2-dehydroreticuline, whereas the oxidoreductase module converts 1,2-dehydroreticuline to (R)-reticuline rather than functioning as a P450 redox partner. Proteomic analysis confirmed that these two modules are contained on a single polypeptide in vivo. This modular assembly implies a selection pressure favoring substrate channeling. The fusion protein STORR may enable microbial-based morphinan production.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Winzer, Thilo -- Kern, Marcelo -- King, Andrew J -- Larson, Tony R -- Teodor, Roxana I -- Donninger, Samantha L -- Li, Yi -- Dowle, Adam A -- Cartwright, Jared -- Bates, Rachel -- Ashford, David -- Thomas, Jerry -- Walker, Carol -- Bowser, Tim A -- Graham, Ian A -- BB/K018809/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 17;349(6245):309-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1852. Epub 2015 Jun 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; Bioscience Technology Facility, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK. ; GlaxoSmithKline, 1061 Mountain Highway, Post Office Box 168, Boronia, Victoria 3155, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113639" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Benzylisoquinolines/chemistry/*metabolism ; Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/genetics/*metabolism ; Genetic Loci ; Isoquinolines/chemistry/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morphinans/chemistry/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Papaver/*enzymology/genetics ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry/*metabolism
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: The Protoaurignacian culture is pivotal to the debate about the timing of the arrival of modern humans in western Europe and the demise of Neandertals. However, which group is responsible for this culture remains uncertain. We investigated dental remains associated with the Protoaurignacian. The lower deciduous incisor from Riparo Bombrini is modern human, based on its morphology. The upper deciduous incisor from Grotta di Fumane contains ancient mitochondrial DNA of a modern human type. These teeth are the oldest human remains in an Aurignacian-related archaeological context, confirming that by 41,000 calendar years before the present, modern humans bearing Protoaurignacian culture spread into southern Europe. Because the last Neandertals date to 41,030 to 39,260 calendar years before the present, we suggest that the Protoaurignacian triggered the demise of Neandertals in this area.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Benazzi, S -- Slon, V -- Talamo, S -- Negrino, F -- Peresani, M -- Bailey, S E -- Sawyer, S -- Panetta, D -- Vicino, G -- Starnini, E -- Mannino, M A -- Salvadori, P A -- Meyer, M -- Paabo, S -- Hublin, J-J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 15;348(6236):793-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2773. Epub 2015 Apr 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, Via degli Ariani 1, 48121 Ravenna, Italy. Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. stefano.benazzi@unibo.it. ; Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Dipartimento di Antichita, Filosofia, Storia e Geografia, Universita di Genova, Via Balbi 2, 16126 Genova, Italy. ; Sezione di Scienze Preistoriche e Antropologiche, Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici, Corso Ercole I d'Este 32, Universita di Ferrara, 44100 Ferrara, Italy. ; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Center for the Study of Human Origins, Department of Anthropology, New York University, 25 Waverly Place, New York, NY 10003, USA. ; CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy. ; Museo Archeologico del Finale, Chiostri di Santa Caterina, 17024 Finale Ligure Borgo, Italy. ; Scuola di Scienze Umanistiche, Dipartimento di Studi Storici, Universita di Torino, via S. Ottavio 20, 10124 Torino, Italy. Museo Preistorico Nazionale dei Balzi Rossi, Via Balzi Rossi 9, 18039 Ventimiglia, Italy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908660" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Archaeology ; Base Sequence ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Dental Enamel/chemistry ; *Extinction, Biological ; Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Humans ; Incisor/anatomy & histology/chemistry ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neanderthals/anatomy & histology/*classification/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Tooth, Deciduous/anatomy & histology/chemistry
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: DNA strand exchange plays a central role in genetic recombination across all kingdoms of life, but the physical basis for these reactions remains poorly defined. Using single-molecule imaging, we found that bacterial RecA and eukaryotic Rad51 and Dmc1 all stabilize strand exchange intermediates in precise three-nucleotide steps. Each step coincides with an energetic signature (0.3 kBT) that is conserved from bacteria to humans. Triplet recognition is strictly dependent on correct Watson-Crick pairing. Rad51, RecA, and Dmc1 can all step over mismatches, but only Dmc1 can stabilize mismatched triplets. This finding provides insight into why eukaryotes have evolved a meiosis-specific recombinase. We propose that canonical Watson-Crick base triplets serve as the fundamental unit of pairing interactions during DNA recombination.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580133/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580133/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Ja Yil -- Terakawa, Tsuyoshi -- Qi, Zhi -- Steinfeld, Justin B -- Redding, Sy -- Kwon, YoungHo -- Gaines, William A -- Zhao, Weixing -- Sung, Patrick -- Greene, Eric C -- CA146940/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM074739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA146940/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015252/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM074739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01ES015252/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007367/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 28;349(6251):977-81. doi: 10.1126/science.aab2666.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Department of Biophysics, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, Japan. ; Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ecg2108@cumc.columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26315438" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; Cell Cycle Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; DNA/*chemistry/*metabolism ; DNA, Single-Stranded/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; *Homologous Recombination ; Humans ; Meiosis ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Rad51 Recombinase/chemistry/*metabolism ; Rec A Recombinases/chemistry/*metabolism ; Recombinases/chemistry/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Thermodynamics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-10-17
    Description: Transcriptional enhancers direct precise on-off patterns of gene expression during development. To explore the basis for this precision, we conducted a high-throughput analysis of the Otx-a enhancer, which mediates expression in the neural plate of Ciona embryos in response to fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and a localized GATA determinant. We provide evidence that enhancer specificity depends on submaximal recognition motifs having reduced binding affinities ("suboptimization"). Native GATA and ETS (FGF) binding sites contain imperfect matches to consensus motifs. Perfect matches mediate robust but ectopic patterns of gene expression. The native sites are not arranged at optimal intervals, and subtle changes in their spacing alter enhancer activity. Multiple tiers of enhancer suboptimization produce specific, but weak, patterns of expression, and we suggest that clusters of weak enhancers, including certain "superenhancers," circumvent this trade-off in specificity and activity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Farley, Emma K -- Olson, Katrina M -- Zhang, Wei -- Brandt, Alexander J -- Rokhsar, Daniel S -- Levine, Michael S -- GM46638/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS076542/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 16;350(6258):325-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac6948.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, Genomics and Development, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. msl2@princeton.edu ekfarley@princeton.edu. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, Genomics and Development, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. ; Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0688, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Division of Genetics, Genomics and Development, Center for Integrative Genomics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472909" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Ciona intestinalis/genetics/*growth & development ; Consensus Sequence ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/genetics/*physiology ; Fas-Associated Death Domain Protein/metabolism ; Fibroblast Growth Factors/*metabolism ; GATA Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Organ Specificity/genetics/physiology ; Otx Transcription Factors/*metabolism
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2015-05-23
    Description: The 5' leader of the HIV-1 genome contains conserved elements that direct selective packaging of the unspliced, dimeric viral RNA into assembling particles. By using a (2)H-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) approach, we determined the structure of a 155-nucleotide region of the leader that is independently capable of directing packaging (core encapsidation signal; Psi(CES)). The RNA adopts an unexpected tandem three-way junction structure, in which residues of the major splice donor and translation initiation sites are sequestered by long-range base pairing and guanosines essential for both packaging and high-affinity binding to the cognate Gag protein are exposed in helical junctions. The structure reveals how translation is attenuated, Gag binding promoted, and unspliced dimeric genomes selected, by the RNA conformer that directs packaging.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4492308/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4492308/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Keane, Sarah C -- Heng, Xiao -- Lu, Kun -- Kharytonchyk, Siarhei -- Ramakrishnan, Venkateswaran -- Carter, Gregory -- Barton, Shawn -- Hosic, Azra -- Florwick, Alyssa -- Santos, Justin -- Bolden, Nicholas C -- McCowin, Sayo -- Case, David A -- Johnson, Bruce A -- Salemi, Marco -- Telesnitsky, Alice -- Summers, Michael F -- 2T34 GM008663/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM 103297/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM103297/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM042561/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM42561/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):917-21. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa9266.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620, USA. ; Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. ; One Moon Scientific, Incorporated, 839 Grant Avenue, Westfield, NJ 07090, USA, and City University of New York (CUNY) Advanced Science Research Center, 85 St. Nicholas Terrace, New York, NY 10031, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620, USA. summers@hhmi.umbc.edu ateles@umich.edu. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250, USA. summers@hhmi.umbc.edu ateles@umich.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25999508" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Genome, Viral ; Guanosine/chemistry ; HIV-1/*chemistry/genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational ; RNA Splicing ; RNA, Viral/*chemistry/genetics ; *Virus Assembly ; gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-03-31
    Description: The occurrence of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa during 2013-2015 is unprecedented. Early reports suggested that in this outbreak EBOV is mutating twice as fast as previously observed, which indicates the potential for changes in transmissibility and virulence and could render current molecular diagnostics and countermeasures ineffective. We have determined additional full-length sequences from two clusters of imported EBOV infections into Mali, and we show that the nucleotide substitution rate (9.6 x 10(-4) substitutions per site per year) is consistent with rates observed in Central African outbreaks. In addition, overall variation among all genotypes observed remains low. Thus, our data indicate that EBOV is not undergoing rapid evolution in humans during the current outbreak. This finding has important implications for outbreak response and public health decisions and should alleviate several previously raised concerns.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hoenen, T -- Safronetz, D -- Groseth, A -- Wollenberg, K R -- Koita, O A -- Diarra, B -- Fall, I S -- Haidara, F C -- Diallo, F -- Sanogo, M -- Sarro, Y S -- Kone, A -- Togo, A C G -- Traore, A -- Kodio, M -- Dosseh, A -- Rosenke, K -- de Wit, E -- Feldmann, F -- Ebihara, H -- Munster, V J -- Zoon, K C -- Feldmann, H -- Sow, S -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 3;348(6230):117-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5646. Epub 2015 Mar 26.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Hamilton, MT 59840, USA. ; Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Center of Research and Training for HIV and Tuberculosis, University of Science, Technique and Technologies of Bamako, Mali. ; World Health Organization Office, Bamako, Mali. ; Centre des Operations d'Urgence, Centre pour le Developpement des Vaccins (CVD-Mali), Centre National d'Appui a la lutte contre la Maladie, Ministere de la Sante et de l'Hygiene Publique, Bamako, Mali. ; World Health Organization Inter-Country Support Team, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. ; Rocky Mountain Veterinary Branch, Division of Intramural Research, NIAID, NIH, Hamilton, MT 59840, USA. ; Office of the Scientific Director, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20895, USA. ; Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Hamilton, MT 59840, USA. feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov ssow@medicine.umaryland.edu. ; Centre des Operations d'Urgence, Centre pour le Developpement des Vaccins (CVD-Mali), Centre National d'Appui a la lutte contre la Maladie, Ministere de la Sante et de l'Hygiene Publique, Bamako, Mali. feldmannh@niaid.nih.gov ssow@medicine.umaryland.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25814067" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Disease Outbreaks ; Ebolavirus/classification/*genetics/isolation & purification ; Genotype ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/*virology ; Humans ; Mali/epidemiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Mutation Rate ; Phylogeny
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2015-01-03
    Description: Variation in vectorial capacity for human malaria among Anopheles mosquito species is determined by many factors, including behavior, immunity, and life history. To investigate the genomic basis of vectorial capacity and explore new avenues for vector control, we sequenced the genomes of 16 anopheline mosquito species from diverse locations spanning ~100 million years of evolution. Comparative analyses show faster rates of gene gain and loss, elevated gene shuffling on the X chromosome, and more intron losses, relative to Drosophila. Some determinants of vectorial capacity, such as chemosensory genes, do not show elevated turnover but instead diversify through protein-sequence changes. This dynamism of anopheline genes and genomes may contribute to their flexible capacity to take advantage of new ecological niches, including adapting to humans as primary hosts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4380271/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4380271/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Neafsey, Daniel E -- Waterhouse, Robert M -- Abai, Mohammad R -- Aganezov, Sergey S -- Alekseyev, Max A -- Allen, James E -- Amon, James -- Arca, Bruno -- Arensburger, Peter -- Artemov, Gleb -- Assour, Lauren A -- Basseri, Hamidreza -- Berlin, Aaron -- Birren, Bruce W -- Blandin, Stephanie A -- Brockman, Andrew I -- Burkot, Thomas R -- Burt, Austin -- Chan, Clara S -- Chauve, Cedric -- Chiu, Joanna C -- Christensen, Mikkel -- Costantini, Carlo -- Davidson, Victoria L M -- Deligianni, Elena -- Dottorini, Tania -- Dritsou, Vicky -- Gabriel, Stacey B -- Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M -- Hall, Andrew B -- Han, Mira V -- Hlaing, Thaung -- Hughes, Daniel S T -- Jenkins, Adam M -- Jiang, Xiaofang -- Jungreis, Irwin -- Kakani, Evdoxia G -- Kamali, Maryam -- Kemppainen, Petri -- Kennedy, Ryan C -- Kirmitzoglou, Ioannis K -- Koekemoer, Lizette L -- Laban, Njoroge -- Langridge, Nicholas -- Lawniczak, Mara K N -- Lirakis, Manolis -- Lobo, Neil F -- Lowy, Ernesto -- MacCallum, Robert M -- Mao, Chunhong -- Maslen, Gareth -- Mbogo, Charles -- McCarthy, Jenny -- Michel, Kristin -- Mitchell, Sara N -- Moore, Wendy -- Murphy, Katherine A -- Naumenko, Anastasia N -- Nolan, Tony -- Novoa, Eva M -- O'Loughlin, Samantha -- Oringanje, Chioma -- Oshaghi, Mohammad A -- Pakpour, Nazzy -- Papathanos, Philippos A -- Peery, Ashley N -- Povelones, Michael -- Prakash, Anil -- Price, David P -- Rajaraman, Ashok -- Reimer, Lisa J -- Rinker, David C -- Rokas, Antonis -- Russell, Tanya L -- Sagnon, N'Fale -- Sharakhova, Maria V -- Shea, Terrance -- Simao, Felipe A -- Simard, Frederic -- Slotman, Michel A -- Somboon, Pradya -- Stegniy, Vladimir -- Struchiner, Claudio J -- Thomas, Gregg W C -- Tojo, Marta -- Topalis, Pantelis -- Tubio, Jose M C -- Unger, Maria F -- Vontas, John -- Walton, Catherine -- Wilding, Craig S -- Willis, Judith H -- Wu, Yi-Chieh -- Yan, Guiyun -- Zdobnov, Evgeny M -- Zhou, Xiaofan -- Catteruccia, Flaminia -- Christophides, George K -- Collins, Frank H -- Cornman, Robert S -- Crisanti, Andrea -- Donnelly, Martin J -- Emrich, Scott J -- Fontaine, Michael C -- Gelbart, William -- Hahn, Matthew W -- Hansen, Immo A -- Howell, Paul I -- Kafatos, Fotis C -- Kellis, Manolis -- Lawson, Daniel -- Louis, Christos -- Luckhart, Shirley -- Muskavitch, Marc A T -- Ribeiro, Jose M -- Riehle, Michael A -- Sharakhov, Igor V -- Tu, Zhijian -- Zwiebel, Laurence J -- Besansky, Nora J -- 092654/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- R01 AI050243/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI063508/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI073745/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076584/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI080799/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI104956/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI101459/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI107263/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- SC1 AI109055/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI089686/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI110818/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U41 HG007234/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 2;347(6217):1258522. doi: 10.1126/science.1258522. Epub 2014 Nov 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Genome Sequencing and Analysis Program, Broad Institute, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. neafsey@broadinstitute.org nbesansk@nd.edu. ; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. ; Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health and Institute of Health Researches, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. ; George Washington University, Department of Mathematics and Computational Biology Institute, 45085 University Drive, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. ; National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme, Ministry of Health, Tafea Province, Vanuatu. ; Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Division of Parasitology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy. ; Department of Biological Sciences, California State Polytechnic-Pomona, 3801 West Temple Avenue, Pomona, CA 91768, USA. ; Tomsk State University, 36 Lenina Avenue, Tomsk, Russia. ; Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Eck Institute for Global Health, 211B Cushing Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. ; Genome Sequencing and Analysis Program, Broad Institute, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Inserm, U963, F-67084 Strasbourg, France. CNRS, UPR9022, IBMC, F-67084 Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK. ; Faculty of Medicine, Health and Molecular Science, Australian Institute of Tropical Health Medicine, James Cook University, Cairns 4870, Australia. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, Ascot SL5 7PY, UK. ; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Mathematics, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada. ; Department of Entomology and Nematology, One Shields Avenue, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Unites Mixtes de Recherche Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs Ecologie, Genetique, Evolution et Controle, 911, Avenue Agropolis, BP 64501 Montpellier, France. ; Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 271 Chalmers Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA. ; Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, Nikolaou Plastira 100 GR-70013, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. ; Centre of Functional Genomics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. ; Genomics Platform, Broad Institute, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme, Ouagadougou 01 BP 2208, Burkina Faso. ; Program of Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154, USA. ; Department of Medical Research, No. 5 Ziwaka Road, Dagon Township, Yangon 11191, Myanmar. ; European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, EMBL-EBI, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Program of Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale e Scienze Biochimiche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. ; Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Computational Evolutionary Biology Group, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT, UK. ; Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK. Bioinformatics Research Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences, New Campus, University of Cyprus, CY 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus. ; Wits Research Institute for Malaria, Faculty of Health Sciences, and Vector Control Reference Unit, National Institute for Communicable Diseases of the National Health Laboratory Service, Sandringham 2131, Johannesburg, South Africa. ; National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658-00100, Nairobi, Kenya. ; Department of Biology, University of Crete, 700 13 Heraklion, Greece. ; Eck Institute for Global Health and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 317 Galvin Life Sciences Building, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. ; Virginia Bioinformatics Institute, 1015 Life Science Circle, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Kenya Medical Research Institute-Wellcome Trust Research Programme, Centre for Geographic Medicine Research - Coast, P.O. Box 230-80108, Kilifi, Kenya. ; Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Entomology, 1140 East South Campus Drive, Forbes 410, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, UK. Centre of Functional Genomics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. ; Department of Pathobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, 3800 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Regional Medical Research Centre NE, Indian Council of Medical Research, P.O. Box 105, Dibrugarh-786 001, Assam, India. ; Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA. Molecular Biology Program, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003, USA. ; Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK. ; Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. ; Center for Human Genetics Research, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. ; Department of Genetic Medicine and Development, University of Geneva Medical School, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. ; Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77807, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand. ; Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil 4365, RJ Brazil. Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ; School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. ; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Center for Research in Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases, Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, A Coruna, Spain. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, CB10 1SA, UK. ; School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK. ; Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. ; Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 32 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. The Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard, 415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Computer Science, Harvey Mudd College, Claremont, CA 91711, USA. ; Program in Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Hewitt Hall, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. ; Department of Vector Biology, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK. Malaria Programme, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge CB10 1SJ, UK. ; Eck Institute for Global Health and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 317 Galvin Life Sciences Building, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. Centre of Evolutionary and Ecological Studies (Marine Evolution and Conservation group), University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, NL-9747 AG Groningen, Netherlands. ; Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. School of Informatics and Computing, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE MSG49, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. ; Department of Biology, University of Crete, 700 13 Heraklion, Greece. Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas, Nikolaou Plastira 100 GR-70013, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Centre of Functional Genomics, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. ; Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467, USA. Biogen Idec, 14 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. ; Department of Entomology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Program of Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Program of Genetics, Bioinformatics, and Computational Biology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. Department of Biochemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. ; Departments of Biological Sciences and Pharmacology, Institutes for Chemical Biology, Genetics and Global Health, Vanderbilt University and Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37235, USA. ; Eck Institute for Global Health and Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 317 Galvin Life Sciences Building, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA. neafsey@broadinstitute.org nbesansk@nd.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554792" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anopheles/classification/*genetics ; Base Sequence ; Chromosomes, Insect/genetics ; Drosophila/genetics ; *Evolution, Molecular ; *Genome, Insect ; Humans ; Insect Vectors/classification/*genetics ; Malaria/*transmission ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Sequence Alignment
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2015-08-08
    Description: Cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43, accompanied by its nuclear clearance, is a key common pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD). However, a limited understanding of this RNA-binding protein (RBP) impedes the clarification of pathogenic mechanisms underlying TDP-43 proteinopathy. In contrast to RBPs that regulate splicing of conserved exons, we found that TDP-43 repressed the splicing of nonconserved cryptic exons, maintaining intron integrity. When TDP-43 was depleted from mouse embryonic stem cells, these cryptic exons were spliced into messenger RNAs, often disrupting their translation and promoting nonsense-mediated decay. Moreover, enforced repression of cryptic exons prevented cell death in TDP-43-deficient cells. Furthermore, repression of cryptic exons was impaired in ALS-FTD cases, suggesting that this splicing defect could potentially underlie TDP-43 proteinopathy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ling, Jonathan P -- Pletnikova, Olga -- Troncoso, Juan C -- Wong, Philip C -- P50AG05146/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 7;349(6248):650-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aab0983.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA. Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA. Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205-2196, USA. wong@jhmi.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26250685" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/*genetics ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cells, Cultured ; Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Embryonic Stem Cells ; Exons/*genetics ; Frontotemporal Dementia/*genetics ; Gene Knockout Techniques ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Isoforms/genetics ; *RNA Splicing ; RNA Stability ; RNA, Messenger/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-10-31
    Description: Transcription factors (TFs) bind specific sequences in promoter-proximal and -distal DNA elements to regulate gene transcription. RNA is transcribed from both of these DNA elements, and some DNA binding TFs bind RNA. Hence, RNA transcribed from regulatory elements may contribute to stable TF occupancy at these sites. We show that the ubiquitously expressed TF Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) binds to both gene regulatory elements and their associated RNA species across the entire genome. Reduced transcription of regulatory elements diminishes YY1 occupancy, whereas artificial tethering of RNA enhances YY1 occupancy at these elements. We propose that RNA makes a modest but important contribution to the maintenance of certain TFs at gene regulatory elements and suggest that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that contributes to the stability of gene expression programs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720525/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720525/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sigova, Alla A -- Abraham, Brian J -- Ji, Xiong -- Molinie, Benoit -- Hannett, Nancy M -- Guo, Yang Eric -- Jangi, Mohini -- Giallourakis, Cosmas C -- Sharp, Phillip A -- Young, Richard A -- HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG002668/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 20;350(6263):978-81. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3346. Epub 2015 Oct 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA 02140, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. young@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26516199" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Cell Line ; Consensus Sequence ; DNA/metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; *Enhancer Elements, Genetic ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Mice ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; RNA, Messenger/*metabolism ; *Transcription, Genetic ; YY1 Transcription Factor/*metabolism
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-10-13
    Description: The shortage of organs for transplantation is a major barrier to the treatment of organ failure. Although porcine organs are considered promising, their use has been checked by concerns about the transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) to humans. Here we describe the eradication of all PERVs in a porcine kidney epithelial cell line (PK15). We first determined the PK15 PERV copy number to be 62. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we disrupted all copies of the PERV pol gene and demonstrated a 〉1000-fold reduction in PERV transmission to human cells, using our engineered cells. Our study shows that CRISPR-Cas9 multiplexability can be as high as 62 and demonstrates the possibility that PERVs can be inactivated for clinical application of porcine-to-human xenotransplantation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Luhan -- Guell, Marc -- Niu, Dong -- George, Haydy -- Lesha, Emal -- Grishin, Dennis -- Aach, John -- Shrock, Ellen -- Xu, Weihong -- Poci, Jurgen -- Cortazio, Rebeca -- Wilkinson, Robert A -- Fishman, Jay A -- Church, George -- P50 HG005550/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 27;350(6264):1101-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1191. Epub 2015 Oct 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. eGenesis Biosciences, Boston, MA 02115, USA. gchurch@genetics.med.harvard.edu luhan.yang@egenesisbio.com. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA. eGenesis Biosciences, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. ; Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Transplant Infectious Disease and Compromised Host Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26456528" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; CRISPR-Cas Systems ; Cell Line ; Endogenous Retroviruses/*genetics ; Epithelial Cells/virology ; Gene Dosage ; Gene Targeting/*methods ; Genes, pol ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Kidney/virology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Retroviridae Infections/*prevention & control/transmission/virology ; Swine/*virology ; Transplantation, Heterologous/*methods ; *Virus Inactivation
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2015-08-15
    Description: Most spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) result from replication-fork breakage. Break-induced replication (BIR), a genome rearrangement-prone repair mechanism that requires the Pol32/POLD3 subunit of eukaryotic DNA Poldelta, was proposed to repair broken forks, but how genome destabilization is avoided was unknown. We show that broken fork repair initially uses error-prone Pol32-dependent synthesis, but that mutagenic synthesis is limited to within a few kilobases from the break by Mus81 endonuclease and a converging fork. Mus81 suppresses template switches between both homologous sequences and diverged human Alu repetitive elements, highlighting its importance for stability of highly repetitive genomes. We propose that lack of a timely converging fork or Mus81 may propel genome instability observed in cancer.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mayle, Ryan -- Campbell, Ian M -- Beck, Christine R -- Yu, Yang -- Wilson, Marenda -- Shaw, Chad A -- Bjergbaek, Lotte -- Lupski, James R -- Ira, Grzegorz -- F31 NS083159/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- GM080600/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HG006542/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- NS058529/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS083159/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM080600/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS058529/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG006542/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 14;349(6249):742-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa8391.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, University of Aarhus, Aarhus 8000, Denmark. ; Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Department of Pediatrics, and Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, USA. gira@bcm.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26273056" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alu Elements ; Base Sequence ; *DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Repair/*genetics ; DNA Replication/*genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/metabolism ; Endonucleases/genetics/*metabolism ; *Genomic Instability ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neoplasms/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Rapid advances in DNA synthesis techniques have made it possible to engineer viruses, biochemical pathways and assemble bacterial genomes. Here, we report the synthesis of a functional 272,871-base pair designer eukaryotic chromosome, synIII, which is based on the 316,617-base pair native Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosome III. Changes to synIII include TAG/TAA stop-codon replacements, deletion of subtelomeric regions, introns, transfer RNAs, transposons, and silent mating loci as well as insertion of loxPsym sites to enable genome scrambling. SynIII is functional in S. cerevisiae. Scrambling of the chromosome in a heterozygous diploid reveals a large increase in a-mater derivatives resulting from loss of the MATalpha allele on synIII. The complete design and synthesis of synIII establishes S. cerevisiae as the basis for designer eukaryotic genome biology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4033833/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4033833/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Annaluru, Narayana -- Muller, Heloise -- Mitchell, Leslie A -- Ramalingam, Sivaprakash -- Stracquadanio, Giovanni -- Richardson, Sarah M -- Dymond, Jessica S -- Kuang, Zheng -- Scheifele, Lisa Z -- Cooper, Eric M -- Cai, Yizhi -- Zeller, Karen -- Agmon, Neta -- Han, Jeffrey S -- Hadjithomas, Michalis -- Tullman, Jennifer -- Caravelli, Katrina -- Cirelli, Kimberly -- Guo, Zheyuan -- London, Viktoriya -- Yeluru, Apurva -- Murugan, Sindurathy -- Kandavelou, Karthikeyan -- Agier, Nicolas -- Fischer, Gilles -- Yang, Kun -- Martin, J Andrew -- Bilgel, Murat -- Bohutski, Pavlo -- Boulier, Kristin M -- Capaldo, Brian J -- Chang, Joy -- Charoen, Kristie -- Choi, Woo Jin -- Deng, Peter -- DiCarlo, James E -- Doong, Judy -- Dunn, Jessilyn -- Feinberg, Jason I -- Fernandez, Christopher -- Floria, Charlotte E -- Gladowski, David -- Hadidi, Pasha -- Ishizuka, Isabel -- Jabbari, Javaneh -- Lau, Calvin Y L -- Lee, Pablo A -- Li, Sean -- Lin, Denise -- Linder, Matthias E -- Ling, Jonathan -- Liu, Jaime -- Liu, Jonathan -- London, Mariya -- Ma, Henry -- Mao, Jessica -- McDade, Jessica E -- McMillan, Alexandra -- Moore, Aaron M -- Oh, Won Chan -- Ouyang, Yu -- Patel, Ruchi -- Paul, Marina -- Paulsen, Laura C -- Qiu, Judy -- Rhee, Alex -- Rubashkin, Matthew G -- Soh, Ina Y -- Sotuyo, Nathaniel E -- Srinivas, Venkatesh -- Suarez, Allison -- Wong, Andy -- Wong, Remus -- Xie, Wei Rose -- Xu, Yijie -- Yu, Allen T -- Koszul, Romain -- Bader, Joel S -- Boeke, Jef D -- Chandrasegaran, Srinivasan -- 092076/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- GM077291/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM077291/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM090192/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 4;344(6179):55-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1249252. Epub 2014 Mar 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University (JHU) School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24674868" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; *Chromosomes, Fungal/genetics/metabolism ; DNA, Fungal/genetics ; Genes, Fungal ; Genetic Fitness ; Genome, Fungal ; Genomic Instability ; Introns ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; RNA, Fungal/genetics ; RNA, Transfer/genetics ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/*genetics/physiology ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Deletion ; Synthetic Biology/*methods ; Transformation, Genetic
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2014-02-15
    Description: Evolutionary changes in traits involved in both ecological divergence and mate choice may produce reproductive isolation and speciation. However, there are few examples of such dual traits, and the genetic and molecular bases of their evolution have not been identified. We show that methyl-branched cuticular hydrocarbons (mbCHCs) are a dual trait that affects both desiccation resistance and mate choice in Drosophila serrata. We identify a fatty acid synthase mFAS (CG3524) responsible for mbCHC production in Drosophila and find that expression of mFAS is undetectable in oenocytes (cells that produce CHCs) of a closely related, desiccation-sensitive species, D. birchii, due in part to multiple changes in cis-regulatory sequences of mFAS. We suggest that ecologically influenced changes in the production of mbCHCs have contributed to reproductive isolation between the two species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Henry -- Loehlin, David W -- Dufour, Heloise D -- Vaccarro, Kathy -- Millar, Jocelyn G -- Carroll, Sean B -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 7;343(6175):1148-51. doi: 10.1126/science.1249998. Epub 2014 Feb 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Molecular Biology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24526311" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Desiccation ; Drosophila/*genetics/physiology ; Ecosystem ; Evolution, Molecular ; Fatty Acid Synthases/*genetics/physiology ; *Genes, Insect ; *Genetic Variation ; Hydrocarbons/*metabolism ; *Mating Preference, Animal ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Reproductive Isolation
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2014-02-18
    Description: The human neocortex has numerous specialized functional areas whose formation is poorly understood. Here, we describe a 15-base pair deletion mutation in a regulatory element of GPR56 that selectively disrupts human cortex surrounding the Sylvian fissure bilaterally including "Broca's area," the primary language area, by disrupting regional GPR56 expression and blocking RFX transcription factor binding. GPR56 encodes a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor required for normal cortical development and is expressed in cortical progenitor cells. GPR56 expression levels regulate progenitor proliferation. GPR56 splice forms are highly variable between mice and humans, and the regulatory element of gyrencephalic mammals directs restricted lateral cortical expression. Our data reveal a mechanism by which control of GPR56 expression pattern by multiple alternative promoters can influence stem cell proliferation, gyral patterning, and, potentially, neocortex evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480613/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480613/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bae, Byoung-Il -- Tietjen, Ian -- Atabay, Kutay D -- Evrony, Gilad D -- Johnson, Matthew B -- Asare, Ebenezer -- Wang, Peter P -- Murayama, Ayako Y -- Im, Kiho -- Lisgo, Steven N -- Overman, Lynne -- Sestan, Nenad -- Chang, Bernard S -- Barkovich, A James -- Grant, P Ellen -- Topcu, Meral -- Politsky, Jeffrey -- Okano, Hideyuki -- Piao, Xianhua -- Walsh, Christopher A -- 2R01NS035129/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- G0700089/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- GR082557/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- HHSN275200900011C/PHS HHS/ -- N01-HD-9-0011/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS035129/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH081896/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- U01MH081896/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Feb 14;343(6172):764-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1244392.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Genetics and Genomics, Manton Center for Orphan Disease, and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston Children's Hospital, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, and Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24531968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Alternative Splicing ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Biological Evolution ; Body Patterning/*genetics ; Cats ; Cell Proliferation ; Cerebral Cortex/anatomy & histology/cytology/*embryology ; Codon, Nonsense ; Frontal Lobe/anatomy & histology/cytology/embryology ; Genetic Variation ; Haplotypes ; Humans ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neural Stem Cells/cytology/*physiology ; Pedigree ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/*genetics ; Sequence Deletion
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the induction of epithelial fucosylation are unknown. Here, we show that type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) induced intestinal epithelial Fut2 expression and fucosylation in mice. This induction required the cytokines interleukin-22 and lymphotoxin in a commensal bacteria-dependent and -independent manner, respectively. Disruption of intestinal fucosylation led to increased susceptibility to infection by Salmonella typhimurium. Our data reveal a role for ILC3 in shaping the gut microenvironment through the regulation of epithelial glycosylation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774895/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774895/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goto, Yoshiyuki -- Obata, Takashi -- Kunisawa, Jun -- Sato, Shintaro -- Ivanov, Ivaylo I -- Lamichhane, Aayam -- Takeyama, Natsumi -- Kamioka, Mariko -- Sakamoto, Mitsuo -- Matsuki, Takahiro -- Setoyama, Hiromi -- Imaoka, Akemi -- Uematsu, Satoshi -- Akira, Shizuo -- Domino, Steven E -- Kulig, Paulina -- Becher, Burkhard -- Renauld, Jean-Christophe -- Sasakawa, Chihiro -- Umesaki, Yoshinori -- Benno, Yoshimi -- Kiyono, Hiroshi -- 1R01DK098378/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK098378/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1254009. doi: 10.1126/science.1254009. Epub 2014 Aug 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. Microbe Division/Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba 305-0074, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Microbe Division/Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba 305-0074, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Laboratory of Vaccine Materials, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka 567-0085, Japan. Division of Mucosal Immunology, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Nippon Institute for Biological Science, Tokyo 198-0024, Japan. ; Microbe Division/Japan Collection of Microorganisms, RIKEN BioResource Center, Tsukuba 305-0074, Japan. ; Yakult Central Institute, Tokyo 186-8650, Japan. ; Division of Innate Immune Regulation, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Department of Mucosal Immunology, School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuou-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan. ; Laboratory of Host Defense, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cellular and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5617, USA. ; Institute of Experimental Immunology, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, Zurich CH-8057, Switzerland. ; Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research and Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels B-1200, Belgium. ; Nippon Institute for Biological Science, Tokyo 198-0024, Japan. Division of Bacterial Infection, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8673, Japan. ; Benno Laboratory, Innovation Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan. ; Division of Mucosal Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan. Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 332-0012, Japan. Division of Mucosal Immunology, International Research and Development Center for Mucosal Vaccines, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214634" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Disease Models, Animal ; Fucose/*metabolism ; Fucosyltransferases/genetics/metabolism ; Germ-Free Life ; Glycosylation ; Goblet Cells/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; Ileum/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; *Immunity, Innate ; Interleukins/immunology ; Intestinal Mucosa/enzymology/*immunology/microbiology ; Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Microbiota/*immunology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Paneth Cells/enzymology/immunology/microbiology ; Salmonella Infections/*immunology/microbiology ; *Salmonella typhimurium
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2014-02-22
    Description: Robustness, the maintenance of a character in the presence of genetic change, can help preserve adaptive traits but also may hinder evolvability, the ability to bring forth novel adaptations. We used genotype networks to analyze the binding site repertoires of 193 transcription factors from mice and yeast, providing empirical evidence that robustness and evolvability need not be conflicting properties. Network vertices represent binding sites where two sites are connected if they differ in a single nucleotide. We show that the binding sites of larger genotype networks are not only more robust, but the sequences adjacent to such networks can also bind more transcription factors, thus demonstrating that robustness can facilitate evolvability.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Payne, Joshua L -- Wagner, Andreas -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Feb 21;343(6173):875-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1249046.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Zurich, Institute of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24558158" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Binding Sites/genetics ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Mice ; Mutation ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry ; Transcription Factors/*chemistry ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2014-08-30
    Description: The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Raghavan, Maanasa -- DeGiorgio, Michael -- Albrechtsen, Anders -- Moltke, Ida -- Skoglund, Pontus -- Korneliussen, Thorfinn S -- Gronnow, Bjarne -- Appelt, Martin -- Gullov, Hans Christian -- Friesen, T Max -- Fitzhugh, William -- Malmstrom, Helena -- Rasmussen, Simon -- Olsen, Jesper -- Melchior, Linea -- Fuller, Benjamin T -- Fahrni, Simon M -- Stafford, Thomas Jr -- Grimes, Vaughan -- Renouf, M A Priscilla -- Cybulski, Jerome -- Lynnerup, Niels -- Lahr, Marta Mirazon -- Britton, Kate -- Knecht, Rick -- Arneborg, Jette -- Metspalu, Mait -- Cornejo, Omar E -- Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo -- Wang, Yong -- Rasmussen, Morten -- Raghavan, Vibha -- Hansen, Thomas V O -- Khusnutdinova, Elza -- Pierre, Tracey -- Dneprovsky, Kirill -- Andreasen, Claus -- Lange, Hans -- Hayes, M Geoffrey -- Coltrain, Joan -- Spitsyn, Victor A -- Gotherstrom, Anders -- Orlando, Ludovic -- Kivisild, Toomas -- Villems, Richard -- Crawford, Michael H -- Nielsen, Finn C -- Dissing, Jorgen -- Heinemeier, Jan -- Meldgaard, Morten -- Bustamante, Carlos -- O'Rourke, Dennis H -- Jakobsson, Mattias -- Gilbert, M Thomas P -- Nielsen, Rasmus -- Willerslev, Eske -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 29;345(6200):1255832. doi: 10.1126/science.1255832.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Biology, Pennsylvania State University, 502 Wartik Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802, USA. ; Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Bioinformatics Centre, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Ole Maaloes Vej 5, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark. Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Arctic Centre at the Ethnographic Collections (SILA), National Museum of Denmark, Frederiksholms Kanal 12, 1220 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2S2, Canada. ; Arctic Studies Center, Post Office Box 37012, Department of Anthropology, MRC 112, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013-7012, USA. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Kemitorvet, 2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark. ; AMS 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. ; Anthropological Laboratory, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederik V's Vej 11, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. AMS 14C Dating Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. ; Department of Archaeology, Memorial University, Queen's College, 210 Prince Philip Drive, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1C 5S7, Canada. Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Department of Archaeology, Memorial University, Queen's College, 210 Prince Philip Drive, St. John's, Newfoundland, A1C 5S7, Canada. ; Canadian Museum of History, 100 Rue Laurier, Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0M8, Canada. Department of Anthropology, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street North, London N6A 5C2, Canada. ; Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK. ; Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. Department of Archaeology, University of Aberdeen, St. Mary's Building, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland, UK. ; Department of Archaeology, University of Aberdeen, St. Mary's Building, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, Scotland, UK. ; National Museum of Denmark, Frederiksholms kanal 12, 1220 Copenhagen, Denmark. School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK. ; Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology Group, Tartu 51010, Estonia. Department of Evolutionary Biology, University of Tartu, Tartu 51010, Estonia. ; Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Post Office Box 644236, Pullman, WA 99164, USA. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Ancestry.com DNA LLC, San Francisco, CA 94107, USA. ; Informatics and Bio-computing, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, 661 University Avenue, Suite 510, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 0A3, Canada. ; Center for Genomic Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia. Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University, Ufa, Bashkortostan 450074, Russia. ; State Museum for Oriental Art, 12a, Nikitsky Boulevard, Moscow 119019, Russia. ; Greenland National Museum and Archives, Post Office Box 145, 3900 Nuuk, Greenland. ; Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Molecular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Department of Anthropology, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA. Center for Genetic Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. ; Research Centre for Medical Genetics of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 1 Moskvorechie, Moscow 115478, Russia. ; Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden. ; Estonian Biocentre, Evolutionary Biology Group, Tartu 51010, Estonia. Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK. ; Laboratory of Biological Anthropology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, USA. ; Department of Genetics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Evolutionary Biology, Uppsala University, Norbyvagen 18D, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ; Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25170159" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alaska/ethnology ; Arctic Regions/ethnology ; Base Sequence ; Bone and Bones ; Canada/ethnology ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Genome, Human/*genetics ; Greenland/ethnology ; Hair ; History, Ancient ; *Human Migration ; Humans ; Inuits/ethnology/*genetics/history ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Siberia/ethnology ; Survivors/history ; Tooth
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2014-10-04
    Description: Cancer genome characterization has revealed driver mutations in genes that govern ubiquitylation; however, the mechanisms by which these alterations promote tumorigenesis remain incompletely characterized. Here, we analyzed changes in the ubiquitin landscape induced by prostate cancer-associated mutations of SPOP, an E3 ubiquitin ligase substrate-binding protein. SPOP mutants impaired ubiquitylation of a subset of proteins in a dominant-negative fashion. Of these, DEK and TRIM24 emerged as effector substrates consistently up-regulated by SPOP mutants. We highlight DEK as a SPOP substrate that exhibited decreases in ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation resulting from heteromeric complexes of wild-type and mutant SPOP protein. DEK stabilization promoted prostate epithelial cell invasion, which implicated DEK as an oncogenic effector. More generally, these results provide a framework to decipher tumorigenic mechanisms linked to dysregulated ubiquitylation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257137/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257137/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Theurillat, Jean-Philippe P -- Udeshi, Namrata D -- Errington, Wesley J -- Svinkina, Tanya -- Baca, Sylvan C -- Pop, Marius -- Wild, Peter J -- Blattner, Mirjam -- Groner, Anna C -- Rubin, Mark A -- Moch, Holger -- Prive, Gilbert G -- Carr, Steven A -- Garraway, Levi A -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 3;346(6205):85-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1250255. Epub 2014 Oct 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9, Canada. ; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital Zurich, ZH 8091 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065, USA. Institute for Precision Medicine of Weill Cornell and New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; The Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Center for Cancer Genome Discovery, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA. levi_garraway@dfci.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25278611" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Binding Sites/genetics ; Carcinogenesis/genetics/metabolism/pathology ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Neoplasm Invasiveness ; Nuclear Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Oncogene Proteins/metabolism ; Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics/*metabolism/pathology ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism ; Repressor Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ; Ubiquitination/*genetics
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2014-05-03
    Description: Transcription by RNA polymerase (RNAP) is interrupted by pauses that play diverse regulatory roles. Although individual pauses have been studied in vitro, the determinants of pauses in vivo and their distribution throughout the bacterial genome remain unknown. Using nascent transcript sequencing, we identified a 16-nucleotide consensus pause sequence in Escherichia coli that accounts for known regulatory pause sites as well as ~20,000 new in vivo pause sites. In vitro single-molecule and ensemble analyses demonstrate that these pauses result from RNAP-nucleic acid interactions that inhibit next-nucleotide addition. The consensus sequence also leads to pausing by RNAPs from diverse lineages and is enriched at translation start sites in both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. Our results thus reveal a conserved mechanism unifying known and newly identified pause events.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4108260/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4108260/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Larson, Matthew H -- Mooney, Rachel A -- Peters, Jason M -- Windgassen, Tricia -- Nayak, Dhananjaya -- Gross, Carol A -- Block, Steven M -- Greenleaf, William J -- Landick, Robert -- Weissman, Jonathan S -- F32 GM100611/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- F32 GM108222/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM102706/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM038660/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM102790/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM057035/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 30;344(6187):1042-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1251871. Epub 2014 May 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, Center for RNA Systems Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. ; Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025, USA. Department of Applied Physics; Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025, USA. ; Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94025, USA. wjg@stanford.edu landick@biochem.wisc.edu weissman@cmp.ucsf.edu. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA. wjg@stanford.edu landick@biochem.wisc.edu weissman@cmp.ucsf.edu. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences, Center for RNA Systems Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. wjg@stanford.edu landick@biochem.wisc.edu weissman@cmp.ucsf.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24789973" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Codon, Initiator/*genetics ; Consensus Sequence ; DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases/metabolism ; Escherichia coli/*genetics/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Peptide Chain Initiation, Translational/*genetics ; *Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional ; *Transcription, Genetic
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2014-11-15
    Description: Cellular memory is crucial to many natural biological processes and sophisticated synthetic biology applications. Existing cellular memories rely on epigenetic switches or recombinases, which are limited in scalability and recording capacity. In this work, we use the DNA of living cell populations as genomic "tape recorders" for the analog and distributed recording of long-term event histories. We describe a platform for generating single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vivo in response to arbitrary transcriptional signals. When coexpressed with a recombinase, these intracellularly expressed ssDNAs target specific genomic DNA addresses, resulting in precise mutations that accumulate in cell populations as a function of the magnitude and duration of the inputs. This platform could enable long-term cellular recorders for environmental and biomedical applications, biological state machines, and enhanced genome engineering strategies.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266475/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266475/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Farzadfard, Fahim -- Lu, Timothy K -- 1DP2OD008435/OD/NIH HHS/ -- 1P50GM098792/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- DP2 OD008435/OD/NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM098792/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 14;346(6211):1256272. doi: 10.1126/science.1256272.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Synthetic Biology Group, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. MIT Synthetic Biology Center, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. MIT Microbiology Program, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Synthetic Biology Group, Research Laboratory of Electronics, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. MIT Synthetic Biology Center, 500 Technology Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. MIT Microbiology Program, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. timlu@mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25395541" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; *Bioengineering ; Cells ; DNA, Single-Stranded/*genetics ; Escherichia coli/genetics ; *Genetic Code ; Genomics/methods ; Information Storage and Retrieval/*methods ; Memory ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Synthetic Biology ; *Tape Recording ; Transcription, Genetic ; *Writing
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2014-11-29
    Description: Cucurbitacins are triterpenoids that confer a bitter taste in cucurbits such as cucumber, melon, watermelon, squash, and pumpkin. These compounds discourage most pests on the plant and have also been shown to have antitumor properties. With genomics and biochemistry, we identified nine cucumber genes in the pathway for biosynthesis of cucurbitacin C and elucidated four catalytic steps. We discovered transcription factors Bl (Bitter leaf) and Bt (Bitter fruit) that regulate this pathway in leaves and fruits, respectively. Traces in genomic signatures indicated that selection imposed on Bt during domestication led to derivation of nonbitter cucurbits from their bitter ancestors.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shang, Yi -- Ma, Yongshuo -- Zhou, Yuan -- Zhang, Huimin -- Duan, Lixin -- Chen, Huiming -- Zeng, Jianguo -- Zhou, Qian -- Wang, Shenhao -- Gu, Wenjia -- Liu, Min -- Ren, Jinwei -- Gu, Xingfang -- Zhang, Shengping -- Wang, Ye -- Yasukawa, Ken -- Bouwmeester, Harro J -- Qi, Xiaoquan -- Zhang, Zhonghua -- Lucas, William J -- Huang, Sanwen -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 28;346(6213):1084-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1259215.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. Agricultural Genomic Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518124, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. Horticulture and Landscape College, Hunan Agricultural University, National Chinese Medicinal Herbs Technology Center, Changsha 410128, China. ; Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093, China. ; Hunan Vegetable Research Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125, China. ; Horticulture and Landscape College, Hunan Agricultural University, National Chinese Medicinal Herbs Technology Center, Changsha 410128, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China. ; Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. ; School of Pharmacy, Nihon University, Tokyo 101-8308, Japan. ; Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6700, Netherlands. ; Department of Plant Biology, College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. ; Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Horticultural Crops of the Ministry of Agriculture, Sino-Dutch Joint Laboratory of Horticultural Genomics, Beijing 100081, China. Agricultural Genomic Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518124, China. huangsanwen@caas.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25430763" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Cucumis sativus/genetics/*metabolism ; Fruit/genetics/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; Genome, Plant ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Plant Leaves/genetics/*metabolism ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; *Taste ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Triterpenes/chemical synthesis/*metabolism
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2014-09-13
    Description: In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78 patients in Sierra Leone to ~2000x coverage. We observed a rapid accumulation of interhost and intrahost genetic variation, allowing us to characterize patterns of viral transmission over the initial weeks of the epidemic. This West African variant likely diverged from central African lineages around 2004, crossed from Guinea to Sierra Leone in May 2014, and has exhibited sustained human-to-human transmission subsequently, with no evidence of additional zoonotic sources. Because many of the mutations alter protein sequences and other biologically meaningful targets, they should be monitored for impact on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies critical to outbreak response.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4431643/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4431643/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gire, Stephen K -- Goba, Augustine -- Andersen, Kristian G -- Sealfon, Rachel S G -- Park, Daniel J -- Kanneh, Lansana -- Jalloh, Simbirie -- Momoh, Mambu -- Fullah, Mohamed -- Dudas, Gytis -- Wohl, Shirlee -- Moses, Lina M -- Yozwiak, Nathan L -- Winnicki, Sarah -- Matranga, Christian B -- Malboeuf, Christine M -- Qu, James -- Gladden, Adrianne D -- Schaffner, Stephen F -- Yang, Xiao -- Jiang, Pan-Pan -- Nekoui, Mahan -- Colubri, Andres -- Coomber, Moinya Ruth -- Fonnie, Mbalu -- Moigboi, Alex -- Gbakie, Michael -- Kamara, Fatima K -- Tucker, Veronica -- Konuwa, Edwin -- Saffa, Sidiki -- Sellu, Josephine -- Jalloh, Abdul Azziz -- Kovoma, Alice -- Koninga, James -- Mustapha, Ibrahim -- Kargbo, Kandeh -- Foday, Momoh -- Yillah, Mohamed -- Kanneh, Franklyn -- Robert, Willie -- Massally, James L B -- Chapman, Sinead B -- Bochicchio, James -- Murphy, Cheryl -- Nusbaum, Chad -- Young, Sarah -- Birren, Bruce W -- Grant, Donald S -- Scheiffelin, John S -- Lander, Eric S -- Happi, Christian -- Gevao, Sahr M -- Gnirke, Andreas -- Rambaut, Andrew -- Garry, Robert F -- Khan, S Humarr -- Sabeti, Pardis C -- 095831/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 1DP2OD006514-01/OD/NIH HHS/ -- 1U01HG007480-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 260864/European Research Council/International -- DP2 OD006514/OD/NIH HHS/ -- GM080177/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900049C/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272200900049C/PHS HHS/ -- T32 GM080177/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HG007480/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI110818/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI115589/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1369-72. doi: 10.1126/science.1259657. Epub 2014 Aug 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. andersen@broadinstitute.org augstgoba@yahoo.com psabeti@oeb.harvard.edu. ; Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. andersen@broadinstitute.org augstgoba@yahoo.com psabeti@oeb.harvard.edu. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. ; Kenema Government Hospital, Kenema, Sierra Leone. Eastern Polytechnic College, Kenema, Sierra Leone. ; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. ; Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Redeemer's University, Ogun State, Nigeria. ; University of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone. ; Institute of Evolutionary Biology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK. Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214632" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Ebolavirus/*genetics/isolation & purification ; *Epidemiological Monitoring ; Genetic Variation ; Genome, Viral/genetics ; Genomics/methods ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/*transmission/*virology ; Humans ; Mutation ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sierra Leone/epidemiology
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2014-06-28
    Description: Epistatic interactions between mutations can make evolutionary trajectories contingent on the chance occurrence of initial mutations. We used experimental evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to quantify this contingency, finding differences in adaptability among 64 closely related genotypes. Despite these differences, sequencing of 104 evolved clones showed that initial genotype did not constrain future mutational trajectories. Instead, reconstructed combinations of mutations revealed a pattern of diminishing-returns epistasis: Beneficial mutations have consistently smaller effects in fitter backgrounds. Taken together, these results show that beneficial mutations affecting a variety of biological processes are globally coupled; they interact strongly, but only through their combined effect on fitness. As a consequence, fitness evolution follows a predictable trajectory even though sequence-level adaptation is stochastic.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4314286/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4314286/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kryazhimskiy, Sergey -- Rice, Daniel P -- Jerison, Elizabeth R -- Desai, Michael M -- GM104239/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM104239/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Jun 27;344(6191):1519-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1250939.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. skryazhi@oeb.harvard.edu mdesai@oeb.harvard.edu. ; Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. ; Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. FAS Center for Systems Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. skryazhi@oeb.harvard.edu mdesai@oeb.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptation, Physiological ; Base Sequence ; Directed Molecular Evolution ; *Epistasis, Genetic ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genes, Fungal ; *Genetic Fitness ; Genome, Fungal ; Genotype ; Models, Genetic ; Molecular Sequence Annotation ; Mutation ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics/*physiology ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stochastic Processes
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2014-08-26
    Description: The ethanolamine utilization (eut) locus of Enterococcus faecalis, containing at least 19 genes distributed over four polycistronic messenger RNAs, appears to be regulated by a single adenosyl cobalamine (AdoCbl)-responsive riboswitch. We report that the AdoCbl-binding riboswitch is part of a small, trans-acting RNA, EutX, which additionally contains a dual-hairpin substrate for the RNA binding-response regulator, EutV. In the absence of AdoCbl, EutX uses this structure to sequester EutV. EutV is known to regulate the eut messenger RNAs by binding dual-hairpin structures that overlap terminators and thus prevent transcription termination. In the presence of AdoCbl, EutV cannot bind to EutX and, instead, causes transcriptional read through of multiple eut genes. This work introduces riboswitch-mediated control of protein sequestration as a posttranscriptional mechanism to coordinately regulate gene expression.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356242/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356242/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉DebRoy, Sruti -- Gebbie, Margo -- Ramesh, Arati -- Goodson, Jonathan R -- Cruz, Melissa R -- van Hoof, Ambro -- Winkler, Wade C -- Garsin, Danielle A -- P30 DK056338/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076406/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI110432/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM099790/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01AI076406/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01GM099790/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R56 AI110432/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R56AI110432/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 22;345(6199):937-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1255091.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. danielle.a.garsin@uth.tmc.edu wwinkler@umd.edu. ; Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, TX 77030, USA. danielle.a.garsin@uth.tmc.edu wwinkler@umd.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25146291" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Cobamides/*metabolism ; Enterococcus faecalis/*genetics/metabolism ; Ethanolamine/*metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; RNA, Messenger/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Response Elements ; Riboswitch/genetics/*physiology ; *Transcription, Genetic
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2014-05-24
    Description: The evolution of the ratite birds has been widely attributed to vicariant speciation, driven by the Cretaceous breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana. The early isolation of Africa and Madagascar implies that the ostrich and extinct Madagascan elephant birds (Aepyornithidae) should be the oldest ratite lineages. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of two elephant birds and performed phylogenetic analyses, which revealed that these birds are the closest relatives of the New Zealand kiwi and are distant from the basal ratite lineage of ostriches. This unexpected result strongly contradicts continental vicariance and instead supports flighted dispersal in all major ratite lineages. We suggest that convergence toward gigantism and flightlessness was facilitated by early Tertiary expansion into the diurnal herbivory niche after the extinction of the dinosaurs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mitchell, Kieren J -- Llamas, Bastien -- Soubrier, Julien -- Rawlence, Nicolas J -- Worthy, Trevor H -- Wood, Jamie -- Lee, Michael S Y -- Cooper, Alan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 May 23;344(6186):898-900. doi: 10.1126/science.1251981.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace Campus, South Australia 5005, Australia. ; School of Biological Sciences, Flinders University, South Australia 5001, Australia. ; Landcare Research, Post Office Box 40, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand. ; Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace Campus, South Australia 5005, Australia. South Australian Museum, North Terrace, South Australia 5000, Australia. ; Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, North Terrace Campus, South Australia 5005, Australia. alan.cooper@adelaide.edu.au.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24855267" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; *Biological Evolution ; DNA/*genetics ; Flight, Animal ; Fossils ; Molecular Sequence Data ; New Zealand ; Palaeognathae/*classification/genetics ; Phylogeny ; Struthioniformes/*classification/genetics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2014-03-01
    Description: Understanding the spatial organization of gene expression with single-nucleotide resolution requires localizing the sequences of expressed RNA transcripts within a cell in situ. Here, we describe fluorescent in situ RNA sequencing (FISSEQ), in which stably cross-linked complementary DNA (cDNA) amplicons are sequenced within a biological sample. Using 30-base reads from 8102 genes in situ, we examined RNA expression and localization in human primary fibroblasts with a simulated wound-healing assay. FISSEQ is compatible with tissue sections and whole-mount embryos and reduces the limitations of optical resolution and noisy signals on single-molecule detection. Our platform enables massively parallel detection of genetic elements, including gene transcripts and molecular barcodes, and can be used to investigate cellular phenotype, gene regulation, and environment in situ.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4140943/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4140943/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Je Hyuk -- Daugharthy, Evan R -- Scheiman, Jonathan -- Kalhor, Reza -- Yang, Joyce L -- Ferrante, Thomas C -- Terry, Richard -- Jeanty, Sauveur S F -- Li, Chao -- Amamoto, Ryoji -- Peters, Derek T -- Turczyk, Brian M -- Marblestone, Adam H -- Inverso, Samuel A -- Bernard, Amy -- Mali, Prashant -- Rios, Xavier -- Aach, John -- Church, George M -- GM080177/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH098977/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P50 HG005550/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HL102815/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- RC2HL102815/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM080177/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 MH098977/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Mar 21;343(6177):1360-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1250212. Epub 2014 Feb 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wyss Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24578530" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Sequence ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA, Complementary ; Fluorescence ; Gene Expression Profiling/*methods ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, RNA/*methods ; Single-Cell Analysis ; Transcription Initiation Site ; *Transcriptome ; Wound Healing
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2014-04-26
    Description: Mutations in the mitochondrial genome are associated with multiple diseases and biological processes; however, little is known about the extent of sequence variation in the mitochondrial transcriptome. By ultra-deeply sequencing mitochondrial RNA (〉6000x) from the whole blood of ~1000 individuals from the CARTaGENE project, we identified remarkable levels of sequence variation within and across individuals, as well as sites that show consistent patterns of posttranscriptional modification. Using a genome-wide association study, we find that posttranscriptional modification of functionally important sites in mitochondrial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) is under strong genetic control, largely driven by a missense mutation in MRPP3 that explains ~22% of the variance. These results reveal a major nuclear genetic determinant of posttranscriptional modification in mitochondria and suggest that tRNA posttranscriptional modification may affect cellular energy production.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hodgkinson, Alan -- Idaghdour, Youssef -- Gbeha, Elias -- Grenier, Jean-Christophe -- Hip-Ki, Elodie -- Bruat, Vanessa -- Goulet, Jean-Philippe -- de Malliard, Thibault -- Awadalla, Philip -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 25;344(6182):413-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1251110.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Universite de Montreal, 3175 Chemin de la Cote-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1C5, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24763589" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Base Sequence ; DNA, Mitochondrial/chemistry/genetics ; Female ; *Genetic Variation ; *Genome, Mitochondrial ; Genome-Wide Association Study ; High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing ; Humans ; Male ; Methylation ; Middle Aged ; Mutation, Missense ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; RNA/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional ; RNA, Transfer/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Ribonuclease P/*genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sequence Analysis, RNA ; Transcriptome
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  • 34
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2014-11-02
    Description: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control expression of thousands of genes in plants and animals. miRNAs function by guiding Argonaute proteins to complementary sites in messenger RNAs (mRNAs) targeted for repression. We determined crystal structures of human Argonaute-2 (Ago2) bound to a defined guide RNA with and without target RNAs representing miRNA recognition sites. These structures suggest a stepwise mechanism, in which Ago2 primarily exposes guide nucleotides (nt) 2 to 5 for initial target pairing. Pairing to nt 2 to 5 promotes conformational changes that expose nt 2 to 8 and 13 to 16 for further target recognition. Interactions with the guide-target minor groove allow Ago2 to interrogate target RNAs in a sequence-independent manner, whereas an adenosine binding-pocket opposite guide nt 1 further facilitates target recognition. Spurious slicing of miRNA targets is avoided through an inhibitory coordination of one catalytic magnesium ion. These results explain the conserved nucleotide-pairing patterns in animal miRNA target sites first observed over two decades ago.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4313529/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4313529/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schirle, Nicole T -- Sheu-Gruttadauria, Jessica -- MacRae, Ian J -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM104475/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Oct 31;346(6209):608-13. doi: 10.1126/science.1258040.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. macrae@scripps.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25359968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Argonaute Proteins/*chemistry/genetics ; Base Sequence ; Catalytic Domain ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Magnesium/chemistry ; MicroRNAs/*chemistry/genetics ; Models, Molecular ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; RNA, Guide/*chemistry/genetics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2014-11-21
    Description: To study the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory DNA, we mapped 〉1.3 million deoxyribonuclease I-hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in 45 mouse cell and tissue types, and systematically compared these with human DHS maps from orthologous compartments. We found that the mouse and human genomes have undergone extensive cis-regulatory rewiring that combines branch-specific evolutionary innovation and loss with widespread repurposing of conserved DHSs to alternative cell fates, and that this process is mediated by turnover of transcription factor (TF) recognition elements. Despite pervasive evolutionary remodeling of the location and content of individual cis-regulatory regions, within orthologous mouse and human cell types the global fraction of regulatory DNA bases encoding recognition sites for each TF has been strictly conserved. Our findings provide new insights into the evolutionary forces shaping mammalian regulatory DNA landscapes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337786/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337786/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vierstra, Jeff -- Rynes, Eric -- Sandstrom, Richard -- Zhang, Miaohua -- Canfield, Theresa -- Hansen, R Scott -- Stehling-Sun, Sandra -- Sabo, Peter J -- Byron, Rachel -- Humbert, Richard -- Thurman, Robert E -- Johnson, Audra K -- Vong, Shinny -- Lee, Kristen -- Bates, Daniel -- Neri, Fidencio -- Diegel, Morgan -- Giste, Erika -- Haugen, Eric -- Dunn, Douglas -- Wilken, Matthew S -- Josefowicz, Steven -- Samstein, Robert -- Chang, Kai-Hsin -- Eichler, Evan E -- De Bruijn, Marella -- Reh, Thomas A -- Skoultchi, Arthur -- Rudensky, Alexander -- Orkin, Stuart H -- Papayannopoulou, Thalia -- Treuting, Piper M -- Selleri, Licia -- Kaul, Rajinder -- Groudine, Mark -- Bender, M A -- Stamatoyannopoulos, John A -- 1RC2HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- 2R01HD04399709/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA008748/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK096266/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY021482/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD043997/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK044746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37DK44746/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- RC2 HG005654/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54HG007010/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Nov 21;346(6212):1007-12. doi: 10.1126/science.1246426.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Biological Structure, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Immunology Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. ; Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute. ; Medical Research Council (MRC) Molecular Haematology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. ; Department of Cell Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston and Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Comparative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. jstam@uw.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25411453" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; *Conserved Sequence ; DNA/*genetics ; Deoxyribonuclease I ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; Mice ; Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid/*genetics ; Restriction Mapping ; Transcription Factors/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2014-04-20
    Description: Flaviviruses are emerging human pathogens and worldwide health threats. During infection, pathogenic subgenomic flaviviral RNAs (sfRNAs) are produced by resisting degradation by the 5'--〉3' host cell exonuclease Xrn1 through an unknown RNA structure-based mechanism. Here, we present the crystal structure of a complete Xrn1-resistant flaviviral RNA, which contains interwoven pseudoknots within a compact structure that depends on highly conserved nucleotides. The RNA's three-dimensional topology creates a ringlike conformation, with the 5' end of the resistant structure passing through the ring from one side of the fold to the other. Disruption of this structure prevents formation of sfRNA during flaviviral infection. Thus, sfRNA formation results from an RNA fold that interacts directly with Xrn1, presenting the enzyme with a structure that confounds its helicase activity.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163914/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4163914/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chapman, Erich G -- Costantino, David A -- Rabe, Jennifer L -- Moon, Stephanie L -- Wilusz, Jeffrey -- Nix, Jay C -- Kieft, Jeffrey S -- P30 CA046934/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA046934/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U54 AI-065357/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):307-10. doi: 10.1126/science.1250897.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24744377" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Encephalitis Virus, Murray Valley/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Exoribonucleases/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; *Nucleic Acid Conformation ; RNA, Viral/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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