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  • BIOTECHNOLOGY  (1,373)
  • 1970 - 1974  (1,373)
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Years
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-05-22
    Description: A technical evaluation of the papers presented at a conference on escape systems for helicopters and V/STOL aircraft was made. The subjects discussed include the following: (1) bioengineering aspects of spinal injury during ejection, (2) aerodynamic forces acting on crewman during escape, (3) operational practicality of fly away ejection seats, (4) helicopter survivability requirements, (5) ejection experience from V/STOL aircraft, and (6) research projects involving escape and retrieval systems.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AGARD Escape Probl. and Manoeuvres in Combat Aircraft; 6 p
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  • 2
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The program is reported, which was designed to define the membrane technology of the vapor diffusion water recovery process and to test this technology using commercially available or experimental membranes. One membrane was selected, on the basis of the defined technology, and was subjected to a 30-day demonstration trial.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-137545
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effects of visual display dynamics on the altitude tracking performance of a subject in a fixed base flight simulator are considered. The subject, flying the linearized longitudinal equations of motion, attempts to maintain the same altitude as two airplanes positioned three hundred feet ahead, as in level formation flying. The horizon together with the two leading aircraft are represented symbolically on a CRT display. The subject's aircraft is disturbed by atmospheric turbulence. The data indicate a relationship between the bandwidth of the display dynamics and the short period characteristics of the simulated airplane. For an airplane with a relatively fast pitch response the presence of altitude display dynamics, with a bandwidth as high as five times the short period natural frequency, causes significant degradation of altitude tracking performance.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-132459
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  • 4
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The research is reported in the development of a firefighter's breathing system (FBS) to satisfy the operational requirements of fire departments while remaining within their cost constraints. System definition for the FBS is discussed, and the program status is reported. It is concluded that the most difficult problem in the FBS Program is the achievement of widespread fire department acceptance of the system.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70343
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The FAA introduced an experimental aircraft operations program at JFK Airport called the Dynamic Preferential Runway System (DPRS) in the summer of 1971. The program is designed to distribute air traffic as equally as possible over the surrounding communities, to limit periods of continuous overflight and to vary the same hours of overflight from day to day. After a full year's operation, an evaluation was made of the system's effectiveness. All of the operation's goals were moderately achieved with the greatest relief in reduced overflight afforded the most heavily impacted areas. Few residents, however, were aware of DPRS or felt that it had greatly reduced annoyance or represented a major effort by the aircraft authorities. Statistical analyses of reported annoyance obtained from two independent surveys in 1969 and 1972 reveal limited reductions in annoyance in 1972, with shifts from reported high annoyance to moderate annoyance.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-140488
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The purpose of the membrane water deaerator program was to develop data on a breadboard hollow fiber membrane unit that removes both dissolved and evolved gas from a water transfer system in order to: (1) assure a hard fill of the EVLSS expendable water tank; (2) prevent flow blockage by gas bubbles in circulating systems; and (3) prevent pump cavitation.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AIRESEARCH-74-10072 , NASA-CR-140259
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  • 7
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The basic performance data on a hollow fiber membrane unit that removes water from a breathing gas loop by diffusion is presented. Using available permeability data for cellulose acetate, a preliminary design was made of a dehumidifier unit that would meet the problem statement.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-140260 , AIRESEARCH-74-10255
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data are presented on a new evaporator/sublimator concept using a hollow fiber membrane unit with a high permeability to liquid water. The aim of the program was to obtain a more reliable, lightweight and simpler Extra Vehicular Life Support System (EVLSS) cooling concept than is currently being used.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-140261 , AIRESEARCH-74-10256
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The functional requirements of stowage, preparation, serving, consumption, and cleanup were applied to each of the five food mixes selected for study in terms of the overall design of the space shuttle food system. The analysis led to a definition of performance requirements for each food mix, along with a definition of equipment to meet those requirements. Weight and volume data for all five systems, in terms of food and packaging, support equipment, and galley installation penalties, are presented.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134377
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  • 10
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The zero gravity test program demonstrated the feasibility and practicability of collecting urine from both male and female crew members in a zero gravity environment in an earthlike manner not requiring any manual handling of urine containers. In addition, the testing demonstrated that a seat which is comfortable in both regimes of operation could be designed for use on the ground and in zero-gravity. Further, the tests showed that the vortex liquid/air separator is an effective liquid/air separation method in zero gravity. Visual observations indicate essentially zero liquid carry over. The system also demonstrated its ability to handle post elimination wipes without difficulty. The designs utilized in the WCS were verified as acceptable for usage in the space shuttle or other space vehicles.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-104240 , SVHSER-6509
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A six man, self contained electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrating subsystem was successfully designed and fabricated. It was a preprototype engineering model designed to nominally remove 6.0 kg (13.2 lb) CO2/day with an inlet air CO2 partial pressure of 400 N/sq m (3 mm Hg) and an overcapacity removal capability of 12.0 kg (26.4 lb) CO2/day. The design specifications were later expanded to allow operation at space station prototype CO2 collection subsystem operating conditions.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: LSI-ER-134-32 , NASA-CR-114743
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The preliminary design of a remotely controlled teleoperator for space application is reported that depends on man for control inputs and extends operation of the space shuttle.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: MCR-74-290-VOL-2 , NASA-CR-120403
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-120303
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The technique which utilizes exposure to a plasma to remove contaminants from a surface was incorporated into a laboratory model which demonstrates active cleaning by both plasma cleaning and ion sputtering modes of operation. The development phase is reported and includes discussion of the plasma tube configuration, device design, and performance tests. A general description of the active cleaning device is provided which includes information on the main power/plasma discharge sensors, and the power, gas supply, and ion accelerator systems. Development of the active cleaning species at high vacuum conditions is described and results indicate that plasma cleaning occurs in the region of a visible plume which extends from the end of the plasma tube. Recommendations are made for research to determine the plasma cleaning mechanism and the plasma species responsible for the cleaning, as well limitations on the type of contaminants that can be removed.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-120292 , D180-18031-1
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A four component system was developed which consists of a particle size reduction mechanism, a pneumatic waste transport system, a rotating-paddle incinerator, and a catalytic afterburner to be integrated into a six-man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes on board spacecraft. The study included the development of different concepts or functions, the establishment of operational specifications, and a critical evaluation for each of the four components. A series of laboratory tests was run, and a baseline subsystem design was established. An operational specification was also written in preparation for detailed design and testing of this baseline subsystem.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-114763
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Modeling of human performance in remote manipulation tasks is reported by automated procedures using computers to analyze and count motions during a manipulation task. Performance is monitored by an on-line computer capable of measuring the joint angles of both master and slave and in some cases the trajectory and velocity of the hand itself. In this way the operator's strategies with different transmission delays, displays, tasks, and manipulators can be analyzed in detail for comparison. Some progress is described in obtaining a set of standard tasks and difficulty measures for evaluating manipulator performance.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-137528
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  • 17
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Langley six degree of freedom visual motion simulator has been used to measure subjective response ratings of the ride quality of eight segments of flight, representative of a wide variation in comfort estimates. The results indicate that the use of simulators for this purpose appears promising. A preliminary approach for the development of criteria for ride quality ratings based on psychophysical precepts is included.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-X-71922 , L-9296
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A hydrazine/water electrolysis process system module design was fabricated and tested to demonstrate component and module performance. This module is capable of providing both the metabolic oxygen for crew needs and the oxygen and nitrogen for spacecraft leak makeup. The component designs evolved through previous R and D efforts, and were fabricated and tested individually and then were assembled into a complete module which was successfully tested for 1000 hours to demonstrate integration of the individual components. A survey was made of hydrazine sensor technology and a cell math model was derived.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: LMSC-D401948 , NASA-CR-134390
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Studies of noise effects upon human information processing are described which investigated whether or not effects of noise upon performance are dependent upon specific characteristics of noise stimulation and their interaction with task conditions. The difficulty of predicting noise effects was emphasized. Arousal theory was considered to have explanatory value in interpreting the findings of all the studies. Performance under noise was found to involve a psychophysiological cost, measured by vasoconstriction response, with the degree of response cost being related to scores on a noise annoyance sensitivity scale. Noise sensitive subjects showed a greater autonomic response under noise stimulation.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-132469
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three areas of inquiry are reported for the Skylab Experiment S-071 whose objective was to study the circadian system of a mammal during space flight. The thermoregulatory behavior of the Perognathus longimembris, or little pocket mouse, was studied under conditions of constant dark and constant temperature in the prolonged weightless environment of Skylab. The following specific questions were studied: (1) the effects of weightlessness on circadian periodicity in the little pocket mouse; (2) stability of the free-running circadian period of body temperature of the little pocket mouse exposed to simulated launch stress; and (3) characteristics of the circadian rhythm of body temperature in the little pocket mouse. Diagrams of the electronic circuitry and hardware used in the experiment are shown and results are given in both graphical and tabular form. The methods used in the experiment are fully documented, along with conclusions and recommendations for future research.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-137523
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A feasibility study of extraterrestrial disposal of radioactive waste is reported. This report covers the initial work done on only one part of the NASA study, that evaluates and compares possible space destinations and space transportation systems. The currently planned space shuttle was found to be more cost effective than current expendable launch vehicles by about a factor of 2. The space shuttle requires a third stage to perform the waste disposal missions. Depending on the particular mission, this third stage could be either a reusable space tug or an expendable stage such as a Centaur.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: E-7982 , NASA-TM-X-71557
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  • 22
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Design and development work is reported for an air filter, an infant weight scale, multiple electrode cardiography, a white noise hearing aid, and a tibial torsion correction device.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-X-70639 , X-207-74-103
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Research data obtained by the low dose electronic radiography system are reported. Data cover: (1) localization and tracking of Ta screws implanted in the inner wall of the right ventrical of the heart, (2) use of cross hairs to outline inner or outer heart wall contours, (3) quantitative measure of anatomical components which are stationary in size or change size dynamically, and (4) study of dynamic quantitative data from roentenologic or fluoroscopic procedures.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-138450
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A centrifuge study was carried out to measure physiological stress and control task performance during simulated space shuttle orbiter reentry. Jet pilots were tested with, and without, anti-g-suit protection. The pilots were exposed to simulated space shuttle reentry acceleration profiles before, and after, ten days of complete bed rest, which produced physiological deconditioning similar to that resulting from prolonged exposure to orbital zero g. Pilot performance in selected control tasks was determined during simulated reentry, and before and after each simulation. Physiological stress during reentry was determined by monitoring heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration rate. Study results indicate: (1) heart rate increased during the simulated reentry when no g protection was given, and remained at or below pre-bed rest values when g-suits were used; (2) pilots preferred the use of g-suits to muscular contraction for control of vision tunneling and grayout during reentry; (3) prolonged bed rest did not alter blood pressure or respiration rate during reentry, but the peak reentry acceleration level did; and (4) pilot performance was not affected by prolonged bed rest or simulated reentry.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7503 , A-5241-VOL-1
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The analytical and experimental studies are described which were directed toward the acquisition of basic information on utilizing a liquid amine sorbent for in use in a CO2 removal system for manned spacecraft. Liquid amine systems are successfully used on submarines for control of CO2 generated by the crew, but liquid amines were not previously considered for spacecraft applications due to lack of development of satisfactory rotary phase separators. Developments in this area now make consideration of liquid amines practical for spacecraft system CO2 removal. The following major tasks were performed to evaluate liquid amine systems for spacecraft: (1) characterization, through testing, of the basic physical and thermodynamic properties of the amine solution; (2) determination of the dynamic characteristics of a cocurrent flow absorber; and (3) evaluation, synthesis, and selection of a liquid amine system concept oriented toward low power requirements. A low weight, low power system concept was developed. Numerical and graphical data are accompanied by pertinent observations.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AIRESEARCH-74-10178 , NASA-CR-137560
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  • 26
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Ride quality vibration criteria applicable to the design and evaluation of air and surface transportation systems are described. Consideration is given to the magnitude of vehicle vibration experienced by the passenger, the frequency of vibration, the direction of vibration measurements are presented for a variety of air and surface transportation systems. In addition, simulator data on seat dynamics and passenger response are presented. Results suggest the relative merits of various physical descriptors and measurement locations for characterizing the vibration in terms suitable for the design and/or evaluation of transportation systems.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-X-72008
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  • 27
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: During wash water purification, surfactants tend to precipitate and foul the RO membranes, causing water flux decline and loss of salt rejection. The use of 165 to 190 ppm ferric chloride and optionally 0.25 to 1.0 ppm polymeric flocculate precipitates 92 to 96 percent of the surfactant from an Olive Leaf Soap based wash water. Crossflow filtration and pressure filtration yield good soap rejection at high water flux rates. Post-treatment of the chemically pretreated and filtered wash water with activated charcoal removes the residual soap down to an undetectable level.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-140204
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  • 28
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Data were assembled which define the optimum food system to support the space shuttle program, and which provide sufficient engineering data to support necessary requests for proposals towards final development and installment of the system. The study approach used is outlined, along with technical data and sketches for each functional area. Logistic support analysis, system assurance, and recommendations and conclusions based on the study results are also presented.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134374
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The basic Waste Collection System (WCS) design under consideration utilized air flow to separate the stool from the WCS user and to transport the fecal material to a slinger device for subsequent deposition on a storage bowel. The major parameters governing stool separation and transport were found to be the area of the air inlet orifices, the configuration of the air inlet orifice and the transport air flow. Separation force and transport velocity of the stool were studied. The developed inlet orifice configuration was found to be an effective design for providing fecal separation and transport. Simulated urine tests and female user tests in zero gravity established air flow rates between 0.08 and 0.25 cu sm/min (3 and 9 scfm) as satisfactory for entrapment, containment and transport of urine using an urinal. The investigation of air drying of fecal material as a substitute for vacuum drying in a WCS breadboard system showed that using baseline conditions anticipated for the shuttle cabin ambient atmosphere, flow rates of 0.14 cu sm/min (5 cfm) were adequate for drying and maintaining biological stability of the fecal material.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-140227 , DOC-74SD4221
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A preliminary design of a manipulator system, applicable to a free flying teleoperator spacecraft operating in conjunction with the shuttle or tug, is presented. A new control technique is proposed for application to the manipulator system. This technique, a range/azimuth/elevation rate-rate mode, was selected based upon the results of man-in-the-loop simulations. Several areas are identified in which additional emphasis must be placed prior to the development of the manipulator system. The study results in a manipulator system which will provide an effective method for servicing, maintaining, and repairing satellites to increase their useful life.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: MCR-74-290-VOL-1 , NASA-CR-120402
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The individual task durations are calculated in a series of time line realization problems, and a functional requirements data collection technique, designed to accommodate the data requirements for Spacelab payloads, is presented.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-120398-APP-1-2
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The kinds of activities that are attractive to man in long duration isolation are delineated considering meaningful work as major activity and a choice of leisure/living provisions. The dependent variables are the relative distribution between various work, leisure, and living activities where external constraints on the subject's freedom of choice are minimized. Results indicate that an average of at least five hours per day of significant meaningful work is required for satisfactory enjoyment of the situation; most other parameters of the situation have less effects on overall performance and satisfaction
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-139651
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The research to design, fabricate, test, and deliver a pressure vessel for the main component in an improved high-performance firefighter's breathing system is reported. The principal physical and performance characteristics of the vessel which were required are: (1) maximum weight of 9.0 lb; (2) maximum operating pressure of 4500 psig (charge pressure of 4000 psig); (3) minimum contained volume of 280 in. 3; (4) proof pressure of 6750 psig; (5) minimum burst pressure of 9000 psig following operational and service life; and (6) a minimum service life of 15 years. The vessel developed to fulfill the requirements described was completely sucessful, i.e., every category of performence was satisfied. The average weight of the vessel was found to be about 8.3 lb, well below the 9.0 lb specification requirement.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134384 , MCR-73-214
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A six man, self contained, electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrating subsystem for space station prototype use was successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. A test program was successfully completed which covered shakedown testing, design verification testing, and acceptance testing.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: LSI-ER-170-34 , NASA-CR-114742
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134379
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The analysis and selection of food items and primary packaging, the development of menus, the nutritional analysis of diet, and the analyses of alternate food mixes and contingency foods is reported in terms of the overall food system design for space shuttle flight. Stowage weights and cubic volumes associated with each alternate mix were also evaluated.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134378
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The relative penalties associated with various techniques for providing an onboard cold environment for storage of perishable food items, and for the development of packaging and vehicle stowage parameters were investigated in terms of the overall food system design analysis of space shuttle. The degrees of capability for maintaining both a 40 F to 45 F refrigerated temperature and a 0 F and 20 F frozen environment were assessed for the following cooling techniques: (1) phase change (heat sink) concept; (2) thermoelectric concept; (3) vapor cycle concept; and (4) expendable ammonia concept. The parameters considered in the analysis were weight, volume, and spacecraft power restrictions. Data were also produced for packaging and vehicle stowage parameters which are compatible with vehicle weight and volume specifications. Certain assumptions were made for food packaging sizes based on previously generated space shuttle menus. The results of the study are shown, along with the range of meal choices considered.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134376
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Technical data are presented which were used to evaluate active heating methods to be incorporated into the space shuttle food system design, and also to evaluate the relative merits and penalties associated with various approaches to the heating of rehydrated food during space flight. Equipment heating candidates were subject to a preliminary screening performed by a selection rationale process which considered the following parameters; (1) gravitational effect; (2) safety; (3) operability; (4) system compatibility; (5) serviceability; (6) crew acceptability; (7) crew time; (8) development risk; and (9) operating cost. A hot air oven, electrically heated food tray, and microwave oven were selected for further consideration and analysis. Passive, semi-active, and active food preparation approaches were also studied in an effort to determine the optimum method for heating rehydrated food. Potential complexity, cost, vehicle impact penalties, and palatability were considered in the analysis. A summary of the study results is provided along with cost estimates for each of the potential sytems
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134375
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  • 39
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A summary of support activities performed to ensure the quality and reliability of the Skylab food system design is reported. The qualification test program was conducted to verify crew compartment compatibility, and to certify compliance of the food system with nutrition, preparation, and container requirements. Preflight storage requirements and handling procedures were also determined. Information on Skylab food items was compiled including matters pertaining to serving size, preparation information, and mineral, calorie, and protein content. Accessory hardware and the engraving of food utensils were also considered, and a stowage and orientation list was constructed which takes into account menu use sequences, menu items, and hardware stowage restrictions. A food inventory system was established and food thermal storage tests were conducted. Problems and comments pertaining to specific food items carried onboard the Skylab Workshop were compiled.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134380
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The multipurpose ventricular actuating system is a pneumatic signal generating device that provides controlled driving pressures for actuating pulsatile blood pumps. Overall system capabilities, the timing circuitry, and calibration instruction are included.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: E-8009 , NASA-TM-X-71570
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Vertex evoked potentials were recorded from human subjects performing in an auditory detection task with rating scale responses. Three values of a priori probability of signal presentation were tested. The amplitudes of the N1 and P3 components of the vertex potential associated with correct detections of the signal were found to be systematically related to the strictness of the response criterion and independent of variations in a priori signal probability. No similar evoked potential components were found associated with signal absent judgements (misses and correct rejections) regardless of the confidence level of the judgement or signal probability. These results strongly support the contention that the form of the vertex evoked response is closely correlated with the subject's psychophysical decision regarding the presence or absence of a threshold level signal.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-138796
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  • 42
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Bioengineering of medical equipment is detailed. Equipment described includes: an environmental control system for a surgical suite; surface potential mapping for an electrode system; the use of speech-modulated-white-noise to differentiate hearers and feelers among the profoundly deaf; the design of an automatic weight scale for an isolette; and an internal tibial torsion correction study. Graphs and charts are included with design specifications of this equipment.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-138462 , X-207-74-103
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  • 43
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Methods are reported by which freeze dried foods of improved quality will be produced. The applicability of theories of flavor retention has been demonstrated for a number of food polymers, both proteins and polysacchardies. Studies on the formation of structures during freeze drying have been continued for emulsified systems. Deterioration of organoleptic quality of freeze dried foods due to high temperature heating has been evaluated and improved procedures developed. The influence of water activity and high temperature on retention of model flavor materials and browning deterioration has been evaluated for model systems and food materials.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-134247
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Surface electromyograms (EMG) taken from three upper torso muscles during a push-pull task were analyzed by a power spectral density technique to determine the utility of the spectral analysis for identifying changes in the EMG caused by muscular fatigue. The results confirmed the value of the frequency analysis for identifying fatigue producing muscular performance. Data revealed reliable differences between muscles in fatigue induced responses to various locations in the reach envelope at which the subjects were required to perform the push-pull exercise, and the differential sensitivity of individual muscles to the various reach positions; i.e., certain reach positions imposed more fatigue related shifts in EMG power than did others. It was found that a pressurized space suit changed the pattern of normal shirtsleeve muscle fatigue responses in all three of the muscles.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: JSC-09004 , NASA-TM-X-58136
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The data presented has for the most part been extracted from existing in-house and memoranda reports. The variables considered are motion, noise, temperature and pressure. The report is broken down into chapters for each of the environmental variables and criteria proposed based on the existing literature.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-132424 , BE-4088-101-74
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An optimal control approach has been used to model pilot performance during STOL flare and landing. The model is used to predict pilot landing performance for three STOL configurations, each having a different level of automatic control augmentation. Model predictions are compared with flight simulator data. It is concluded that the model can be effective design tool for studying analytically the effects of display modifications, different stability augmentation systems, and proposed changes in the landing area geometry.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-2374
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  • 47
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Conceptual design and fabrication of a full scale shuttle passenger couch engineering model are reported. The model was utilized to verify anthropometric dimensions, reach dimensions, ingress/egress, couch operation, storage space, restraint locations, and crew acceptability. These data were then incorported in the design of the passenger couch verification model that underwent performance tests.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: MCR-74-40 , NASA-CR-134200
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TN-D-7566 , L-9365
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  • 49
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Variations in total inertia and gravity loads at the joint outputs are treated along with the relative importance of gravity and acceleration-generated reaction torques or forces versus inertia torques or forces. The relation between the dynamical state equations in explicit terms and servoing the manipulator is briefly discussed in the framework of state variable feedback control which also forms the basis of adaptive manipulator control. Exact state equations were determined for total inertia and gravity loads at the joint outputs as a function of joint variables, using the constant inertial and geometric parameters of the individual links defined in the respective link coordinate frames. The range of maximum variations in total inertia and gravity loads at the joint outputs was calculated for both no load and load in the hand. The main result is the construction of a set of greatly simplified state equations which describe the total inertia and gravity load variations at the output of the six joints with an average error of less than 5%.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-136935 , JPL-TM-33-669
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  • 50
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: An atmosphere control subsystem (ACS) was developed for NASA-IBJSC which is designed to measure the major atmospheric constituents in the manned cabin of the space shuttle orbiter and control the addition of oxygen and nitrogen to maintain the partial pressures of these gases within very close limits. The ACS includes a mass spectrometer sensor (MSS) which analyzes the atmosphere of a shuttle vehicle pressurized cabin, and an electronic control assembly (ECA). The MSS was built and tested to meet the requirements for flight equipment for the M-171 Metabolic Analyzer experiment for the Skylab flight program. The instrument analyzes an atmospheric gas sample and produces continuous 0-5 vdc analog signals proportional to the partial pressures of H2, O2, N2, H2O, CO2 and total hydrocarbons having a m/e ratio between 50 and 120. It accepts signals from the MSS proportional to the partial pressures of N2 and O2 and controls the supply of these gases to the closed cabin.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: MDC-G4971 , NASA-CR-134190
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The development of a completely heat sterilizable intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) ventilator in an effort to reduce the number of hospital acquired infections is reported. After appropriate changes in materials and design were made, six prototype units were fabricated and were successfully field tested in local hospitals. Most components of the modified ventilators are compatible with existing machines. In all but a few instances, such as installation of bacteria-retentive filters and a modified venturi, the change over from non-heat-sterilizable to sterilizable units was accomplished by replacement of heat labile materials with heat stable materials.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: JPL-TM-33-670 , NASA-CR-136832
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A simplified space shuttle reentry simulation performed on the NASA Ames Research Center Centrifuge is described. Anticipating potentially deleterious effects of physiological deconditioning from orbital living (simulated here by 10 days of enforced bedrest) upon a shuttle pilot's ability to manually control his aircraft (should that be necessary in an emergency) a comprehensive battery of measurements was made roughly every 1/2 minute on eight military pilot subjects, over two 20-minute reentry Gz vs. time profiles, one peaking at 2 Gz and the other at 3 Gz. Alternate runs were made without and with g-suits to test the help or interference offered by such protective devices to manual control performance. A very demanding two-axis control task was employed, with a subcritical instability in the pitch axis to force a high attentional demand and a severe loss-of-control penalty. The results show that pilots experienced in high Gz flying can easily handle the shuttle manual control task during 2 Gz or 3 Gz reentry profiles, provided the degree of physiological deconditioning is no more than induced by these 10 days of enforced bedrest.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-2367
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  • 53
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The correlation of absorbed power as an objective ride measure to the subjective evaluation for the bus data was investigated. For some individual bus rides the correlations were poor, but when a sufficient number of rides was used to give reasonable sample base, an excellent correlation was obtained. The following logarithmical function was derived: S = 1.7245 1n (39.6849 AP), where S = one subjective rating of the ride; and AP = the absorbed power in watts. A six-degree-of-freedom method developed for aircraft data was completed. Preliminary correlation of absorbed power with ISO standards further enhances the bus ride and absorbed power correlation numbers since the AP's obtained are of the same order of magnitude for both correlations. While it would then appear that one could just use ISO standards, there is no way to add the effect of three degrees of freedom. The absorbed power provides a method of adding the effects due to the three major directions plus the pitch and roll.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-132738 , PTI-7412
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The effectivess of an improved static retraining method was evaluated for a simulated space vehicle approach and landing under instrument and visual flight conditions. Experienced pilots were trained and then tested after 4 months without flying to compare their performance using the improved method with three methods previously evaluated. Use of the improved static retraining method resulted in no practical or significant skill degradation and was found to be even more effective than methods using a dynamic presentation of visual cues. The results suggested that properly structured open loop methods of flight control task retraining are feasible.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: D180-17876-1 , NASA-CR-140225
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  • 55
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A baseline laboratory prototype of an integrated, six man, zero-g subsystem for processing human wastes onboard spacecraft was investigated, and included the development of an operational specification for the baseline subsystem, followed by design and fabrication. The program was concluded by performing a series of six tests over a period of two weeks to evaluate the performance of the subsystem. The results of the tests were satisfactory, however, several changes in the design of the subsystem are required before completely satisfactory performance can be achieved.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-114764
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Disinfection and corrosion control in the water systems of the Saturn 5 Orbital Workshop Program are considered. Within this framework, the problem areas of concern are classified into four general areas: disinfection; corrosion; membrane-associated problems of disinfectant uptake and diffusion; and taste and odor problems arising from membrane-disinfectant interaction.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-140197
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  • 58
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The identification of required data for studies of Spacelab experiment functional allocation, the development of an approach to collecting these data from the payload community, and the specification of analytical methods necessary to quantitatively determine the role of man in specific Spacelab experiments are presented. A generalized Spacelab experiment operation sequence was developed, and the parameters necessary to describe each signle function in the sequence were identified. A set of functional descriptor worksheets were also drawn up. The methodological approach to defining the role of man was defined as a series of trade studies using a digial simulation technique. The tradeoff variables identified include scientific crew size, skill mix, and location. An existing digital simulation program suitable for the required analyses was identified and obtained.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-120398
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The teleoperator system man-machine interface evaluation develops and implements a program to determine human performance requirements in teleoperator systems.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-139598 , H-4-1
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  • 60
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The progess made from April 1973 to June 1974 on a microelectronics bioinstrumentation system is reported and includes data for the following three individual projects: (1) a radio frequency powered implant telemetry system; (2) an ingestible temperature telemeter; and (3) development of pO2 and pH sensors. Proposed activities for continuation of the research for the period September 1, 1974 to August 31, 1975 are also discussed.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-139216
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  • 61
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A system designed to collect electroencephalographic, electro-oculographic, electromyographic, and head motion data is described. The portable instrumentation provides a rapid and simple means by which neurophysiological data can be obtained by the patient in his home and the taped data returned to the laboratory for analysis. The system was designed primarily for the study of sleep.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-2416
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: As part of a larger effort to assess passenger comfort in aircraft, two questionnaires were administered: one to ground-based respondents; the other to passengers in flight. Respondents indicated the importance of various factors influencing their satisfaction with a trip, the perceived importance of various physical factors in determining their level of comfort, and the ease of time spent performing activities in flight. The in-flight sample also provided a rating of their level of comfort and of their willingness to fly again. Comfort ratings were examined in relation to (1) type of respondent, (2) type of aircraft, (3) characteristics of the passengers, (4) ease of performing activities, and (5) willingness to fly again.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-139368 , MEMO-403214
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Application and requirements for remote manipulator systems for future space missions were investigated. A manipulator evaluation program was established to study the effects of various systems parameters on operator performance of tasks necessary for remotely manned missions. The program and laboratory facilities are described. Evaluation criteria and philosophy are discussed.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA-CR-120218 , H-4-3
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  • 64
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: Inhabited Space, Pt. 2 (NASA-TT-F-820); p 53-61
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Acoustic passenger comfort in railroad cars is represented by the following values: Total noise level in db, octave sound spectrum in db, and indices of intelligibility. The noise level perceived inside the car results from two components: one due to the penetration of air noise, and another due to the transmission of vibrations through solids. Measurement results show the necessity of improving bogie and bogie-body connections, intensification of soundproofing of the floor, adaption of windows with double panes, etc.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: The 4th Natl. Conf. on Acoustics, Vol. 1A (NASA-TT-F-15375); p 218-223
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: Streetcar noise was investigated on different lines and inside different types by sonometer measurements. The results showed variations of the total noise intensity between 88-97 db. In some squares with heavy traffic the total noise intensity reached 106 db. Noise intensity measurements inside different types of streetcars brought to light high values between 101-106 db, while in the case of the new silent type of streetcar the values were 86-87 db. The importance of the sound discomfort produced by streetcar traffic is emphasized, inasmuch as the noise intensity exceeds by far the values recommended by communal hygiene.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: The 4th Natl. Conf. on Acoustics, Vol. 1A (NASA-TT-F-15375); p 212-217
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2006-01-11
    Description: There exists a correlation between noise intensity and spectrum and degree of hearing impairment in the different professional categories in the pit. Most affected are dross miners and drillers. In these, the first degree of hypoacusia sets in within the first five years of exposure. Deafness begins at a frequency of 4,000 Hz, but often enough (20%) at 2,000 Hz as well, progressively evolving through the classical stages if exposure to noise continues. In the coal bearing basins investigated, the noise level is, on the whole, 31.2%, but the conventional zone is not involved by more than 6.3%. Technological and medical measures are proposed for the purpose of avoiding these troubles in the future.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: The 4th Natl. Conf. on Acoustics, Vol. 1A (NASA-TT-F-15375); p 170-176
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  • 68
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: Applied Microbiology; 27; Mar. 197
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  • 69
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A fluoroscopic tomography system capable of synthesizing body sections at a number of levels within the body has been developed. The synthesized body sections may lie either in a range of planes parallel to, tilted with respect to, skewed with respect to, or both tilted and skewed with respect to the plane of motion of the X-ray tube target. In addition, body sections can be presented which are contoured to the patient's anatomy. That is to say, they may even encompass such complex surfaces as a quadratic hyperplane. In addition, tomograms of organs in motion can be imaged.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: Investigative Radiology; 9; Mar
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  • 70
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Skylab Experiment T020 was developed to study the performance capabilities of astronauts using a relatively simple device maneuvering in an actual zero gravity environment. The experimental test bed, used as the maneuvering unit, employed foot-operated controls for translation along only the vertical or head-to-foot axis and for rotation about all three axes. The control thrusters were operated by direct mechanical linkage to the foot controls, and no stabilization system was employed. The results showed that subjects could successfully perform a number of relatively simple maneuvers but had some difficulties with unplanned or unrehearsed maneuvers of a more complex nature. Precise maneuvering within the confines of the orbital workshop was limited primarily by an inadequate body-restraint harness system and by lack of translation capability along the other two axes.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AAS PAPER 74-138 , Annual Meeting; Aug. 20-22, 1974; Los Angeles, CA
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  • 71
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: It was the purpose of Experiment M487, Habitability/Crew Quarters, to evaluate the effectiveness of the habitability provisions of Skylab for the benefit of designers of future spacecraft. Some of the more interesting findings in the areas of internal environment, architectural arrangements, mobility and restraint aids, food, clothing, personal hygiene, housekeeping, communication between crewmen, and off-duty activities equipment are discussed.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AAS PAPER 74-133 , Annual Meeting; Aug. 20-22, 1974; Los Angeles, CA
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  • 72
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Astronaut crew motions can produce some of the largest disturbances acting on a manned spacecraft which can affect vehicle attitude and pointing. Skylab Experiment T-013 was developed to investigate the magnitude and effects of some of these disturbances on the Skylab spacecraft. The methods and techniques used to carry out this experiment are discussed, and preliminary results of data analysis presented. Initial findings indicate that forces on the order of 300 N were exerted during vigorous soaring activities, and that certain experiment activities produced spacecraft angular rate excursions 0.03 to 0.07 deg/sec. Results of Experiment T-013 will be incorporated into mathematical models of crew-motion disturbances, and are expected to be of significant aid in the sizing, design, and analysis of stabilization and control systems for future manned spacecraft.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AAS PAPER 74-139 , Annual Meeting; Aug. 20-22, 1974; Los Angeles, CA
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  • 73
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: For effective mission performance, participants in space missions lasting 30-60 days or longer must be provided with hardware to accommodate their personal needs. Such habitability hardware was provided on Skylab. Equipment defined as habitability hardware was that equipment composing the food system, water system, sleep system, waste management system, personal hygiene system, trash management system, and entertainment equipment. Equipment not specifically defined as habitability hardware but which served that function were the Wardroom window, the exercise equipment, and the intercom system, which was occasionally used for private communications. All Skylab habitability hardware generally functioned as intended for the three missions, and most items could be considered as adequate concepts for future flights of similar duration. Specific components were criticized for their shortcomings.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AAS PAPER 74-135 , Annual Meeting; Aug. 20-22, 1974; Los Angeles, CA
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  • 74
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The Skylab EVA hardware design from initial conceptual development to final flight configuration is reviewed, the major concepts which were considered during design evolution are identified, and the reasons for the acceptance or rejection of these concepts are discussed. Man/system simulations played a vital part in the decision-making process. The types of developmental simulation used are discussed, as well as their role in providing design information. The developmental protocol of interleaving analyses and simulations on an iterative basis provided Skylab with a conservative, flexible, and simple EVA system which was effective not only for the nominal mission but for many contingency activities as well.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AAS PAPER 74-121 , Annual Meeting; Aug. 20-22, 1974; Los Angeles, CA
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  • 75
    Publication Date: 2016-03-07
    Description: Recent studies concerning the basic physiological and biochemical principles underlying cardiac muscle contraction, methods for the assessment of cardiac function in the clinical situation, and mathematical approaches to cardiac mechanics are presented. Some of the topics covered include: cardiac ultrastructure and function in the normal and failing heart, myocardial energetics, clinical applications of angiocardiography, use of echocardiography for evaluating cardiac performance, systolic time intervals in the noninvasive assessment of left ventricular performance in man, evaluation of passive elastic stiffness for the left ventricle and isolated heart muscle, a conceptual model of myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock, application of Huxley's sliding-filament theory to the mechanics of normal and hypertrophied cardiac muscle, and a rheological modeling of the intact left ventricle. Individual items are announced in this issue.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
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  • 76
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Controlling microbial growth by injecting iodine (l2) into water supplies is a widely acceptable technique, but requires a specialized injection method for space flight. An electrochemical l2 injection method and l2 level monitor are discussed in this paper, which also describe iodination practices previously used in the manned space program and major l2 biocidal characteristics. The development and design of the injector and monitor are described, and results of subsequent experiments are presented. Also presented are expected vehicle penalties for utilizing the l2 injector in certain space missions, especially the Space Shuttle, and possible injector failure modes and their criticality.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: ASME PAPER 74-ENAS-54 , Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems; July 29-Aug. 1, 1974; Seattle, WA; US
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  • 77
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: This paper provides an overview of the development of environmental revitalization techniques from their beginnings in caisson and submarine habitats, up to the present time. The use of CO2 adsorbents, such as LiOH and their application to the first U.S. manned spaceflight is described, together with the beginnings of the regenerable CO2 sorber technology using molecular sieves and its ultimate application to Skylab. The concepts and hardware systems used for atmospheric revitalization on all major U.S. ground-based manned tests is detailed, including CO2 reduction and O2 generation processes. Current research and development efforts are also outlined. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the recently completed SSP, the most advanced and complete ECS that has been fabricated to date.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: ASME PAPER 74-ENAS-50 , Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems; July 29-Aug. 1, 1974; Seattle, WA; US
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  • 78
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The optical properties of selected Orbital Workshop thermal control surfaces are discussed from the time of their installation through the end of the Skylab missions. The surfaces considered are the goldized Kapton tape on the habitation area sidewall, the S-13G white paint on the Workshop aft skirt, and the multilayer insulation system on the forward dome of the habitation area. A quantitative assessment of the effects of exposure to the ascent and orbital environments is made including the effects of rocket exhaust plume contamination. Although optical property degradation of the external surfaces was noted, satisfactory thermal performance was maintained throughout the Skylab missions.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: ASME PAPER 74-ENAS-39 , Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems; July 29-Aug. 1, 1974; Seattle, WA; US
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  • 79
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: The recognition of the need for instrumentation in manned spacecraft life-support subsystems has increased significantly over the past several years. Of the required control and monitoring instrumentation, this paper will focus on the monitoring instrumentation as applied to life-support subsystems. The initial approach used independent sensors, independent sensor signal conditioning circuitry, and independent logic circuitry to provide shutdown protection only. This monitoring system was replaced with a coordinated series of printed circuit cards, each of which contains all the electronics to service one sensor and provide performance trend information, fault detection and isolation information, and shutdown protection. Finally, a review of sensor and instrumentation problems is presented, and the requirement for sensors with built-in signal conditioning and provisions for in situ calibration is discussed.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: ASME PAPER 74-ENAS-25 , Intersociety Conference on Environmental Systems; July 29-Aug. 1, 1974; Seattle, WA; US
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  • 80
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Helicopter sling-load operations have been limited during hover and low-speed flight by the degree of precision achieved by the pilot/helicopter/sling-load combination. Previous attempts to improve precision have included stabilization of the load and helicopter and the addition of a pilot station directly facing the load. In these tests, use of a closed-circuit TV as a display that would permit sling-load delivery and placement by the forward-facing pilot was evaluated using a CH-54B helicopter. In all, three test cases were documented, which included the following: (1) forward-facing pilot using the TV display, (2) forward-facing pilot using verbal commands from a load-facing observer, and (3) aft-facing pilot using direct visual cues. The results indicate that a comparable level of performance was achieved for each test case; however, an increase in pilot workload was noted when the TV system was used.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AHS PREPRINT 862 , Annual National V/STOL Forum; May 7-9, 1974; Washington, DC
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  • 81
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: As established in the laboratory and largely confirmed by others, simulated high-g environments influence growth and development of animals as small as or smaller than baby turtles, sometimes accelerating and sometimes decelerating these processes. High-g environments result in many functional changes or adjustments in feeding, metabolism, circulation, fluid balances, and structures for support, and influence life expectancy. An assembly of equipment suitable for measuring oxygen consumption of small mammals as influenced by chronic centrifugation and/or by day-night rhythms is discussed.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
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  • 82
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Two weeks of continuous exposure to simulated weightlessness (bedrest) and/or an elevated (30 torr) CO2 environment had no detrimental effect on complex tracking performance, eye-hand coordination, or problem-solving ability. These results were consistent with previously reported behavioral findings which investigated these two factors only as independent stressors.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: AD-778501 , SAM-TR-73-338 , Aerospace Medicine; 45; Apr. 197
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  • 83
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering; BME-21; Mar. 197
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  • 84
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Three male swimmers underwent 10-min resting and 20-min swimming (breaststroke) exposures in a swimming flume. Water temperatures in separate exposures were 18, 26, and 33 C. At each water temperature the subjects rested and swam at water velocities of 0.50, 0.75, and 0.95 m/sec, which were designed to produce around 40, 70, and 100% of maximal aerobic power. Measurements were made of esophageal temperature, four skin temperatures, water temperature, heat flow from five local skin surfaces (Hatfield-Turner disks), and oxygen uptake. Calculations were made of mean area-weighted skin temperature and heat flow, metabolic rate, and heat storage. Internal body temperature changes after 20 min of swimming were related to water temperature, swimming intensity, and body composition.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Applied Physiology; 36; Apr. 197
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  • 85
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    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: A speech modulated white noise device is reported that gives the rhythmic characteristics of a speech signal for intelligible reception by deaf persons. The signal is composed of random amplitudes and frequencies as modulated by the speech envelope characteristics of rhythm and stress. Time intensity parameters of speech are conveyed through the vibro-tactile sensation stimuli.
    Keywords: BIOTECHNOLOGY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center Summer Inst. in Biomed. Eng., 1973; 12 p
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