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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Niphargus is a speciose amphipod genus found in groundwater habitats across Europe. Three Niphargus species living in the sulphidic Frasassi caves in Italy harbour sulphur-oxidizing Thiothrix bacterial ectosymbionts. These three species are distantly related, implying that the ability to form ectosymbioses with Thiothrix may be common among Niphargus. Therefore, Niphargus-Thiothrix associations may also be found in sulphidic aquifers other than Frasassi. In this study, we examined this possibility by analysing niphargids of the genera Niphargus and Pontoniphargus collected from the partly sulphidic aquifers of the Southern Dobrogea region of Romania, which are accessible through springs, wells and Movile Cave. Molecular and morphological analyses revealed seven niphargid species in this region. Five of these species occurred occasionally or exclusively in sulphidic locations, whereas the remaining two were restricted to nonsulphidic areas. Thiothrix were detected by PCR on all seven Dobrogean niphargid species and observed using microscopy to be predominantly attached to their hosts' appendages. 16S rRNA gene sequences of the Thiothrix epibionts fell into two main clades, one of which (herein named T4) occurred solely on niphargids collected in sulphidic locations. The other Thiothrix clade was present on niphargids from both sulphidic and nonsulphidic areas and indistinguishable from the T3 ectosymbiont clade previously identified on Frasassi-dwelling Niphargus. Although niphargids from Frasassi and Southern Dobrogea are not closely related, the patterns of their association with Thiothrix are remarkably alike. The finding of similar Niphargus-Thiothrix associations in aquifers located 1200 km apart suggests that they may be widespread in European groundwater ecosystems.
    Keywords: amphipods; ecology; sulphide; symbiosis; systematics; taxonomy ; Amphipoda ; Animals ; DNA, Bacterial ; Ecosystem ; Groundwater ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S ; Romania ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sulfur ; Symbiosis ; Thiothrix
    Language: English , English
    Type: article , publishedVersion
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Betsholtz, Christer -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):160-1. doi: 10.1038/nature16866. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology at Uppsala University, and the Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics at the Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735011" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Endothelium, Vascular/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tollefson, Jeff -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):20-1. doi: 10.1038/531020a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935677" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anthozoa ; Coral Reefs ; *Data Collection ; Droughts ; *El Nino-Southern Oscillation/adverse effects ; Floods ; Oceans and Seas ; Rain ; *Research/economics ; Seawater/analysis ; Temperature ; *Weather
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Melott, Adrian L -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):40-1. doi: 10.1038/532040a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078562" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Climate Change/history ; *Earth (Planet) ; Extinction, Biological ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Iron Radioisotopes/*analysis/chemistry ; Stars, Celestial/*chemistry ; Time Factors
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boiani, Michele -- Buehler, Alexandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):580. doi: 10.1038/531580d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Munster, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029267" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Experimentation/legislation & jurisprudence/standards ; Animal Welfare/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Animals ; European Union ; Germany ; Research/*economics/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Research Personnel/*economics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: RNA polymerase (Pol) II produces messenger RNA during transcription of protein-coding genes in all eukaryotic cells. The Pol II structure is known at high resolution from X-ray crystallography for two yeast species. Structural studies of mammalian Pol II, however, remain limited to low-resolution electron microscopy analysis of human Pol II and its complexes with various proteins. Here we report the 3.4 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian Pol II in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript. We use bovine Pol II, which is identical to the human enzyme except for seven amino-acid residues. The obtained atomic model closely resembles its yeast counterpart, but also reveals unknown features. Binding of nucleic acids to the polymerase involves 'induced fit' of the mobile Pol II clamp and active centre region. DNA downstream of the transcription bubble contacts a conserved 'TPSA motif' in the jaw domain of the Pol II subunit RPB5, an interaction that is apparently already established during transcription initiation. Upstream DNA emanates from the active centre cleft at an angle of approximately 105 degrees with respect to downstream DNA. This position of upstream DNA allows for binding of the general transcription elongation factor DSIF (SPT4-SPT5) that we localize over the active centre cleft in a conserved position on the clamp domain of Pol II. Our results define the structure of mammalian Pol II in its functional state, indicate that previous crystallographic analysis of yeast Pol II is relevant for understanding gene transcription in all eukaryotes, and provide a starting point for a mechanistic analysis of human transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bernecky, Carrie -- Herzog, Franz -- Baumeister, Wolfgang -- Plitzko, Jurgen M -- Cramer, Patrick -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):551-4. doi: 10.1038/nature16482. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Molecular Biology, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. ; Gene Center Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Feodor-Lynen-Strasse 25, 81377 Munich, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Department of Molecular Structural Biology, Am Klopferspitz 18, 82152 Martinsried, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789250" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Animals ; Catalytic Domain ; Cattle ; *Cryoelectron Microscopy ; DNA/genetics/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Nucleic Acids/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/metabolism ; RNA Polymerase II/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; RNA, Messenger/biosynthesis/genetics/ultrastructure ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology ; Templates, Genetic ; *Transcription Elongation, Genetic
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: Sulawesi is the largest and oldest island within Wallacea, a vast zone of oceanic islands separating continental Asia from the Pleistocene landmass of Australia and Papua (Sahul). By one million years ago an unknown hominin lineage had colonized Flores immediately to the south, and by about 50 thousand years ago, modern humans (Homo sapiens) had crossed to Sahul. On the basis of position, oceanic currents and biogeographical context, Sulawesi probably played a pivotal part in these dispersals. Uranium-series dating of speleothem deposits associated with rock art in the limestone karst region of Maros in southwest Sulawesi has revealed that humans were living on the island at least 40 thousand years ago (ref. 5). Here we report new excavations at Talepu in the Walanae Basin northeast of Maros, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna (Bubalus sp., Stegodon and Celebochoerus) have been recovered from stratified deposits that accumulated from before 200 thousand years ago until about 100 thousand years ago. Our findings suggest that Sulawesi, like Flores, was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins, the ancestral origins and taxonomic status of which remain elusive.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉van den Bergh, Gerrit D -- Li, Bo -- Brumm, Adam -- Grun, Rainer -- Yurnaldi, Dida -- Moore, Mark W -- Kurniawan, Iwan -- Setiawan, Ruly -- Aziz, Fachroel -- Roberts, Richard G -- Suyono -- Storey, Michael -- Setiabudi, Erick -- Morwood, Michael J -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):208-11. doi: 10.1038/nature16448.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth &Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Naturalis Biodiversity Center, 2333 CR Leiden, The Netherlands. ; Research Centre for Human Evolution, Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia. ; School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia. ; Geology Museum Bandung, Geological Agency, Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia. ; Archaeology, School of Humanities, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2350, Australia. ; Quadlab, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oster Voldgade 5-7, 13 DK-1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762458" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fossils ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae ; Human Migration/history ; Humans ; Indonesia ; Tool Use Behavior
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-16
    Description: A unique assemblage of 28 hominin individuals, found in Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca in Spain, has recently been dated to approximately 430,000 years ago. An interesting question is how these Middle Pleistocene hominins were related to those who lived in the Late Pleistocene epoch, in particular to Neanderthals in western Eurasia and to Denisovans, a sister group of Neanderthals so far known only from southern Siberia. While the Sima de los Huesos hominins share some derived morphological features with Neanderthals, the mitochondrial genome retrieved from one individual from Sima de los Huesos is more closely related to the mitochondrial DNA of Denisovans than to that of Neanderthals. However, since the mitochondrial DNA does not reveal the full picture of relationships among populations, we have investigated DNA preservation in several individuals found at Sima de los Huesos. Here we recover nuclear DNA sequences from two specimens, which show that the Sima de los Huesos hominins were related to Neanderthals rather than to Denisovans, indicating that the population divergence between Neanderthals and Denisovans predates 430,000 years ago. A mitochondrial DNA recovered from one of the specimens shares the previously described relationship to Denisovan mitochondrial DNAs, suggesting, among other possibilities, that the mitochondrial DNA gene pool of Neanderthals turned over later in their history.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meyer, Matthias -- Arsuaga, Juan-Luis -- de Filippo, Cesare -- Nagel, Sarah -- Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer -- Nickel, Birgit -- Martinez, Ignacio -- Gracia, Ana -- Bermudez de Castro, Jose Maria -- Carbonell, Eudald -- Viola, Bence -- Kelso, Janet -- Prufer, Kay -- Paabo, Svante -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):504-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17405. Epub 2016 Mar 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, 04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Centro de Investigacion Sobre la Evolucion y Comportamiento Humanos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid-Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain. ; Departamento de Paleontologia, Facultad de Ciencias Geologicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain. ; Area de Paleontologia, Departamento de Geografia y Geologia, Universidad de Alcala, Alcala de Henares, 28871 Madrid, Spain. ; Centro Nacional de Investigacion sobre la Evolucion Humana, Paseo Sierra de Atapuerca, 09002 Burgos, Spain. ; Institut Catala de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolucio Social, C/Marcel.li Domingo s/n (Edifici W3), Campus Sescelades, 43007 Tarragona, Spain. ; Area de Prehistoria, Departament d'Historia i Historia de l'Art, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Facultat de Lletres, Avinguda de Catalunya, 35, 43002 Tarragona, Spain. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, 19 Russell Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2S2, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26976447" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Animals ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Fossils ; Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Hominidae/classification/*genetics ; Male ; Neanderthals/classification/genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Sequence Alignment ; Spain
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Meyerholz, David K -- Piersigilli, Alessandra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):177. doi: 10.1038/532177c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA. ; University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075088" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Experimentation/*standards ; Animals ; *Internet ; *Research Design ; *Software
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolkan, Scott -- Gordon, Joshua A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):45-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17311. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/*physiopathology/*psychology ; Female ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*deficiency/*genetics ; Thalamic Nuclei/*physiopathology
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The energetic burden of continuously concentrating solutes against gradients along the tubule may render the kidney especially vulnerable to ischaemia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 3% of all hospitalized patients. Here we show that the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator, PGC1alpha, is a pivotal determinant of renal recovery from injury by regulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthesis. Following renal ischaemia, Pgc1alpha(-/-) (also known as Ppargc1a(-/-)) mice develop local deficiency of the NAD precursor niacinamide (NAM, also known as nicotinamide), marked fat accumulation, and failure to re-establish normal function. Notably, exogenous NAM improves local NAD levels, fat accumulation, and renal function in post-ischaemic Pgc1alpha(-/-) mice. Inducible tubular transgenic mice (iNephPGC1alpha) recapitulate the effects of NAM supplementation, including more local NAD and less fat accumulation with better renal function after ischaemia. PGC1alpha coordinately upregulates the enzymes that synthesize NAD de novo from amino acids whereas PGC1alpha deficiency or AKI attenuates the de novo pathway. NAM enhances NAD via the enzyme NAMPT and augments production of the fat breakdown product beta-hydroxybutyrate, leading to increased production of prostaglandin PGE2 (ref. 5), a secreted autacoid that maintains renal function. NAM treatment reverses established ischaemic AKI and also prevented AKI in an unrelated toxic model. Inhibition of beta-hydroxybutyrate signalling or prostaglandin production similarly abolishes PGC1alpha-dependent renoprotection. Given the importance of mitochondrial health in ageing and the function of metabolically active organs, the results implicate NAM and NAD as key effectors for achieving PGC1alpha-dependent stress resistance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tran, Mei T -- Zsengeller, Zsuzsanna K -- Berg, Anders H -- Khankin, Eliyahu V -- Bhasin, Manoj K -- Kim, Wondong -- Clish, Clary B -- Stillman, Isaac E -- Karumanchi, S Ananth -- Rhee, Eugene P -- Parikh, Samir M -- K08-DK090142/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- K08-DK101560/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30-DK079337/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK095072/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01-DK095072/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):528-32. doi: 10.1038/nature17184. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Nephrology and Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Center for Vascular Biology Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Division of Clinical Chemistry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Bioinformatics and Systems Biology Core, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Nephrology and Endocrine Divisions, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982719" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid/metabolism ; Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy/*metabolism ; Adipose Tissue/drug effects/metabolism ; Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; Cytokines/metabolism ; Dinoprostone/biosynthesis/metabolism ; Humans ; Ischemia/drug therapy/metabolism ; Kidney/drug effects/*metabolism/physiology/physiopathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; NAD/*biosynthesis ; Niacinamide/deficiency/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Stress, Physiological ; Transcription Factors/deficiency/*metabolism
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncovers the key role this identity has in controlling organ size, reproductive plasticity and response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms that control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognized.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hudry, Bruno -- Khadayate, Sanjay -- Miguel-Aliaga, Irene -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):344-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16953.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887495" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology ; Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Dosage Compensation, Genetic ; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*anatomy & histology/*cytology/genetics/growth & ; development ; Female ; Intestines/*cytology ; Male ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; *Organ Size ; RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Reproduction ; Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism ; *Sex Characteristics ; Sex Differentiation/genetics
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  • 13
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Owens, Brian -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 11;533(7602):S71-2. doi: 10.1038/533S71a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27167398" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Academies and Institutes/economics ; *Access to Information ; Animals ; *Diffusion of Innovation ; Drug Industry/economics/methods ; Humans ; *Information Dissemination ; Mice ; Neurosciences/economics/manpower/*methods/organization & administration ; Patents as Topic ; Public Sector/economics ; Public-Private Sector Partnerships ; Quebec
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  • 14
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Caron, David A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):444-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17892. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0371, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096370" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*metabolism ; *Biomass ; *Biota ; Carbon/*metabolism ; *Ecosystem ; *Oceans and Seas ; Plankton/*metabolism ; Rhizaria/*isolation & purification ; Seawater/*chemistry ; Zooplankton/*isolation & purification
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-01-21
    Description: Bacteria express many small RNAs for which the regulatory roles in pathogenesis have remained poorly understood due to a paucity of robust phenotypes in standard virulence assays. Here we use a generic 'dual RNA-seq' approach to profile RNA expression simultaneously in pathogen and host during Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection and reveal the molecular impact of bacterial riboregulators. We identify a PhoP-activated small RNA, PinT, which upon bacterial internalization temporally controls the expression of both invasion-associated effectors and virulence genes required for intracellular survival. This riboregulatory activity causes pervasive changes in coding and noncoding transcripts of the host. Interspecies correlation analysis links PinT to host cell JAK-STAT signalling, and we identify infection-specific alterations in multiple long noncoding RNAs. Our study provides a paradigm for a sensitive RNA-based analysis of intracellular bacterial pathogens and their hosts without physical separation, as well as a new discovery route for hidden functions of pathogen genes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Westermann, Alexander J -- Forstner, Konrad U -- Amman, Fabian -- Barquist, Lars -- Chao, Yanjie -- Schulte, Leon N -- Muller, Lydia -- Reinhardt, Richard -- Stadler, Peter F -- Vogel, Jorg -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):496-501. doi: 10.1038/nature16547. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of Wurzburg, RNA Biology Group, Institute for Molecular Infection Biology, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Wurzburg, Core Unit Systems Medicine, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 2/D15, D-97080 Wurzburg, Germany. ; University of Leipzig, Department of Computer Science and Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics, Hartelstrasse 16-18, D-04107 Leipzig, Germany. ; University of Vienna, Theoretical Biochemistry Group, Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, Wahringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Vienna, Austria. ; Max Planck Genome Centre Cologne, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Carl-von-Linne-Weg 10, D-50829 Cologne, Germany. ; Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Inselstrasse 22, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. ; Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Rd, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87501, USA. ; Research Centre for Infectious Diseases (ZINF), University of Wurzburg, D-97070 Wurzburg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789254" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Proteins/metabolism ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; Genes, Bacterial/genetics ; HeLa Cells ; Host-Pathogen Interactions/*genetics ; Humans ; Janus Kinases/metabolism ; Mice ; Microbial Viability/genetics ; RNA, Bacterial/*genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA, Untranslated/*genetics/metabolism ; STAT Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Salmonella typhimurium/cytology/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics ; Virulence/genetics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: The eye is a complex organ with highly specialized constituent tissues derived from different primordial cell lineages. The retina, for example, develops from neuroectoderm via the optic vesicle, the corneal epithelium is descended from surface ectoderm, while the iris and collagen-rich stroma of the cornea have a neural crest origin. Recent work with pluripotent stem cells in culture has revealed a previously under-appreciated level of intrinsic cellular self-organization, with a focus on the retina and retinal cells. Moreover, we and others have demonstrated the in vitro induction of a corneal epithelial cell phenotype from pluripotent stem cells. These studies, however, have a single, tissue-specific focus and fail to reflect the complexity of whole eye development. Here we demonstrate the generation from human induced pluripotent stem cells of a self-formed ectodermal autonomous multi-zone (SEAM) of ocular cells. In some respects the concentric SEAM mimics whole-eye development because cell location within different zones is indicative of lineage, spanning the ocular surface ectoderm, lens, neuro-retina, and retinal pigment epithelium. It thus represents a promising resource for new and ongoing studies of ocular morphogenesis. The approach also has translational potential and to illustrate this we show that cells isolated from the ocular surface ectodermal zone of the SEAM can be sorted and expanded ex vivo to form a corneal epithelium that recovers function in an experimentally induced animal model of corneal blindness.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hayashi, Ryuhei -- Ishikawa, Yuki -- Sasamoto, Yuzuru -- Katori, Ryosuke -- Nomura, Naoki -- Ichikawa, Tatsuya -- Araki, Saori -- Soma, Takeshi -- Kawasaki, Satoshi -- Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi -- Quantock, Andrew J -- Tsujikawa, Motokazu -- Nishida, Kohji -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):376-80. doi: 10.1038/nature17000. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Stem Cells and Applied Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Laboratory of Extracellular Matrix Biochemistry, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Structural Biophysics Group, School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958835" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Lineage ; Cornea/*cytology/*growth & development/physiology ; Corneal Transplantation ; Ectoderm/cytology ; Epithelial Cells/cytology ; Epithelium, Corneal/cytology ; Female ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology ; Lens, Crystalline/cytology ; Mice ; Morphogenesis ; Phenotype ; Rabbits ; *Recovery of Function ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology
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  • 17
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wald, Chelsea -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):S47. doi: 10.1038/533S47a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27144610" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Austria ; Entrepreneurship/economics/organization & administration ; Humans ; Inventions/economics ; Inventors/economics/education/psychology ; Research/*economics/*organization & administration ; Research Personnel/economics/education/psychology ; *Technology Transfer ; Uncertainty
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-02-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Heuckeroth, Robert O -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):44-5. doi: 10.1038/nature16877. Epub 2016 Feb 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Research Institute and the Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863191" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Lineage ; *Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy ; Drug Discovery/*methods ; Enteric Nervous System/*pathology ; Female ; Hirschsprung Disease/*drug therapy/*pathology ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*pathology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):138-9. doi: 10.1038/529138a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762436" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa, Western/epidemiology ; Animals ; Cats ; Chiroptera/*virology ; Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data/veterinary ; Dogs ; Ebolavirus/*isolation & purification ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*epidemiology/prevention & control/*veterinary/virology ; *Host Specificity ; Humans ; Livestock/virology ; Pets/virology ; Rodentia/virology ; Zoonoses/epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/virology
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):10-1. doi: 10.1038/529010a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738575" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chad/epidemiology ; Disease Eradication ; Dog Diseases/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission ; Dogs ; Dracunculiasis/*epidemiology/prevention & control/transmission/*veterinary ; Dracunculus Nematode/*isolation & purification ; Drinking Water/parasitology/standards ; Humans ; Rivers/parasitology ; Zoonoses/*epidemiology/parasitology/prevention & control/*transmission
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: Observing marine mammal (MM) populations continuously in time and space over the immense ocean areas they inhabit is challenging but essential for gathering an unambiguous record of their distribution, as well as understanding their behaviour and interaction with prey species. Here we use passive ocean acoustic waveguide remote sensing (POAWRS) in an important North Atlantic feeding ground to instantaneously detect, localize and classify MM vocalizations from diverse species over an approximately 100,000 km(2) region. More than eight species of vocal MMs are found to spatially converge on fish spawning areas containing massive densely populated herring shoals at night-time and diffuse herring distributions during daytime. We find the vocal MMs divide the enormous fish prey field into species-specific foraging areas with varying degrees of spatial overlap, maintained for at least two weeks of the herring spawning period. The recorded vocalization rates are diel (24 h)-dependent for all MM species, with some significantly more vocal at night and others more vocal during the day. The four key baleen whale species of the region: fin, humpback, blue and minke have vocalization rate trends that are highly correlated to trends in fish shoaling density and to each other over the diel cycle. These results reveal the temporospatial dynamics of combined multi-species MM foraging activities in the vicinity of an extensive fish prey field that forms a massive ecological hotspot, and would be unattainable with conventional methodologies. Understanding MM behaviour and distributions is essential for management of marine ecosystems and for accessing anthropogenic impacts on these protected marine species.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Delin -- Garcia, Heriberto -- Huang, Wei -- Tran, Duong D -- Jain, Ankita D -- Yi, Dong Hoon -- Gong, Zheng -- Jech, J Michael -- Godo, Olav Rune -- Makris, Nicholas C -- Ratilal, Purnima -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):366-70. doi: 10.1038/nature16960. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory for Ocean Acoustics and Ecosystem Sensing, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Laboratory for Undersea Remote Sensing, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 166 Water Street, Woods Hole, Massachusetts 02543, USA. ; Institute of Marine Research, Post Office Box 1870, Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acoustics ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*physiology ; Atlantic Ocean ; Diet/veterinary ; Ecosystem ; *Feeding Behavior ; Fishes/*physiology ; Male ; Mammals/*physiology ; *Predatory Behavior ; Time Factors ; *Vocalization, Animal ; Whales/physiology
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Norris, Dominic P -- Jackson, Peter K -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):582-3. doi: 10.1038/nature17313. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell, Harwell Campus OX11 0RD, UK. ; Departments of Microbiology &Immunology and Pathology, and in the Baxter Laboratory, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007852" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Cilia/*metabolism ; Female ; Male ; *Mechanotransduction, Cellular
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):20-1. doi: 10.1038/533020a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147014" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Zoo/physiology ; Conservation of Natural Resources/economics/*methods ; *Extinction, Biological ; Female ; Fertilization in Vitro/economics/*veterinary ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology ; Kenya ; Male ; Ovum/*cytology ; *Perissodactyla/physiology ; Reproduction/physiology ; Spermatozoa/*cytology
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-04-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nowogrodzki, Anna -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):561. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19599.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27029258" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Specimen Banks/*economics/trends ; Climate Change ; Financing, Government/*economics/trends ; Financing, Organized/economics ; Museums ; Research Support as Topic/*economics/trends ; Time Factors ; United States ; United States Government Agencies/economics/trends
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hollon, Nick G -- Phillips, Paul E M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):588-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17314. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry &Behavioral Sciences and the Department of Pharmacology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Decision Making ; Humans ; Male ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Nucleus Accumbens/*cytology/*metabolism ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/*metabolism ; *Risk Management
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ward, Alyssa -- Baldwin, Thomas O -- Antin, Parker B -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):177. doi: 10.1038/532177d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ; University of California, Riverside, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075087" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; *Learning ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic/genetics ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Research/*standards ; United States
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: (beta-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) beta-arrestin proteins (beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (beta-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of beta-arrestin with GPCRs, and the beta-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based beta-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in beta-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-beta-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and beta-arrestins. They further indicate that beta-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of beta-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nuber, Susanne -- Zabel, Ulrike -- Lorenz, Kristina -- Nuber, Andreas -- Milligan, Graeme -- Tobin, Andrew B -- Lohse, Martin J -- Hoffmann, Carsten -- 1 R01 DA038882/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- BB/K019864/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17198. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Rudolf Virchow Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Molecular Pharmacology Group, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Biosensing Techniques ; Cattle ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Substrate Specificity ; Time Factors
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: The most recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa, which was unprecedented in the number of cases and fatalities, geographic distribution, and number of nations affected, highlights the need for safe, effective, and readily available antiviral agents for treatment and prevention of acute Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) or sequelae. No antiviral therapeutics have yet received regulatory approval or demonstrated clinical efficacy. Here we report the discovery of a novel small molecule GS-5734, a monophosphoramidate prodrug of an adenosine analogue, with antiviral activity against EBOV. GS-5734 exhibits antiviral activity against multiple variants of EBOV and other filoviruses in cell-based assays. The pharmacologically active nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) is efficiently formed in multiple human cell types incubated with GS-5734 in vitro, and the NTP acts as an alternative substrate and RNA-chain terminator in primer-extension assays using a surrogate respiratory syncytial virus RNA polymerase. Intravenous administration of GS-5734 to nonhuman primates resulted in persistent NTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (half-life, 14 h) and distribution to sanctuary sites for viral replication including testes, eyes, and brain. In a rhesus monkey model of EVD, once-daily intravenous administration of 10 mg kg(-1) GS-5734 for 12 days resulted in profound suppression of EBOV replication and protected 100% of EBOV-infected animals against lethal disease, ameliorating clinical disease signs and pathophysiological markers, even when treatments were initiated three days after virus exposure when systemic viral RNA was detected in two out of six treated animals. These results show the first substantive post-exposure protection by a small-molecule antiviral compound against EBOV in nonhuman primates. The broad-spectrum antiviral activity of GS-5734 in vitro against other pathogenic RNA viruses, including filoviruses, arenaviruses, and coronaviruses, suggests the potential for wider medical use. GS-5734 is amenable to large-scale manufacturing, and clinical studies investigating the drug safety and pharmacokinetics are ongoing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Warren, Travis K -- Jordan, Robert -- Lo, Michael K -- Ray, Adrian S -- Mackman, Richard L -- Soloveva, Veronica -- Siegel, Dustin -- Perron, Michel -- Bannister, Roy -- Hui, Hon C -- Larson, Nate -- Strickley, Robert -- Wells, Jay -- Stuthman, Kelly S -- Van Tongeren, Sean A -- Garza, Nicole L -- Donnelly, Ginger -- Shurtleff, Amy C -- Retterer, Cary J -- Gharaibeh, Dima -- Zamani, Rouzbeh -- Kenny, Tara -- Eaton, Brett P -- Grimes, Elizabeth -- Welch, Lisa S -- Gomba, Laura -- Wilhelmsen, Catherine L -- Nichols, Donald K -- Nuss, Jonathan E -- Nagle, Elyse R -- Kugelman, Jeffrey R -- Palacios, Gustavo -- Doerffler, Edward -- Neville, Sean -- Carra, Ernest -- Clarke, Michael O -- Zhang, Lijun -- Lew, Willard -- Ross, Bruce -- Wang, Queenie -- Chun, Kwon -- Wolfe, Lydia -- Babusis, Darius -- Park, Yeojin -- Stray, Kirsten M -- Trancheva, Iva -- Feng, Joy Y -- Barauskas, Ona -- Xu, Yili -- Wong, Pamela -- Braun, Molly R -- Flint, Mike -- McMullan, Laura K -- Chen, Shan-Shan -- Fearns, Rachel -- Swaminathan, Swami -- Mayers, Douglas L -- Spiropoulou, Christina F -- Lee, William A -- Nichol, Stuart T -- Cihlar, Tomas -- Bavari, Sina -- R01 AI113321/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI113321/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):381-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17180. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Therapeutic Development Center, Frederick, Maryland 21702, USA. ; Gilead Sciences, Foster City, California 94404, USA. ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA. ; Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02118, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934220" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alanine/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Ebolavirus/drug effects ; Female ; HeLa Cells ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/*drug therapy/prevention & control ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta/*virology ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Organ Specificity ; Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Ribonucleotides/pharmacokinetics/pharmacology/*therapeutic use
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):286. doi: 10.1038/531286a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Neanderthals/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time Factors
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Numerous natural systems contain surfaces or threads that enable directional water transport. This behaviour is usually ascribed to hierarchical structural features at the microscale and nanoscale, with gradients in surface energy and gradients in Laplace pressure thought to be the main driving forces. Here we study the prey-trapping pitcher organs of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata. We find that continuous, directional water transport occurs on the surface of the 'peristome'--the rim of the pitcher--because of its multiscale structure, which optimizes and enhances capillary rise in the transport direction, and prevents backflow by pinning in place any water front that is moving in the reverse direction. This results not only in unidirectional flow despite the absence of any surface-energy gradient, but also in a transport speed that is much higher than previously thought. We anticipate that the basic 'design' principles underlying this behaviour could be used to develop artificial fluid-transport systems with practical applications.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Huawei -- Zhang, Pengfei -- Zhang, Liwen -- Liu, Hongliang -- Jiang, Ying -- Zhang, Deyuan -- Han, Zhiwu -- Jiang, Lei -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):85-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17189.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China. ; Laboratory of Bio-inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. ; School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China. ; Key Laboratory for Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078568" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/*anatomy & histology/*metabolism ; Animals ; Biological Transport ; Biomimetics ; Insects ; Plant Epidermis/anatomy & histology/metabolism ; Surface Properties ; Water/*metabolism ; Water Movements
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are currently the leading candidates for virus-based gene therapies because of their broad tissue tropism, non-pathogenic nature and low immunogenicity. They have been successfully used in clinical trials to treat hereditary diseases such as haemophilia B (ref. 2), and have been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. Considerable efforts have been made to engineer AAV variants with novel and biomedically valuable cell tropisms to allow efficacious systemic administration, yet basic aspects of AAV cellular entry are still poorly understood. In particular, the protein receptor(s) required for AAV entry after cell attachment remains unknown. Here we use an unbiased genetic screen to identify proteins essential for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) infection in a haploid human cell line. The most significantly enriched gene of the screen encodes a previously uncharacterized type I transmembrane protein, KIAA0319L (denoted hereafter as AAV receptor (AAVR)). We characterize AAVR as a protein capable of rapid endocytosis from the plasma membrane and trafficking to the trans-Golgi network. We show that AAVR directly binds to AAV2 particles, and that anti-AAVR antibodies efficiently block AAV2 infection. Moreover, genetic ablation of AAVR renders a wide range of mammalian cell types highly resistant to AAV2 infection. Notably, AAVR serves as a critical host factor for all tested AAV serotypes. The importance of AAVR for in vivo gene delivery is further highlighted by the robust resistance of Aavr(-/-) (also known as Au040320(-/-) and Kiaa0319l(-/-)) mice to AAV infection. Collectively, our data indicate that AAVR is a universal receptor involved in AAV infection.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pillay, S -- Meyer, N L -- Puschnik, A S -- Davulcu, O -- Diep, J -- Ishikawa, Y -- Jae, L T -- Wosen, J E -- Nagamine, C M -- Chapman, M S -- Carette, J E -- DP2 AI104557/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM066875/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI109662/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):108-12. doi: 10.1038/nature16465. Epub 2016 Jan 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 299 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Oregon Health &Science University, 3181 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239-3098, USA. ; Shriners Hospital for Children, 3101 Sam Jackson Park Road, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA. ; Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Department of Comparative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, 287 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies/immunology/pharmacology ; Cell Line ; Dependovirus/classification/drug effects/*physiology ; Endocytosis/drug effects ; Female ; Gene Deletion ; Genetic Therapy/methods ; Host Specificity ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Parvoviridae Infections/*metabolism/*virology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; *Viral Tropism/drug effects ; Virus Internalization/drug effects ; trans-Golgi Network/drug effects
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  • 32
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pincus, Zachary -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):37-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16873. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814974" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology ; Longevity/*physiology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Jihong -- Liu, Xiang -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 18;533(7603):321. doi: 10.1038/533321d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Maritime University, China. ; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193671" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Dissent and Disputes ; *Ecosystem ; *Environmental Monitoring ; *Models, Economic ; *Transportation
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Jun -- Wang, Bo -- Jarzembowski, Edmund A -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):441. doi: 10.1038/532441a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Linyi University, China. ; Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, China. ; Natural History Museum, London, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121830" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amber/*economics ; Animals ; China ; Coal ; *Fossils ; Insects/anatomy & histology/physiology ; Kaolin/isolation & purification ; Mining ; *Paleontology
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: The palaeobiological record of 12 million to 7 million years ago (Ma) is crucial to the elucidation of African ape and human origins, but few fossil assemblages of this period have been reported from sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 1970s, the Chorora Formation, Ethiopia, has been widely considered to contain ~10.5 million year (Myr) old mammalian fossils. More recently, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, a probable primitive member of the gorilla clade, was discovered from the formation. Here we report new field observations and geochemical, magnetostratigraphic and radioisotopic results that securely place the Chorora Formation sediments to between ~9 and ~7 Ma. The C. abyssinicus fossils are ~8.0 Myr old, forming a revised age constraint of the human-gorilla split. Other Chorora fossils range in age from ~8.5 to 7 Ma and comprise the first sub-Saharan mammalian assemblage that spans this period. These fossils suggest indigenous African evolution of multiple mammalian lineages/groups between 10 and 7 Ma, including a possible ancestral-descendent relationship between the ~9.8 Myr old Nakalipithecus nakayamai and C. abyssinicus. The new chronology and fossils suggest that faunal provinciality between eastern Africa and Eurasia had intensified by ~9 Ma, with decreased faunal interchange thereafter. The Chorora evidence supports the hypothesis of in situ African evolution of the Gorilla-Pan-human clade, and is concordant with the deeper divergence estimates of humans and great apes based on lower mutation rates of ~0.5 x 10(-9) per site per year (refs 13 - 15).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katoh, Shigehiro -- Beyene, Yonas -- Itaya, Tetsumaru -- Hyodo, Hironobu -- Hyodo, Masayuki -- Yagi, Koshi -- Gouzu, Chitaro -- WoldeGabriel, Giday -- Hart, William K -- Ambrose, Stanley H -- Nakaya, Hideo -- Bernor, Raymond L -- Boisserie, Jean-Renaud -- Bibi, Faysal -- Saegusa, Haruo -- Sasaki, Tomohiko -- Sano, Katsuhiro -- Asfaw, Berhane -- Suwa, Gen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):215-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16510.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Natural History, Hyogo Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; Association for Conservation of Culture Awassa, PO Box 6686, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Centre francais des etudes ethiopiennes (CFEE), USR CNRS 3137, French Ministry for Foreign Affairs, PO Box 5554, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005, Japan. ; Research Center for Inland Seas, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. ; Hiruzen Institute for Geology and Chronology, Okayama 703-8252, Japan. ; EES-14/MS D462, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA. ; Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, 133 Culler Hall, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan. ; Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington DC 20059, USA. ; Institut de Paleoprimatologie, Paleontologie Humaine : Evolution et Paleoenvironnements (IPHEP), UMR CNRS 7262, Universite de Poitiers, 86022 Poitiers, France. ; Museum fur Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. ; Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Hyogo, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; Rift Valley Research Service, PO Box 5717, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ethiopia ; *Fossils ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; *Gorilla gorilla/genetics ; Humans ; Mutation Rate ; *Phylogeny ; *Radiometric Dating ; Time Factors
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most extensively characterized tissue stem cells. Since the identification of HSCs by prospective isolation, complex multi-parameter flow cytometric isolation of phenotypic subsets has facilitated studies on many aspects of HSC biology, including self-renewal, differentiation, ageing, niche, and diversity. Here we demonstrate by unbiased multi-step screening, identification of a single gene, homeobox B5 (Hoxb5, also known as Hox-2.1), with expression in the bone marrow that is limited to long-term (LT)-HSCs in mice. Using a mouse single-colour tri-mCherry reporter driven by endogenous Hoxb5 regulation, we show that only the Hoxb5(+) HSCs exhibit long-term reconstitution capacity after transplantation in primary transplant recipients and, notably, in secondary recipients. Only 7-35% of various previously defined immunophenotypic HSCs are LT-HSCs. Finally, by in situ imaging of mouse bone marrow, we show that 〉94% of LT-HSCs (Hoxb5(+)) are directly attached to VE-cadherin(+) cells, implicating the perivascular space as a near-homogenous location of LT-HSCs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, James Y -- Miyanishi, Masanori -- Wang, Sean K -- Yamazaki, Satoshi -- Sinha, Rahul -- Kao, Kevin S -- Seita, Jun -- Sahoo, Debashis -- Nakauchi, Hiromitsu -- Weissman, Irving L -- F30-HL122096/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA086065/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058770/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007365/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099999/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16943.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Ludwig Center for Cancer Stem Cell Research and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD/metabolism ; Biomarkers/analysis ; Bone Marrow/metabolism ; Cadherins/metabolism ; Cell Self Renewal ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Immunophenotyping ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Stem Cell Niche
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: CD8(+) T cells have a central role in antitumour immunity, but their activity is suppressed in the tumour microenvironment. Reactivating the cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells is of great clinical interest in cancer immunotherapy. Here we report a new mechanism by which the antitumour response of mouse CD8(+) T cells can be potentiated by modulating cholesterol metabolism. Inhibiting cholesterol esterification in T cells by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT1, a key cholesterol esterification enzyme, led to potentiated effector function and enhanced proliferation of CD8(+) but not CD4(+) T cells. This is due to the increase in the plasma membrane cholesterol level of CD8(+) T cells, which causes enhanced T-cell receptor clustering and signalling as well as more efficient formation of the immunological synapse. ACAT1-deficient CD8(+) T cells were better than wild-type CD8(+) T cells at controlling melanoma growth and metastasis in mice. We used the ACAT inhibitor avasimibe, which was previously tested in clinical trials for treating atherosclerosis and showed a good human safety profile, to treat melanoma in mice and observed a good antitumour effect. A combined therapy of avasimibe plus an anti-PD-1 antibody showed better efficacy than monotherapies in controlling tumour progression. ACAT1, an established target for atherosclerosis, is therefore also a potential target for cancer immunotherapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851431/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yang, Wei -- Bai, Yibing -- Xiong, Ying -- Zhang, Jin -- Chen, Shuokai -- Zheng, Xiaojun -- Meng, Xiangbo -- Li, Lunyi -- Wang, Jing -- Xu, Chenguang -- Yan, Chengsong -- Wang, Lijuan -- Chang, Catharine C Y -- Chang, Ta-Yuan -- Zhang, Ti -- Zhou, Penghui -- Song, Bao-Liang -- Liu, Wanli -- Sun, Shao-cong -- Liu, Xiaolong -- Li, Bo-liang -- Xu, Chenqi -- HL 60306./HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL060306/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):651-5. doi: 10.1038/nature17412. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Center for Protein Science Shanghai, Shanghai Science Research Center, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; Institute for Nutritional Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Science, School of Life Sciences, Collaborative Innovation Center for Infectious Diseases, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Haven 03755, USA. ; Rheumatology and Immunology Department of ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China. ; Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou 510060, China. ; College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072, China. ; Department of Immunology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77054, USA. ; State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China. ; School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, 100 Haike Road, Shanghai 201210, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982734" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetates/*pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Animals ; Atherosclerosis/drug therapy ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*drug effects/*immunology/metabolism ; Cell Membrane/drug effects/metabolism ; Cholesterol/*metabolism ; Esterification/drug effects ; Female ; Immunological Synapses/drug effects/immunology/metabolism ; Immunotherapy/*methods ; Male ; Melanoma/*drug therapy/*immunology/metabolism/pathology ; Mice ; Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors/immunology ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/drug effects ; Sulfonic Acids/*pharmacology/therapeutic use
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: How does an animal know where it is when it stops moving? Hippocampal place cells fire at discrete locations as subjects traverse space, thereby providing an explicit neural code for current location during locomotion. In contrast, during awake immobility, the hippocampus is thought to be dominated by neural firing representing past and possible future experience. The question of whether and how the hippocampus constructs a representation of current location in the absence of locomotion has been unresolved. Here we report that a distinct population of hippocampal neurons, located in the CA2 subregion, signals current location during immobility, and does so in association with a previously unidentified hippocampus-wide network pattern. In addition, signalling of location persists into brief periods of desynchronization prevalent in slow-wave sleep. The hippocampus thus generates a distinct representation of current location during immobility, pointing to mnemonic processing specific to experience occurring in the absence of locomotion.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kay, Kenneth -- Sosa, Marielena -- Chung, Jason E -- Karlsson, Mattias P -- Larkin, Margaret C -- Frank, Loren M -- R01 MH090188/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):185-90. doi: 10.1038/nature17144. Epub 2016 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉UCSF Center for Integrative Neuroscience and Department of Physiology, University of California San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Francisco, California 94158, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934224" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Hippocampus/anatomy & histology/*cytology/*physiology ; Male ; Models, Neurological ; Movement ; Neurons/*physiology ; Orientation/*physiology ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; Sleep/*physiology ; Space Perception/*physiology ; Spatial Memory/physiology
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  • 39
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):437-8. doi: 10.1038/529437b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819007" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China ; Cities ; Congo ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Ecosystem ; Great Britain ; *Parks, Recreational/legislation & jurisprudence ; Pleasure ; Uganda ; United States ; *Wilderness
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  • 40
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉King, Anthony -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):S18-9. doi: 10.1038/531S18a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26934522" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amygdala/metabolism ; Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; Bullying ; DNA Methylation ; Depression/complications/prevention & control/therapy ; Emotional Adjustment ; Epigenesis, Genetic/genetics ; Female ; Hippocampus/metabolism ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone/metabolism ; Maternal Behavior ; Memory/physiology ; Mice ; Models, Animal ; Oxytocin/metabolism ; Pregnancy ; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/genetics ; Psychological Trauma/complications/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; *Resilience, Psychological ; Social Isolation/psychology ; Stress, Psychological/complications/genetics/metabolism/therapy
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2016-03-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Price, Nicholas -- Bourne, James -- Rosa, Marcello -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 3;531(7592):35. doi: 10.1038/531035c.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26935690" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Experimentation/legislation & jurisprudence ; Animal Welfare ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory ; Australia ; Commerce/*legislation & jurisprudence ; *Federal Government ; *Primates ; Research Personnel/psychology
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  • 42
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qiu, Jane -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):142-5. doi: 10.1038/529142a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26762440" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry/*economics/legislation & jurisprudence/statistics & numerical ; data/*trends ; Animals ; China ; Climate Change ; Conservation of Natural Resources/methods ; Government Regulation ; *Grassland ; Livestock/physiology ; Policy Making ; Socioeconomic Factors ; Tibet ; Transients and Migrants/*statistics & numerical data ; Water Supply/statistics & numerical data
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Tullimonstrum gregarium is an iconic soft-bodied fossil from the Carboniferous Mazon Creek Lagerstatte (Illinois, USA). Despite a large number of specimens and distinct anatomy, various analyses over the past five decades have failed to determine the phylogenetic affinities of the 'Tully monster', and although it has been allied to such disparate phyla as the Mollusca, Annelida or Chordata, it remains enigmatic. The nature and phylogenetic affinities of Tullimonstrum have defied confident systematic placement because none of its preserved anatomy provides unequivocal evidence of homology, without which comparative analysis fails. Here we show that the eyes of Tullimonstrum possess ultrastructural details indicating homology with vertebrate eyes. Anatomical analysis using scanning electron microscopy reveals that the eyes of Tullimonstrum preserve a retina defined by a thick sheet comprising distinct layers of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics provide further evidence that these microbodies are melanosomes. A range of animals have melanin in their eyes, but the possession of melanosomes of two distinct morphologies arranged in layers, forming retinal pigment epithelium, is a synapomorphy of vertebrates. Our analysis indicates that in addition to evidence of colour patterning, ecology and thermoregulation, fossil melanosomes can also carry a phylogenetic signal. Identification in Tullimonstrum of spheroidal and cylindrical melanosomes forming the remains of retinal pigment epithelium indicates that it is a vertebrate; considering its body parts in this new light suggests it was an anatomically unusual member of total group Vertebrata.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Clements, Thomas -- Dolocan, Andrei -- Martin, Peter -- Purnell, Mark A -- Vinther, Jakob -- Gabbott, Sarah E -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature17647. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Geology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK. ; Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA. ; School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1RJ, UK. ; Interface Analysis Centre, HH Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074512" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Eye/chemistry/cytology/ultrastructure ; *Fossils ; Illinois ; Melanosomes/ultrastructure ; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning ; *Phylogeny ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Vertebrates/anatomy & histology/*classification
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Umbilical cord blood-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for many life-saving regenerative therapies. However, despite their advantages for transplantation, their clinical use is restricted because HSCs in cord blood are found only in small numbers. Small molecules that enhance haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in culture have been identified, but in many cases their mechanisms of action or the nature of the pathways they impinge on are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the molecular circuitry that underpins the self-renewal of human HSCs will facilitate the development of targeted strategies that expand HSCs for regenerative therapies. Whereas transcription factor networks have been shown to influence the self-renewal and lineage decisions of human HSCs, the post-transcriptional mechanisms that guide HSC fate have not been closely investigated. Here we show that overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) induces multiple pro-self-renewal phenotypes, including a 17-fold increase in short-term repopulating cells and a net 23-fold ex vivo expansion of long-term repopulating HSCs. By performing a global analysis of MSI2-RNA interactions, we show that MSI2 directly attenuates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling through post-transcriptional downregulation of canonical AHR pathway components in cord blood HSPCs. Our study gives mechanistic insight into RNA networks controlled by RNA-binding proteins that underlie self-renewal and provides evidence that manipulating such networks ex vivo can enhance the regenerative potential of human HSCs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880456/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880456/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rentas, Stefan -- Holzapfel, Nicholas T -- Belew, Muluken S -- Pratt, Gabriel A -- Voisin, Veronique -- Wilhelm, Brian T -- Bader, Gary D -- Yeo, Gene W -- Hope, Kristin J -- HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MOP-126030/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- NS075449/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):508-11. doi: 10.1038/nature17665.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Bioinformatics Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. ; Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore and Molecular Engineering Laboratory, A*STAR, Singapore 138632, Singapore.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27121842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Count ; *Cell Self Renewal/genetics ; Down-Regulation/genetics ; Female ; Fetal Blood/cytology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):294-5. doi: 10.1038/532294a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111612" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/*immunology ; Animals, Wild/*immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology ; Communicable Diseases/immunology ; Gene-Environment Interaction ; Germ-Free Life ; *Housing, Animal ; Humans ; Hygiene Hypothesis ; Hypersensitivity/immunology ; Immunologic Memory/immunology ; Infant, Newborn ; Mice/*immunology ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Neoplasms/immunology ; Pets/*immunology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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