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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):20-1. doi: 10.1038/533020a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147014" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Zoo/physiology ; Conservation of Natural Resources/economics/*methods ; *Extinction, Biological ; Female ; Fertilization in Vitro/economics/*veterinary ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/*cytology ; Kenya ; Male ; Ovum/*cytology ; *Perissodactyla/physiology ; Reproduction/physiology ; Spermatozoa/*cytology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ward, Alyssa -- Baldwin, Thomas O -- Antin, Parker B -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):177. doi: 10.1038/532177d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. ; University of California, Riverside, USA. ; University of Arizona, Tucson, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27075087" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Confounding Factors (Epidemiology) ; *Learning ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic/genetics ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Research/*standards ; United States
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: (beta-)Arrestins are important regulators of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). They bind to active, phosphorylated GPCRs and thereby shut off 'classical' signalling to G proteins, trigger internalization of GPCRs via interaction with the clathrin machinery and mediate signalling via 'non-classical' pathways. In addition to two visual arrestins that bind to rod and cone photoreceptors (termed arrestin1 and arrestin4), there are only two (non-visual) beta-arrestin proteins (beta-arrestin1 and beta-arrestin2, also termed arrestin2 and arrestin3), which regulate hundreds of different (non-visual) GPCRs. Binding of these proteins to GPCRs usually requires the active form of the receptors plus their phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). The binding of receptors or their carboxy terminus as well as certain truncations induce active conformations of (beta-)arrestins that have recently been solved by X-ray crystallography. Here we investigate both the interaction of beta-arrestin with GPCRs, and the beta-arrestin conformational changes in real time and in living human cells, using a series of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based beta-arrestin2 biosensors. We observe receptor-specific patterns of conformational changes in beta-arrestin2 that occur rapidly after the receptor-beta-arrestin2 interaction. After agonist removal, these changes persist for longer than the direct receptor interaction. Our data indicate a rapid, receptor-type-specific, two-step binding and activation process between GPCRs and beta-arrestins. They further indicate that beta-arrestins remain active after dissociation from receptors, allowing them to remain at the cell surface and presumably signal independently. Thus, GPCRs trigger a rapid, receptor-specific activation/deactivation cycle of beta-arrestins, which permits their active signalling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nuber, Susanne -- Zabel, Ulrike -- Lorenz, Kristina -- Nuber, Andreas -- Milligan, Graeme -- Tobin, Andrew B -- Lohse, Martin J -- Hoffmann, Carsten -- 1 R01 DA038882/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- BB/K019864/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 31;531(7596):661-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17198. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Rudolf Virchow Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Comprehensive Heart Failure Center, University of Wurzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Wurzburg, Germany. ; Molecular Pharmacology Group, Institute of Molecular, Cell and Systems Biology, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK. ; MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007855" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arrestins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Biosensing Techniques ; Cattle ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Conformation ; Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/chemistry/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Substrate Specificity ; Time Factors
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-05-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Watson, Traci -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7602):155. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27172024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Egypt ; Female ; *Flowers ; History, Ancient ; Humans ; Infrared Rays ; *Mummies/history ; Religion/history ; *Symbolism ; Tattooing/*history
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
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  • 5
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Callaway, Ewen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):286. doi: 10.1038/531286a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Nucleus/genetics ; DNA/*analysis/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/analysis/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; Humans ; Neanderthals/*genetics ; *Phylogeny ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Time Factors
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Colonic epithelial cells are covered by thick inner and outer mucus layers. The inner mucus layer is free of commensal microbiota, which contributes to the maintenance of gut homeostasis. In the small intestine, molecules critical for prevention of bacterial invasion into epithelia such as Paneth-cell-derived anti-microbial peptides and regenerating islet-derived 3 (RegIII) family proteins have been identified. Although there are mucus layers providing physical barriers against the large number of microbiota present in the large intestine, the mechanisms that separate bacteria and colonic epithelia are not fully elucidated. Here we show that Ly6/PLAUR domain containing 8 (Lypd8) protein prevents flagellated microbiota invading the colonic epithelia in mice. Lypd8, selectively expressed in epithelial cells at the uppermost layer of the large intestinal gland, was secreted into the lumen and bound flagellated bacteria including Proteus mirabilis. In the absence of Lypd8, bacteria were present in the inner mucus layer and many flagellated bacteria invaded epithelia. Lypd8(-/-) mice were highly sensitive to intestinal inflammation induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Antibiotic elimination of Gram-negative flagellated bacteria restored the bacterial-free state of the inner mucus layer and ameliorated DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Lypd8(-/-) mice. Lypd8 bound to flagella and suppressed motility of flagellated bacteria. Thus, Lypd8 mediates segregation of intestinal bacteria and epithelial cells in the colon to preserve intestinal homeostasis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Okumura, Ryu -- Kurakawa, Takashi -- Nakano, Takashi -- Kayama, Hisako -- Kinoshita, Makoto -- Motooka, Daisuke -- Gotoh, Kazuyoshi -- Kimura, Taishi -- Kamiyama, Naganori -- Kusu, Takashi -- Ueda, Yoshiyasu -- Wu, Hong -- Iijima, Hideki -- Barman, Soumik -- Osawa, Hideki -- Matsuno, Hiroshi -- Nishimura, Junichi -- Ohba, Yusuke -- Nakamura, Shota -- Iida, Tetsuya -- Yamamoto, Masahiro -- Umemoto, Eiji -- Sano, Koichi -- Takeda, Kiyoshi -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):117-21. doi: 10.1038/nature17406. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Immune Regulation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development, Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-8686, Japan. ; Department of Infection Metagenomics, Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Bacteriology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama 700-8558, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Department of Cell Physiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan. ; Department of Bacterial Infections, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. ; Laboratory of Immunoparasitology, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027293" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Caco-2 Cells ; Cell Line ; Colitis/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Colon/*microbiology ; Dextran Sulfate ; Epithelium/*microbiology ; Female ; *Flagella ; GPI-Linked Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism/secretion ; Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity/*physiology ; Homeostasis ; Humans ; Inflammation/chemically induced/drug therapy/genetics ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/metabolism/*microbiology/secretion ; Male ; Mice ; Proteus mirabilis/drug effects/metabolism/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: The position of Xenacoelomorpha in the tree of life remains a major unresolved question in the study of deep animal relationships. Xenacoelomorpha, comprising Acoela, Nemertodermatida, and Xenoturbella, are bilaterally symmetrical marine worms that lack several features common to most other bilaterians, for example an anus, nephridia, and a circulatory system. Two conflicting hypotheses are under debate: Xenacoelomorpha is the sister group to all remaining Bilateria (= Nephrozoa, namely protostomes and deuterostomes) or is a clade inside Deuterostomia. Thus, determining the phylogenetic position of this clade is pivotal for understanding the early evolution of bilaterian features, or as a case of drastic secondary loss of complexity. Here we show robust phylogenomic support for Xenacoelomorpha as the sister taxon of Nephrozoa. Our phylogenetic analyses, based on 11 novel xenacoelomorph transcriptomes and using different models of evolution under maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses, strongly corroborate this result. Rigorous testing of 25 experimental data sets designed to exclude data partitions and taxa potentially prone to reconstruction biases indicates that long-branch attraction, saturation, and missing data do not influence these results. The sister group relationship between Nephrozoa and Xenacoelomorpha supported by our phylogenomic analyses implies that the last common ancestor of bilaterians was probably a benthic, ciliated acoelomate worm with a single opening into an epithelial gut, and that excretory organs, coelomic cavities, and nerve cords evolved after xenacoelomorphs separated from the stem lineage of Nephrozoa.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cannon, Johanna Taylor -- Vellutini, Bruno Cossermelli -- Smith, Julian 3rd -- Ronquist, Fredrik -- Jondelius, Ulf -- Hejnol, Andreas -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):89-93. doi: 10.1038/nature16520.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, PO Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden. ; Sars International Centre for Marine Molecular Biology, University of Bergen, Thormohlensgate 55, 5008 Bergen, Norway. ; Department of Biology, Winthrop University, 701 Oakland Avenue, Rock Hill, South Carolina 29733, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842059" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Structures/anatomy & histology ; Animals ; Aquatic Organisms/*classification/genetics ; Bayes Theorem ; Genes ; Likelihood Functions ; Male ; Models, Biological ; *Phylogeny ; Transcriptome
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Developmental disabilities, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), intellectual disability (ID), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), affect one in six children in the USA. Recently, gene mutations in patched domain containing 1 (PTCHD1) have been found in ~1% of patients with ID and ASD. Individuals with PTCHD1 deletion show symptoms of ADHD, sleep disruption, hypotonia, aggression, ASD, and ID. Although PTCHD1 is probably critical for normal development, the connection between its deletion and the ensuing behavioural defects is poorly understood. Here we report that during early post-natal development, mouse Ptchd1 is selectively expressed in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a group of GABAergic neurons that regulate thalamocortical transmission, sleep rhythms, and attention. Ptchd1 deletion attenuates TRN activity through mechanisms involving small conductance calcium-dependent potassium currents (SK). TRN-restricted deletion of Ptchd1 leads to attention deficits and hyperactivity, both of which are rescued by pharmacological augmentation of SK channel activity. Global Ptchd1 deletion recapitulates learning impairment, hyper-aggression, and motor defects, all of which are insensitive to SK pharmacological targeting and not found in the TRN-restricted deletion mouse. This study maps clinically relevant behavioural phenotypes onto TRN dysfunction in a human disease model, while also identifying molecular and circuit targets for intervention.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4875756/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wells, Michael F -- Wimmer, Ralf D -- Schmitt, L Ian -- Feng, Guoping -- Halassa, Michael M -- F31 MH098641/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R00 NS078115/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH107680/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH097104/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH10768/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):58-63. doi: 10.1038/nature17427. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA. ; McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA. ; Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York 10016, USA. ; Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, New York 1003, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007844" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aggression ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Attention ; Attention Deficit Disorder with ; Hyperactivity/genetics/*physiopathology/*psychology ; Behavior, Animal ; Disease Models, Animal ; Electric Conductivity ; Female ; GABAergic Neurons/metabolism/pathology ; *Gene Deletion ; Humans ; Learning Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/*deficiency/*genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Motor Disorders/genetics/physiopathology ; Neural Inhibition ; Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated/metabolism ; Sleep ; Sleep Deprivation/genetics/physiopathology ; Thalamic Nuclei/pathology/*physiopathology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-19
    Description: Sex differences in physiology and disease susceptibility are commonly attributed to developmental and/or hormonal factors, but there is increasing realization that cell-intrinsic mechanisms play important and persistent roles. Here we use the Drosophila melanogaster intestine to investigate the nature and importance of cellular sex in an adult somatic organ in vivo. We find that the adult intestinal epithelium is a cellular mosaic of different sex differentiation pathways, and displays extensive sex differences in expression of genes with roles in growth and metabolism. Cell-specific reversals of the sexual identity of adult intestinal stem cells uncovers the key role this identity has in controlling organ size, reproductive plasticity and response to genetically induced tumours. Unlike previous examples of sexually dimorphic somatic stem cell activity, the sex differences in intestinal stem cell behaviour arise from intrinsic mechanisms that control cell cycle duration and involve a new doublesex- and fruitless-independent branch of the sex differentiation pathway downstream of transformer. Together, our findings indicate that the plasticity of an adult somatic organ is reversibly controlled by its sexual identity, imparted by a new mechanism that may be active in more tissues than previously recognized.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hudry, Bruno -- Khadayate, Sanjay -- Miguel-Aliaga, Irene -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 18;530(7590):344-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16953.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887495" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult Stem Cells/*cytology ; Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Dosage Compensation, Genetic ; Drosophila Proteins/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*anatomy & histology/*cytology/genetics/growth & ; development ; Female ; Intestines/*cytology ; Male ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; *Organ Size ; RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Reproduction ; Ribonucleoproteins/metabolism ; *Sex Characteristics ; Sex Differentiation/genetics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-07
    Description: Endothelial cells (ECs) are plastic cells that can switch between growth states with different bioenergetic and biosynthetic requirements. Although quiescent in most healthy tissues, ECs divide and migrate rapidly upon proangiogenic stimulation. Adjusting endothelial metabolism to the growth state is central to normal vessel growth and function, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. Here we report that the forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor FOXO1 is an essential regulator of vascular growth that couples metabolic and proliferative activities in ECs. Endothelial-restricted deletion of FOXO1 in mice induces a profound increase in EC proliferation that interferes with coordinated sprouting, thereby causing hyperplasia and vessel enlargement. Conversely, forced expression of FOXO1 restricts vascular expansion and leads to vessel thinning and hypobranching. We find that FOXO1 acts as a gatekeeper of endothelial quiescence, which decelerates metabolic activity by reducing glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Mechanistically, FOXO1 suppresses signalling by MYC (also known as c-MYC), a powerful driver of anabolic metabolism and growth. MYC ablation impairs glycolysis, mitochondrial function and proliferation of ECs while its EC-specific overexpression fuels these processes. Moreover, restoration of MYC signalling in FOXO1-overexpressing endothelium normalizes metabolic activity and branching behaviour. Our findings identify FOXO1 as a critical rheostat of vascular expansion and define the FOXO1-MYC transcriptional network as a novel metabolic checkpoint during endothelial growth and proliferation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wilhelm, Kerstin -- Happel, Katharina -- Eelen, Guy -- Schoors, Sandra -- Oellerich, Mark F -- Lim, Radiance -- Zimmermann, Barbara -- Aspalter, Irene M -- Franco, Claudio A -- Boettger, Thomas -- Braun, Thomas -- Fruttiger, Marcus -- Rajewsky, Klaus -- Keller, Charles -- Bruning, Jens C -- Gerhardt, Holger -- Carmeliet, Peter -- Potente, Michael -- K08CA090438/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 14;529(7585):216-20. doi: 10.1038/nature16498. Epub 2016 Jan 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Angiogenesis &Metabolism Laboratory, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, Department of Oncology, University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Neurovascular Link, Vesalius Research Center, VIB, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; Vascular Biology Laboratory, London Research Institute, Cancer Research UK, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; Vascular Morphogenesis Laboratory, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon 1649-028, Portugal. ; Department of Cardiac Development and Remodeling, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, D-61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany. ; UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, London EC1V 9EL, UK. ; Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), D-13125 Berlin, Germany. ; Children's Cancer Therapy Development Institute, Beaverton, Oregon 97005, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Excellence Cluster on Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-Associated Diseases (CECAD) and Center of Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Preventive Medicine (CEDP), University of Cologne, D-50931 Cologne, Germany. ; Vascular Patterning Laboratory, Vesalius Research Center, VIB and University of Leuven, Leuven 3000, Belgium. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, D-13347 Berlin, Germany. ; Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), D-10117 Berlin, Germany. ; International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 02-109 Warsaw, Poland. ; DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Frankfurt Rhine-Main, D-13347 Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26735015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Proliferation ; Cell Respiration ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/*growth & development/*metabolism ; Female ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Glycolysis ; Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells/cytology/metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/deficiency/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction
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  • 11
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pain, Stephanie -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):S50-1. doi: 10.1038/531S50a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26981726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Agriculture/history ; Air Pollution/history ; Animals ; Architecture as Topic/history ; Cholera/history ; Cities/history ; Conservation of Natural Resources/history ; Disease Outbreaks/history ; Droughts/history ; Heat Stroke/history ; History, 17th Century ; History, 18th Century ; History, 19th Century ; History, 20th Century ; History, 21st Century ; History, Ancient ; History, Medieval ; Housing/history ; Humans ; Noise ; Ozone/history/radiation effects ; Plague/history ; Quarantine/history ; Railroads/history ; Rivers ; Sanitary Engineering/history ; Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/history ; Urban Health/*history ; Urban Population/statistics & numerical data ; Urbanization/history ; Vehicle Emissions ; Water Supply/history
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are physiologically important transmembrane signalling proteins that trigger intracellular responses upon binding of extracellular ligands. Despite recent breakthroughs in GPCR crystallography, the details of ligand-induced signal transduction are not well understood owing to missing dynamical information. In principle, such information can be provided by NMR, but so far only limited data of functional relevance on few side-chain sites of eukaryotic GPCRs have been obtained. Here we show that receptor motions can be followed at virtually any backbone site in a thermostabilized mutant of the turkey beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1AR). Labelling with [(15)N]valine in a eukaryotic expression system provides over twenty resolved resonances that report on structure and dynamics in six ligand complexes and the apo form. The response to the various ligands is heterogeneous in the vicinity of the binding pocket, but gets transformed into a homogeneous readout at the intracellular side of helix 5 (TM5), which correlates linearly with ligand efficacy for the G protein pathway. The effect of several pertinent, thermostabilizing point mutations was assessed by reverting them to the native sequence. Whereas the response to ligands remains largely unchanged, binding of the G protein mimetic nanobody NB80 and G protein activation are only observed when two conserved tyrosines (Y227 and Y343) are restored. Binding of NB80 leads to very strong spectral changes throughout the receptor, including the extracellular ligand entrance pocket. This indicates that even the fully thermostabilized receptor undergoes activating motions in TM5, but that the fully active state is only reached in presence of Y227 and Y343 by stabilization with a G protein-like partner. The combined analysis of chemical shift changes from the point mutations and ligand responses identifies crucial connections in the allosteric activation pathway, and presents a general experimental method to delineate signal transmission networks at high resolution in GPCRs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Isogai, Shin -- Deupi, Xavier -- Opitz, Christian -- Heydenreich, Franziska M -- Tsai, Ching-Ju -- Brueckner, Florian -- Schertler, Gebhard F X -- Veprintsev, Dmitry B -- Grzesiek, Stephan -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):237-41. doi: 10.1038/nature16577. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Focal Area Structural Biology and Biophysics, Biozentrum, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland. ; Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. ; Department of Biology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840483" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Agonists/chemistry/pharmacology ; Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology ; Allosteric Regulation/drug effects/genetics ; Animals ; Apoproteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Binding Sites/drug effects ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Partial Agonism ; Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Movement ; *Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular ; Point Mutation/genetics ; Protein Stability ; Protein Structure, Secondary/drug effects ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-1/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects/genetics ; Turkeys
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Itkin, Tomer -- Gur-Cohen, Shiri -- Spencer, Joel A -- Schajnovitz, Amir -- Ramasamy, Saravana K -- Kusumbe, Anjali P -- Ledergor, Guy -- Jung, Yookyung -- Milo, Idan -- Poulos, Michael G -- Kalinkovich, Alexander -- Ludin, Aya -- Kollet, Orit -- Shakhar, Guy -- Butler, Jason M -- Rafii, Shahin -- Adams, Ralf H -- Scadden, David T -- Lin, Charles P -- Lapidot, Tsvee -- EB017274/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EB017274/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL100402/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):323-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17624. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. ; Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA. ; Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Center for Regenerative Medicine and Cancer Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Department of Tissue Morphogenesis and Faculty of Medicine, University of Munster, D-48149 Munster, Germany. ; Internal Medicine Department, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv 64239, Israel. ; Department of Genetic Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074509" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, Ly/metabolism ; Arteries/cytology/physiology ; Blood Vessels/*cytology/*physiology ; Bone Marrow/*blood supply ; Bone Marrow Cells/cytology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Movement ; Cell Self Renewal ; Cell Survival ; Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism ; Endothelial Cells/physiology ; Female ; *Hematopoiesis ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/cytology ; Leukocytes/cytology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Nestin/metabolism ; Pericytes/physiology ; Permeability ; Plasma/metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: The bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system allows sequence-specific gene editing in many organisms and holds promise as a tool to generate models of human diseases, for example, in human pluripotent stem cells. CRISPR/Cas9 introduces targeted double-stranded breaks (DSBs) with high efficiency, which are typically repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) resulting in nonspecific insertions, deletions or other mutations (indels). DSBs may also be repaired by homology-directed repair (HDR) using a DNA repair template, such as an introduced single-stranded oligo DNA nucleotide (ssODN), allowing knock-in of specific mutations. Although CRISPR/Cas9 is used extensively to engineer gene knockouts through NHEJ, editing by HDR remains inefficient and can be corrupted by additional indels, preventing its widespread use for modelling genetic disorders through introducing disease-associated mutations. Furthermore, targeted mutational knock-in at single alleles to model diseases caused by heterozygous mutations has not been reported. Here we describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing framework that allows selective introduction of mono- and bi-allelic sequence changes with high efficiency and accuracy. We show that HDR accuracy is increased dramatically by incorporating silent CRISPR/Cas-blocking mutations along with pathogenic mutations, and establish a method termed 'CORRECT' for scarless genome editing. By characterizing and exploiting a stereotyped inverse relationship between a mutation's incorporation rate and its distance to the DSB, we achieve predictable control of zygosity. Homozygous introduction requires a guide RNA targeting close to the intended mutation, whereas heterozygous introduction can be accomplished by distance-dependent suboptimal mutation incorporation or by use of mixed repair templates. Using this approach, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells with heterozygous and homozygous dominant early onset Alzheimer's disease-causing mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP(Swe)) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1(M146V)) and derived cortical neurons, which displayed genotype-dependent disease-associated phenotypes. Our findings enable efficient introduction of specific sequence changes with CRISPR/Cas9, facilitating study of human disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paquet, Dominik -- Kwart, Dylan -- Chen, Antonia -- Sproul, Andrew -- Jacob, Samson -- Teo, Shaun -- Olsen, Kimberly Moore -- Gregg, Andrew -- Noggle, Scott -- Tessier-Lavigne, Marc -- 8 UL1 TR000043/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):125-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17664. Epub 2016 Apr 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, New York, New York 10032, USA. ; Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences, The Rockefeller University and Sloan-Kettering Institute Tri-institutional MD-PhD Program, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120160" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Age of Onset ; Alleles ; Alzheimer Disease/genetics ; Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics/secretion ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics ; DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded ; DNA Cleavage ; DNA Repair/genetics ; Female ; Genes, Dominant/genetics ; Genetic Association Studies ; Genetic Engineering/*methods ; *Heterozygote ; *Homozygote ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Presenilins/genetics ; RNA, Guide/genetics ; Sequence Homology ; Substrate Specificity ; Templates, Genetic
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: It has been known for more than 70 years that synaptic strength is dynamically regulated in a use-dependent manner. At synapses with a low initial release probability, closely spaced presynaptic action potentials can result in facilitation, a short-term form of enhancement in which each subsequent action potential evokes greater neurotransmitter release. Facilitation can enhance neurotransmitter release considerably and can profoundly influence information transfer across synapses, but the underlying mechanism remains a mystery. One proposed mechanism is that a specialized calcium sensor for facilitation transiently increases the probability of release, and this sensor is distinct from the fast sensors that mediate rapid neurotransmitter release. Yet such a sensor has never been identified, and its very existence has been disputed. Here we show that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. Expression of wild-type Syt7 in presynaptic neurons restored facilitation, whereas expression of a mutated Syt7 with a calcium-insensitive C2A domain did not. By revealing the role of Syt7 in synaptic facilitation, these results resolve a longstanding debate about a widespread form of short-term plasticity, and will enable future studies that may lead to a deeper understanding of the functional importance of facilitation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729191/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jackman, Skyler L -- Turecek, Josef -- Belinsky, Justine E -- Regehr, Wade G -- NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P30 NS072030/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS032405/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):88-91. doi: 10.1038/nature16507.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738595" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Signaling ; Female ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/metabolism/secretion ; Neurotransmitter Agents/*secretion ; Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism ; Synapses/*metabolism/secretion ; *Synaptic Transmission ; Synaptotagmins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pendse, Mihir -- Hooper, Lora V -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):42-3. doi: 10.1038/nature17895. Epub 2016 Apr 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120165" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Immune System/*growth & development/*microbiology ; Immunity, Innate/*immunology ; Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/*immunology ; Intestines/*immunology ; Pregnancy
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  • 17
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Perkel, Jeffrey M -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):131-2. doi: 10.1038/533131a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147030" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Databases, Factual/supply & distribution/utilization ; Datasets as Topic/*supply & distribution/utilization ; Information Dissemination/*methods ; Information Storage and Retrieval/*methods/standards ; Molecular Imaging ; Video Recording
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2016-04-12
    Description: Asymmetric cell division, the partitioning of cellular components in response to polarizing cues during mitosis, has roles in differentiation and development. It is important for the self-renewal of fertilized zygotes in Caenorhabditis elegans and neuroblasts in Drosophila, and in the development of mammalian nervous and digestive systems. T lymphocytes, upon activation by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), can undergo asymmetric cell division, wherein the daughter cell proximal to the APC is more likely to differentiate into an effector-like T cell and the distal daughter is more likely to differentiate into a memory-like T cell. Upon activation and before cell division, expression of the transcription factor c-Myc drives metabolic reprogramming, necessary for the subsequent proliferative burst. Here we find that during the first division of an activated T cell in mice, c-Myc can sort asymmetrically. Asymmetric distribution of amino acid transporters, amino acid content, and activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is correlated with c-Myc expression, and both amino acids and mTORC1 activity sustain the differences in c-Myc expression in one daughter cell compared to the other. Asymmetric c-Myc levels in daughter T cells affect proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and these effects are altered by experimental manipulation of mTORC1 activity or c-Myc expression. Therefore, metabolic signalling pathways cooperate with transcription programs to maintain differential cell fates following asymmetric T-cell division.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851250/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4851250/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Verbist, Katherine C -- Guy, Cliff S -- Milasta, Sandra -- Liedmann, Swantje -- Kaminski, Marcin M -- Wang, Ruoning -- Green, Douglas R -- R01 GM096208/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 GM052735/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):389-93. doi: 10.1038/nature17442. Epub 2016 Apr 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, Tennessee 38105, USA. ; Center for Childhood Cancer and Blood Disease, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27064903" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Transport Systems/metabolism ; Amino Acids/metabolism ; Animals ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*cytology/*metabolism ; Cell Differentiation/genetics ; *Cell Division ; *Cell Polarity/genetics ; Female ; *Lymphocyte Activation ; Male ; Mice ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/genetics ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2016-04-15
    Description: Numerous natural systems contain surfaces or threads that enable directional water transport. This behaviour is usually ascribed to hierarchical structural features at the microscale and nanoscale, with gradients in surface energy and gradients in Laplace pressure thought to be the main driving forces. Here we study the prey-trapping pitcher organs of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes alata. We find that continuous, directional water transport occurs on the surface of the 'peristome'--the rim of the pitcher--because of its multiscale structure, which optimizes and enhances capillary rise in the transport direction, and prevents backflow by pinning in place any water front that is moving in the reverse direction. This results not only in unidirectional flow despite the absence of any surface-energy gradient, but also in a transport speed that is much higher than previously thought. We anticipate that the basic 'design' principles underlying this behaviour could be used to develop artificial fluid-transport systems with practical applications.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Huawei -- Zhang, Pengfei -- Zhang, Liwen -- Liu, Hongliang -- Jiang, Ying -- Zhang, Deyuan -- Han, Zhiwu -- Jiang, Lei -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):85-9. doi: 10.1038/nature17189.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China. ; Laboratory of Bio-inspired Smart Interface Science, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China. ; School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191, China. ; Key Laboratory for Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130022, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27078568" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Angiosperms/*anatomy & histology/*metabolism ; Animals ; Biological Transport ; Biomimetics ; Insects ; Plant Epidermis/anatomy & histology/metabolism ; Surface Properties ; Water/*metabolism ; Water Movements
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  • 20
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-05-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Jihong -- Liu, Xiang -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 18;533(7603):321. doi: 10.1038/533321d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Shanghai Maritime University, China. ; Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27193671" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Dissent and Disputes ; *Ecosystem ; *Environmental Monitoring ; *Models, Economic ; *Transportation
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: The palaeobiological record of 12 million to 7 million years ago (Ma) is crucial to the elucidation of African ape and human origins, but few fossil assemblages of this period have been reported from sub-Saharan Africa. Since the 1970s, the Chorora Formation, Ethiopia, has been widely considered to contain ~10.5 million year (Myr) old mammalian fossils. More recently, Chororapithecus abyssinicus, a probable primitive member of the gorilla clade, was discovered from the formation. Here we report new field observations and geochemical, magnetostratigraphic and radioisotopic results that securely place the Chorora Formation sediments to between ~9 and ~7 Ma. The C. abyssinicus fossils are ~8.0 Myr old, forming a revised age constraint of the human-gorilla split. Other Chorora fossils range in age from ~8.5 to 7 Ma and comprise the first sub-Saharan mammalian assemblage that spans this period. These fossils suggest indigenous African evolution of multiple mammalian lineages/groups between 10 and 7 Ma, including a possible ancestral-descendent relationship between the ~9.8 Myr old Nakalipithecus nakayamai and C. abyssinicus. The new chronology and fossils suggest that faunal provinciality between eastern Africa and Eurasia had intensified by ~9 Ma, with decreased faunal interchange thereafter. The Chorora evidence supports the hypothesis of in situ African evolution of the Gorilla-Pan-human clade, and is concordant with the deeper divergence estimates of humans and great apes based on lower mutation rates of ~0.5 x 10(-9) per site per year (refs 13 - 15).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Katoh, Shigehiro -- Beyene, Yonas -- Itaya, Tetsumaru -- Hyodo, Hironobu -- Hyodo, Masayuki -- Yagi, Koshi -- Gouzu, Chitaro -- WoldeGabriel, Giday -- Hart, William K -- Ambrose, Stanley H -- Nakaya, Hideo -- Bernor, Raymond L -- Boisserie, Jean-Renaud -- Bibi, Faysal -- Saegusa, Haruo -- Sasaki, Tomohiko -- Sano, Katsuhiro -- Asfaw, Berhane -- Suwa, Gen -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):215-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16510.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Natural History, Hyogo Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; Association for Conservation of Culture Awassa, PO Box 6686, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Centre francais des etudes ethiopiennes (CFEE), USR CNRS 3137, French Ministry for Foreign Affairs, PO Box 5554, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ; Research Institute of Natural Sciences, Okayama University of Science, Okayama 700-0005, Japan. ; Research Center for Inland Seas, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. ; Hiruzen Institute for Geology and Chronology, Okayama 703-8252, Japan. ; EES-14/MS D462, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA. ; Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, 133 Culler Hall, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA. ; Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. ; Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan. ; Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington DC 20059, USA. ; Institut de Paleoprimatologie, Paleontologie Humaine : Evolution et Paleoenvironnements (IPHEP), UMR CNRS 7262, Universite de Poitiers, 86022 Poitiers, France. ; Museum fur Naturkunde - Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. ; Institute of Natural and Environmental Sciences, University of Hyogo, Sanda 669-1546, Japan. ; The University Museum, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan. ; Rift Valley Research Service, PO Box 5717, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863981" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ethiopia ; *Fossils ; Geologic Sediments/chemistry ; *Gorilla gorilla/genetics ; Humans ; Mutation Rate ; *Phylogeny ; *Radiometric Dating ; Time Factors
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  • 22
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pincus, Zachary -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):37-8. doi: 10.1038/nature16873. Epub 2016 Jan 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Developmental Biology and Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814974" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*physiology ; Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology ; Longevity/*physiology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most extensively characterized tissue stem cells. Since the identification of HSCs by prospective isolation, complex multi-parameter flow cytometric isolation of phenotypic subsets has facilitated studies on many aspects of HSC biology, including self-renewal, differentiation, ageing, niche, and diversity. Here we demonstrate by unbiased multi-step screening, identification of a single gene, homeobox B5 (Hoxb5, also known as Hox-2.1), with expression in the bone marrow that is limited to long-term (LT)-HSCs in mice. Using a mouse single-colour tri-mCherry reporter driven by endogenous Hoxb5 regulation, we show that only the Hoxb5(+) HSCs exhibit long-term reconstitution capacity after transplantation in primary transplant recipients and, notably, in secondary recipients. Only 7-35% of various previously defined immunophenotypic HSCs are LT-HSCs. Finally, by in situ imaging of mouse bone marrow, we show that 〉94% of LT-HSCs (Hoxb5(+)) are directly attached to VE-cadherin(+) cells, implicating the perivascular space as a near-homogenous location of LT-HSCs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, James Y -- Miyanishi, Masanori -- Wang, Sean K -- Yamazaki, Satoshi -- Sinha, Rahul -- Kao, Kevin S -- Seita, Jun -- Sahoo, Debashis -- Nakauchi, Hiromitsu -- Weissman, Irving L -- F30-HL122096/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA086065/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058770/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007365/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01 HL099999/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):223-7. doi: 10.1038/nature16943.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Ludwig Center for Cancer Stem Cell Research and Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA. ; Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863982" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD/metabolism ; Biomarkers/analysis ; Bone Marrow/metabolism ; Cadherins/metabolism ; Cell Self Renewal ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Genes, Reporter/genetics ; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Immunophenotyping ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Stem Cell Niche
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2016-04-05
    Description: Cancer is a disease of ageing. Clinically, aged cancer patients tend to have a poorer prognosis than young. This may be due to accumulated cellular damage, decreases in adaptive immunity, and chronic inflammation. However, the effects of the aged microenvironment on tumour progression have been largely unexplored. Since dermal fibroblasts can have profound impacts on melanoma progression, we examined whether age-related changes in dermal fibroblasts could drive melanoma metastasis and response to targeted therapy. Here we find that aged fibroblasts secrete a Wnt antagonist, sFRP2, which activates a multi-step signalling cascade in melanoma cells that results in a decrease in beta-catenin and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and ultimately the loss of a key redox effector, APE1. Loss of APE1 attenuates the response of melanoma cells to DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species, rendering the cells more resistant to targeted therapy (vemurafenib). Age-related increases in sFRP2 also augment both angiogenesis and metastasis of melanoma cells. These data provide an integrated view of how fibroblasts in the aged microenvironment contribute to tumour progression, offering new possibilities for the design of therapy for the elderly.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833579/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4833579/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaur, Amanpreet -- Webster, Marie R -- Marchbank, Katie -- Behera, Reeti -- Ndoye, Abibatou -- Kugel, Curtis H 3rd -- Dang, Vanessa M -- Appleton, Jessica -- O'Connell, Michael P -- Cheng, Phil -- Valiga, Alexander A -- Morissette, Rachel -- McDonnell, Nazli B -- Ferrucci, Luigi -- Kossenkov, Andrew V -- Meeth, Katrina -- Tang, Hsin-Yao -- Yin, Xiangfan -- Wood, William H 3rd -- Lehrmann, Elin -- Becker, Kevin G -- Flaherty, Keith T -- Frederick, Dennie T -- Wargo, Jennifer A -- Cooper, Zachary A -- Tetzlaff, Michael T -- Hudgens, Courtney -- Aird, Katherine M -- Zhang, Rugang -- Xu, Xiaowei -- Liu, Qin -- Bartlett, Edmund -- Karakousis, Giorgos -- Eroglu, Zeynep -- Lo, Roger S -- Chan, Matthew -- Menzies, Alexander M -- Long, Georgina V -- Johnson, Douglas B -- Sosman, Jeffrey -- Schilling, Bastian -- Schadendorf, Dirk -- Speicher, David W -- Bosenberg, Marcus -- Ribas, Antoni -- Weeraratna, Ashani T -- P01 CA 114046-06/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P01 CA114046/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA010815/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P50 CA093372/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA174746/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA174746-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA009171/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- T32 CA9171-36/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):250-4. doi: 10.1038/nature17392. Epub 2016 Apr 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; University of the Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Dermatology, University of Zurich, Zurich CH-8006, Switzerland. ; The National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA. ; Department of Dermatology and Pathology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA. ; Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Developmental Therapeutics, Boston 02114, Massachusetts, USA. ; Department of Surgical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Departments of Surgery and Pathology, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Crown Princess Mary Cancer Centre, Westmead Hospital, Westmead 2145, Australia. ; Melanoma Institute Australia and The University of Sydney, Sydney 2000, Australia. ; Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville Tennessee 37232, USA. ; Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, West German Cancer Center, University Duesburg-Essen, Essen, Germany. ; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg 45127, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27042933" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aging/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Culture Media, Conditioned/pharmacology ; DNA Damage ; DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase/metabolism ; Disease Progression ; *Drug Resistance, Neoplasm ; Fibroblasts/secretion ; Humans ; Indoles/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Male ; Melanoma/blood supply/*drug therapy/genetics/*pathology ; Membrane Proteins/*metabolism/secretion ; Mice ; Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor/metabolism ; Middle Aged ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; *Neoplasm Metastasis ; Neovascularization, Pathologic ; Oxidative Stress ; Phenotype ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Sulfonamides/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; *Tumor Microenvironment ; Wnt Signaling Pathway ; Wnt1 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors ; beta Catenin/metabolism
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  • 25
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Popkin, Gabriel -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 7;529(7584):16-8. doi: 10.1038/529016a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26738578" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biophysical Phenomena ; Biophysics/*trends ; Birds/physiology ; Cytoskeleton/metabolism ; *Life ; Magnetic Phenomena ; *Models, Theoretical
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2016-03-24
    Description: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a major contributor to inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn disease and type 2 diabetes. ER stress induces the unfolded protein response, which involves activation of three transmembrane receptors, ATF6, PERK and IRE1alpha. Once activated, IRE1alpha recruits TRAF2 to the ER membrane to initiate inflammatory responses via the NF-kappaB pathway. Inflammation is commonly triggered when pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors or nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors, detect tissue damage or microbial infection. However, it is not clear which PRRs have a major role in inducing inflammation during ER stress. Here we show that NOD1 and NOD2, two members of the NOD-like receptor family of PRRs, are important mediators of ER-stress-induced inflammation in mouse and human cells. The ER stress inducers thapsigargin and dithiothreitol trigger production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in a NOD1/2-dependent fashion. Inflammation and IL-6 production triggered by infection with Brucella abortus, which induces ER stress by injecting the type IV secretion system effector protein VceC into host cells, is TRAF2, NOD1/2 and RIP2-dependent and can be reduced by treatment with the ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholate or an IRE1alpha kinase inhibitor. The association of NOD1 and NOD2 with pro-inflammatory responses induced by the IRE1alpha/TRAF2 signalling pathway provides a novel link between innate immunity and ER-stress-induced inflammation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869892/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869892/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Keestra-Gounder, A Marijke -- Byndloss, Mariana X -- Seyffert, Nubia -- Young, Briana M -- Chavez-Arroyo, Alfredo -- Tsai, April Y -- Cevallos, Stephanie A -- Winter, Maria G -- Pham, Oanh H -- Tiffany, Connor R -- de Jong, Maarten F -- Kerrinnes, Tobias -- Ravindran, Resmi -- Luciw, Paul A -- McSorley, Stephen J -- Baumler, Andreas J -- Tsolis, Renee M -- AI044170/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI076246/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI076278/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI096528/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI109799/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI112258/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI117303/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- GM056765/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI044170/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076246/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076278/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI096528/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI109799/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI112258/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI117303/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R25 GM056765/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):394-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17631. Epub 2016 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, California 95616, USA. ; Center for Comparative Medicine, Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of California at Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, California 95616, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27007849" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism ; Brucella abortus/immunology/pathogenicity ; Cell Line ; Dithiothreitol/pharmacology ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/drug effects/pathology ; *Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress/drug effects ; Endoribonucleases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Female ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate ; Inflammation/chemically induced/*metabolism ; Interleukin-6/biosynthesis ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; NF-kappa B/metabolism ; Nod1 Signaling Adaptor Protein/immunology/*metabolism ; Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/immunology/*metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Receptors, Pattern Recognition/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/drug effects ; TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 2/metabolism ; Taurochenodeoxycholic Acid/pharmacology ; Thapsigargin/pharmacology ; Unfolded Protein Response/drug effects
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  • 27
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yu, Byron M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):449-50. doi: 10.1038/nature17886. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074510" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Brain Mapping ; Executive Function/*physiology ; Female ; Male ; Motor Cortex/*cytology/*physiology ; Movement/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology
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  • 28
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chu, Derrick M -- Aagaard, Kjersti M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):316-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17887. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics, Molecular and Cell Biology, and Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074514" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Child, Preschool ; Chronic Disease ; Clostridium symbiosum/isolation & purification/physiology ; Diet/adverse effects/methods ; Feces/microbiology ; Female ; Germ-Free Life ; Growth Disorders/*diet therapy/etiology/*microbiology ; Healthy Volunteers ; Humans ; Infant ; Intestines/drug effects/*microbiology ; Liver/metabolism ; Malawi ; Malnutrition/complications/*diet therapy/*microbiology ; Mice ; Microbiota/drug effects/genetics/*physiology ; Milk, Human/chemistry/microbiology ; Mothers ; Oligosaccharides/analysis/pharmacology/therapeutic use ; Ruminococcus/isolation & purification/physiology ; Somatomedins/biosynthesis ; Weight Gain/drug effects
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  • 29
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-29
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 28;529(7587):437-8. doi: 10.1038/529437b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26819007" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; China ; Cities ; Congo ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Ecosystem ; Great Britain ; *Parks, Recreational/legislation & jurisprudence ; Pleasure ; Uganda ; United States ; *Wilderness
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-03-31
    Description: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common inherited and sporadic vascular malformations that cause strokes and seizures in younger individuals. CCMs arise from endothelial cell loss of KRIT1, CCM2 or PDCD10, non-homologous proteins that form an adaptor complex. How disruption of the CCM complex results in disease remains controversial, with numerous signalling pathways (including Rho, SMAD and Wnt/beta-catenin) and processes such as endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) proposed to have causal roles. CCM2 binds to MEKK3 (refs 7, 8, 9, 10, 11), and we have recently shown that CCM complex regulation of MEKK3 is essential during vertebrate heart development. Here we investigate this mechanism in CCM disease pathogenesis. Using a neonatal mouse model of CCM disease, we show that expression of the MEKK3 target genes Klf2 and Klf4, as well as Rho and ADAMTS protease activity, are increased in the endothelial cells of early CCM lesions. By contrast, we find no evidence of EndMT or increased SMAD or Wnt signalling during early CCM formation. Endothelial-specific loss of Map3k3 (also known as Mekk3), Klf2 or Klf4 markedly prevents lesion formation, reverses the increase in Rho activity, and rescues lethality. Consistent with these findings in mice, we show that endothelial expression of KLF2 and KLF4 is increased in human familial and sporadic CCM lesions, and that a disease-causing human CCM2 mutation abrogates the MEKK3 interaction without affecting CCM complex formation. These studies identify gain of MEKK3 signalling and KLF2/4 function as causal mechanisms for CCM pathogenesis that may be targeted to develop new CCM therapeutics.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4864035/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhou, Zinan -- Tang, Alan T -- Wong, Weng-Yew -- Bamezai, Sharika -- Goddard, Lauren M -- Shenkar, Robert -- Zhou, Su -- Yang, Jisheng -- Wright, Alexander C -- Foley, Matthew -- Arthur, J Simon C -- Whitehead, Kevin J -- Awad, Issam A -- Li, Dean Y -- Zheng, Xiangjian -- Kahn, Mark L -- P01 HL075215/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 HL120846/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01NS092521/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL-084516/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL094326/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS075168/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32HL07439/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 7;532(7597):122-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17178. Epub 2016 Mar 30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine and Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Civic Center Blvd, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Laboratory of Cardiovascular Signaling, Centenary Institute, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Neurovascular Surgery Program, Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Chicago Medicine and Biological Sciences, Chicago, Illinois 60637, USA. ; Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Sydney Microscopy &Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia. ; Division of Cell Signaling and Immunology, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, UK. ; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine and the Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA. ; The Key Laboratory for Human Disease Gene Study of Sichuan Province, Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences &Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072, China. ; Faculty of Medicine, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2050, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027284" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: ADAM Proteins/metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Endothelial Cells/enzymology/*metabolism ; Female ; Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System/etiology/*metabolism/pathology ; Humans ; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors/deficiency/*metabolism ; MAP Kinase Kinase Kinase 3/deficiency/*metabolism ; *MAP Kinase Signaling System ; Male ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; rho GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-04-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ransohoff, Richard M -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 14;532(7598):185-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17881. Epub 2016 Apr 6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Neuroimmunology group, Biogen, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049948" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*metabolism ; Female ; Male ; Microglia/*physiology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*metabolism
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-02-04
    Description: Chronic opiate use induces opiate dependence, which is characterized by extremely unpleasant physical and emotional feelings after drug use is terminated. Both the rewarding effects of a drug and the desire to avoid withdrawal symptoms motivate continued drug use, and the nucleus accumbens is important for orchestrating both processes. While multiple inputs to the nucleus accumbens regulate reward, little is known about the nucleus accumbens circuitry underlying withdrawal. Here we identify the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus as a prominent input to the nucleus accumbens mediating the expression of opiate-withdrawal-induced physical signs and aversive memory. Activity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens pathway is necessary and sufficient to mediate behavioural aversion. Selectively silencing this pathway abolishes aversive symptoms in two different mouse models of opiate withdrawal. Chronic morphine exposure selectively potentiates excitatory transmission between the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus and D2-receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons via synaptic insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors. Notably, in vivo optogenetic depotentiation restores normal transmission at these synapses and robustly suppresses morphine withdrawal symptoms. This links morphine-evoked pathway- and cell-type-specific plasticity in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus to nucleus accumbens circuit to opiate dependence, and suggests that reprogramming this circuit holds promise for treating opiate addiction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhu, Yingjie -- Wienecke, Carl F R -- Nachtrab, Gregory -- Chen, Xiaoke -- 5T32DA035165-02/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- T32 DA035165/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):219-22. doi: 10.1038/nature16954. Epub 2016 Feb 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26840481" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Avoidance Learning ; Disease Models, Animal ; Long-Term Synaptic Depression ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Morphine/administration & dosage/pharmacology ; *Neural Pathways/drug effects ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Neurons/drug effects/metabolism ; Nucleus Accumbens/drug effects/*physiopathology ; Opioid-Related Disorders/*physiopathology/therapy ; Optogenetics ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Receptors, AMPA/metabolism ; Receptors, Dopamine D2/metabolism ; Reward ; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/*physiopathology/therapy ; Synaptic Transmission/drug effects ; Thalamus/drug effects/pathology/*physiopathology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-02-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reardon, Sara -- England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 11;530(7589):142. doi: 10.1038/nature.2016.19290.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863962" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Embryo Research/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Extrachromosomal Inheritance/genetics ; Female ; Follow-Up Studies ; Genetic Therapy/*legislation & jurisprudence/*methods ; Great Britain ; Haplorhini/genetics ; Heredity/genetics/physiology ; Humans ; Male ; Mitochondrial Diseases/genetics/*prevention & control ; Mitochondrial Replacement Therapy/adverse effects/*legislation & ; jurisprudence/*methods ; Mutation/genetics ; *Patient Safety ; Sex Factors ; United States ; United States Food and Drug Administration/legislation & jurisprudence
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 35
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cyranoski, David -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):300-2. doi: 10.1038/532300a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Nature from Shanghai, China.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27111614" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry ; Animal Welfare/economics/legislation & jurisprudence/standards ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory/genetics ; Biological Evolution ; Biomedical Research/economics/legislation & jurisprudence/*methods/*trends ; CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics ; Callithrix ; China ; Cooperative Behavior ; Disease Models, Animal ; Genetic Engineering ; *Haplorhini/genetics ; Humans ; International Cooperation ; Japan ; Neurosciences/methods/trends ; Research Personnel/organization & administration
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2016-04-28
    Description: The primary visual cortex contains a detailed map of the visual scene, which is represented according to multiple stimulus dimensions including spatial location, ocular dominance and stimulus orientation. The maps for spatial location and ocular dominance arise from the spatial arrangement of thalamic afferent axons in the cortex. However, the origins of the other maps remain unclear. Here we show that the cortical maps for orientation, direction and retinal disparity in the cat (Felis catus) are all strongly related to the organization of the map for spatial location of light (ON) and dark (OFF) stimuli, an organization that we show is OFF-dominated, OFF-centric and runs orthogonal to ocular dominance columns. Because this ON-OFF organization originates from the clustering of ON and OFF thalamic afferents in the visual cortex, we conclude that all main features of visual cortical topography, including orientation, direction and retinal disparity, follow a common organizing principle that arranges thalamic axons with similar retinotopy and ON-OFF polarity in neighbouring cortical regions.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860131/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4860131/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kremkow, Jens -- Jin, Jianzhong -- Wang, Yushi -- Alonso, Jose M -- EY005253/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY005253/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY020679/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 May 5;533(7601):52-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17936. Epub 2016 Apr 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Graduate Center for Vision Research, State University of New York, College of Optometry, 33 West 42nd Street, New York, New York 10036, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27120164" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Afferent Pathways/radiation effects ; Animals ; Axons/physiology ; *Brain Mapping ; Cats ; Darkness ; Dominance, Ocular/physiology ; Light ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Models, Neurological ; Orientation/physiology/radiation effects ; Photic Stimulation ; Retina/physiology/radiation effects ; Space Perception/*physiology/radiation effects ; Thalamus/physiology/radiation effects ; Visual Cortex/*physiology/radiation effects ; Visual Fields/*physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rodriguez, Barbra -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 21;532(7599):403-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27127819" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Animal Migration ; Animals ; Biodiversity ; Climate Change/economics/*statistics & numerical data ; Ecology/economics/manpower/*methods/*trends ; *Ecosystem ; Plants ; Research/economics/manpower/*trends ; *Research Design ; Research Personnel ; *Uncertainty ; Ursidae ; *Weather
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    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 38
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉England -- Nature. 2016 Feb 4;530(7588):5. doi: 10.1038/530005a.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842018" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/*virology ; Animals ; Brazil/epidemiology ; Female ; Humans ; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control/statistics & ; numerical data ; Microcephaly/epidemiology/etiology/virology ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology/prevention & control/virology ; Rubella/epidemiology ; Tropical Climate ; Virology/*trends ; Zika Virus/isolation & purification/*pathogenicity ; Zika Virus Infection/*epidemiology/prevention & control/virology
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2016-04-14
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kuratani, Shigeru -- Hirasawa, Tatsuya -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):447-8. doi: 10.1038/nature17885. Epub 2016 Apr 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Evolutionary Morphology Laboratory, RIKEN, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0047, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27074506" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Eye ; *Fossils ; *Phylogeny ; Vertebrates/*classification
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  • 40
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    Nature Publishing Group (NPG)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Daniels, Julie T -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 17;531(7594):309-10. doi: 10.1038/nature17305. Epub 2016 Mar 9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University College London Institute of Ophthalmology, London EC1V 9EL, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26958834" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cataract/congenital/pathology/physiopathology/*therapy ; Cataract Extraction ; Cell Lineage ; Child ; Cornea/*cytology/*growth & development/physiology ; Corneal Transplantation ; Ectoderm/cytology ; Eye Proteins/metabolism ; Homeodomain Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology ; Macaca ; Paired Box Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Polycomb Repressive Complex 1/metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/metabolism ; Rabbits ; Recovery of Function ; Regeneration/*physiology ; Repressor Proteins/metabolism ; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology ; Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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