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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Niphargus is a speciose amphipod genus found in groundwater habitats across Europe. Three Niphargus species living in the sulphidic Frasassi caves in Italy harbour sulphur-oxidizing Thiothrix bacterial ectosymbionts. These three species are distantly related, implying that the ability to form ectosymbioses with Thiothrix may be common among Niphargus. Therefore, Niphargus-Thiothrix associations may also be found in sulphidic aquifers other than Frasassi. In this study, we examined this possibility by analysing niphargids of the genera Niphargus and Pontoniphargus collected from the partly sulphidic aquifers of the Southern Dobrogea region of Romania, which are accessible through springs, wells and Movile Cave. Molecular and morphological analyses revealed seven niphargid species in this region. Five of these species occurred occasionally or exclusively in sulphidic locations, whereas the remaining two were restricted to nonsulphidic areas. Thiothrix were detected by PCR on all seven Dobrogean niphargid species and observed using microscopy to be predominantly attached to their hosts' appendages. 16S rRNA gene sequences of the Thiothrix epibionts fell into two main clades, one of which (herein named T4) occurred solely on niphargids collected in sulphidic locations. The other Thiothrix clade was present on niphargids from both sulphidic and nonsulphidic areas and indistinguishable from the T3 ectosymbiont clade previously identified on Frasassi-dwelling Niphargus. Although niphargids from Frasassi and Southern Dobrogea are not closely related, the patterns of their association with Thiothrix are remarkably alike. The finding of similar Niphargus-Thiothrix associations in aquifers located 1200 km apart suggests that they may be widespread in European groundwater ecosystems.
    Keywords: amphipods; ecology; sulphide; symbiosis; systematics; taxonomy ; Amphipoda ; Animals ; DNA, Bacterial ; Ecosystem ; Groundwater ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S ; Romania ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sulfur ; Symbiosis ; Thiothrix
    Language: English , English
    Type: article , publishedVersion
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Underwood, Emily -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1188-90. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1188.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/blood/genetics/*physiology ; Animals ; Biological Clocks/genetics/*physiology ; Biomarkers/blood/metabolism ; DNA/genetics ; DNA Methylation ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Humans ; Mice ; Rats ; Telomere Homeostasis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Mitochondria generate adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and are a source of potentially toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been suggested that the gradual mitochondrial dysfunction that is observed to accompany aging could in fact be causal to the aging process. Here we review findings that suggest that age-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction is not sufficient to limit life span. Furthermore, mitochondrial ROS are not always deleterious and can even stimulate pro-longevity pathways. Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction plays a complex role in regulating longevity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Ying -- Hekimi, Siegfried -- MOP-114891/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP-123295/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- MOP-97869/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1204-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac4357.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada. ; Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1B1, Canada. siegfried.hekimi@mcgill.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785479" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/*metabolism ; Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics ; Electron Transport/genetics ; Electron Transport Complex III/genetics ; Longevity/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitochondria/genetics/*metabolism ; Point Mutation ; Reactive Oxygen Species/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cohen, Jon -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1186-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1186.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785474" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/physiology ; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/physiology ; Caloric Restriction ; Death ; Humans ; Hydra/genetics/physiology ; Longevity/genetics/*physiology ; Mice ; Mutation ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/genetics/physiology
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: In developing hearts, changes in the cardiac metabolic milieu during the perinatal period redirect mitochondrial substrate preference from carbohydrates to fatty acids. Mechanisms responsible for this mitochondrial plasticity are unknown. Here, we found that PINK1-Mfn2-Parkin-mediated mitophagy directs this metabolic transformation in mouse hearts. A mitofusin (Mfn) 2 mutant lacking PINK1 phosphorylation sites necessary for Parkin binding (Mfn2 AA) inhibited mitochondrial Parkin translocation, suppressing mitophagy without impairing mitochondrial fusion. Cardiac Parkin deletion or expression of Mfn2 AA from birth, but not after weaning, prevented postnatal mitochondrial maturation essential to survival. Five-week-old Mfn2 AA hearts retained a fetal mitochondrial transcriptional signature without normal increases in fatty acid metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis genes. Myocardial fatty acylcarnitine levels and cardiomyocyte respiration induced by palmitoylcarnitine were concordantly depressed. Thus, instead of transcriptional reprogramming, fetal cardiomyocyte mitochondria undergo perinatal Parkin-mediated mitophagy and replacement by mature adult mitochondria. Mitophagic mitochondrial removal underlies developmental cardiomyocyte mitochondrial plasticity and metabolic transitioning of perinatal hearts.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747105/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4747105/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gong, Guohua -- Song, Moshi -- Csordas, Gyorgy -- Kelly, Daniel P -- Matkovich, Scot J -- Dorn, Gerald W 2nd -- HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL108943/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL122124/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL128071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL59888/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL058493/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL059888/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL108943/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL128071/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):aad2459. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2459. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ; Center for Metabolic Origins of Disease, Cardiovascular Metabolism Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, Orlando, FL, USA. ; Center for Pharmacogenomics, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. gdorn@dom.wustl.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785495" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cellular Reprogramming ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/genetics/metabolism ; Heart/*embryology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitochondria, Heart/metabolism/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Mitochondrial Degradation/genetics/*physiology ; Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Myocardium/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism/ultrastructure ; Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stokstad, Erik -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1144-7. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1144.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785454" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Breeding ; Cattle ; Europe ; *Extinction, Biological
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kupferschmidt, Kai -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1143. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6278.1143.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965608" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acinetobacter/*growth & development ; Animals ; *Death ; Humans ; Mice ; Moraxellaceae/*growth & development ; Rhizobiaceae/*growth & development ; Time Factors
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Mono-ubiquitination of Fancd2 is essential for repairing DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The Fan1 nuclease, also required for ICL repair, is recruited to ICLs by ubiquitinated (Ub) Fancd2. This could in principle explain how Ub-Fancd2 promotes ICL repair, but we show that recruitment of Fan1 by Ub-Fancd2 is dispensable for ICL repair. Instead, Fan1 recruitment--and activity--restrains DNA replication fork progression and prevents chromosome abnormalities from occurring when DNA replication forks stall, even in the absence of ICLs. Accordingly, Fan1 nuclease-defective knockin mice are cancer-prone. Moreover, we show that a Fan1 variant in high-risk pancreatic cancers abolishes recruitment by Ub-Fancd2 and causes genetic instability without affecting ICL repair. Therefore, Fan1 recruitment enables processing of stalled forks that is essential for genome stability and health.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lachaud, Christophe -- Moreno, Alberto -- Marchesi, Francesco -- Toth, Rachel -- Blow, J Julian -- Rouse, John -- WT096598MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):846-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5634. Epub 2016 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. ; Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. j.rouse@dundee.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797144" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Chromosome Aberrations ; DNA Repair ; *DNA Replication ; Endodeoxyribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genomic Instability/*genetics ; Liver Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lymphoma/genetics/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/*genetics ; *Ubiquitination
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: In most animal species, juvenile growth is marked by an exponential gain in body weight and size. Here we show that the microbiota of infant mice sustains both weight gain and longitudinal growth when mice are fed a standard laboratory mouse diet or a nutritionally depleted diet. We found that the intestinal microbiota interacts with the somatotropic hormone axis to drive systemic growth. Using monocolonized mouse models, we showed that selected lactobacilli promoted juvenile growth in a strain-dependent manner that recapitulated the microbiota's effect on growth and the somatotropic axis. These findings show that the host's microbiota supports juvenile growth. Moreover, we discovered that lactobacilli strains buffered the adverse effects of chronic undernutrition on the postnatal growth of germ-free mice.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schwarzer, Martin -- Makki, Kassem -- Storelli, Gilles -- Machuca-Gayet, Irma -- Srutkova, Dagmar -- Hermanova, Petra -- Martino, Maria Elena -- Balmand, Severine -- Hudcovic, Tomas -- Heddi, Abdelaziz -- Rieusset, Jennifer -- Kozakova, Hana -- Vidal, Hubert -- Leulier, Francois -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):854-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8588.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5242, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Laboratory of Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., Novy Hradek, Czech Republic. ; Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5242, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Laboratoire CarMeN, Universite Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche INSERM U-1060 et INRA U-1397, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Chemin du Grand Revoyet, 69600 Oullins, France. ; Institut de Genomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Universite de Lyon, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche 5242, 46 Allee d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. ; Laboratory of Gnotobiology, Institute of Microbiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, v. v. i., Novy Hradek, Czech Republic. ; UMR203 BF2I, Biologie Fonctionnelle Insectes et Interactions, Universite de Lyon, INRA, INSA-Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne, France. ; Laboratoire CarMeN, Universite Lyon 1, Unite Mixte de Recherche INSERM U-1060 et INRA U-1397, Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Chemin du Grand Revoyet, 69600 Oullins, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912894" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Body Weight/*physiology ; Diet ; Femur/growth & development ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*physiology ; Lactobacillus plantarum/*physiology ; Malnutrition/*microbiology/*physiopathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Weight Gain/*physiology
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Vocal imitation involves incorporating instructive auditory information into relevant motor circuits through processes that are poorly understood. In zebra finches, we found that exposure to a tutor's song drives spiking activity within premotor neurons in the juvenile, whereas inhibition suppresses such responses upon learning in adulthood. We measured inhibitory currents evoked by the tutor song throughout development while simultaneously quantifying each bird's learning trajectory. Surprisingly, we found that the maturation of synaptic inhibition onto premotor neurons is correlated with learning but not age. We used synthetic tutoring to demonstrate that inhibition is selective for specific song elements that have already been learned and not those still in refinement. Our results suggest that structured inhibition plays a crucial role during song acquisition, enabling a piece-by-piece mastery of complex tasks.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vallentin, Daniela -- Kosche, Georg -- Lipkind, Dina -- Long, Michael A -- R01NS075044/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):267-71. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3023.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉NYU Neuroscience Institute and Department of Otolaryngology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. ; Laboratory of Vocal Learning, Department of Psychology, Hunter College, New York, NY 10065, USA. ; NYU Neuroscience Institute and Department of Otolaryngology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. mlong@med.nyu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816377" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Finches/*physiology ; High Vocal Center/*physiology ; *Learning ; Male ; Motor Neurons/physiology ; Music ; *Neural Inhibition ; Neural Pathways/*physiology ; Prosencephalon/physiology ; Synapses/physiology ; *Vocalization, Animal
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fearnside, Philip M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):456-7. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.456-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉National Institute for Research in Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, Amazonas, 69067-375, Brazil. pmfearn@inpa.gov.br.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823417" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biodiversity ; *Fishes ; *Power Plants ; *Rivers
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Monahan, Patrick -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):395. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.395. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Bone Development ; Bone and Bones/*anatomy & histology ; Dinosaurs/*anatomy & histology/*growth & development
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: Secreted and integral membrane proteins compose up to one-third of the biological proteome. These proteins contain hydrophobic signals that direct their translocation across or insertion into the lipid bilayer by the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. The molecular basis of how hydrophobic signals within a nascent polypeptide trigger channel opening is not understood. Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy to determine the structure of an active Sec61 channel that has been opened by a signal sequence. The signal supplants helix 2 of Sec61alpha, which triggers a rotation that opens the central pore both axially across the membrane and laterally toward the lipid bilayer. Comparisons with structures of Sec61 in other states suggest a pathway for how hydrophobic signals engage the channel to gain access to the lipid bilayer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700591/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4700591/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Voorhees, Rebecca M -- Hegde, Ramanujan S -- MC_UP_A022_1007/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):88-91. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4992.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Medical Research Council, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. rhegde@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721998" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dogs ; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions ; Lipid Bilayers/chemistry ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry ; Protein Sorting Signals ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Ribosomes/chemistry
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: Monoubiquitinated histone H2B plays multiple roles in transcription activation. H2B is deubiquitinated by the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetyltransferase (SAGA) coactivator, which contains a four-protein subcomplex known as the deubiquitinating (DUB) module. The crystal structure of the Ubp8/Sgf11/Sus1/Sgf73 DUB module bound to a ubiquitinated nucleosome reveals that the DUB module primarily contacts H2A/H2B, with an arginine cluster on the Sgf11 zinc finger domain docking on the conserved H2A/H2B acidic patch. The Ubp8 catalytic domain mediates additional contacts with H2B, as well as with the conjugated ubiquitin. We find that the DUB module deubiquitinates H2B both in the context of the nucleosome and in H2A/H2B dimers complexed with the histone chaperone, FACT, suggesting that SAGA could target H2B at multiple stages of nucleosome disassembly and reassembly during transcription.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morgan, Michael T -- Haj-Yahya, Mahmood -- Ringel, Alison E -- Bandi, Prasanthi -- Brik, Ashraf -- Wolberger, Cynthia -- GM-095822/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Y1-CO-1020/CO/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Y1-GM-1104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):725-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5681.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 8410501, Israel. ; Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200008, Israel. ; Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. cwolberg@jhmi.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912860" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Catalytic Domain ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Endopeptidases/*chemistry ; Histone Acetyltransferases/*chemistry ; Histones/*chemistry ; Nuclear Proteins/*chemistry ; Nucleosomes/enzymology ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; RNA-Binding Proteins/*chemistry ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*chemistry ; Trans-Activators/*chemistry ; Transcription Factors/*chemistry ; Transcriptional Activation ; Ubiquitin/chemistry ; *Ubiquitination ; Xenopus laevis ; Zinc Fingers
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: De Lussanet claims that our model that accounts for the degree of folding of the cerebral cortex based on the product of cortical surface area and the square root of cortical thickness is better reduced to the product of gray-matter proportion and folding index. Lewitus et al., in turn, claim that the assumptions of our model are in conflict with experimental data; that the model does not accurately fit the data; and that the ancestral mammalian brain was gyrencephalic. Here, we show that both claims are inappropriate.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mota, Bruno -- Herculano-Houzel, Suzana -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):826. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2346.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. ; Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. suzanahh@gmail.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912888" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cerebral Cortex ; Humans ; Lissencephaly/*pathology ; Neurons/*cytology
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2016-01-28
    Description: Muscle contraction depends on release of Ca(2+) from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and reuptake by the Ca(2+)adenosine triphosphatase SERCA. We discovered a putative muscle-specific long noncoding RNA that encodes a peptide of 34 amino acids and that we named dwarf open reading frame (DWORF). DWORF localizes to the SR membrane, where it enhances SERCA activity by displacing the SERCA inhibitors, phospholamban, sarcolipin, and myoregulin. In mice, overexpression of DWORF in cardiomyocytes increases peak Ca(2+) transient amplitude and SR Ca(2+) load while reducing the time constant of cytosolic Ca(2+) decay during each cycle of contraction-relaxation. Conversely, slow skeletal muscle lacking DWORF exhibits delayed Ca(2+) clearance and relaxation and reduced SERCA activity. DWORF is the only endogenous peptide known to activate the SERCA pump by physical interaction and provides a means for enhancing muscle contractility.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Nelson, Benjamin R -- Makarewich, Catherine A -- Anderson, Douglas M -- Winders, Benjamin R -- Troupes, Constantine D -- Wu, Fenfen -- Reese, Austin L -- McAnally, John R -- Chen, Xiongwen -- Kavalali, Ege T -- Cannon, Stephen C -- Houser, Steven R -- Bassel-Duby, Rhonda -- Olson, Eric N -- AR-063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- DK-099653/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- F30AR 067094/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- HL-077439,/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-093039/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-111665/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AR063182/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-HL-100401/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 15;351(6270):271-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad4076.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. Department of Cardiovascular Research Center, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. ; Department of Neurology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Department of Physiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Hamon Center for Regenerative Science and Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. eric.olson@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26816378" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Humans ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; *Muscle Contraction ; Muscle Proteins/metabolism ; Muscle, Skeletal/*metabolism ; Myocardial Contraction ; Myocytes, Cardiac/*metabolism ; Peptides/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteolipids/metabolism ; RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) is the major receptor for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C). In humans, high amounts of HDL-C in plasma are associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Mice that have depleted Scarb1 (SR-BI knockout mice) have markedly elevated HDL-C levels but, paradoxically, increased atherosclerosis. The impact of SR-BI on HDL metabolism and CHD risk in humans remains unclear. Through targeted sequencing of coding regions of lipid-modifying genes in 328 individuals with extremely high plasma HDL-C levels, we identified a homozygote for a loss-of-function variant, in which leucine replaces proline 376 (P376L), in SCARB1, the gene encoding SR-BI. The P376L variant impairs posttranslational processing of SR-BI and abrogates selective HDL cholesterol uptake in transfected cells, in hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from the homozygous subject, and in mice. Large population-based studies revealed that subjects who are heterozygous carriers of the P376L variant have significantly increased levels of plasma HDL-C. P376L carriers have a profound HDL-related phenotype and an increased risk of CHD (odds ratio = 1.79, which is statistically significant).〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zanoni, Paolo -- Khetarpal, Sumeet A -- Larach, Daniel B -- Hancock-Cerutti, William F -- Millar, John S -- Cuchel, Marina -- DerOhannessian, Stephanie -- Kontush, Anatol -- Surendran, Praveen -- Saleheen, Danish -- Trompet, Stella -- Jukema, J Wouter -- De Craen, Anton -- Deloukas, Panos -- Sattar, Naveed -- Ford, Ian -- Packard, Chris -- Majumder, Abdullah al Shafi -- Alam, Dewan S -- Di Angelantonio, Emanuele -- Abecasis, Goncalo -- Chowdhury, Rajiv -- Erdmann, Jeanette -- Nordestgaard, Borge G -- Nielsen, Sune F -- Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne -- Schmidt, Ruth Frikke -- Kuulasmaa, Kari -- Liu, Dajiang J -- Perola, Markus -- Blankenberg, Stefan -- Salomaa, Veikko -- Mannisto, Satu -- Amouyel, Philippe -- Arveiler, Dominique -- Ferrieres, Jean -- Muller-Nurasyid, Martina -- Ferrario, Marco -- Kee, Frank -- Willer, Cristen J -- Samani, Nilesh -- Schunkert, Heribert -- Butterworth, Adam S -- Howson, Joanna M M -- Peloso, Gina M -- Stitziel, Nathan O -- Danesh, John -- Kathiresan, Sekar -- Rader, Daniel J -- CHD Exome+ Consortium -- CARDIoGRAM Exome Consortium -- Global Lipids Genetics Consortium -- R01 DK089256/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HL117078/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- TL1 RR024133/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- TL1R000138/PHS HHS/ -- TL1RR024133/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1166-71. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3517.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. INSERM UMR 1166 ICAN, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Hopital de la Pitie, Paris, France. ; INSERM UMR 1166 ICAN, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Hopital de la Pitie, Paris, France. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Centre for Non-Communicable Diseases, Karachi, Pakistan. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. ; Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. The Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht, Netherlands. ; Department of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. ; Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation, Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. ; Robertson Center for Biostatistics, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK. ; Glasgow Clinical Research Facility, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. ; National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ; International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh. ; Center for Statistical Genetics, Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Institute for Integrative and Experimental Genomics, University of Lubeck, Lubeck 23562, Germany. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark. ; Copenhagen University Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark. ; Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA 17033, USA. ; Department of Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. Institute of Molecular Medicine FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. ; Department of General and Interventional Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany. University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lille, France. ; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Epidemiology, Toulouse University-CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France. ; Institute of Genetic Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen-German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany. Department of Medicine I, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany. ; Research Centre in Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. ; UKCRC Centre of Excellence for Public Health, Queens University, Belfast, Northern Ireland. ; Department of Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Department of Human Genetics, and Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK. National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Glenfield Hotel, Leicester, UK. ; Deutsches Herzzentrum Munchen, Technische Universitat Munchen, Munich, Germany. ; Broad Institute and Center for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Department of Genetics, and the McDonnell Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. ; Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK. ; Departments of Genetics and Medicine, Division of Translational Medicine and Human Genetics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. rader@mail.med.upenn.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965621" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aged ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Cholesterol, HDL/*blood ; Coronary Disease/*blood/*genetics ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Female ; Genetic Variation ; Heterozygote ; Homozygote ; Humans ; Leucine/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Middle Aged ; Proline/genetics ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Risk ; Scavenger Receptors, Class B/*genetics/metabolism
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):433. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.433.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823406" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anaerobiosis/genetics/physiology ; Animals ; Anoxia/*physiopathology ; Fundulidae/genetics/*physiology ; Humans ; MicroRNAs/genetics/metabolism ; Oxygen/*metabolism ; Stroke/*physiopathology ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):394-5. doi: 10.1126/science.352.6284.394. Epub 2016 Apr 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Foundations ; Genes ; Genetic Research/*economics ; Great Britain ; Humans ; *Research Support as Topic ; *Selection, Genetic ; Sweden ; United States
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Battle, Christopher -- Broedersz, Chase P -- Fakhri, Nikta -- Geyer, Veikko F -- Howard, Jonathon -- Schmidt, Christoph F -- MacKintosh, Fred C -- P50GM068763/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R13GM085967/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):604-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8167.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Drittes Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitat, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. ; The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics and Center for NanoScience, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Theresienstrasse 37, D-80333 Munchen, Germany. Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics and Joseph Henry Laboratories of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA. ; Drittes Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitat, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Drittes Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitat, 37077 Gottingen, Germany. The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. fcmack@gmail.com christoph.schmidt@phys.uni-goettingen.de. ; The Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands. fcmack@gmail.com christoph.schmidt@phys.uni-goettingen.de.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126047" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii/*physiology ; Cilia/physiology ; Dogs ; Epithelial Cells/physiology ; Flagella/*physiology ; Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells ; Microscopy/methods ; Models, Biological ; *Motion ; Thermodynamics
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, Elizabeth -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):802. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6275.802.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912873" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Child Development ; Child, Preschool ; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome ; Germ-Free Life ; Growth Disorders/*microbiology/*therapy ; Humans ; Infant ; Malnutrition/*therapy ; Mice ; Muscle Development ; Osteogenesis ; Translational Medical Research
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Azevedo-Santos, Valter M -- Vitule, Jean R S -- Garcia-Berthou, Emili -- Pelicice, Fernando M -- Simberloff, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):675. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6274.675. Epub 2016 Feb 11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista "Julio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu," SP, 18618-970, Brazil. valter.ecologia@gmail.com. ; Laboratorio de Ecologia e Conservacao (LEC), Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR, 81531-970, Brazil. ; Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, Catalonia, Spain. ; Nucleo de Estudos Ambientais, Universidade Federal de Tocantins, Porto Nacional, TO, 77500-000, Brazil. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912851" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/growth & development/*virology ; Animals ; Biodiversity ; Brazil ; Chikungunya virus ; Dengue Virus ; Humans ; *Introduced Species ; Larva ; Mosquito Control/*methods ; *Poecilia ; Zika Virus
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ball, Steven G -- Bhattacharya, Debashish -- Weber, Andreas P M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):659-60. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8864.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Universite de Lille CNRS, UMR 8576-UGSF-Unite de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F 59000 Lille, France. ; Department of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA. debash.bhattacharya@gmail.com. ; Institute for Plant Biochemistry, Center of Excellence on Plant Sciences, Heinrich-Heine-University, Universitatsstrasse 1, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912842" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alphaproteobacteria/*genetics/pathogenicity ; Animals ; Archaea/metabolism ; *Biological Evolution ; Endocytosis ; Energy Metabolism/genetics ; Eukaryota/genetics ; *Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Humans ; Mitochondria/*genetics ; Plastids/*genetics ; Rickettsia/genetics/pathogenicity ; Symbiosis/*genetics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pepling, Melissa E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):35-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf4943.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Syracuse University, 107 College Place, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA. mepeplin@syr.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27034359" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Giant Cells/*cytology ; Oocytes/*cytology ; *Oogenesis ; Organelles/*physiology
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Influenza A virus (IAV) causes up to half a million deaths worldwide annually, 90% of which occur in older adults. We show that IAV-infected monocytes from older humans have impaired antiviral interferon production but retain intact inflammasome responses. To understand the in vivo consequence, we used mice expressing a functional Mx gene encoding a major interferon-induced effector against IAV in humans. In Mx1-intact mice with weakened resistance due to deficiencies in Mavs and Tlr7, we found an elevated respiratory bacterial burden. Notably, mortality in the absence of Mavs and Tlr7 was independent of viral load or MyD88-dependent signaling but dependent on bacterial burden, caspase-1/11, and neutrophil-dependent tissue damage. Therefore, in the context of weakened antiviral resistance, vulnerability to IAV disease is a function of caspase-dependent pathology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pillai, Padmini S -- Molony, Ryan D -- Martinod, Kimberly -- Dong, Huiping -- Pang, Iris K -- Tal, Michal C -- Solis, Angel G -- Bielecki, Piotr -- Mohanty, Subhasis -- Trentalange, Mark -- Homer, Robert J -- Flavell, Richard A -- Wagner, Denisa D -- Montgomery, Ruth R -- Shaw, Albert C -- Staeheli, Peter -- Iwasaki, Akiko -- 5T32HL066987-13/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- AI062428/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI064705/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI081884/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG039163/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- HHSN272201100019C/PHS HHS/ -- K24 AG02489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- K24 AG042489/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- N01 AI500031/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P30 AG21342/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- R01HL102101/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- R01HL125501/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-36/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007019-38/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI055403/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):463-6. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3926.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. ; Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Institut fur Medizinische Mikrobiologie und Hygiene, Institute of Virology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 11, 79104 Freiburg, Germany. ; Department of Immunobiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. akiko.iwasaki@yale.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics/metabolism ; Adult ; Aged ; Aged, 80 and over ; Animals ; Bacterial Infections/etiology/*immunology ; Caspase 1/metabolism ; Caspases/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Immunity, Innate/genetics/*immunology ; Influenza A virus/*immunology ; Influenza, Human/complications/*immunology ; Interferon-beta/immunology ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Monocytes/immunology ; Myxovirus Resistance Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Neutrophils/immunology ; Orthomyxoviridae Infections/*immunology ; Respiratory Tract Infections/*immunology/microbiology ; Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics/metabolism ; Viral Load ; Young Adult
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Perez, Timothy M -- Stroud, James T -- Feeley, Kenneth J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1392-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3343.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉International Center for Tropical Botany, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, FL 33156, USA. ; International Center for Tropical Botany, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, FL 33156, USA. kjfeeley@gmail.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013713" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Climate ; *Global Warming ; *Seasons ; *Temperature ; Vertebrates/*physiology
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Palmer et al and Swain et al suggest that our "extra mortality" time series is spurious. In response, we show that including temperature-dependent mortality improves abundance estimates and that warming waters reduce growth rates in Gulf of Maine cod. Far from being spurious, temperature effects on this stock are clear, and continuing to ignore them puts the stock in jeopardy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pershing, Andrew J -- Alexander, Michael A -- Hernandez, Christina M -- Kerr, Lisa A -- Le Bris, Arnault -- Mills, Katherine E -- Nye, Janet A -- Record, Nicholas R -- Scannell, Hillary A -- Scott, James D -- Sherwood, Graham D -- Thomas, Andrew C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):423. doi: 10.1126/science.aae0463.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gulf of Maine Research Institute, 350 Commercial Street, Portland, ME 04101, USA. apershing@gmri.org. ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305, USA. ; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 86 Water Street, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. ; Gulf of Maine Research Institute, 350 Commercial Street, Portland, ME 04101, USA. ; School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA. ; Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, 60 Bigelow Drive, East Boothbay, ME 04544, USA. ; University of Washington School of Oceanography, 1503 Northeast Boat Street, Seattle, WA 98105, USA. ; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder, CO 80305, USA. Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. ; School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, 5706 Aubert Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102475" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Adaptation, Physiological ; Animals ; *Fisheries ; Gadus morhua/*physiology ; *Global Warming
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: Increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, in developed nations is associated with changes to the microbial environment, such as decreased prevalence of helminth colonization and alterations to the gut microbiota. We find that helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn's disease susceptibility gene Nod2 from intestinal abnormalities by inhibiting colonization by an inflammatory Bacteroides species. Resistance to Bacteroides colonization was dependent on type 2 immunity, which promoted the establishment of a protective microbiota enriched in Clostridiales. Additionally, we show that individuals from helminth-endemic regions harbor a similar protective microbiota and that deworming treatment reduced levels of Clostridiales and increased Bacteroidales. These results support a model of the hygiene hypothesis in which certain individuals are genetically susceptible to the consequences of a changing microbial environment.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ramanan, Deepshika -- Bowcutt, Rowann -- Lee, Soo Ching -- Tang, Mei San -- Kurtz, Zachary D -- Ding, Yi -- Honda, Kenya -- Gause, William C -- Blaser, Martin J -- Bonneau, Richard A -- Lim, Yvonne A L -- Loke, P'ng -- Cadwell, Ken -- AI007180/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI093811/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI107588/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- DK090989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK093668/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK103788/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL123340/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- P30CA016087/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR000038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- UL1 TR00038/TR/NCATS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):608-12. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3229. Epub 2016 Apr 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ; Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; Department of Pathology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA. ; RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences (IMS), Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan. Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED)-Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Tokyo 100-0004, Japan. ; Center for Immunity and Inflammation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07101, USA. ; Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, NY 10012, USA. Simons Center for Data Analysis, Simons Foundation, New York, NY 10011, USA. ; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my. ; Kimmel Center for Biology and Medicine at the Skirball Institute, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. ken.cadwell@med.nyu.edu png.loke@nyumc.org limailian@um.edu.my.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27080105" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacteroides/*immunology ; Bacteroides Infections/*immunology ; Clostridiales/immunology ; Clostridium Infections/immunology ; Crohn Disease/*genetics/immunology ; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*immunology ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Hygiene Hypothesis ; Intestines/*immunology/microbiology/parasitology ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/*genetics ; Trichuriasis/*immunology ; Trichuris/*immunology
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boumahdi, Soufiane -- Blanpain, Cedric -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 29;351(6272):453-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9670.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moleculaire, Brussels B-1070, Belgium. ; Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moleculaire, Brussels B-1070, Belgium. WELBIO, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels B-1070, Belgium. cedric.blanpain@ulb.ac.be.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26823415" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carcinogenesis/*genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Melanoma/*genetics ; Melanoma, Experimental/*genetics ; Neural Crest/*metabolism ; Skin Neoplasms/*genetics ; *Zebrafish
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: The final identity and functional properties of a neuron are specified by terminal differentiation genes, which are controlled by specific motifs in compact regulatory regions. To determine how these sequences integrate inputs from transcription factors that specify cell types, we compared the regulatory mechanism of Drosophila Rhodopsin genes that are expressed in subsets of photoreceptors to that of phototransduction genes that are expressed broadly, in all photoreceptors. Both sets of genes share an 11-base pair (bp) activator motif. Broadly expressed genes contain a palindromic version that mediates expression in all photoreceptors. In contrast, each Rhodopsin exhibits characteristic single-bp substitutions that break the symmetry of the palindrome and generate activator or repressor motifs critical for restricting expression to photoreceptor subsets. Sensory neuron subtypes can therefore evolve through single-bp changes in short regulatory motifs, allowing the discrimination of a wide spectrum of stimuli.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rister, Jens -- Razzaq, Ansa -- Boodram, Pamela -- Desai, Nisha -- Tsanis, Cleopatra -- Chen, Hongtao -- Jukam, David -- Desplan, Claude -- K99EY023995/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY13010/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1258-61. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3417.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003-6688, USA. ; Center for Developmental Genetics, Department of Biology, New York University, 100 Washington Square East, New York, NY 10003-6688, USA. cd38@nyu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785491" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Pairing ; Drosophila Proteins/*genetics ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics/growth & development ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Mutation ; Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate/*physiology ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; Rhodopsin/*genetics ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Vision, Ocular/*genetics
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Migratory species depend on a suite of interconnected sites. Threats to unprotected links in these chains of sites are driving rapid population declines of migrants around the world, yet the extent to which different parts of the annual cycle are protected remains unknown. We show that just 9% of 1451 migratory birds are adequately covered by protected areas across all stages of their annual cycle, in comparison with 45% of nonmigratory birds. This discrepancy is driven by protected area placement that does not cover the full annual cycle of migratory species, indicating that global efforts toward coordinated conservation planning for migrants are yet to bear fruit. Better-targeted investment and enhanced coordination among countries are needed to conserve migratory species throughout their migratory cycle.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Runge, Claire A -- Watson, James E M -- Butchart, Stuart H M -- Hanson, Jeffrey O -- Possingham, Hugh P -- Fuller, Richard A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1255-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9180.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93101, USA. claire.runge@uqconnect.edu.au. ; School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia. Global Conservation Program, Wildlife Conservation Society, New York, NY, USA. ; BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Cambridge CB3 0NA, UK. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. ; School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia. Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY, England, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Migration ; Animals ; *Birds ; Breeding ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; Population Dynamics ; Seasons
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hurtley, Stella -- Roberts, Leslie -- Ray, L Bryan -- Purnell, Beverly A -- Ash, Caroline -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1180-1. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1180.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785472" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/*genetics ; Animals ; Health ; Humans ; Mitochondria/metabolism ; Stem Cells/physiology ; Telomere/*genetics ; *Telomere Homeostasis
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ford, Adam T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1175. doi: 10.1126/science.aad7134.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Biology at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada. adamford@uoguelph.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785465" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Animals, Wild ; Antelopes ; *Dogs ; Endangered Species ; *Food Chain ; *Grassland ; *Herbivory ; Humans ; Plants
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration for the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of geroscience, which aims to explain biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances, along with efforts to move geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater effect on quality of life compared with disease-specific approaches.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kaeberlein, Matt -- Rabinovitch, Peter S -- Martin, George M -- P30AG013280/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1191-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3267.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. kaeber@uw.edu. ; Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785476" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Aging ; Animals ; Diet ; Exercise ; Geriatrics/*trends ; *Health ; Humans ; Mortality ; Preventive Medicine/*trends ; Risk Factors ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors ; Translational Medical Research/trends
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gottlieb, Roberta A -- Bernstein, Daniel -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1162-3. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8222.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA. roberta.gottlieb@cshs.org. ; Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785456" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Female ; Heart/*embryology ; Heart Failure/*metabolism ; Male ; Mitochondria, Heart/*metabolism/*physiology ; Mitochondrial Degradation/*physiology ; *Mitochondrial Dynamics ; Myocardium/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/*metabolism
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grimm, David -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1182-5. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1182.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785473" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Body Weight ; Cats ; Dogs ; Humans ; *Longevity ; Pets/*physiology
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kintisch, Eli -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 4;350(6265):1148-51. doi: 10.1126/science.350.6265.1148. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26785455" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bison ; *Conservation of Natural Resources ; *Herbivory ; *Parks, Recreational ; *Permafrost ; Siberia ; *Taiga
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2016-04-23
    Description: Ecological character displacement is a process of morphological divergence that reduces competition for limited resources. We used genomic analysis to investigate the genetic basis of a documented character displacement event in Darwin's finches on Daphne Major in the Galapagos Islands: The medium ground finch diverged from its competitor, the large ground finch, during a severe drought. We discovered a genomic region containing the HMGA2 gene that varies systematically among Darwin's finch species with different beak sizes. Two haplotypes that diverged early in the radiation were involved in the character displacement event: Genotypes associated with large beak size were at a strong selective disadvantage in medium ground finches (selection coefficient s = 0.59). Thus, a major locus has apparently facilitated a rapid ecological diversification in the adaptive radiation of Darwin's finches.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lamichhaney, Sangeet -- Han, Fan -- Berglund, Jonas -- Wang, Chao -- Almen, Markus Sallman -- Webster, Matthew T -- Grant, B Rosemary -- Grant, Peter R -- Andersson, Leif -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):470-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad8786.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. ; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA. ; Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden. Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA. leif.andersson@imbim.uu.se.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27102486" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Beak/*anatomy & histology ; Body Size/genetics ; *Droughts ; Ecuador ; Female ; Finches/*anatomy & histology/classification/*genetics ; Genomics ; Genotype ; HMGA2 Protein/genetics ; Haplotypes ; Organ Size/genetics ; Phylogeny ; *Quantitative Trait Loci ; *Selection, Genetic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawler, Andrew -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 8;351(6269):111-2. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6269.111.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26744387" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Drinking Water ; *Droughts ; Humans ; Indian Ocean ; Iraq ; Mesopotamia ; Salinity ; Warfare ; Water Resources/*supply & distribution ; *Wetlands
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    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Servick, Kelly -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):15. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6268.15.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26721984" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; California ; Cell Differentiation ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Drug Industry ; Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology/*transplantation ; Financing, Organized ; Humans ; Photoreceptor Cells/physiology ; Rats ; Regenerative Medicine/*economics/*trends ; Retina/cytology/physiology ; Stem Cell Research/*economics
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Larson, Christina -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 22;351(6271):323-4. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6271.323.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797990" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Shells ; Animals ; Art ; *Bivalvia ; China ; *Endangered Species
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  • 42
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 2016-04-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Landolt, Hans-Peter -- Holst, Sebastian C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 29;352(6285):517-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf8178.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Zurich Center for Interdisciplinary Sleep Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. landolt@pharma.uzh.ch. ; Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Zurich Center for Interdisciplinary Sleep Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27126024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cations/*metabolism ; Cerebral Cortex/*physiology ; Male ; Potassium/*metabolism ; Sleep/*physiology ; Wakefulness/*physiology
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Oocytes differentiate in diverse species by receiving organelles and cytoplasm from sister germ cells while joined in germline cysts or syncytia. Mouse primordial germ cells form germline cysts, but the role of cysts in oogenesis is unknown. We find that mouse germ cells receive organelles from neighboring cyst cells and build a Balbiani body to become oocytes, whereas nurselike germ cells die. Organelle movement, Balbiani body formation, and oocyte fate determination are selectively blocked by low levels of microtubule-dependent transport inhibitors. Membrane breakdown within the cyst and an apoptosis-like process are associated with organelle transfer into the oocyte, events reminiscent of nurse cell dumping in Drosophila We propose that cytoplasmic and organelle transport plays an evolutionarily conserved and functionally important role in mammalian oocyte differentiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lei, Lei -- Spradling, Allan C -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 1;352(6281):95-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2156. Epub 2016 Feb 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute Research Laboratories, Department of Embryology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 3520 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA. spradling@ciwemb.edu leile@med.umich.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917595" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apoptosis ; Biological Evolution ; Cytoplasm/physiology/ultrastructure ; Female ; Giant Cells/*cytology ; Mice ; Microtubules/drug effects/physiology ; Oocytes/*cytology ; *Oogenesis ; Organelles/*physiology
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2016-02-27
    Description: Ebola virus disease in humans is highly lethal, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. There is no licensed treatment or vaccine against the virus, underscoring the need for efficacious countermeasures. We ascertained that a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit Ebola virus disease outbreak maintained circulating antibodies against the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein for more than a decade after infection. From this survivor we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize recent and previous outbreak variants of Ebola virus and mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro. Strikingly, monotherapy with mAb114 protected macaques when given as late as 5 days after challenge. Treatment with a single human mAb suggests that a simplified therapeutic strategy for human Ebola infection may be possible.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Corti, Davide -- Misasi, John -- Mulangu, Sabue -- Stanley, Daphne A -- Kanekiyo, Masaru -- Wollen, Suzanne -- Ploquin, Aurelie -- Doria-Rose, Nicole A -- Staupe, Ryan P -- Bailey, Michael -- Shi, Wei -- Choe, Misook -- Marcus, Hadar -- Thompson, Emily A -- Cagigi, Alberto -- Silacci, Chiara -- Fernandez-Rodriguez, Blanca -- Perez, Laurent -- Sallusto, Federica -- Vanzetta, Fabrizia -- Agatic, Gloria -- Cameroni, Elisabetta -- Kisalu, Neville -- Gordon, Ingelise -- Ledgerwood, Julie E -- Mascola, John R -- Graham, Barney S -- Muyembe-Tamfun, Jean-Jacques -- Trefry, John C -- Lanzavecchia, Antonio -- Sullivan, Nancy J -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):1339-42. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5224. Epub 2016 Feb 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Humabs BioMed SA, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; Humabs BioMed SA, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. ; National Institute for Biomedical Research, National Laboratory of Public Health, Kinshasa B.P. 1197, Democratic Republic of the Congo. ; Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Universita della Svizzera Italiana, CH-6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland. Institute of Microbiology, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland. ; Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. njsull@mail.nih.gov.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26917593" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/*administration & dosage/immunology/isolation & ; purification ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/*administration & dosage/immunology/isolation & ; purification ; Antibodies, Viral/*administration & dosage/immunology/isolation & purification ; Clinical Trials as Topic ; Disease Outbreaks ; Ebolavirus/*immunology ; Female ; Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology/*prevention & control ; Humans ; Macaca ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Survivors
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: The fungal kingdom is the source of almost all industrial enzymes in use for lignocellulose bioprocessing. We developed a systems-level approach that integrates transcriptomic sequencing, proteomics, phenotype, and biochemical studies of relatively unexplored basal fungi. Anaerobic gut fungi isolated from herbivores produce a large array of biomass-degrading enzymes that synergistically degrade crude, untreated plant biomass and are competitive with optimized commercial preparations from Aspergillus and Trichoderma. Compared to these model platforms, gut fungal enzymes are unbiased in substrate preference due to a wealth of xylan-degrading enzymes. These enzymes are universally catabolite-repressed and are further regulated by a rich landscape of noncoding regulatory RNAs. Additionally, we identified several promising sequence-divergent enzyme candidates for lignocellulosic bioprocessing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Solomon, Kevin V -- Haitjema, Charles H -- Henske, John K -- Gilmore, Sean P -- Borges-Rivera, Diego -- Lipzen, Anna -- Brewer, Heather M -- Purvine, Samuel O -- Wright, Aaron T -- Theodorou, Michael K -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- Regev, Aviv -- Thompson, Dawn A -- O'Malley, Michelle A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1192-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aad1431. Epub 2016 Feb 18.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. ; Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02143, USA. ; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Drive, Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA. ; Earth and Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA. ; Earth and Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA. ; Animal Production, Welfare and Veterinary Sciences, Harper Adams University, Newport, Shropshire TF10 8NB, UK. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB), Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. momalley@engineering.ucsb.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912365" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Aspergillus/*enzymology/genetics/isolation & purification ; Biotechnology/*methods ; Cellulases/genetics/isolation & purification/*metabolism ; Cellulose/metabolism ; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology ; Herbivory ; RNA, Untranslated/genetics ; Substrate Specificity ; Trichoderma/*enzymology/genetics/isolation & purification ; Xylans/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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