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  • Inorganic Chemistry  (7,017)
  • Animals  (5,138)
  • 1995-1999  (4,646)
  • 1990-1994  (5,882)
  • 1950-1954  (1,627)
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  • 1
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barinaga, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1794-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874625" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use ; Cognition/drug effects/physiology ; Epilepsy/drug therapy ; Humans ; KCNQ2 Potassium Channel ; KCNQ3 Potassium Channel ; Neurons/*physiology ; Potassium/metabolism ; Potassium Channels/*chemistry/drug effects/genetics/physiology ; Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated ; Sympathetic Nervous System/cytology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogel, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2168.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890820" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Asthma/*immunology/physiopathology ; Bronchoconstriction ; Eosinophils/immunology ; Goblet Cells/immunology ; Humans ; Interleukin-13/pharmacology/*physiology ; Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit ; Interleukin-4/pharmacology/physiology ; Lung/immunology/physiopathology ; Mice ; Receptors, Interleukin/metabolism ; Receptors, Interleukin-13 ; Receptors, Interleukin-4/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Th2 Cells/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1797,1799.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Brain/metabolism ; Cocaine-Related Disorders/drug therapy ; Conditioning (Psychology)/drug effects ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Humans ; Nicotine/pharmacology ; Papio ; *Smoking Cessation ; Tobacco Use Disorder/*drug therapy/metabolism ; Vigabatrin ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology/therapeutic use
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bloom, F E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1989.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874645" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics ; *Databases, Factual/standards ; *Genome ; Genome, Human ; Humans
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 18;282(5397):2157-61.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9890816" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autoimmune Diseases/etiology ; Bioethics ; Biological Clocks ; Biotechnology ; Circadian Rhythm ; Drug Design ; Embryo, Mammalian/cytology ; Genome ; Humans ; Neoplasms/prevention & control/therapy ; Potassium Channels/chemistry/metabolism ; *Research ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Stem Cells
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Normile, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1975-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874644" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry/*methods ; Animals ; Blastocyst ; Cattle/embryology/*genetics ; Cell Differentiation ; Cells, Cultured ; *Cloning, Organism ; Embryo Transfer/veterinary ; Fallopian Tubes/cytology ; Female ; Japan ; *Nuclear Transfer Techniques ; Oocytes ; Ovarian Follicle/cytology ; Pregnancy
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Spear, P G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1999-2000.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Northwestern University Medical School, Department of Microbiology-Immunology, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. p-spear@nwu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874652" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Bacterial Adhesion ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Dystroglycans ; Humans ; Laminin/metabolism ; Lassa Fever/*virology ; Lassa virus/*metabolism ; Leprosy/*microbiology ; Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/metabolism ; Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Models, Biological ; Mycobacterium leprae/*metabolism ; Receptors, Virus/metabolism ; Schwann Cells/microbiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Adams, M W -- Stiefel, E I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 4;282(5395):1842-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA. adams@bmb.uga.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874636" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Carbon Monoxide/chemistry ; Clostridium/*enzymology ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cyanides/chemistry ; Humans ; Hydrogen/*metabolism ; Hydrogenase/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Iron/chemistry ; Ligands ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Pyruvic Acid/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 16;285(5426):310-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10438289" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies/immunology ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/*immunology ; Bone Marrow Transplantation/adverse effects/*immunology ; Graft vs Host Disease/*prevention & control ; Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology ; Humans ; Mice ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: In late summer 1999, an outbreak of human encephalitis occurred in the northeastern United States that was concurrent with extensive mortality in crows (Corvus species) as well as the deaths of several exotic birds at a zoological park in the same area. Complete genome sequencing of a flavivirus isolated from the brain of a dead Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), together with partial sequence analysis of envelope glycoprotein (E-glycoprotein) genes amplified from several other species including mosquitoes and two fatal human cases, revealed that West Nile (WN) virus circulated in natural transmission cycles and was responsible for the human disease. Antigenic mapping with E-glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and E-glycoprotein phylogenetic analysis confirmed these viruses as WN. This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lanciotti, R S -- Roehrig, J T -- Deubel, V -- Smith, J -- Parker, M -- Steele, K -- Crise, B -- Volpe, K E -- Crabtree, M B -- Scherret, J H -- Hall, R A -- MacKenzie, J S -- Cropp, C B -- Panigrahy, B -- Ostlund, E -- Schmitt, B -- Malkinson, M -- Banet, C -- Weissman, J -- Komar, N -- Savage, H M -- Stone, W -- McNamara, T -- Gubler, D J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2333-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. rsl2@cdc.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600742" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology ; Antibodies, Viral/immunology ; Base Sequence ; Bird Diseases/epidemiology/virology ; Birds/virology ; *Disease Outbreaks ; Encephalitis Viruses, Japanese/classification/genetics ; Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect ; Genome, Viral ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; New England/epidemiology ; New York City/epidemiology ; Phylogeny ; Songbirds/virology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry/genetics/immunology ; West Nile Fever/*epidemiology/veterinary/*virology ; West Nile virus/*classification/*genetics/immunology/isolation & purification
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-03-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Whitacre, C C -- Reingold, S C -- O'Looney, P A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 26;283(5406):1277-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. whitacre.3@osu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084932" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Formation ; *Autoimmune Diseases/genetics/immunology/therapy ; *Autoimmunity ; Cytokines/biosynthesis/immunology ; Female ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/physiology ; Hormones/physiology ; Humans ; Immunity, Cellular ; Male ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy Complications/immunology ; *Sex Characteristics ; Th1 Cells/immunology ; Th2 Cells/immunology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wetzel, D L -- LeVine, S M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1224-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Microbeam Molecular Spectroscopy Lab, Kansas State University, Manhatten, KS 66506, USA. dwetzel@ksu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484732" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biochemistry/*methods ; Biological Science Disciplines/*methods ; Forensic Medicine ; Humans ; Specimen Handling ; *Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared/instrumentation/methods ; Spectrum Analysis, Raman
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-05
    Description: Fractal-like networks effectively endow life with an additional fourth spatial dimension. This is the origin of quarter-power scaling that is so pervasive in biology. Organisms have evolved hierarchical branching networks that terminate in size-invariant units, such as capillaries, leaves, mitochondria, and oxidase molecules. Natural selection has tended to maximize both metabolic capacity, by maximizing the scaling of exchange surface areas, and internal efficiency, by minimizing the scaling of transport distances and times. These design principles are independent of detailed dynamics and explicit models and should apply to virtually all organisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉West, G B -- Brown, J H -- Enquist, B J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 4;284(5420):1677-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Theoretical Division, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA. gbw@lanl.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10356399" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Vessels/anatomy & histology ; *Body Constitution ; *Body Surface Area ; *Fractals ; Humans ; Mathematics ; *Metabolism ; *Models, Biological ; Plants/anatomy & histology ; Selection, Genetic
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Collignon, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 3;286(5446):1855-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610574" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/analysis ; *Gammaretrovirus/immunology ; Humans ; Retroviridae Infections/diagnosis/*transmission ; *Swine/virology ; *Transplantation, Heterologous/adverse effects
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  • 15
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Service, R F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 9;284(5412):243-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232968" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biocompatible Materials ; *Biomedical Engineering ; Brain/*drug effects/metabolism ; Caffeine/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*pharmacology ; Catalysis ; Genetic Engineering ; Genetic Therapy/*methods ; Humans ; Polycarboxylate Cement/chemical synthesis ; Polymers/chemical synthesis ; Rats ; Substance-Related Disorders/*etiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 1999-12-22
    Description: West Nile (WN) virus, a mosquito-transmitted virus native to Africa, Asia, and Europe, was isolated from two species of mosquitoes, Culex pipiens and Aedes vexans, and from brain tissues of 28 American crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos, and one Cooper's hawk, Accipiter cooperii, in Connecticut. A portion of the genome of virus isolates from four different hosts was sequenced and analyzed by comparative phylogenetic analysis. Our isolates from Connecticut were similar to one another and most closely related to two WN isolates from Romania (2.8 and 3.6 percent difference). If established in North America, WN virus will likely have severe effects on human health and on the health of populations of birds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Anderson, J F -- Andreadis, T G -- Vossbrinck, C R -- Tirrell, S -- Wakem, E M -- French, R A -- Garmendia, A E -- Van Kruiningen, H J -- P01-AI-30548/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 17;286(5448):2331-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Entomology, Department of Soil and Water, the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Post Office Box 1106, New Haven, CT 06504, USA. john.f.anderson@po.state.ct.us〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10600741" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aedes/virology ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Bird Diseases/epidemiology/*virology ; Brain/*virology ; Connecticut/epidemiology ; Culex/virology ; Culicidae/*virology ; Genome, Viral ; Humans ; Insect Vectors/*virology ; Phylogeny ; Raptors/virology ; Romania ; Songbirds/virology ; West Nile Fever/epidemiology/*veterinary/virology ; West Nile virus/classification/genetics/*isolation & purification
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hagmann, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1097-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10366336" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Fertilization in Vitro ; *Gene Transfer Techniques ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Luminescent Proteins/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Microinjections ; Sperm Head/*physiology ; *Transgenes
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Niklason, L E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 19;286(5444):1493-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA. nikla001@mc.duke.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610551" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Arteries ; *Biomedical Engineering ; *Blood Vessel Prosthesis ; Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation ; Cells, Cultured ; Collagen ; Endothelium, Vascular/cytology/physiology ; Humans ; Muscle, Smooth, Vascular/cytology/physiology ; Pressure
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-23
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lawler, C -- Erbisch, F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 1;283(5398):33-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9917260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biotechnology ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; *Patents as Topic ; Plants, Genetically Modified/*genetics ; United States
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Shannon, T A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 15;283(5400):329.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9925490" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Rights ; *Animal Welfare ; Animals ; *Public Opinion ; *Research
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-16
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lasley, E N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 10;285(5434):1649-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10523176" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Experimentation ; *Animal Welfare ; Animals ; *Animals, Laboratory ; Federal Government ; Government Regulation ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; New Mexico ; *Pan troglodytes ; Research ; United States ; United States Department of Agriculture
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-12-28
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1265-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10610528" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Astrocytes/*enzymology ; Brain/*enzymology ; Cloning, Molecular ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Neurons/metabolism ; Racemases and Epimerases/*genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/metabolism ; Serine/*biosynthesis/metabolism ; Stereoisomerism ; Synapses/metabolism
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-10-26
    Description: This review critically examines neuronal coding strategies and how they might apply to olfactory processing. Basic notions such as identity, spatial, temporal, and correlation codes are defined and different perspectives are brought to the study of neural codes. Odors as physical stimuli and their processing by the early olfactory system, one or two synapses away from the receptors, are discussed. Finally, the concept of lateral inhibition, as usually understood and applied to odor coding by mitral (or equivalent) cells, is challenged and extended to a broader context, possibly more appropriate for olfactory processing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Laurent, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Oct 22;286(5440):723-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. laurentg@its.caltech.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10531051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Neural Inhibition ; Neurons/physiology ; *Odors ; Olfactory Bulb/*physiology ; Olfactory Pathways ; Olfactory Receptor Neurons/*physiology ; Perception ; Receptors, Odorant/*physiology ; Smell/*physiology ; Time Factors
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1999-03-13
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hannon, G J -- Sun, P -- Carnero, A -- Xie, L Y -- Maestro, R -- Conklin, D S -- Beach, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 19;283(5405):1129-30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10075573" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cloning, Molecular/*methods ; DNA, Complementary ; Gene Expression ; Gene Library ; Genes, p53 ; Genes, ras ; *Genetic Techniques ; Genetic Vectors ; Mammals ; Phenotype ; Proviruses/genetics ; Retroviridae/genetics ; Transformation, Genetic
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wickelgren, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Mar 12;283(5408):1617, 1619.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10189312" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Haplorhini ; Memory/*physiology ; Mental Recall/*physiology ; Motor Cortex/cytology/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Psychomotor Performance ; Thinking/physiology
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 1999-04-30
    Description: Infection of macaques with chimeric simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) provides an excellent in vivo model for examining the influence of envelope on HIV-1 pathogenesis. Infection with a pathogenic CCR5 (R5)-specific enveloped virus, SHIVSF162P, was compared with infection with the CXCR4 (X4)-specific SHIVSF33A.2. Despite comparable levels of viral replication, animals infected with the R5 and X4 SHIV had distinct pathogenic outcomes. SHIVSF162P caused a dramatic loss of CD4+ intestinal T cells followed by a gradual depletion in peripheral CD4+ T cells, whereas infection with SHIVSF33A.2 caused a profound loss in peripheral T cells that was not paralleled in the intestine. These results suggest a critical role of co-receptor utilization in viral pathogenesis and provide a reliable in vivo model for preclinical examination of HIV-1 vaccines and therapeutic agents in the context of the HIV-1 envelope protein.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harouse, J M -- Gettie, A -- Tan, R C -- Blanchard, J -- Cheng-Mayer, C -- AI41945/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA72822/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI041945/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA072822/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 30;284(5415):816-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, 7th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10221916" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology/*virology ; Animals ; *CD4 Lymphocyte Count ; CD4-CD8 Ratio ; Chimera ; Colon/immunology ; HIV-1/genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Immunity, Mucosal ; Intestinal Mucosa/immunology ; Jejunum/immunology ; Macaca mulatta ; Reassortant Viruses ; Receptors, CCR5/*metabolism ; Receptors, CXCR4/*metabolism ; Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology/virology ; Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics/*pathogenicity/physiology ; Viral Load ; Viremia ; Virus Replication
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1999-09-18
    Description: Antithrombin, a member of the serpin family, functions as an inhibitor of thrombin and other enzymes. Cleavage of the carboxyl-terminal loop of antithrombin induces a conformational change in the molecule. Here it is shown that the cleaved conformation of antithrombin has potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activity in mouse models. The latent form of intact antithrombin, which is similar in conformation to the cleaved molecule, also inhibited angiogenesis and tumor growth. These data provide further evidence that the clotting and fibrinolytic pathways are directly involved in the regulation of angiogenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Reilly, M S -- Pirie-Shepherd, S -- Lane, W S -- Folkman, J -- P01-CA45548/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-CA64481/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Sep 17;285(5435):1926-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital, Departments of Surgery and Cellular Biology, Harvard Microchemistry Facility, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA. oreilly@hub.tch.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10489375" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry/isolation & purification/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Antithrombins/chemistry/isolation & purification/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Carcinoma, Small Cell/blood supply/drug therapy ; Cell Line ; Culture Media, Conditioned ; Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/blood supply/drug therapy ; Mice ; Mice, SCID ; Neoplasm Transplantation ; Neovascularization, Pathologic/*drug therapy ; Peptide Fragments/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-08-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Orr-Weaver, T L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 16;285(5426):344-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. weaver@wi.mit.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10438298" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Anaphase ; Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome ; Animals ; Cell Cycle Proteins/*metabolism ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Chromatids/*physiology ; Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone ; *Endopeptidases ; Fungal Proteins ; Humans ; Ligases/metabolism ; Mitosis ; Neoplasm Proteins/*metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; Oncogene Proteins/*metabolism ; Phosphoproteins ; Prophase ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins ; Securin ; Separase ; *Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases ; Yeasts/cytology/metabolism
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: In many organisms, master control genes coordinately regulate sex-specific aspects of development. SDC-2 was shown to induce hermaphrodite sexual differentiation and activate X chromosome dosage compensation in Caenorhabditis elegans. To control these distinct processes, SDC-2 acts as a strong gene-specific repressor and a weaker chromosome-wide repressor. To initiate hermaphrodite development, SDC-2 associates with the promoter of the male sex-determining gene her-1 to repress its transcription. To activate dosage compensation, SDC-2 triggers assembly of a specialized protein complex exclusively on hermaphrodite X chromosomes to reduce gene expression by half. SDC-2 can localize to X chromosomes without other components of the dosage compensation complex, suggesting that SDC-2 targets dosage compensation machinery to X chromosomes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dawes, H E -- Berlin, D S -- Lapidus, D M -- Nusbaum, C -- Davis, T L -- Meyer, B J -- GM30702/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM07127/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 11;284(5421):1800-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3204, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10364546" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Caenorhabditis elegans/embryology/*genetics/physiology ; *Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins ; *DNA-Binding Proteins ; Disorders of Sex Development ; *Dosage Compensation, Genetic ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Genes, Helminth ; Helminth Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Male ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Repressor Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; *Sex Determination Processes ; Transgenes ; X Chromosome/genetics/*metabolism
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-05-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sikorski, R -- Peters, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 16;284(5413):453.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10232993" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Cell Separation ; Chick Embryo ; Neural Crest/*cytology/embryology ; Neuroglia/*cytology ; Neurons/*cytology ; Rats ; Regeneration ; Sciatic Nerve/*cytology/embryology ; Stem Cells/*cytology
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sikorski, R -- Peters, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jun 18;284(5422):1952.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10400538" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Bioreactors ; Cell Culture Techniques ; Dogs ; *Hemofiltration ; Humans ; Kidney Failure, Chronic/metabolism/*therapy ; Kidney Tubules, Proximal/*cytology/*metabolism ; Kidneys, Artificial ; Swine
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-15
    Description: The Fos and Jun oncoproteins form dimeric complexes that stimulate transcription of genes containing activator protein-1 regulatory elements. We found, by representational difference analysis, that expression of DNA 5-methylcytosine transferase (dnmt1) in fos-transformed cells is three times the expression in normal fibroblasts and that fos-transformed cells contain about 20 percent more 5-methylcytosine than normal fibroblasts. Transfection of the gene encoding Dnmt1 induced morphological transformation, whereas inhibition of dnmt1 expression or activity resulted in reversion of fos transformation. Inhibition of histone deacetylase, which associates with methylated DNA, also caused reversion. These results suggest that fos may transform cells through alterations in DNA methylation and in histone deacetylation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bakin, A V -- Curran, T -- P30 CA21765/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jan 15;283(5400):387-90.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9888853" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 5-Methylcytosine ; Acetylation ; Animals ; Cell Size ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; Cytosine/analogs & derivatives/metabolism ; DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase/genetics/*metabolism ; DNA Methylation ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; *Genes, fos ; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors ; Histones/metabolism ; Hydroxamic Acids/pharmacology ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/*metabolism ; Rats ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transfection
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-02-12
    Description: The classical phylogeny of living reptiles pairs crocodilians with birds, tuataras with squamates, and places turtles at the base of the tree. New evidence from two nuclear genes, and analyses of mitochondrial DNA and 22 additional nuclear genes, join crocodilians with turtles and place squamates at the base of the tree. Morphological and paleontological evidence for this molecular phylogeny is unclear. Molecular time estimates support a Triassic origin for the major groups of living reptiles.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hedges, S B -- Poling, L L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Feb 12;283(5404):998-1001.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Institute of Molecular Evolutionary Genetics, and Astrobiology Research Center, 208 Mueller Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. sbh1@psu.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9974396" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alligators and Crocodiles/anatomy & histology/classification/genetics ; Animals ; Birds/anatomy & histology/classification/genetics ; Genes, rRNA ; Lizards/anatomy & histology/classification/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Phylogeny ; RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics ; Reptiles/anatomy & histology/*classification/*genetics ; Snakes/anatomy & histology/classification/genetics ; Turtles/anatomy & histology/classification/genetics
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 1999-08-28
    Description: Class II transactivator (CIITA) is a global transcriptional coactivator of human leukocyte antigen-D (HLA-D) genes. CIITA contains motifs similar to guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. This report shows that CIITA binds GTP, and mutations in these motifs decrease its GTP-binding and transactivation activity. Substitution of these motifs with analogous sequences from Ras restores CIITA function. CIITA exhibits little GTPase activity, yet mutations in CIITA that confer GTPase activity reduce transcriptional activity. GTP binding by CIITA correlates with nuclear import. Thus, unlike other GTP-binding proteins, CIITA is involved in transcriptional activation that uses GTP binding to facilitate its own nuclear import.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Harton, J A -- Cressman, D E -- Chin, K C -- Der, C J -- Ting, J P -- AI29564/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI41751/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI45580/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 27;285(5432):1402-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10464099" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; COS Cells ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/*metabolism ; GTP-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Genes, MHC Class II ; Guanosine Triphosphate/*metabolism ; HLA-DR Antigens/genetics ; Humans ; Mutation ; *Nuclear Proteins ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Temperature ; Trans-Activators/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; *Transcriptional Activation
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lipman, N S -- Nguyen, H -- Perkins, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1123.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10366341" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/virology ; Blood/*virology ; China ; *Ectromelia virus ; Ectromelia, Infectious/epidemiology/*transmission ; Mice/*virology ; Rodent Diseases/epidemiology/*transmission ; United States
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-09-15
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Helmuth, L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Aug 20;285(5431):1190-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10484726" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Estradiol/*pharmacology/toxicity ; *Genetic Variation ; Humans ; Litter Size ; Male ; Maximum Allowable Concentration ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Species Specificity ; Spermatogenesis/*drug effects ; Testis/*drug effects ; *Toxicity Tests
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 1999-11-13
    Description: The p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), also called Erk2 and Erk1, respectively, have been implicated in proliferation as well as in differentiation programs. The specific role of the p44 MAPK isoform in the whole animal was evaluated by generation of p44 MAPK-deficient mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. The p44 MAPK-/- mice were viable, fertile, and of normal size. Thus, p44 MAPK is apparently dispensable and p42 MAPK (Erk2) may compensate for its loss. However, in p44 MAPK-/- mice, thymocyte maturation beyond the CD4+CD8+ stage was reduced by half, with a similar diminution in the thymocyte subpopulation expressing high levels of T cell receptor (CD3high). In p44 MAPK-/- thymocytes, proliferation in response to activation with a monoclonal antibody to the T cell receptor in the presence of phorbol myristate acetate was severely reduced even though activation of p42 MAPK was more sustained in these cells. The p44 MAPK apparently has a specific role in thymocyte development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pages, G -- Guerin, S -- Grall, D -- Bonino, F -- Smith, A -- Anjuere, F -- Auberger, P -- Pouyssegur, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 12;286(5443):1374-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Signaling, Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, CNRS UMR 6543, Centre A. Lacassagne, 33 Avenue de Valombrose, 06189 Nice, France. gpages@unice.fr〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10558995" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal ; Antigens, CD/analysis ; Antigens, CD3/immunology ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Division ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA/biosynthesis ; Enzyme Activation ; Gene Targeting ; Isoenzymes/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1/metabolism ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 ; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length ; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/analysis/physiology ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/*cytology/enzymology/immunology ; Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology ; Thymus Gland/*cytology
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-06-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Balter, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 28;284(5419):1453, 1455.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10383320" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Husbandry ; Animals ; Carcinogens/*analysis ; Cattle ; Drug Residues/adverse effects/*analysis ; Estradiol/adverse effects/*analysis ; European Union ; *Food Contamination ; Gonadal Steroid Hormones/adverse effects/*analysis ; Humans ; Meat/adverse effects/*analysis ; Mutagens/analysis ; Neoplasms/chemically induced ; United States ; United States Food and Drug Administration
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 1999-12-03
    Description: Linker proteins function as molecular scaffolds to localize enzymes with substrates. In B cells, B cell linker protein (BLNK) links the B cell receptor (BCR)-activated Syk kinase to the phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated kinase pathways. To examine the in vivo role of BLNK, mice deficient in BLNK were generated. B cell development in BLNK-/- mice was blocked at the transition from B220+CD43+ progenitor B to B220+CD43- precursor B cells. Only a small percentage of immunoglobulin M++ (IgM++), but not mature IgMloIgDhi, B cells were detected in the periphery. Hence, BLNK is an essential component of BCR signaling pathways and is required to promote B cell development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pappu, R -- Cheng, A M -- Li, B -- Gong, Q -- Chiu, C -- Griffin, N -- White, M -- Sleckman, B P -- Chan, A C -- AI42787/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA71516/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Dec 3;286(5446):1949-54.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Immunology, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10583957" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing ; Aging ; Animals ; B-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology/immunology ; B-Lymphocytes/*cytology/immunology/*metabolism ; Bone Marrow Cells/cytology/immunology ; Carrier Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Cell Count ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Separation ; Cell Size ; Flow Cytometry ; Gene Targeting ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/metabolism ; Immunoglobulin M/analysis ; Leukopoiesis ; Lymphoid Tissue/cytology/immunology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; *Phosphoproteins ; Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/*metabolism ; Second Messenger Systems ; Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 1999-04-24
    Description: Control of cyclin levels is critical for proper cell cycle regulation. In yeast, the stability of the G1 cyclin Cln1 is controlled by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination. Here it is shown that this reaction can be reconstituted in vitro with an SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Phosphorylated Cln1 was ubiquitinated by SCF (Skp1-Cdc53-F-box protein) complexes containing the F-box protein Grr1, Rbx1, and the E2 Cdc34. Rbx1 promotes association of Cdc34 with Cdc53 and stimulates Cdc34 auto-ubiquitination in the context of Cdc53 or SCF complexes. Rbx1, which is also a component of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor complex, may define a previously unrecognized class of E3-associated proteins.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Skowyra, D -- Koepp, D M -- Kamura, T -- Conrad, M N -- Conaway, R C -- Conaway, J W -- Elledge, S J -- Harper, J W -- AG11085/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- GM41628/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM54137/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 23;284(5414):662-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Verna and Marrs McLean Department of Biochemistry, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10213692" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome ; Animals ; Carrier Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism ; Cell Line ; *Cullin Proteins ; Cyclins/*metabolism ; F-Box Proteins ; Fungal Proteins/*metabolism ; Ligases/metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptide Synthases/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins ; SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism ; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins ; Sequence Alignment ; Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes ; *Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases ; Ubiquitins/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-07-31
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hieter, P -- Griffiths, T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Jul 9;285(5425):210-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medical Genetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. hieter@cmmt.ubc.ca〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10428719" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cyclins/genetics ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal ; Meiosis ; Membrane Glycoproteins ; Membrane Proteins/genetics ; Mitosis ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; *Polyploidy ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/cytology/*genetics/physiology ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 1999-11-05
    Description: Focal adhesions (FAs) are clustered integrins and associated proteins that mediate cell adhesion and signaling. A green fluorescent protein-beta1 integrin chimera was used to label FAs in living cells. In stationary cells, FAs were highly motile, moving linearly for several plaque lengths toward the cell center. FA motility was independent of cell density and resulted from contraction of associated actin fibers. In migrating cells, FAs were stationary and only moved in the tail. FA motility in stationary cells suggests that cell movement may be regulated by a clutch-like mechanism by which the affinity of integrins to substrate may be altered in response to migratory cues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smilenov, L B -- Mikhailov, A -- Pelham, R J -- Marcantonio, E E -- Gundersen, G G -- GM42026/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM44585/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Nov 5;286(5442):1172-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pathology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10550057" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Actins/physiology ; Animals ; Antigens, CD29/*metabolism ; *Cell Adhesion ; Cell Count ; Cell Line ; *Cell Movement ; Fibroblasts/*cytology/metabolism ; Fluorescence ; Green Fluorescent Proteins ; Luminescent Proteins ; Mice ; Microscopy, Interference ; Rats ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 43
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-04-30
    Description: In eukaryotic cells directional sensing is mediated by heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-linked signaling pathways. In Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae and mammalian leukocytes, the receptors and G-protein subunits are uniformly distributed around the cell perimeter. Chemoattractants induce the transient appearance of binding sites for several pleckstrin homology domain-containing proteins on the inner face of the membrane. In gradients of attractant these sites are persistently present on the side of the cell facing the higher concentration, even in the absence of a functional actin cytoskeleton or cell movement. Thus, the cell senses direction by spatially regulating the activity of the signal transduction pathway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Parent, C A -- Devreotes, P N -- GM28007/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM47874/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 Apr 30;284(5415):765-70.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10221901" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Chemotactic Factors/*physiology ; *Chemotaxis ; Chemotaxis, Leukocyte ; Dictyostelium/physiology ; GTP-Binding Proteins/*physiology ; Humans ; Leukocytes/physiology ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*physiology ; *Signal Transduction
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 1999-05-15
    Description: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a pancreatic beta cell autoantigen in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. beta Cell-specific suppression of GAD expression in two lines of antisense GAD transgenic NOD mice prevented autoimmune diabetes, whereas persistent GAD expression in the beta cells in the other four lines of antisense GAD transgenic NOD mice resulted in diabetes, similar to that seen in transgene-negative NOD mice. Complete suppression of beta cell GAD expression blocked the generation of diabetogenic T cells and protected islet grafts from autoimmune injury. Thus, beta cell-specific GAD expression is required for the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice, and modulation of GAD might, therefore, have therapeutic value in type 1 diabetes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoon, J W -- Yoon, C S -- Lim, H W -- Huang, Q Q -- Kang, Y -- Pyun, K H -- Hirasawa, K -- Sherwin, R S -- Jun, H S -- DK 45735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK 53015-01/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1999 May 14;284(5417):1183-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Viral and Immunopathogenesis of Diabetes, Julia McFarlane Diabetes Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1, Canada. yoon@ucalgary.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10325232" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adoptive Transfer ; Animals ; Autoantigens/genetics/*immunology/physiology ; Autoimmunity ; DNA, Antisense ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*enzymology/*immunology/pathology ;