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  • 1
    ISSN: 0303-2647
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell nucleus ; Evolution ; Plants ; Protoctista ; Taxonomy
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Cellular slime molds ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Maximum-likelihood method ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phylogenetic position of Dictyostelium inferred from 18S rRNA data contradicts that from protein data. Protein trees always show the close affinity of Dictyostelium with animals, fungi, and plants, whereas in 18S rRNA trees the branching of Dictyostelium is placed at a position before the massive radiation of protist groups including the divergence of the three kingdoms. To settle this controversial issue and to determine the correct position of Dictyostelium, we inferred the phylogenetic relationship among Dictyostelium and the three kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae by a maximum-likelihood method using 19 different protein data sets. It was shown at the significance level of 1 SE that the branching of Dictyostelium antedates the divergence of Animalia and Fungi, and Plantae is an outgroup of the Animalia-Fungi-Dictyostelium clade.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 42 (1996), S. 183-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Small-subunit ribosomal RNA ; Phylogeny ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plants ; Alveolates ; Heterokonts ; Stramenopiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The evolutionary relationships of four eukaryotic kingdoms—Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista—remain unclear. In particular, statistical support for the closeness of animals to fungi rather than to plants is lacking, and a preferred branching order of these and other eukaryotic lineages is still controversial even though molecular sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa have been analyzed. We report a statistical analysis of 214 sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene undertaken to clarify these evolutionary relationships. We have considered the variability of substitution rates and the nonindependence of nucleotide substitution across sites in the srRNA gene in testing alternative hypotheses regarding the branching patterns of eukaryote phylogeny. We find that the rates of evolution among sites in the srRNA sequences vary substantially and are approximately gamma distributed with size and shape parameter equal to 0.76. Our results suggest that (1) the animals and true fungi are indeed closer to each other than to any other “crown” group in the eukaryote tree, (2) red algae are the closest relatives of animals, true fungi, and green plants, and (3) the heterokonts and alveolates probably evolved prior to the divergence of red algae and animal-fungus-green-plant lineages. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that the branching order of the eukaryotic lineages that diverged prior to the evolution of alveolates may be generally difficult to resolve with the srRNA sequence data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-322X
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; consciousness ; Australia ; Hong Kong ; India ; Israel ; Japan ; New Zealand ; The Philippines ; Russia ; Singapore ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract The interactions between humans, animals and the environment have shaped human values and ethics, not only the genes that we are made of. The animal rights movement challenges human beings to reconsider interactions between humans and other animals, and maybe connected to the environmental movement that begs us to recognize the fact that there are symbiotic relationships between humans and all other organisms. The first part of this paper looks at types of bioethics, the implications of autonomy and the value of being alive. Then the level of consciousness of these relationships are explored in survey results from Asia and the Pacific, especially in the 1993 International Bioethics Survey conducted in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, The Philippines, Russia, Singapore and Thailand. Very few mentioned animal consciousness in the survey, but there were more biocentric comments in Australia and Japan; and more comments with the idea of harmony including humans in Thailand. Comparisons between questions and surveys will also be made, in an attempt to describe what people imagine animal consciousness to be, and whether this relates to human ethics of the relationships.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypophysis ; Rostral pars distalis ; Mugil platanus ; Animals ; Prolactin hormone secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rostral pars distalis (RPD) of the teleost Mugil platanus from animals pretreated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HODA) were assayed for dopamine (DA) or noradrenaline (NA) or for prolactin hormone. Such determinations were coupled with electron microscopy. It was found that reserpine and 6-HODA produced a significant decrease in the content of DA, NA, and prolactin. Electron microscope studies revealed that prolactin cells became activated as judged by ultrastructural criteria. After 6-HODA treatment type “B” neurosecretory fibers entering the RPD became selectively destroyed. These observations lead us to suggest that prolactin secretion is under inhibitory control by type “B” neurosecretory fibers of adrenergic nature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Machine vision and applications 8 (1995), S. 187-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1769
    Keywords: Tracking ; Segmentation ; Pigs ; Animals ; Computer vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An algorithm was developed for the segmentation and tracking of piglets and tested on a 200-image sequence of 10 piglets moving on a straw background. The image-capture rate was 1 image/140 ms. The segmentation method was a combination of image differencing with respect to a median background and a Laplacian operator. The features tracked were blob edges in the segmented image. During tracking, the piglets were modelled as ellipses initialised on the blobs. Each piglet was tracked by searching for blob edges in an elliptical window about the piglet's position, which was predicted from its previous two positions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Niphargus is a speciose amphipod genus found in groundwater habitats across Europe. Three Niphargus species living in the sulphidic Frasassi caves in Italy harbour sulphur-oxidizing Thiothrix bacterial ectosymbionts. These three species are distantly related, implying that the ability to form ectosymbioses with Thiothrix may be common among Niphargus. Therefore, Niphargus-Thiothrix associations may also be found in sulphidic aquifers other than Frasassi. In this study, we examined this possibility by analysing niphargids of the genera Niphargus and Pontoniphargus collected from the partly sulphidic aquifers of the Southern Dobrogea region of Romania, which are accessible through springs, wells and Movile Cave. Molecular and morphological analyses revealed seven niphargid species in this region. Five of these species occurred occasionally or exclusively in sulphidic locations, whereas the remaining two were restricted to nonsulphidic areas. Thiothrix were detected by PCR on all seven Dobrogean niphargid species and observed using microscopy to be predominantly attached to their hosts' appendages. 16S rRNA gene sequences of the Thiothrix epibionts fell into two main clades, one of which (herein named T4) occurred solely on niphargids collected in sulphidic locations. The other Thiothrix clade was present on niphargids from both sulphidic and nonsulphidic areas and indistinguishable from the T3 ectosymbiont clade previously identified on Frasassi-dwelling Niphargus. Although niphargids from Frasassi and Southern Dobrogea are not closely related, the patterns of their association with Thiothrix are remarkably alike. The finding of similar Niphargus-Thiothrix associations in aquifers located 1200 km apart suggests that they may be widespread in European groundwater ecosystems.
    Keywords: amphipods; ecology; sulphide; symbiosis; systematics; taxonomy ; Amphipoda ; Animals ; DNA, Bacterial ; Ecosystem ; Groundwater ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S ; Romania ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sulfur ; Symbiosis ; Thiothrix
    Language: English , English
    Type: article , publishedVersion
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1997-01-03
    Description: The oriented peptide library technique was used to investigate the peptide-binding specificities of nine PDZ domains. Each PDZ domain selected peptides with hydrophobic residues at the carboxyl terminus. Individual PDZ domains selected unique optimal motifs defined primarily by the carboxyl terminal three to seven residues of the peptides. One family of PDZ domains, including those of the Discs Large protein, selected peptides with the consensus motif Glu-(Ser/Thr)-Xxx-(Val/Ile) (where Xxx represents any amino acid) at the carboxyl terminus. In contrast, another family of PDZ domains, including those of LIN-2, p55, and Tiam-1, selected peptides with hydrophobic or aromatic side chains at the carboxyl terminal three residues. On the basis of crystal structures of the PSD-95-3 PDZ domain, the specificities observed with the peptide library can be rationalized.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Songyang, Z -- Fanning, A S -- Fu, C -- Xu, J -- Marfatia, S M -- Chishti, A H -- Crompton, A -- Chan, A C -- Anderson, J M -- Cantley, L C -- CA66263/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK34989/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM056203/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jan 3;275(5296):73-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Signal Transduction, Beth Israel Hospital, and Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8974395" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors ; Guanylate Kinase ; Helminth Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Humans ; Kinesin/chemistry/metabolism ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Myosins/chemistry/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase/chemistry/metabolism ; Peptide Library ; Peptides/chemistry/*metabolism ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases/chemistry/metabolism ; Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sparks, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jul 25;277(5325):459-60.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254411" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alanine/metabolism ; Animals ; Brain/*metabolism ; Cerebrovascular Circulation ; Cytosol/metabolism ; *Glycolysis ; Humans ; Lactic Acid/metabolism ; Neurons/*metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Oxygen Consumption ; Pyruvic Acid/metabolism
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-10-23
    Description: Rats learn a novel foraging pattern better with their right-side whiskers than with their left-side whiskers. They also learn better with the left cerebral hemisphere than with the right hemisphere. Rotating an already learned maze relative to the external environment most strongly reduces right-whisker performance; starting an already learned maze at a different location most strongly reduces left-whisker performance. These results suggest that the right-periphery-left-hemisphere system accesses a map-like representation of the foraging problem, whereas the left-periphery-right-hemisphere system accesses a rote path. Thus, as in humans, functional asymmetries in rats can be elicited by both peripheral and cortical manipulation, and each hemisphere makes qualitatively distinct contributions to a complex natural behavior.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉LaMendola, N P -- Bever, T G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 17;278(5337):483-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9334310" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/*physiology ; *Dominance, Cerebral ; Functional Laterality ; Male ; *Maze Learning ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Vibrissae/*physiology
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-01-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Langley, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 24;278(5338):558-9; author reply 560.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381154" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Animal Rights ; Animals ; *Research ; Societies, Scientific ; *Vivisection
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-06-20
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goldfarb, D S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jun 20;276(5320):1814-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA. Goldfarb@nucleus.biology.rochester.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9206840" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Transport ; Cell Nucleus/*metabolism ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/*metabolism ; GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Nuclear Envelope/metabolism ; Nuclear Localization Signals ; Nuclear Proteins/*metabolism ; RNA/metabolism ; Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/*metabolism ; Viral Matrix Proteins/*metabolism ; ran GTP-Binding Protein
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 1997-10-23
    Description: Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), the dominant inositol phosphate in insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells, inhibited the serine-threonine protein phosphatases type 1, type 2A, and type 3 in a concentration-dependent manner. The activity of voltage-gated L-type calcium channels is increased in cells treated with inhibitors of serine-threonine protein phosphatases. Thus, the increased calcium channel activity obtained in the presence of InsP6 might result from the inhibition of phosphatase activity. Glucose elicited a transient increase in InsP6 concentration, which indicates that this inositol polyphosphate may modulate calcium influx over the plasma membrane and serve as a signal in the pancreatic beta cell stimulus-secretion coupling.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Larsson, O -- Barker, C J -- Sjoholm, A -- Carlqvist, H -- Michell, R H -- Bertorello, A -- Nilsson, T -- Honkanen, R E -- Mayr, G W -- Zwiller, J -- Berggren, P O -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 17;278(5337):471-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Rolf Luft Center for Diabetes Research, Department of Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, S-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9334307" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Calcium Channels/drug effects/*metabolism ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cricetinae ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Glucose/pharmacology ; Inositol/pharmacology ; Inositol Phosphates/pharmacology ; Ion Channel Gating ; Islets of Langerhans/drug effects/*metabolism ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Phytic Acid/*pharmacology ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 1997-05-02
    Description: Cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure caused by high blood pressure were studied in single myocytes taken from hypertensive rats (Dahl SS/Jr) and SH-HF rats in heart failure. Confocal microscopy and patch-clamp methods were used to examine excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, and the relation between the plasma membrane calcium current (ICa) and evoked calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), which was visualized as "calcium sparks." The ability of ICa to trigger calcium release from the SR in both hypertrophied and failing hearts was reduced. Because ICa density and SR calcium-release channels were normal, the defect appears to reside in a change in the relation between SR calcium-release channels and sarcolemmal calcium channels. beta-Adrenergic stimulation largely overcame the defect in hypertrophic but not failing heart cells. Thus, the same defect in EC coupling that develops during hypertrophy may contribute to heart failure when compensatory mechanisms fail.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gomez, A M -- Valdivia, H H -- Cheng, H -- Lederer, M R -- Santana, L F -- Cannell, M B -- McCune, S A -- Altschuld, R A -- Lederer, W J -- Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 2;276(5313):800-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology and the Medical Biotechnology Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 725 West Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA. Universit.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9115206" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-Agonists/pharmacology ; Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology ; Calcium Channels/metabolism ; Calcium Channels, L-Type ; Cardiomegaly/etiology/*physiopathology ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Heart Failure/etiology/*physiopathology ; Hypertension/complications ; Isoproterenol/pharmacology ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Muscle Proteins/metabolism ; Myocardial Contraction/drug effects/*physiology ; Myocardium/*metabolism ; Nifedipine/pharmacology ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Rats ; Rats, Inbred Strains ; Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 1998-01-07
    Description: A Sonic hedgehog (Shh) response element was identified in the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) promoter that binds to a factor distinct from Gli, a gene known to mediate Shh signaling. Although this binding activity is specifically stimulated by Shh-N (amino-terminal signaling domain), it can also be unmasked with protein phosphatase treatment in the mouse cell line P19, and induction by Shh-N can be blocked by phosphatase inhibitors. Thus, Shh-N signaling may result in dephosphorylation of a target factor that is required for activation of COUP-TFII-, Islet1-, and Gli response element-dependent gene expression. This finding identifies another step in the Shh-N signaling pathway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Krishnan, V -- Pereira, F A -- Qiu, Y -- Chen, C H -- Beachy, P A -- Tsai, S Y -- Tsai, M J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Dec 12;278(5345):1947-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, 1 Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030 USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9395397" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; COUP Transcription Factor II ; COUP Transcription Factors ; Cell Line ; DNA/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics/metabolism ; Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Hedgehog Proteins ; Mice ; Okadaic Acid/pharmacology ; Oxazoles/pharmacology ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/antagonists & inhibitors/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; *Receptors, Steroid ; Signal Transduction ; *Trans-Activators ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/metabolism
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-07-04
    Description: Hepatocyte nuclear factors 1 and 4 (HNF-1 and HNF-4) are liver-enriched transcription factors that function in the regulation of several liver-specific genes. HNF-1 activates genes containing promoters with HNF-1 binding sites. However, this factor negatively regulates its own expression and that of other HNF-4-dependent genes that lack HNF-1 binding sites in their promoter region. This repression is exerted by a direct interaction of HNF-1 with AF2, the main activation domain of HNF-4. The dual functions of gene activation and repression suggest that HNF-1 is a global regulator of the transcriptional network involved in the maintenance of hepatocyte-specific phenotype.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ktistaki, E -- Talianidis, I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jul 4;277(5322):109-12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas, Post Office Box 1527, 711 10 Heraklion, Crete, Greece.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9204893" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors ; Binding Sites ; COS Cells ; *DNA-Binding Proteins ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-alpha ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta ; Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 ; Humans ; Liver/cytology/*metabolism ; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Phosphoproteins/genetics/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/*genetics/*metabolism ; Transcriptional Activation ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-08-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 1;277(5326):635-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9254427" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cannibalism/*history ; Europe ; *Fossils ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae ; Humans ; Indians, North American/*history ; Southwestern United States
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-05-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 30;276(5317):1331-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9190675" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Facial Bones ; *Fossils ; *Hominidae/classification ; Humans ; Male ; Spain
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-05-09
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 9;276(5314):896-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9163034" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; *Body Constitution ; Body Weight ; Brain/*anatomy & histology ; Female ; Femur Head/*anatomy & histology ; *Fossils ; Hominidae/*anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Male
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-02-12
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kuikka, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 17;278(5337):371-2; author reply 372-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9381132" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena ; Lung/*blood supply ; Mammals/anatomy & histology/physiology ; *Models, Biological ; *Pulmonary Circulation
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 1997-08-08
    Description: Repeated administration of morphine sensitizes animals to the stimulant and rewarding properties of the drug. It also selectively increases expression of GluR1 (an AMPA glutamate receptor subunit) in the ventral tegmental area, a midbrain region implicated in morphine action. By viral-mediated gene transfer, a causal relation is shown between these behavioral and biochemical adaptations: Morphine's stimulant and rewarding properties are intensified after microinjections of a viral vector expressing GluR1 into the ventral tegmental area. These results confirm the importance of AMPA receptors in morphine action and demonstrate specific locomotor and motivational adaptations resulting from altered expression of a single localized gene product.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carlezon, W A Jr -- Boundy, V A -- Haile, C N -- Lane, S B -- Kalb, R G -- Neve, R L -- Nestler, E J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Aug 8;277(5327):812-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut Mental Health Center, 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06508, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9242609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/metabolism ; Conditioning, Classical ; *Gene Transfer Techniques ; Genetic Vectors ; Injections, Subcutaneous ; Male ; Morphine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Receptors, AMPA/*genetics/*physiology ; Reward ; Simplexvirus/genetics ; Transgenes ; Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/metabolism ; Up-Regulation ; Ventral Tegmental Area/*drug effects/metabolism
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-01-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jan 10;275(5297):155-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8999545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Acetyltransferases/*metabolism ; Animals ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism ; Cell Nucleus/*enzymology ; DNA/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; *Gene Expression Regulation ; Histone Acetyltransferases ; Histones/*metabolism ; Humans ; Nuclear Proteins/metabolism ; Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 6, Group A, Member 1 ; Nucleosomes/metabolism ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism ; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins ; *TATA-Binding Protein Associated Factors ; *Transcription Factor TFIID ; Transcription Factors ; *Transcription, Genetic ; p300-CBP Transcription Factors
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1997-02-07
    Description: The Hs1(pro-1) locus confers resistance to the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schmidt), a major pest in the cultivation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The Hs1(pro-1) gene was cloned with the use of genome-specific satellite markers and chromosomal break-point analysis. Expression of the corresponding complementary DNA in a susceptible sugar beet conferred resistance to infection with the beet cyst nematode. The native Hs1(pro-1) gene, expressed in roots, encodes a 282-amino acid protein with imperfect leucine-rich repeats and a putative membrane-spanning segment, features similar to those of disease resistance genes previously cloned from higher plants.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cai, D -- Kleine, M -- Kifle, S -- Harloff, H J -- Sandal, N N -- Marcker, K A -- Klein-Lankhorst, R M -- Salentijn, E M -- Lange, W -- Stiekema, W J -- Wyss, U -- Grundler, F M -- Jung, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Feb 7;275(5301):832-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institute of Crop Science and Plant Breeding, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24118 Kiel, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9012350" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Membrane/chemistry ; *Cloning, Molecular ; DNA, Complementary/genetics ; *Genes, Plant ; Genetic Complementation Test ; Leucine/chemistry ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nematoda/*pathogenicity ; Plant Diseases/*genetics/parasitology ; *Plant Proteins ; Plant Roots/genetics/parasitology ; Transformation, Genetic ; Vegetables/*genetics/*parasitology
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-04-04
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Apr 4;276(5309):32.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9122704" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Biological Evolution ; Biomechanical Phenomena ; Bone and Bones/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; *Fossils ; Hand/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Hominidae/*anatomy & histology/physiology ; Humans ; Metacarpus/anatomy & histology ; Thumb/*anatomy & histology/physiology
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 1997-06-13
    Description: Retinal neovascularization is the major cause of untreatable blindness. The role of growth hormone (GH) in ischemia-associated retinal neovascularization was studied in transgenic mice expressing a GH antagonist gene and in normal mice given an inhibitor of GH secretion (MK678). Retinal neovascularization was inhibited in these mice in inverse proportion to serum levels of GH and a downstream effector, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Inhibition was reversed with exogenous IGF-I administration. GH inhibition did not diminish hypoxia-stimulated retinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or VEGF receptor expression. These data suggest that systemic inhibition of GH or IGF-I, or both, may have therapeutic potential in preventing some forms of retinopathy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smith, L E -- Kopchick, J J -- Chen, W -- Knapp, J -- Kinose, F -- Daley, D -- Foley, E -- Smith, R G -- Schaeffer, J M -- EY08670/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jun 13;276(5319):1706-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School and Children's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA. smith_lo@a1.tch.harvard.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9180082" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Endothelial Growth Factors/genetics/metabolism ; Growth Hormone/agonists/antagonists & inhibitors/blood/pharmacology/*physiology ; Hormone Antagonists/pharmacology ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism/pharmacology ; Ischemia ; Lymphokines/genetics/metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology ; Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology ; Retinal Neovascularization/*etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Retinal Vessels ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A ; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1997-11-05
    Description: To create mice expressing exclusively human sickle hemoglobin (HbS), transgenic mice expressing human alpha-, gamma-, and betaS-globin were generated and bred with knockout mice that had deletions of the murine alpha- and beta-globin genes. These sickle cell mice have the major features (irreversibly sickled red cells, anemia, multiorgan pathology) found in humans with sickle cell disease and, as such, represent a useful in vivo system to accelerate the development of improved therapies for this common genetic disease.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paszty, C -- Brion, C M -- Manci, E -- Witkowska, H E -- Stevens, M E -- Mohandas, N -- Rubin, E M -- HL20985/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL31579/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- N01-HB-07086/HB/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Oct 31;278(5339):876-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Human Genome Center and Department of Subcellular Structure, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road (MS 74-157), University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. c_paszty@csa2.lbl.gov〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9346488" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anemia, Sickle Cell/*genetics/pathology ; Animals ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Globins/genetics ; Hemoglobin, Sickle/genetics ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Mice, Transgenic
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-02-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Feb 21;275(5303):1068.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9054008" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Composition ; Base Sequence ; *Biological Evolution ; *Birds/genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Evolution, Molecular ; *Fossils ; *Genes ; Mutation ; Phylogeny
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-02-12
    Description: The process by which extracellular signals are relayed from the plasma membrane to specific intracellular sites is an essential facet of cellular regulation. Many signaling pathways do so by altering the phosphorylation state of tyrosine, serine, or threonine residues of target proteins. Recently, it has become apparent that regulatory mechanisms exist to influence where and when protein kinases and phosphatases are activated in the cell. The role of scaffold, anchoring, and adaptor proteins that contribute to the specificity of signal transduction events by recruiting active enzymes into signaling networks or by placing enzymes close to their substrates is discussed.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pawson, T -- Scott, J D -- GM48231/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Dec 19;278(5346):2075-80.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X5, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9405336" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Ligands ; Phospholipids/metabolism ; Phosphoprotein Phosphatases/metabolism ; Phosphoproteins/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphoserine/metabolism ; Phosphothreonine/metabolism ; Phosphotyrosine/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; src Homology Domains
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-04-18
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gibbons, A -- Culotta, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Apr 18;276(5311):355-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9139356" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; *Fossils ; *Hominidae/anatomy & histology ; Humans ; Uganda
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 1997-09-26
    Description: Mature single-positive (SP) T lymphocytes enter a "resting" state in which they are proliferatively quiescent and relatively resistant to apoptosis. The molecular mechanisms regulating this quiescent phenotype were unknown. Here it was found that the expression of a Kruppel-like zinc finger transcription factor, lung Kruppel-like factor (LKLF), is developmentally induced during the maturation of SP quiescent T cells and rapidly extinguished after SP T cell activation. LKLF-deficient T cells produced by gene targeting had a spontaneously activated phenotype and died in the spleen and lymph nodes from Fas ligand-induced apoptosis. Thus, LKLF is required to program the quiescent state of SP T cells and to maintain their viability in the peripheral lymphoid organs and blood.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kuo, C T -- Veselits, M L -- Leiden, J M -- AI29637/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Sep 26;277(5334):1986-90.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9302292" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD95/biosynthesis ; Apoptosis ; B-Lymphocytes/metabolism ; Cell Survival ; Chimera ; Fas Ligand Protein ; Gene Deletion ; Gene Targeting ; *Interphase ; Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors ; Lymph Nodes/cytology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Membrane Glycoproteins/biosynthesis ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Spleen/cytology ; T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes/*cytology/*immunology/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/biosynthesis/genetics/*physiology ; Transfection ; *Zinc Fingers
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 1998-08-07
    Description: A perceptual image can be recalled from memory without sensory stimulation. However, the neural origin of memory retrieval remains unsettled. To examine whether memory retrieval can be regulated by top-down processes originating from the prefrontal cortex, a visual associative memory task was introduced into the partial split-brain paradigm in monkeys. Long-term memory acquired through stimulus-stimulus association did not transfer via the anterior corpus callosum, a key part interconnecting prefrontal cortices. Nonetheless, when a visual cue was presented to one hemisphere, the anterior callosum could instruct the other hemisphere to retrieve the correct stimulus specified by the cue. Thus, although visual long-term memory is stored in the temporal cortex, memory retrieval is under the executive control of the prefrontal cortex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hasegawa, I -- Fukushima, T -- Ihara, T -- Miyashita, Y -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Aug 7;281(5378):814-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan. hasegawa@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9694651" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Analysis of Variance ; Animals ; Corpus Callosum/*physiology ; Cues ; Learning ; Macaca ; *Memory ; *Mental Recall ; Nerve Net/physiology ; Neural Pathways/physiology ; Photic Stimulation ; Prefrontal Cortex/*physiology ; Saccades ; Temporal Lobe/physiology
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 1998-04-16
    Description: Crystal structures of the murine cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase oxygenase dimer with active-center water molecules, the substrate L-arginine (L-Arg), or product analog thiocitrulline reveal how dimerization, cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin, and L-Arg binding complete the catalytic center for synthesis of the essential biological signal and cytotoxin nitric oxide. Pterin binding refolds the central interface region, recruits new structural elements, creates a 30 angstrom deep active-center channel, and causes a 35 degrees helical tilt to expose a heme edge and the adjacent residue tryptophan-366 for likely reductase domain interactions and caveolin inhibition. Heme propionate interactions with pterin and L-Arg suggest that pterin has electronic influences on heme-bound oxygen. L-Arginine binds to glutamic acid-371 and stacks with heme in an otherwise hydrophobic pocket to aid activation of heme-bound oxygen by direct proton donation and thereby differentiate the two chemical steps of nitric oxide synthesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Crane, B R -- Arvai, A S -- Ghosh, D K -- Wu, C -- Getzoff, E D -- Stuehr, D J -- Tainer, J A -- HL58883/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Mar 27;279(5359):2121-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology and Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9516116" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arginine/chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Biopterin/*analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; Citrulline/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Dimerization ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Isoenzymes/chemistry/metabolism ; Ligands ; Macrophages/enzymology ; Mice ; Models, Molecular ; Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis ; Nitric Oxide Synthase/*chemistry/metabolism ; Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II ; *Protein Conformation ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Thiourea/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1999-01-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bagla, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Dec 11;282(5396):1967.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9874641" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Care Committees ; *Animal Experimentation ; Animal Rights/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Animal Welfare/*legislation & jurisprudence ; Animals ; Committee Membership ; Government Regulation ; India ; Research/*legislation & jurisprudence
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-03-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sone, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Mar 7;275(5305):1405.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9072802" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Drosophila/*chemistry ; *Drosophila Proteins ; GTP-Binding Proteins/*chemistry ; *Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors ; Molecular Sequence Data
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-03-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Peifer, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Mar 21;275(5307):1752-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3280, USA. peifer@unc.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9122680" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Cell Division ; Cell Movement ; Colon/cytology/metabolism ; Colonic Neoplasms/*genetics/metabolism ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/*genetics/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Genes, APC ; Humans ; Insect Proteins/metabolism ; Intestinal Mucosa/cytology/metabolism ; Lymphoid Enhancer-Binding Factor 1 ; Melanoma/*genetics/metabolism ; Mutation ; *Oncogenes ; *Repressor Proteins ; Signal Transduction ; *Trans-Activators ; Transcription Factors/metabolism ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; beta Catenin
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-11-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Glanz, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Sep 19;277(5333):1758-60.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9324762" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/physiology/*physiopathology ; Epilepsy/*physiopathology/therapy ; Humans ; *Models, Neurological ; Nerve Net/physiology/physiopathology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Neurons, Afferent/physiology ; *Nonlinear Dynamics ; Proprioception
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 1997-01-24
    Description: The morphology of axon terminals changes with differentiation into mature synapses. A molecule that might regulate this process was identified by a screen of Drosophila mutants for abnormal motor activities. The still life (sif) gene encodes a protein homologous to guanine nucleotide exchange factors, which convert Rho-like guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) from a guanosine diphosphate-bound inactive state to a guanosine triphosphate-bound active state. The SIF proteins are found adjacent to the plasma membrane of synaptic terminals. Expression of a truncated SIF protein resulted in defects in neuronal morphology and induced membrane ruffling with altered actin localization in human KB cells. Thus, SIF proteins may regulate synaptic differentiation through the organization of the actin cytoskeleton by activating Rho-like GTPases.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sone, M -- Hoshino, M -- Suzuki, E -- Kuroda, S -- Kaibuchi, K -- Nakagoshi, H -- Saigo, K -- Nabeshima, Y -- Hama, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jan 24;275(5299):543-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Genetics, National Institute of Neuroscience (NIN), National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8999801" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Actins/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Axons/physiology ; Cell Membrane/ultrastructure ; Cytoskeleton/physiology/ultrastructure ; DNA, Complementary/genetics ; Drosophila/embryology/genetics/*metabolism ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/metabolism ; GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism ; GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Gene Expression ; Genes, Insect ; *Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors ; Humans ; In Situ Hybridization ; KB Cells ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Movement ; Mutation ; Neuromuscular Junction/metabolism ; Presynaptic Terminals/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; *rac GTP-Binding Proteins
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 1997-11-21
    Description: The Janus family of tyrosine kinases (JAK) plays an essential role in development and in coupling cytokine receptors to downstream intracellular signaling events. A t(9;12)(p24;p13) chromosomal translocation in a T cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient was characterized and shown to fuse the 3' portion of JAK2 to the 5' region of TEL, a gene encoding a member of the ETS transcription factor family. The TEL-JAK2 fusion protein includes the catalytic domain of JAK2 and the TEL-specific oligomerization domain. TEL-induced oligomerization of TEL-JAK2 resulted in the constitutive activation of its tyrosine kinase activity and conferred cytokine-independent proliferation to the interleukin-3-dependent Ba/F3 hematopoietic cell line.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lacronique, V -- Boureux, A -- Valle, V D -- Poirel, H -- Quang, C T -- Mauchauffe, M -- Berthou, C -- Lessard, M -- Berger, R -- Ghysdael, J -- Bernard, O A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Nov 14;278(5341):1309-12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉U 301 de l'Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale and SD 401 No. 301 CNRS, Institut de Genetique Moleculaire, 27 rue Juliette Dodu, 75010 Paris, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9360930" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Biopolymers ; Cell Division ; Cell Line ; Child, Preschool ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Enzyme Activation ; Humans ; Interleukin-3/physiology ; Janus Kinase 2 ; Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell/genetics/*metabolism ; Male ; Mice ; *Milk Proteins ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogene Proteins, Fusion/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Proto-Oncogene Proteins ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets ; *Repressor Proteins ; STAT5 Transcription Factor ; Signal Transduction ; Trans-Activators/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Transfection ; Translocation, Genetic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-05-02
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Glanz, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 May 2;276(5313):678-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9157545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Nucleolus/physiology ; Cell Nucleus/*physiology ; *Cell Size ; Chromosomes/physiology ; Cytoskeleton/*physiology ; Fibronectins/metabolism ; Humans ; Micromanipulation ; Microscopy, Video ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*physiology ; Receptors, Fibronectin/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Stress, Mechanical
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1997-07-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Pennisi, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1997 Jul 11;277(5323):180-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9235630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Carrier Proteins ; Child ; Cholesterol/*metabolism ; Chromosome Mapping ; *Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; *Membrane Glycoproteins ; Mice ; Mice, Mutant Strains ; Niemann-Pick Diseases/*genetics/metabolism ; Proteins/chemistry/*genetics/physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 1998-02-28
    Description: At the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the prion protein (PrP) can be synthesized in several topological forms. The role of these different forms was explored with transgenic mice expressing PrP mutations that alter the relative ratios of the topological forms. Expression of a particular transmembrane form (termed CtmPrP) produced neurodegenerative changes in mice similar to those of some genetic prion diseases. Brains from these mice contained CtmPrP but not PrPSc, the PrP isoform responsible for transmission of prion diseases. Furthermore, in one heritable prion disease of humans, brain tissue contained CtmPrP but not PrPSc. Thus, aberrant regulation of protein biogenesis and topology at the endoplasmic reticulum can result in neurodegeneration.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hegde, R S -- Mastrianni, J A -- Scott, M R -- DeFea, K A -- Tremblay, P -- Torchia, M -- DeArmond, S J -- Prusiner, S B -- Lingappa, V R -- AG02132/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Feb 6;279(5352):827-34.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Physiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-0444, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9452375" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Brain/metabolism/pathology ; Cricetinae ; Endopeptidases/metabolism ; Endoplasmic Reticulum/chemistry/*metabolism ; Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Disease/metabolism ; Humans ; Intracellular Membranes/chemistry ; Mesocricetus ; Mice ; Mice, Transgenic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Neurodegenerative Diseases/*etiology/metabolism/pathology ; PrPC Proteins/biosynthesis/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; PrPSc Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Prion Diseases/etiology/metabolism/pathology ; Prions/biosynthesis/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein Conformation
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 1998-04-16
    Description: In the magnesium ion-dependent folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme, a kinetic intermediate accumulates in which the P4-P6 domain is formed, but the P3-P7 domain is not. The kinetic barriers to P3-P7 formation were investigated with the use of in vitro selection to identify mutant RNA molecules in which the folding rate of the P3-P7 domain was increased. The critical mutations disrupt native tertiary interactions within the P4-P6 domain and increase the rate of P3-P7 formation by destabilizing a kinetically trapped intermediate. Hence, kinetic traps stabilized by native interactions, and not simply by mispaired nonnative structures, can present a substantial barrier to RNA folding.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Treiber, D K -- Rook, M S -- Zarrinkar, P P -- Williamson, J R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Mar 20;279(5358):1943-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, MB33, Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9506945" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Binding Sites ; Kinetics ; Magnesium/metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Mutation ; *Nucleic Acid Conformation ; RNA, Catalytic/*chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Tetrahymena/chemistry
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-01-31
    Description: The transduction of many cellular stimuli results in oscillations in the intracellular concentration of calcium ions (Ca2+). Although information is thought to be encoded in the frequency of such oscillations, no frequency decoder has been identified. Rapid superfusion of immobilized Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in vitro showed that the enzyme can decode the frequency of Ca2+ spikes into distinct amounts of kinase activity. The frequency response of CaM kinase II was modulated by several factors, including the amplitude and duration of individual spikes as well as the subunit composition and previous state of activation of the kinase. These features should provide specificity in the activation of this multifunctional enzyme by distinct cellular stimuli and may underlie its pivotal role in activity-dependent forms of synaptic plasticity.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉De Koninck, P -- Schulman, H -- GM30179/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM40600/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Jan 9;279(5348):227-30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5401, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9422695" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; COS Cells ; Calcium/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 ; Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Calmodulin/metabolism/pharmacology ; Cercopithecus aethiops ; Enzyme Activation ; Enzymes, Immobilized ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neuronal Plasticity ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphothreonine/metabolism ; Polyvinyl Chloride ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1998-07-04
    Description: An expression cloning strategy in Xenopus laevis was used to isolate a homeobox-containing gene, Mixer, that can cause embryonic cells to form endoderm. Mixer transcripts are found specifically in the prospective endoderm of gastrula, which coincides with the time and place that endodermal cells become histologically distinct and irreversibly determined. Loss-of-function studies with a dominant inhibitory mutant demonstrate that Mixer activity is required for endoderm development. In particular, the expression of Sox17alpha and Sox17beta, two previously identified endodermal determinants, require Mixer function. Together, these data suggest that Mixer is an embryonic transcription factor involved in specifying the endodermal germ layer.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Henry, G L -- Melton, D A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1998 Jul 3;281(5373):91-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9651252" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blastocyst/cytology/physiology ; Cell Lineage ; Cloning, Molecular ; *DNA-Binding Proteins ; *Embryonic Induction ; Endoderm/cytology/*physiology ; Gastrula/cytology/*physiology ; *Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; *Genes, Homeobox ; *High Mobility Group Proteins ; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics ; In Situ Hybridization ; Mesoderm/cytology/physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Proteins/genetics ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; SOXF Transcription Factors ; Transcription Factors/genetics/physiology ; *Xenopus Proteins ; Xenopus laevis
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine ,