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  • Animals  (2,204)
  • 1980-1984  (2,204)
  • 1925-1929
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-09-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 19;209(4463):1317-438.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7414318" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *DNA, Recombinant ; Humans
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1980-08-01
    Description: Stage-specific changes in histone synthesis during sea urchin development reflect the expression of different sets of genes. The three kinds of blastomeres formed at the 16-cell stage are the earliest "determined" cells and fall into three distinct size classes. At this stage that cells synthesize only "early" histones. Such blastomeres can survive and divide in culture after being separated from the embryo, whether or not they are permitted to aggregate. With or without reaggregation, cultured progeny cells of each type of isolated blastomere perform the same changeover of histone synthesis as takes place in the intact embryo, that is, they begin spontaneously to synthesize a new set, the "late" histone variants. Normal contact relations among cells of the embryo are, therefore, not required for this programmed change in gene expression.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Arceci, R J -- Gross, P R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 1;209(4456):607-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7394523" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blastomeres/*metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; DNA/metabolism ; DNA, Superhelical/metabolism ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/*metabolism ; Female ; *Genes ; Histones/*biosynthesis ; Nucleosomes/metabolism ; *Protein Biosynthesis ; Sea Urchins ; *Transcription, Genetic
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1980-07-18
    Description: Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity can be measured with as few as 1000 leukocytes with an automated flow cytometry technique.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Attallah, A M -- Yeatman, T J -- Noguchi, P D -- Johnson, J B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 18;209(4454):404-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7384812" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity ; Autoanalysis ; Chickens ; Erythrocytes/immunology ; Leukocytes/*immunology ; Phagocytosis
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1980-03-28
    Description: The food dye erythrosine (Erythrosin B; FD & C No. 3) was applied to isolated neuromuscular synapses in the frog, and its effects on the spontaneous quantal release of acetylcholine were examined with electrophysiological techniques. At concentrations of 10 muM or greater this anionic dye produced an irreversible, dose-dependent increase in neurotransmitter release. This increase did not depend on the presence of calcium ions in the bathing medium. These increase did not depend on the presence of calcium ions in the bathing medium. These results suggest that erythrosine might prove a useful pharmacological tool for studying the process of transmitter release, but that its use as a food additive should be reexamined.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Augustine, G J Jr -- Levitan, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 28;207(4438):1489-90.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6244619" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anura ; Calcium/physiology ; Erythrosine/*pharmacology ; Fluoresceins/*pharmacology ; Kinetics ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Motor Endplate/drug effects ; Neuromuscular Junction/*drug effects ; Rana pipiens ; Stimulation, Chemical ; Synaptic Transmission/*drug effects
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-10-01
    Description: Three major metabolites of propachlor were isolated from the excreta of germfree rats given 14C-labeled propachlor orally. In contrast, 11 urinary metabolites, six of which were 2-methylsulfonylacetanilides not present in excreta of germfree rats, were isolated from control rats given 14C-labeled propachlor orally. Enterohepatic circulation and microbial metabolism in the intestine were necessary for production of the methylsulfonyl-containing and other metabolites of propachlor in the conventional rat.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bakke, J E -- Gustafsson, J A -- Gustafsson, B E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct;210(4468):433-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7433983" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetanilides/*metabolism ; Animals ; Enterohepatic Circulation ; *Germ-Free Life ; Glutathione/metabolism ; Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism ; Intestines/metabolism/*microbiology ; Liver/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Rats
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1980-05-30
    Description: The cellular mechanisms underlying picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity were studied by using mouse spinal neurons growing in tissue culture. Picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity in most but not all of the cells studied. The activity could be inverted by polarizing to positive potentials and eliminated either by decreasing the ratio of calcium to magnesium or by applying tetrodotoxin. When applied locally to individual cells, picrotoxin lowered spike threshold and induced spontaneous firing in some but not all cells tested. The results suggest that picrotoxin-induced convulsive activity involves rapidly summating synaptic activity which may be evoked by high-frequency repetitive firing.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barker, J L -- MacDonald, J F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):1054-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375918" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/drug effects ; Animals ; Calcium/pharmacology ; Cells, Cultured ; Magnesium/pharmacology ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Picrotoxin/*pharmacology ; Seizures/*chemically induced ; Spinal Cord/*drug effects/physiology ; Synapses/*drug effects
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1980-11-28
    Description: At night efferent optic nerve activity generated by a circadian clock in the Limulus brain changes the structure of the photoreceptor and surrounding pigment cells in the animal's lateral eyes. The structural changes allow each ommatidium to gather light from a wider area at night than during the day. Visual sensitivity is thereby increased, but spatial resolution is diminished. At daybreak efferent activity from the clock stops, the structural changes reverse, and the field of view of each ommatidium decreases. The cyclic changes are endogenous and continue in the dark. Thus, under the control of a circadian clock, the Limulus eye exchanges its daytime acuity for greater sensitivity at night.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Barlow, R B Jr -- Chamberlain, S C -- Levinson, J Z -- EY-00667/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- EY-01640/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 28;210(4473):1037-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7434015" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Afferent Pathways ; Animals ; Brain/physiology ; Circadian Rhythm ; Efferent Pathways ; Eye/anatomy & histology ; Horseshoe Crabs/*physiology ; Ocular Physiological Phenomena ; Optic Nerve/physiology ; Photoreceptor Cells/physiology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1980-01-04
    Description: Monoclonal antibodies against a thymus cell differentiation antigen (Thy-1.1) were effective in the therapy of a transplanted mouse leukemia. Passive immunization resulted in high titers of cytotoxic antibody in the serum of treated mice and the suppression of metastatic tumor cells. The tumor-suppressive effects of the monoclonal antibodies were amplified by the administration of exogenous complement. This combined antibody and complement therapy resulted in the cure of leukemia in a significant proportion of the treated animals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bernstein, I D -- Tam, M R -- Nowinski, R C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 4;207(4426):68-71.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6965328" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Specificity ; Antigens, Surface ; Antilymphocyte Serum/*therapeutic use ; Cell Differentiation ; Clone Cells/immunology ; Cytotoxicity, Immunologic ; Immunotherapy ; Leukemia, Experimental/surgery/*therapy ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Neoplasm Metastasis ; T-Lymphocytes/*immunology
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-07-18
    Description: Anorexia can occur when a specific diet is associated with a developing illness. The studies reported here show that the decline in food intake which accompanies tumor growth is accompanied by the development of aversions to the specific diet consumed during tumor growth. An immediate elevation in food consumption occurred when a novel diet was introduced. Therefore, the development of learned aversions to the specific diet eaten during tumor growth may be a causal factor in the development of tumor anorexia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bernstein, I L -- Sigmundi, R A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 18;209(4454):416-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6930106" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anorexia/*etiology ; Feeding and Eating Disorders/*etiology ; Food Preferences ; Humans ; *Learning ; Male ; Rats ; Sarcoma, Experimental/complications/*physiopathology
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-09-12
    Description: Studies of the electrical properties of giant mitochondria and mitoplasts with microelectrodes have indicated that there are no significant metabolically dependent membrane potentials. The internal location of the microelectrode has been confirmed by electrophoretically microinjecting the water-soluble dye Lucifer yellow CH into giant mitochondria or mitoplasts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bowman, C -- Tedeschi, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 12;209(4462):1251-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403882" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Electrophoresis ; Fluorescent Dyes/*administration & dosage ; Membrane Potentials ; Mice ; Microelectrodes ; Mitochondria, Liver/*physiology/ultrastructure
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 1980-02-08
    Description: Several dysgenic traits may occur within the Drosophila melanogaster species as a result of crosses between different strains. Crossing two mutually interacting categories, named inducer and reactive, may lead, among other abnormalities, to a specific kind of female sterility that has proved useful for investigating the genetic factors involved in the interaction. The reactive state appears to result from a cytoplasmic state ultimately controlled by a chromosomal polygenic system. The inducer character is determined by a chromosomal factor that exhibits all characteristics of a transposable element. Overall, the data contribute to clarification of mutator activities in D. melanogaster and open new opportunities to investigate unusual genetic mechanisms.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bregliano, J C -- Picard, G -- Bucheton, A -- Pelisson, A -- Lavige, J M -- L'Heritier, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 8;207(4431):606-11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6766221" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging ; Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/genetics ; Animals, Wild/genetics ; Cytoplasm/physiology ; Drosophila melanogaster/*genetics ; Ecology ; Female ; Genes, Regulator ; Hot Temperature ; Hybridization, Genetic ; Infertility, Female/genetics ; Mutation ; Oocytes/physiology
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 1980-08-15
    Description: Scald injury to one ear of the hairless mouse induced significant (P 〈 .05) delayed edema formation in remote, uninjured skin. This remote edema formation was completely inhibited by immediate cold-water treatment of the scalded ear. Cold-water treatment significantly reduced histamine loss from the scalded ear, and the edema-inhibiting effect of the treatment could be mimicked by treating the animal prior to injury with the H2-histamine receptor antagonist cimetidine or a drug that causes histamine depletion. These observations suggest (i) that a histamine-mediated, delayed permeability response occurs after thermal injury that causes remote edema formation and (ii) that one mechanism of remote edema inhibition by cold-water treatment is the prevention of histamine release from thermally injured tissues.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boykin, J V Jr -- Eriksson, E -- Sholley, M M -- Pittman, R N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 15;209(4458):815-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6157189" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Burns/complications/physiopathology/*therapy ; Cell Membrane Permeability ; Cimetidine/*pharmacology ; *Cold Temperature ; Edema/etiology/physiopathology ; Guanidines/*pharmacology ; Histamine Release/*drug effects ; Indomethacin/pharmacology ; Male ; Mice ; Receptors, Histamine H2/physiology
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  • 14
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-05-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brownell, R L Jr -- Omura, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 30;208(4447):976.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7189604" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Humans ; Japan ; Meat/*analysis ; Organomercury Compounds/*analysis ; Whales
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 1980-03-07
    Description: Two important vectors of malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae), often occur sympatrically and cannot be distinguished morphologically. A chemical method was developed to identify individual laboratory-reared adult males or females of either species by extraction and analysis of cuticular components with gas chromatography. Statistically significant differences were seen between species when selected pairs of peaks were compared.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carlson, D A -- Service, M W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 7;207(4435):1089-91.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7355276" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anopheles/analysis/*classification ; Chromatography, Gas ; Female ; Lipids/analysis ; Male ; Paraffin/analysis ; Sex Factors ; Skin/analysis ; Species Specificity
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-11-07
    Description: Samples of minced mouse forebrain were treated in a way that resulted in a high ratio of false cholinergic transmitter (acetylhomocholine) to true transmitter (acetylcholine) in a synaptic vesicle fraction, and a low ratio of false to true transmitter in the nerve terminal cytoplasm. The spontaneous release of cholinergic transmitters from this minced tissue occurred independently of calcium and had a ratio of false to true transmitter similar to that of the cytoplasm, whereas the evoked transmitter release required calcium and had a ratio of false to true transmitter similar to that of the vesicular fraction.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Carroll, P T -- Aspry, J M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 7;210(4470):641-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7433989" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylcholine/analogs & derivatives/*metabolism ; Animals ; Brain/*metabolism ; Calcium/physiology ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Exocytosis/drug effects ; Lithium/pharmacology ; Magnesium/physiology ; Male ; Mice ; Potassium/pharmacology ; Synaptic Vesicles/metabolism
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 1980-02-22
    Description: Rates of tyrosine and lysine transport and incorporation into protein were measured in control and undernourished weanling rats. Undernutrition was induced by feeding lactating dams a low protein diet (12 percent casein) from birth to day 21. At weaning, body and brain weights of undernourished rats were 50 percent and 88 percent, respectively, of control values. Lysine and tyrosine transport rates into skeletal muscle were reduced by over 75 percent, more than twice the reduction seen in brain. Rates of amino acid incorporation into muscle protein were reduced by approximately 50 percent; the change in rate of incorporation into brain protein was not statistically significant. These data indicate that, in spite of marked retardation of amino acid transport into brain, the brain seems fully capable of maintaining normal rates of protein synthesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Freedman, L S -- Samuels, S -- Fish, I -- Schwartz, S A -- Lange, B -- Katz, M -- Morgano, L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 22;207(4433):902-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6766565" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/*metabolism ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn/metabolism ; Biological Transport ; Body Weight ; Brain/growth & development/*metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Female ; Lactation ; Male ; Muscles/*metabolism ; Pregnancy ; Protein-Energy Malnutrition/*metabolism ; Rats
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 1980-09-12
    Description: The hindlimb of the spinal frog produces a wiping reflex evoked by electrically or chemically stimulating distal skin of the forelimb. The reflex was released in frogs supported on a flat surface or suspended. It was found to have two stages. During the first, the frog fixed the hindlimb in an intermediate posture irrespective of forelimb position. In the second, the movement depended on forelimb position, which determined the final posture of the hindlimb. In this final posure, all joints except the hip joint were fully extended; the hip angle was correlated with forelimb position and varied on repeated wipings. When the stimulus was applied to the skin of the back, the pattern of final postures was the same, but the intermediate postures differed. The organization of the wiping reflex is discussed in light of the hypothesis that movement is evoked according to changes in the equilibrium (postural state) of the system.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fukson, O I -- Berkinblit, M B -- Feldman, A G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 12;209(4462):1261-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403886" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anura/*physiology ; Electric Stimulation ; *Movement ; Posture ; *Proprioception ; Reflex/*physiology ; Spinal Cord/*physiology
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 1980-01-11
    Description: A new N-methylpurine riboside (doridosine), probably N1-Methylisoguanosine, was isolated from the digestive glands of a nudibranch. Doridosine produces prolonged hypotension and bradycardia in anesthetized rats, decreases the rate and the amplitude of contraction of guinea pig atria in vitro, and causes the heart rate in anesthetized mice to be reduced by 50 percent for many hours after which the animals recover completely.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fuhrman, F A -- Fuhrman, G J -- Kim, Y H -- Pavelka, L A -- Mosher, H S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 11;207(4427):193-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7350655" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antihypertensive Agents/*isolation & purification ; Guanosine/*analogs & derivatives/isolation & purification/pharmacology ; Guinea Pigs ; Heart Rate/drug effects ; Mice ; Mollusca/analysis ; Rats
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 1980-04-04
    Description: Close correlations between the development of the anticonvulsant effects of diphenylhydantoin and increases in tritiated diazepam binding were observed in rats from fetal day 16 to maturation. In contrast, significant decreases in tritiated diazepam binding were observed in 2- and 3-week-old rats that were exposed in utero to diphenylhydantoin. These changes can be correlated with reported increases in seizure susceptibility after prenatal exposure to diphenylhydantoin.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gallager, D W -- Mallorga, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Apr 4;208(4439):64-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7361107" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Benzodiazepines/metabolism ; Cerebral Cortex/*metabolism ; Diazepam/*metabolism ; Female ; Fetus/metabolism ; *Maternal-Fetal Exchange ; Phenytoin/administration & dosage/*pharmacology ; Pregnancy ; Rats
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-10-01
    Description: Key elements in avian thermoregulation at high temperatures are panting and gular flutter. Although these mechanisms are important, they are not sufficient to maintain body temperature below high ambient temperatures in doves. In the Columbidae, evaporative cooling from an inflated esophagus, driven by heat from a vascular plexus, is also essential.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gaunt, S L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct;210(4468):445-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7433986" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Birds/anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Body Temperature ; *Body Temperature Regulation ; Esophagus/blood supply/physiology
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-11-14
    Description: Electromyograms recorded by bipolar, fine wire electrodes placed into anatomically equivalent sites in skeletal muscles of vertebrates are repeatable when the animals use the muscles in a similar way. Repeatability applies to the number of spikes recorded from a given site and to their average amplitude as well as to the root-mean-square value, though the values obtained for these descriptors differ among muscles, and perhaps fascicles, of particular animals even when the animals are performing equivalent actions. Tests suggest that these results are not affected by the nature of most kinds of recording equipment. Also, substantial differences in electrode tip configuration and wire diameter induce relatively minor, less than 8 percent, differences in electrode resistance and impedance. Doubling the length of the fine wire leads produces less than an 8 percent (15 percent when the length is tripled) effect; however, the effect of electrode material may be as much as 85 percent in resistance and 20 percent in impedance. Reports of nonreproducibility or variability of electromyograms apparently result mainly from anatomically inexact placement into physiologically and histochemically different fascicles of compound muscles, from recordings of muscles that are active at very low levels, and perhaps from comparison among recordings of muscles that really differ in their activity level.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gans, C -- Gorniak, G C -- DHEW-PHS-G 1R01DE052112-01/DE/NIDCR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 14;210(4471):795-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7433997" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Cats ; Electrodes ; Electromyography/instrumentation/*methods ; Mastication ; Temporal Muscle/physiology
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 1980-06-20
    Description: Batrachotoxin is present in remarkably high amounts in the skin of Phyllobates terribilis. Levels of batrachotoxin tend to be reduced when P. terribilis is maintained in captivity, but even after being confined for up to 6 years, these frogs were still at least five times more toxic than other Phyllobates species used by natives for poisoning blowgun darts. Batrachotoxin was not detectable in F1 progeny reared to maturity in captivity. Nerve and muscle preparations from wild-caught frogs and from the nontoxic F1 frogs were both insensitive to batrachotoxin. The regulatory site controlling sodium-channel activation and permeability appears to have been minimally altered to prevent interaction with batrachotoxin, but is still sensitive to other sodium conductance activators (veratridine, grayanotoxin) to which the frogs arenot exposed naturally.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Daly, J W -- Myers, C W -- Warnick, J E -- Albuquerque, E X -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jun 20;208(4450):1383-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6246586" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Anura/*physiology ; Batrachotoxins/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Diterpenes/*pharmacology ; Ion Channels/*drug effects ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Motor Endplate/drug effects ; Synaptic Transmission/drug effects ; Veratridine/*pharmacology ; Veratrine/*analogs & derivatives
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  • 24
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-10-10
    Description: Maternal pain thresholds in rats were determined during various stages of pregnancy and parturition by measuring the intensity of electric shock that elicited reflexive jumping. There was a gradual rise in the pain threshold between 16 and 4 days prior to parturition and a more abrupt rise 1 to 2 days before that event. This increase was abolished by long-term administration of the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. The endorphin system is thus an important component of intrinsic mechanisms that modulate responsiveness to aversive stimuli. The data also demonstrate the activation during pregnancy of an endorphin system that is apparently quiescent in nonpregnant female rats treated the same way.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gintzler, A R -- NIMH GRANT DA01771/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 10;210(4466):193-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7414330" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Endorphins/antagonists & inhibitors/*physiology ; Female ; Naltrexone/pharmacology ; Pain/*physiopathology ; Pregnancy ; *Pregnancy, Animal ; Rats ; Time Factors
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  • 25
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-15
    Description: Three species of hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, Lampornis clemenciae, and Eugenes fulgens) were trained to make visual discriminations between lights of different spectral content. On the basis of initial choices of feeders following a period of conditioning, birds of all three species were able to distinguish near ultraviolet (370 nanometers, 20-nanometer half bandwidth) from darkness (unilluminated viewing screen) or from the small amount of far red light that leaked through the ultraviolet-transmitting glass filter. A human observer was unable to make either discrimination. The birds were also able to distinguish white lights lacking wavelengths shorter than 400 nanometers from the full spectrum of the quartz-halogen bulbs. One can infer that the cone oil droplets, which have been lost from the retinas of most mammals, provide a potentially more flexible system for restricting the short wavelength end of the visible spectrum than does the filtering action of lens and macula that serves this function in the human eye.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goldsmith, T H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 15;207(4432):786-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352290" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Biological Evolution ; Birds/*physiology ; Filtration ; Oils ; Ultraviolet Rays ; Vision, Ocular/*physiology
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 1980-12-05
    Description: A new dopamine analog, 6,7-dihydroxy-2-dimethylaminotetralin (TL-99), was compared to apomorphine in three tests of dopaminergic function in the central nervous system. The tests, performed on rats, included production of changes in locomotor activity (involving both presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors), inhibition of dopa accumulation (quantifying presynaptic receptor activity), and the rotation model (quantifying postsynaptic receptor activation). Apomorphine was efficacious at both presynaptic and postsynaptic receptors, whereas TL-99 was much more efficacious at the presynaptic receptor. This result indicates not only that differences exist between presynaptic and postsynaptic dopamine receptors, but also that these differences may be exploited in the design of selective dopamine agonists.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Goodale, D P -- Rusterholz, D B -- Long, J P -- Flynn, J R -- Walsh, B -- Cannon, J G -- Lee, T -- GM 12675/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM-22365/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Dec 5;210(4474):1141-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7444443" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Apomorphine/pharmacology ; Behavior, Animal/drug effects ; Brain/*drug effects ; Levodopa/metabolism ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Naphthols ; Rats ; Receptors, Dopamine/*drug effects ; Synaptic Membranes/*drug effects ; *Tetrahydronaphthalenes
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1980-05-02
    Description: Phenobarbital administration to pregnant rats from day 12 to day 19 of gestation suppressed body weight gain and produced significant effects on reproductive function in their offspring. These effects included delays in the onset of puberty, disorders in the estrous cycle, and infertility. Moreover, the animals exposed to phenobarbital in utero showed altered concentrations of sex steroids, gonadotrophic hormones, and estrogen receptors. These findings suggest that phenobarbital treatment during prenatal development can produce permanent alterations in sexual maturation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gupta, C -- Sonawane, B R -- Yaffe, S J -- Shapiro, B H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 2;208(4443):508-10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7367874" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Estrus/drug effects ; Female ; Luteinizing Hormone/blood ; Maternal-Fetal Exchange ; Phenobarbital/*adverse effects ; Pregnancy ; Rats ; Receptors, Estrogen/drug effects ; Reproduction/*drug effects ; Sexual Maturation/drug effects
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 1980-06-27
    Description: Homologous sperm and ova of either squirrel monkeys or hamsters were placed in the oviducts of pseudopregnant rabbits. Xenogenous fertilization rates of 36 and 60 percent were obtained for squirrel monkey and hamster gametes, respectively.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉DeMayo, F J -- Mizoguchi, H -- Dukelow, W R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jun 27;208(4451):1468-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6770463" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cricetinae ; Female ; *Fertilization ; Haplorhini ; Oviducts/*physiology ; Ovum/*transplantation ; Saimiri ; Transplantation, Heterologous
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-05-16
    Description: Infant rat pups, fed through intragastric cannulas from postnatal day 4 through day 18, showed a 19 percent reduction in total brain weight when ethanol was included in their diet on days 4 through 7. This reduction in brain weight occurred even though body growth in the experimental rats was equal to that of their littermate controls. The ethanol-exposed animals were markedly hypoactive during the period of drug administration, then displayed gross body tremors for 3 to 5 days. Throughout the study, the animals treated with ethanol had poor motor coordination and were hyperresponsive. These brain and behavioral effects appear similar to those seen in fetal alcohol syndrome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Diaz, J -- Samson, H H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 16;208(4445):751-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7189297" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Animals ; Animals, Newborn ; Behavior, Animal/physiology ; Brain/anatomy & histology/drug effects/*growth & development ; Cerebellum/growth & development ; Disease Models, Animal ; Ethanol/*pharmacology ; Female ; Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders/*embryology ; Organ Size ; Pregnancy ; Rats
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  • 30
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-04-11
    Description: In cats anesthetized with chloralose-pentobarbital and artificially ventilated, electrical stimulation of the caudal end of the cut cervical vagus nerve has a biphasic effect on the bronchoconstriction induced by an intravenous infusion of serotonin. The response consists of a brief augmentation of bronchoconstriction followed by relatively prolonged bronchodilation. After muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine, vagal stimulation causes only bronchodilation. Vagally mediated bronchodilation is not affected by beta adrenergic blockade with propranolol, alpha adrenergic blockade with phenoxybenzamine, or adrenergic neuronal blockade with guanethidine, but is abolished by autonomic ganglionic blockade with hexamethonium. These findings support the conclusion that a nonadrenergic inhibitory nervous system is present in the pulmonary airways of the cat and that the system is supplied by preganglionic fibers in the cervical vagus nerves.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Diamond, L -- O'Donnell, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Apr 11;208(4440):185-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7361114" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Airway Resistance/drug effects ; Animals ; Cats/anatomy & histology/*physiology ; Electric Stimulation ; Female ; Guanethidine/pharmacology ; Hexamethonium Compounds/pharmacology ; Lung/*innervation ; Lung Compliance/drug effects ; Neural Pathways/physiology ; Parasympathetic Nervous System/physiology ; Phenoxybenzamine/pharmacology ; Propranolol/pharmacology ; Serotonin/pharmacology ; Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology ; Vagotomy
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 1980-11-07
    Description: The response to different environmental conditions and negative air ions was investigated on cerebral cortical serotonin and cyclic nucleotides. The results indicated that negative air ions alter the weight of the cerebral cortex and that concentrations of serotonin and cyclic nucleotides can be altered both by different environments and by negative air ions. The data stress the importance of the role of the environment when studying the structure and chemistry of the cerebral cortex.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Diamond, M C -- Connor, J R Jr -- Orenberg, E K -- Bissell, M -- Yost, M -- Krueger, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 7;210(4470):652-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6254145" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anions ; Atmosphere ; Brain/growth & development ; Cerebral Cortex/*metabolism ; Crowding ; Cyclic AMP/metabolism ; Cyclic GMP/metabolism ; *Environment ; Male ; Nucleotides, Cyclic/*metabolism ; Rats ; Serotonin/*metabolism
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-29
    Description: Pairs of hybridizable species of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila differ qualitatively in the distributions of specific enzymes in their tissues. An examination of the patterns of enzyme expression in the hybrids showed that, in three instances, absence of an enzyme from a specific tissue was dominant to presence. Since other developmental features indicated that both parental genomes were functioning, these results suggest that, in these cases, the pattern differences in the parental species were due to diffusible factors that affected expression of the relevant structural genes rather than to differences in the genes themselves or in cis-acting regulatory sites.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dickinson, W J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 29;207(4434):995-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352303" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adipose Tissue/enzymology ; Alcohol Oxidoreductases/genetics ; Aldehyde Oxidoreductases/genetics ; Animals ; Drosophila/embryology/*enzymology/genetics ; Genes ; *Genes, Regulator ; Hybridization, Genetic ; Malpighian Tubules/enzymology ; Octanols ; Tissue Distribution
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 1980-10-10
    Description: Photosynthesis of previtamin D3 can occur throughout the epidermis in the dermis when hypopigmented Caucasian skin is exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation. Once previtamin D3 is formed in the skin, it undergoes a temperature-dependent thermal isomerization that takes at least 3 days to complete. The vitamin D-binding protein preferentially translocates the thermal product, vitamin D3, into the circulation. These processes suggest a unique mechanism for the synthesis, storage, and slow, steady release of vitamin D3 from the skin into the circulation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holick, M F -- MacLaughlin, J A -- Clark, M B -- Holick, S A -- Potts, J T Jr -- Anderson, R R -- Blank, I H -- Parrish, J A -- Elias, P -- AM25395-01/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- AM27334-01/AM/NIADDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 10;210(4466):203-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6251551" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; Cholecalciferol/*biosynthesis ; Cholestadienols/*biosynthesis ; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation ; Hot Temperature ; Humans ; Isomerism ; Photochemistry ; Rats ; Skin/cytology/*metabolism ; Ultraviolet Rays ; Vitamin D/metabolism ; Vitamin D-Binding Protein
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-08
    Description: Sprouting of mouse soleus motor nerve terminals can be evoked by daily intramuscular injections of purified alpha-bungarotoxin. This finding supports the hypothesis that an important stimulus to terminal sprouting in partial denervation and presynaptic nerve blockade is a product of inactive muscle fibers.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holland, R L -- Brown, M C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 8;207(4431):649-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6243417" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Botulinum Toxins/pharmacology ; Bungarotoxins/*pharmacology ; Female ; Mice ; Motor Endplate/drug effects ; Motor Neurons/*growth & development ; Muscles/innervation ; Neuromuscular Junction/*physiology ; Receptors, Cholinergic/drug effects ; Synaptic Transmission/*drug effects
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 1980-01-11
    Description: Stereoisomers of the barbiturate anesthetic pentobarbital were applied to mouse spinal neurons growing in tissue culture. Intracellular recordings of neuronal membrane properties revealed that the (+) and (-) isomers caused direct changes in membrane potential and conductance on some but not all of the cells tested. The action of the (+) isomer was predominantly excitatory, whereas the (-) isomer produced predominantly inhibitory responses. The (-) isomer was considerably more effective in potentiating inhibitory responses to the transmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid. The results show that pentobarbital has multiple effects on neuronal excitability and demonstrate the presence of stereospecific sites of barbiturate action on central neurons.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Huang, L Y -- Barker, J L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 11;207(4427):195-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7350656" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials/drug effects ; Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Electric Conductivity ; Membrane Potentials/drug effects ; Mice ; Neural Inhibition/drug effects ; Neurons/*drug effects ; Pentobarbital/*pharmacology ; Spinal Cord/embryology ; Stereoisomerism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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  • 36
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-03-07
    Description: Antiserum specific for purified canine renal renin was used to inhibit this enzyme in trained, conscious dogs. The antiserum did not affect blood pressure in sodium-replete dogs but decreased plasma renin activity and blood pressure in sodium-depleted animals. The antiserum also reduced blood pressure to control levels concomitant with suppression of plasma renin activity in uninephrectomized dogs with acute renovascular hypertension. These observations establish the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of blood pressure in the sodium-depleted state as well as in the initiation of renovascular hypertension.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dzau, V J -- Kopelman, R I -- Barger, A C -- Haber, E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 7;207(4435):1091-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6986653" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Specificity ; Antigen-Antibody Reactions ; *Blood Pressure ; Diet, Sodium-Restricted ; Dogs ; Homeostasis ; Hypertension, Renal/*enzymology ; Hypertension, Renovascular/*enzymology ; Immunologic Techniques ; Kidney/blood supply ; Renin/antagonists & inhibitors/blood/*immunology ; Vascular Resistance
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hunkapiller, M W -- Hood, L E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 1;207(4430):523-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352258" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Humans ; Mice ; *Proteins/genetics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 1980-09-12
    Description: Application of arachidonic acid or prostaglandin G(2) to the brain surface of anesthetized cats induced cerebral arteriolar damage. Scavengers of free oxygen radicals inhibited this damage. Prostaglandin H(2), prostaglandin E(2), and 11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid did not produce arteriolar damage. It appears that increased prostaglandin synthesis produces cerebral vascular damage by generating free oxygen radicals.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kontos, H A -- Wei, E P -- Povlishock, J T -- Dietrich, W D -- Magiera, C J -- Ellis, E F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 12;209(4462):1242-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403881" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Arachidonic Acids/*pharmacology ; Arterioles/drug effects/pathology ; Cats ; Cerebral Arteries/*drug effects/pathology ; Endothelium/drug effects/pathology ; Hypertension/*pathology ; Prostaglandin Endoperoxides/*pharmacology ; Prostaglandins E/pharmacology ; Prostaglandins G/*pharmacology ; Prostaglandins H/pharmacology ; Vasodilation/drug effects
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-29
    Description: Intraocular grafts of chick epithelium combined with mouse molar mesenchyme produced a variety of dental structures including perfectly formed crowns with differentiated ameloblasts depositing enamel matrix. The results suggest that the loss of teeth in Aves did not result from a loss of genetic coding for enamel synthesis in the oral epithelium but from an alteration in the tissue interactions requisite for odontogenesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kollar, E J -- Fisher, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 29;207(4434):993-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352302" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *Amelogenesis ; Animals ; Chick Embryo/*cytology ; Culture Techniques ; Dental Enamel Proteins/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Embryonic Induction ; Epithelial Cells ; Genes ; Mandible/cytology ; Mesoderm/cytology ; Mice ; *Odontogenesis
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-10-17
    Description: In the report by John C. Behrendt et al. "Aeromagnetic and radio echo ice-sounding measurements show much greater area of the Dufek Intrusion, Antarctica" (29 Aug., p. 1014), the word "expedition" should have read "exploitation" in line 13 of the first paragraph on page 1014. Also, in line 2 of the next to last paragraph on page 1016, "50 to 60 cm/sec(2)" should have read "50 to 60 (cm sec(2)) x 10(-3)."〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koprowski, H -- Croce, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 17;210(4467):248.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7423184" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Antibodies ; Antibodies, Viral ; Cell Line ; *Clone Cells ; Mice ; *Patents as Topic ; Plasmacytoma/immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-07-11
    Description: The survival of isolated rat islets transplanted into diabetic mice was prolonged markedly by maintaining the rat islets in vitro at 24 degrees C for 7 days before transplantation and administering to the recipients a single injection of antiserum to mouse and rat lymphocytes shortly before transplantation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lacy, P E -- Davie, J M -- Finke, E H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 11;209(4453):283-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6770465" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood Glucose/analysis ; Cell Survival ; Cells, Cultured ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/*therapy ; *Immunosuppression ; *Islets of Langerhans Transplantation ; Lymphocytes/immunology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred BALB C ; Rats ; Transplantation, Heterologous ; Transplantation, Isogeneic
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 1980-11-21
    Description: Exposure of pregnant rats to the anesthetic nitrous oxide on the ninth day of gestation causes fetal resorption, skeletal anomalies, and macroscopic lesions including encephalocele, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, and gastroschisis. The inert gas xenon, which has anesthetic properties similar to those of nitrous oxide, does not cause teratogenic effects under the same experimental conditions.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lane, G A -- Nahrwold, M L -- Tait, A R -- Taylor-Busch, M -- Cohen, P J -- Beaudoin, A R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Nov 21;210(4472):899-901.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7434002" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Anesthetics/*adverse effects ; Animals ; Female ; Nitrous Oxide/*toxicity ; Pregnancy ; Rats ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; *Teratogens ; Xenon/*toxicity
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 43
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    Unknown
    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-04-04
    Description: Mice implanted with morphine pellets demonstrated a 30-fold increase in tolerance to subcutaneously administered morphine but showed no cross-tolerance to subcutaneously administered heroin. When given morphine intracerebroventricularly, the mice showed no tolerance to morphine or cross-tolerance to heroin. These observations depended on the presence of the morphine pellet. If the pellets were removed prior to determinations of potency, the expected responses--tolerance to morphine and cross-tolerance to heroin--were obtained. The blood-brain barrier may be a prime site for the expression of morphine tolerance in mice.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lange, D G -- Roerig, S C -- Fujimoto, J M -- Wang, R I -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Apr 4;208(4439):72-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7361110" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Blood-Brain Barrier/drug effects ; Drug Interactions ; Drug Tolerance ; Heroin/administration & dosage/*pharmacology ; Mice ; Morphine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 1980-12-05
    Description: Inhibition of the binding of [3H]imipramine and inhibition of the uptake of [3H]serotonin and [3H]norepinephrine by a series of antidepressants and other drugs were studied in the rat hypothalamus. No correlation was found between the potencies of these drugs for the inhibition of [3H]imipramine binding and the inhibition of [3H]norepinephrine uptake. There was, however, a highly significant correlation between the potencies of these drugs for the inhibition of [3H]serotonin uptake. These results suggest that high-affinity [3H]imipramine binding might be associated with the mechanism of serotonin uptake in the brain.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Langer, S Z -- Moret, C -- Raisman, R -- Dubocovich, M L -- Briley, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Dec 5;210(4474):1133-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7444441" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology ; Biological Transport/drug effects ; *Carrier Proteins ; Hypothalamus/*metabolism ; Imipramine/*metabolism ; Norepinephrine/*metabolism ; Rats ; Receptors, Drug/*metabolism ; Serotonin/*metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 1980-07-18
    Description: Survival in the mouse and human intestine of Escherichia coli host-vector systems used and proposed for recombinant DNA technology was assessed. There was no detectable survival of severely disabled E. coli K12 strain X1776 in mice or in human subjects 24 hours after ingestion. The same strain bearing the plasmid pBR322, however, was recovered from human subjects for 4 days in amounts of six organisms for every million ingested. Nondisabled E. coli K12 strain X1666, with or without pBR322, survived in 10(4)-fold greater numbers and for 2 days longer, with better recovery of the plasmid-containing derivative. Although the plasmid-bearing strains were recovered for longer periods, no intestinal colonization was noted. Despite the presence of pBR322 for a maximum of 6 days in the human intestine, there was no evidence that it was transferred from either bacterial host to endogenous aerobic fecal bacteria.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Levy, S B -- Marshall, B -- Rowse-Eagle, D -- Onderdonk, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 18;209(4454):391-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6992276" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; DNA, Recombinant/metabolism ; Escherichia coli/*physiology ; Humans ; Intestines/*microbiology ; Mice ; Plasmids ; Species Specificity
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 1980-07-11
    Description: Both hybrids of mouse and human microcells and whole cell hybrids generated by the fusion of primary mouse cells and SV40-transformed human fibroblasts were used to establish the syntenic association of the murine cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and the interferon sensitivity genes on mouse chromosome 16. This assignment adds two new markers to chromosome 16 and provides another example of an evolutionarily conserved linkage. This finding also provides an animal model both for cellular responsiveness to interferon and for Down's syndrome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, P F -- Slate, D L -- Lawyer, F C -- Ruddle, F H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 11;209(4453):285-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6155698" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cell Transformation, Viral ; *Chromosomes, Human, 16-18 ; *Genes ; Humans ; Hybrid Cells/drug effects/*physiology ; Interferons/*pharmacology ; Karyotyping ; Mice ; Simian virus 40 ; Superoxide Dismutase/*genetics
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 1980-10-31
    Description: Treatment of pregnant rats with reserpine prevented the normal disappearance of catecholamine fluorescence in presumptive neuroblasts of the embryonic gut. These cells normally express the noradrenergic phenotype transiently during embryonic development. The effect of reserpine was reproduced by treating mothers with hydrocortisone acetate. Moreover, the reserpine effect was blocked by treatment with dexamethasone, which inhibits the stress-induced increase in plasma glucocorticoids, and by mitotone, which causes adrenocortical cytolysis. It is concluded that reserpine, through the mediation of maternal glucocorticoid hormones, alters the phenotypic expression of these embryonic neuroblasts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jonakait, G M -- Bohn, M C -- Black, I B -- HD 12108/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- NS 06400/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS 10259/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 31;210(4469):551-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7423206" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Catecholamines/metabolism ; Female ; Hydrocortisone/*pharmacology ; Intestines/*embryology/innervation ; Maternal-Fetal Exchange ; Pregnancy ; Pregnancy, Animal/*drug effects ; Rats ; Reserpine/*pharmacology ; Sympathetic Nervous System/*embryology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 1980-06-27
    Description: A protein that may be an enkephalin precursor has been identified in extracts of bovine adrenal medulla. This protein (about 50,000 daltons) appears to contain seven copies of [Met]enkephalin and one copy of [Leu]enkephalin. Digestion with trypsin and carboxypeptidase B yields [Met]enkephalin and [Leu]enkephalin in a ratio of almost 7 to 1. The enkephalins were identified by chromatography and by their binding to opiate receptors. Some characteristics of several other adrenal peptides that may serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of the enkephalins are presented.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lewis, R V -- Stern, A S -- Kimura, S -- Rossier, J -- Stein, S -- Udenfriend, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jun 27;208(4451):1459-61.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7384787" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenal Medulla/*analysis ; Animals ; Cattle ; Chromaffin Granules/*analysis ; Chromaffin System/*analysis ; Endorphins/*biosynthesis ; Enkephalin, Leucine ; Enkephalin, Methionine ; Enkephalins/*biosynthesis ; Molecular Weight ; Oligopeptides/analysis ; Peptide Fragments/analysis ; Protein Precursors/*analysis ; Proteins/*analysis ; Trypsin
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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