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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Cellular slime molds ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Maximum-likelihood method ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phylogenetic position of Dictyostelium inferred from 18S rRNA data contradicts that from protein data. Protein trees always show the close affinity of Dictyostelium with animals, fungi, and plants, whereas in 18S rRNA trees the branching of Dictyostelium is placed at a position before the massive radiation of protist groups including the divergence of the three kingdoms. To settle this controversial issue and to determine the correct position of Dictyostelium, we inferred the phylogenetic relationship among Dictyostelium and the three kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae by a maximum-likelihood method using 19 different protein data sets. It was shown at the significance level of 1 SE that the branching of Dictyostelium antedates the divergence of Animalia and Fungi, and Plantae is an outgroup of the Animalia-Fungi-Dictyostelium clade.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 42 (1996), S. 183-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Small-subunit ribosomal RNA ; Phylogeny ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plants ; Alveolates ; Heterokonts ; Stramenopiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The evolutionary relationships of four eukaryotic kingdoms—Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista—remain unclear. In particular, statistical support for the closeness of animals to fungi rather than to plants is lacking, and a preferred branching order of these and other eukaryotic lineages is still controversial even though molecular sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa have been analyzed. We report a statistical analysis of 214 sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene undertaken to clarify these evolutionary relationships. We have considered the variability of substitution rates and the nonindependence of nucleotide substitution across sites in the srRNA gene in testing alternative hypotheses regarding the branching patterns of eukaryote phylogeny. We find that the rates of evolution among sites in the srRNA sequences vary substantially and are approximately gamma distributed with size and shape parameter equal to 0.76. Our results suggest that (1) the animals and true fungi are indeed closer to each other than to any other “crown” group in the eukaryote tree, (2) red algae are the closest relatives of animals, true fungi, and green plants, and (3) the heterokonts and alveolates probably evolved prior to the divergence of red algae and animal-fungus-green-plant lineages. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that the branching order of the eukaryotic lineages that diverged prior to the evolution of alveolates may be generally difficult to resolve with the srRNA sequence data.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-322X
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; consciousness ; Australia ; Hong Kong ; India ; Israel ; Japan ; New Zealand ; The Philippines ; Russia ; Singapore ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract The interactions between humans, animals and the environment have shaped human values and ethics, not only the genes that we are made of. The animal rights movement challenges human beings to reconsider interactions between humans and other animals, and maybe connected to the environmental movement that begs us to recognize the fact that there are symbiotic relationships between humans and all other organisms. The first part of this paper looks at types of bioethics, the implications of autonomy and the value of being alive. Then the level of consciousness of these relationships are explored in survey results from Asia and the Pacific, especially in the 1993 International Bioethics Survey conducted in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, The Philippines, Russia, Singapore and Thailand. Very few mentioned animal consciousness in the survey, but there were more biocentric comments in Australia and Japan; and more comments with the idea of harmony including humans in Thailand. Comparisons between questions and surveys will also be made, in an attempt to describe what people imagine animal consciousness to be, and whether this relates to human ethics of the relationships.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Machine vision and applications 8 (1995), S. 187-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1769
    Keywords: Tracking ; Segmentation ; Pigs ; Animals ; Computer vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An algorithm was developed for the segmentation and tracking of piglets and tested on a 200-image sequence of 10 piglets moving on a straw background. The image-capture rate was 1 image/140 ms. The segmentation method was a combination of image differencing with respect to a median background and a Laplacian operator. The features tracked were blob edges in the segmented image. During tracking, the piglets were modelled as ellipses initialised on the blobs. Each piglet was tracked by searching for blob edges in an elliptical window about the piglet's position, which was predicted from its previous two positions.
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  • 5
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-03-31
    Description: Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces both differentiation and survival of neurons by binding to the Trk receptor protein tyrosine kinase. Although Ras is required for differentiation, it was not required for NGF-mediated survival of rat pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells in serum-free medium. However, the ability of NGF to prevent apoptosis (programmed cell death) was inhibited by wortmannin or LY294002, two specific inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol (Pl)-3 kinase. Moreover, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) prevented apoptosis of PC-12 cells expressing the wild-type PDGF receptor, but not of cells expressing a mutant receptor that failed to activate Pl-3 kinase. Cell survival thus appears to be mediated by a Pl-3 kinase signaling pathway distinct from the pathway that mediates differentiation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yao, R -- Cooper, G M -- R01 CA 18689/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Mar 31;267(5206):2003-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Molecular Genetics, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7701324" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androstadienes/pharmacology ; Animals ; Apoptosis/*drug effects ; Cell Differentiation ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Enzyme Activation ; Nerve Growth Factors/*pharmacology ; PC12 Cells ; Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases ; Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor)/*metabolism ; Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/pharmacology ; Rats ; Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; ras Proteins/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1995-11-03
    Description: A heptadecapeptide was identified and purified from porcine brain tissue as a ligand for an orphan heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (LC132) that is similar in sequence to opioid receptors. This peptide, orphanin FQ, has a primary structure reminiscent of that of opioid peptides. Nanomolar concentrations of orphanin FQ inhibited forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in cells transfected with LC132. This inhibitory activity was not affected by the addition of opioid ligands, nor did the peptide activate opioid receptors. Orphanin FQ bound to its receptor in a saturable manner and with high affinity. When injected intracerebroventricularly into mice, orphanin FQ caused a decrease in locomotor activity but did not induce analgesia in the hot-plate test. However, the peptide produced hyperalgesia in the tail-flick assay. Thus, orphanin FQ may act as a transmitter in the brain by modulating nociceptive and locomotor behavior.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Reinscheid, R K -- Nothacker, H P -- Bourson, A -- Ardati, A -- Henningsen, R A -- Bunzow, J R -- Grandy, D K -- Langen, H -- Monsma, F J Jr -- Civelli, O -- DA 08562/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DA 09620/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 3;270(5237):792-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Pharma Division, Hoffmann-La Roche AG, Basel, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7481766" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Analgesics/pharmacology ; Animals ; CHO Cells ; Colforsin/pharmacology ; Cricetinae ; GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Hypothalamus/chemistry ; Injections, Intraventricular ; Injections, Spinal ; Ligands ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Motor Activity/drug effects ; Opioid Peptides/chemistry/*isolation & purification/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Pain Measurement ; Receptors, Neuropeptide/*metabolism ; Receptors, Opioid/*metabolism ; Swine ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1995-07-28
    Description: The recent positional cloning of the mouse ob gene and its human homology has provided the basis to investigate the potential role of the ob gene product in body weight regulation. A biologically active form of recombinant mouse OB protein was overexpressed and purified to near homogeneity from a bacterial expression system. Peripheral and central administration of microgram doses of OB protein reduced food intake and body weight of ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice but not in db/db obese mice. The behavioral effects after brain administration suggest that OB protein can act directly on neuronal networks that control feeding and energy balance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Campfield, L A -- Smith, F J -- Guisez, Y -- Devos, R -- Burn, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Jul 28;269(5223):546-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Metabolic Diseases, Hoffmann-La Roche Incorporated, Nutley, NJ 07110, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7624778" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Brain/drug effects/*physiology ; Diabetes Mellitus/genetics/physiopathology ; Diet ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Eating/*drug effects ; Female ; Injections, Intraperitoneal ; Injections, Intravenous ; Injections, Intraventricular ; Leptin ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred AKR ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Obese ; Nerve Net/drug effects/*physiology ; Obesity/genetics/*physiopathology ; Proteins/administration & dosage/*pharmacology/physiology ; Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage/pharmacology ; Weight Loss/*drug effects
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1995-04-28
    Description: Three archaeological sites at Katanda on the Upper Semliki River in the Western Rift Valley of Zaire have provided evidence for a well-developed bone industry in a Middle Stone Age context. Artifacts include both barbed and unbarbed points as well as a daggerlike object. Dating by both direct and indirect means indicate an age of approximately 90,000 years or older. Together with abundant fish (primarily catfish) remains, the bone technology indicates that a complex subsistence specialization had developed in Africa by this time. The level of behavioral competence required is consistent with that of upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens. These data support an African origin of behaviorally as well as biologically modern humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yellen, J E -- Brooks, A S -- Cornelissen, E -- Mehlman, M J -- Stewart, K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Apr 28;268(5210):553-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Archaeology Program, National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7725100" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Archaeology ; *Behavior ; Democratic Republic of the Congo ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae ; Humans
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-05-19
    Description: The control of calcium release from intracellular stores (the sarcoplasmic reticulum) in cardiac muscle was examined with the use of a confocal microscope and voltage clamp techniques. Depolarization evoked graded calcium release by altering the extent of spatial and temporal summation of elementary calcium release events called "calcium sparks." These evoked sparks were triggered by local L-type calcium channel currents in a stochastic manner, were similar at different potentials, and resembled spontaneous calcium sparks. Once triggered, the calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during a calcium spark was independent of the duration of the triggering calcium influx. These results were used to develop a unifying model for cardiac excitation-contraction coupling that explains the large (but paradoxically stable) amplification of the trigger calcium influx by a combination of digital and analog behavior.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cannell, M B -- Cheng, H -- Lederer, W J -- HL25675/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL36974/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 19;268(5213):1045-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, St. George's Hospital Medical School, London, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7754384" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcium/*metabolism ; Calcium Channels/*physiology ; In Vitro Techniques ; Ion Channel Gating/physiology ; Membrane Potentials/physiology ; Microscopy, Confocal ; Muscle Proteins/physiology ; Myocardium/*metabolism ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Probability ; Rats ; Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel ; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1995-05-05
    Description: Lactacystin is a Streptomyces metabolite that inhibits cell cycle progression and induces neurite outgrowth in a murine neuroblastoma cell line. Tritium-labeled lactacystin was used to identify the 20S proteasome as its specific cellular target. Three distinct peptidase activities of this enzyme complex (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like, and peptidylglutamyl-peptide hydrolyzing activities) were inhibited by lactacystin, the first two irreversibly and all at different rates. None of five other proteases were inhibited, and the ability of lactacystin analogs to inhibit cell cycle progression and induce neurite outgrowth correlated with their ability to inhibit the proteasome. Lactacystin appears to modify covalently the highly conserved amino-terminal threonine of the mammalian proteasome subunit X (also called MB1), a close homolog of the LMP7 proteasome subunit encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. This threonine residue may therefore have a catalytic role, and subunit X/MB1 may be a core component of an amino-terminal-threonine protease activity of the proteasome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fenteany, G -- Standaert, R F -- Lane, W S -- Choi, S -- Corey, E J -- Schreiber, S L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 5;268(5211):726-31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Chemistry, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7732382" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylcysteine/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Carrier Proteins/metabolism ; Cattle ; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid ; Cysteine Endopeptidases/*drug effects/metabolism ; Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/*pharmacology ; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Multienzyme Complexes/*drug effects/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism ; Neurons/*drug effects ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex ; Threonine/*drug effects ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-04-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alexander, R M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Apr 7;268(5207):50-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pure and Applied Biology, University of Leeds, England.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7701341" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Drosophila/physiology ; Elasticity ; Flight, Animal/*physiology ; Insects/*physiology ; Models, Biological ; Wings, Animal/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-11-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ferster, D -- Spruston, N -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 3;270(5237):756-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology and Physiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7481761" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Animals ; Auditory Cortex/cytology/physiology ; Brain/cytology/*physiology ; Electric Conductivity ; Hippocampus/cytology/physiology ; Kinetics ; *Models, Neurological ; Nerve Net/*physiology ; Neurons/*physiology ; Neurons, Afferent/physiology ; *Synaptic Transmission ; Visual Cortex/cytology/physiology
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 1995-03-31
    Description: Members of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines bind to and activate receptors that contain a common subunit, gp130. This leads to the activation of Stat3 and Stat1, two cytoplasmic signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs), by tyrosine phosphorylation. Serine phosphorylation of Stat3 was constitutive and was enhanced by signaling through gp130. In cells of lymphoid and neuronal origins, inhibition of serine phosphorylation prevented the formation of complexes of DNA with Stat3-Stat3 but not with Stat3-Stat1 or Stat1-Stat1 dimers. In vitro serine dephosphorylation of Stat3 also inhibited DNA binding of Stat3-Stat3. The requirement of serine phosphorylation for Stat3-Stat3.DNA complex formation was inversely correlated with the affinity of Stat3-Stat3 for the binding site. Thus, serine phosphorylation appears to enhance or to be required for the formation of stable Stat3-Stat3.DNA complexes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, X -- Blenis, J -- Li, H C -- Schindler, C -- Chen-Kiang, S -- CA46595/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- HL 21006/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Mar 31;267(5206):1990-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Brookdale Center for Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7701321" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; DNA/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Humans ; Interleukin-6/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Isoquinolines/pharmacology ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/pharmacology ; Phosphorylation ; Piperazines/pharmacology ; *Promoter Regions, Genetic ; STAT1 Transcription Factor ; STAT3 Transcription Factor ; Serine/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Threonine/metabolism ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism ; Tumor Cells, Cultured ; Tyrosine/metabolism
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 1995-09-15
    Description: The protein tyrosine kinase c-Src is transiently activated at the transition from the G2 phase to mitosis in the cell cycle of mammalian fibroblasts. Fyn and Yes, the other members of the Src family present in fibroblasts, were also found to be activated at mitosis. In cells microinjected with a neutralizing antibody specific for Src, Fyn, and Yes (anti-cst.1) during G2, cell division was inhibited by 75 percent. The block occurred before nuclear envelope breakdown. Antibodies specific for phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase alpha and phospholipase C-gamma 1 had no effect. Microinjection of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Fyn was also inhibitory. Functional redundancy between members of the Src family was observed; a Src-specific antibody had no effect in NIH 3T3 cells but inhibited cell division in fibroblasts in which the only functional Src family kinase was Src itself. Thus, Src family kinases and proteins associating with their SH2 domains are required for entry into mitosis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roche, S -- Fumagalli, S -- Courtneidge, S A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Sep 15;269(5230):1567-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) faculte de Pharmacie, Montpellier, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7545311" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antibodies, Monoclonal ; Enzyme Activation ; *G2 Phase ; Isoenzymes/immunology/metabolism ; Mice ; Microinjections ; *Mitosis ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nocodazole/pharmacology ; Phospholipase C gamma ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/immunology/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/immunology/*metabolism ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fyn ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-yes ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins pp60(c-src)/immunology/metabolism ; Type C Phospholipases/immunology/metabolism ; *src-Family Kinases
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 1995-11-17
    Description: Strategies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection must contend with the obstacle of drug resistance. HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein zinc fingers are prime antiviral targets because they are mutationally intolerant and are required both for acute infection and virion assembly. Nontoxic disulfide-substituted benzamides were identified that attack the zinc fingers, inactivate cell-free virions, inhibit acute and chronic infections, and exhibit broad antiretroviral activity. The compounds were highly synergistic with other antiviral agents, and resistant mutants have not been detected. Zinc finger-reactive compounds may offer an anti-HIV strategy that restricts drug-resistance development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rice, W G -- Supko, J G -- Malspeis, L -- Buckheit, R W Jr -- Clanton, D -- Bu, M -- Graham, L -- Schaeffer, C A -- Turpin, J A -- Domagala, J -- Gogliotti, R -- Bader, J P -- Halliday, S M -- Coren, L -- Sowder, R C 2nd -- Arthur, L O -- Henderson, L E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 17;270(5239):1194-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Laboratory of Antiviral Drug Mechanisms, PRI/DynCorp., National Cancer Institute-Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center, MD 21702, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7502043" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Antiviral Agents/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; Benzamides/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; Biological Availability ; Capsid/chemistry/*metabolism ; *Capsid Proteins ; Cell Line ; Disulfides/chemistry/pharmacokinetics/*pharmacology ; Drug Resistance, Microbial ; Drug Synergism ; Gene Products, gag/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry ; HIV-1/*drug effects/physiology ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Viral Proteins ; Zinc Fingers/*drug effects ; gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-02-03
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chardin, S -- Romand, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Feb 3;267(5198):707-11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7839151" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Survival/drug effects ; Cilia/ultrastructure ; Culture Media ; Hair Cells, Auditory, Inner/drug effects/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Hair Cells, Auditory, Outer/drug effects/*physiology/ultrastructure ; Neomycin/pharmacology ; Organ Culture Techniques ; Organ of Corti/drug effects/physiology/ultrastructure ; Rats ; Rats, Sprague-Dawley ; Regeneration/*drug effects ; Tretinoin/*pharmacology
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  • 17
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-05-12
    Description: Mutations in genes required for associative learning and memory in Drosophila exist, but isolation of the genes has been difficult because most are defined by a single, chemically induced allele. Here, a simplified genetic screen was used to identify candidate genes involved in learning and memory. Second site suppressors of the dunce (dnc) female sterility phenotype were isolated with the use of transposon mutagenesis. One suppressor mutation that was recovered mapped in the amnesiac (amn) gene. Cloning of the locus revealed that amn encodes a previously uncharacterized neuropeptide gene. Thus, with the cloning of amn, specific neuropeptides are implicated in the memory process.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feany, M B -- Quinn, W G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 12;268(5212):869-73.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7754370" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cloning, Molecular ; Codon ; DNA Transposable Elements ; DNA, Complementary/genetics ; Drosophila/*genetics/physiology ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Female ; *Genes, Insect ; Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone/chemistry/genetics ; Male ; Memory/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Mutation ; Neuropeptides/chemistry/*genetics ; Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide ; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid ; Suppression, Genetic
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 1995-05-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zischler, H -- Hoss, M -- Handt, O -- von Haeseler, A -- van der Kuyl, A C -- Goudsmit, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 26;268(5214):1192-3; author reply 1194.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7605504" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cytochrome b Group/*genetics ; DNA, Mitochondrial/*genetics ; *Fossils ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-11-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morell, V -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 24;270(5240):1302-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7481816" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animal Identification Systems ; Animals ; Animals, Wild ; *Carnivora ; Handling (Psychology) ; Rabies/etiology/*veterinary ; Stress, Physiological/complications/*veterinary ; Tanzania
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  • 20
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-02-03
    Description: Neurotrophic factors participate in the development and maintenance of the nervous system. Application of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a protein that promotes survival of motor neurons, resulted in an immediate potentiation of spontaneous and impulse-evoked transmitter release at developing neuromuscular synapses in Xenopus cell cultures. When CNTF was applied at the synapse, the onset of the potentiation was slower than that produced by application at the cell body of the presynaptic neuron. The potentiation effect was abolished when the neurite shaft was severed from the cell body. Thus, transmitter secretion from the nerve terminals is under immediate somatic control and can be regulated by CNTF.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stoop, R -- Poo, M M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Feb 3;267(5198):695-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7839148" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylcholine/*metabolism ; Action Potentials/drug effects ; Animals ; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor ; Cycloheximide/pharmacology ; Dactinomycin/pharmacology ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Neurites/physiology ; Neuromuscular Junction/drug effects/*metabolism ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Receptor, Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor ; Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism ; *Signal Transduction ; Synapses/drug effects/*metabolism ; Synaptic Transmission ; Xenopus
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 1995-11-17
    Description: The crystal structure of the aldehyde oxido-reductase (Mop) from the sulfate reducing anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas has been determined at 2.25 A resolution by multiple isomorphous replacement and refined. The protein, a homodimer of 907 amino acid residues subunits, is a member of the xanthine oxidase family. The protein contains a molybdopterin cofactor (Mo-co) and two different [2Fe-2S] centers. It is folded into four domains of which the first two bind the iron sulfur centers and the last two are involved in Mo-co binding. Mo-co is a molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide. Molybdopterin forms a tricyclic system with the pterin bicycle annealed to a pyran ring. The molybdopterin dinucleotide is deeply buried in the protein. The cis-dithiolene group of the pyran ring binds the molybdenum, which is coordinated by three more (oxygen) ligands.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Romao, M J -- Archer, M -- Moura, I -- Moura, J J -- LeGall, J -- Engh, R -- Schneider, M -- Hof, P -- Huber, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 17;270(5239):1170-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Oeiras, Portugal.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7502041" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aldehyde Oxidoreductases/*chemistry/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Coenzymes/chemistry/metabolism ; Crystallization ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cytosine Nucleotides/chemistry/metabolism ; Desulfovibrio/*enzymology ; Drosophila melanogaster/enzymology ; Electron Transport ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Iron/chemistry ; Ligands ; Metalloproteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molybdenum/chemistry/metabolism ; Oxidation-Reduction ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Pteridines/chemistry/metabolism ; Pterins/chemistry/metabolism ; Xanthine ; Xanthine Oxidase/*chemistry ; Xanthines/metabolism
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-11-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Roush, W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 10;270(5238):916-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7481789" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; *Cell Differentiation ; Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 ; Cyclins/genetics/physiology ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology ; Eye/cytology ; Humans ; *Mitosis ; Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate/*cytology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-05-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morell, V -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 19;268(5213):974-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7754392" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Ape Diseases/epidemiology/transmission/*virology ; Cote d'Ivoire/epidemiology ; Disease Outbreaks/*veterinary ; Disease Reservoirs ; *Ebolavirus ; Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral/epidemiology/transmission/*veterinary ; Humans ; Pan troglodytes/*virology ; Seasons ; Zoonoses
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1995-12-22
    Description: A physical map has been constructed of the human genome containing 15,086 sequence-tagged sites (STSs), with an average spacing of 199 kilobases. The project involved assembly of a radiation hybrid map of the human genome containing 6193 loci and incorporated a genetic linkage map of the human genome containing 5264 loci. This information was combined with the results of STS-content screening of 10,850 loci against a yeast artificial chromosome library to produce an integrated map, anchored by the radiation hybrid and genetic maps. The map provides radiation hybrid coverage of 99 percent and physical coverage of 94 percent of the human genome. The map also represents an early step in an international project to generate a transcript map of the human genome, with more than 3235 expressed sequences localized. The STSs in the map provide a scaffold for initiating large-scale sequencing of the human genome.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hudson, T J -- Stein, L D -- Gerety, S S -- Ma, J -- Castle, A B -- Silva, J -- Slonim, D K -- Baptista, R -- Kruglyak, L -- Xu, S H -- Hu, X -- Colbert, A M -- Rosenberg, C -- Reeve-Daly, M P -- Rozen, S -- Hui, L -- Wu, X -- Vestergaard, C -- Wilson, K M -- Bae, J S -- Maitra, S -- Ganiatsas, S -- Evans, C A -- DeAngelis, M M -- Ingalls, K A -- Nahf, R W -- Horton, L T Jr -- Anderson, M O -- Collymore, A J -- Ye, W -- Kouyoumjian, V -- Zemsteva, I S -- Tam, J -- Devine, R -- Courtney, D F -- Renaud, M T -- Nguyen, H -- O'Connor, T J -- Fizames, C -- Faure, S -- Gyapay, G -- Dib, C -- Morissette, J -- Orlin, J B -- Birren, B W -- Goodman, N -- Weissenbach, J -- Hawkins, T L -- Foote, S -- Page, D C -- Lander, E S -- HG00017/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- HG00098/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Dec 22;270(5244):1945-54.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead-MIT Center for Genome Research, Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8533086" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; *Chromosome Mapping ; Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast ; Databases, Factual ; Gene Expression ; Genetic Markers ; *Genome, Human ; *Human Genome Project ; Humans ; Hybrid Cells ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; *Sequence Analysis, DNA ; *Sequence Tagged Sites
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 1995-05-26
    Description: Receptor-mediated activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) results in the dissociation of alpha from beta gamma subunits, thereby allowing both to regulate effectors. Little is known about the regions of effectors required for recognition of G beta gamma. A peptide encoding residues 956 to 982 of adenylyl cyclase 2 specifically blocked G beta gamma stimulation of adenylyl cyclase 2, phospholipase C-beta 3, potassium channels, and beta-adrenergic receptor kinase as well as inhibition of calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, but had no effect on interactions between G beta gamma and G alpha o. Substitutions in this peptide identified a functionally important motif, Gln-X-X-Glu-Arg, that is also conserved in regions of potassium channels and beta-adrenergic receptor kinases that participate in G beta gamma interactions. Thus, the region defined by residues 956 to 982 of adenylyl cyclase 2 may contain determinants important for receiving signals from G beta gamma.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, J -- DeVivo, M -- Dingus, J -- Harry, A -- Li, J -- Sui, J -- Carty, D J -- Blank, J L -- Exton, J H -- Stoffel, R H -- CA-44998/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK-37219/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK-38761/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 26;268(5214):1166-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Pharmacology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, City University of New York, NY 10029, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7761832" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors ; Adenylyl Cyclases/*chemistry/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Enzyme Activation/physiology ; GTP-Binding Proteins/chemistry/*physiology ; Guanosine Triphosphate/physiology ; In Vitro Techniques ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptide Fragments/chemical synthesis/chemistry/physiology ; Potassium Channels/physiology ; Rats ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/metabolism ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/physiology ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; Type C Phospholipases/metabolism
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 1995-07-07
    Description: Cytokines and growth factors induce tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) that directly activate gene expression. Cells stably transformed by the Src oncogene tyrosine kinase were examined for STAT protein activation. Assays of electrophoretic mobility, DNA-binding specificity, and antigenicity indicated that Stat3 or a closely related STAT family member was constitutively activated by the Src oncoprotein. Induction of this DNA-binding activity was accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 and correlated with Src transformation. These findings demonstrate that Src can activate STAT signaling pathways and raise the possibility that Stat3 contributes to oncogenesis by Src.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yu, C L -- Meyer, D J -- Campbell, G S -- Larner, A C -- Carter-Su, C -- Schwartz, J -- Jove, R -- CA55652/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK34171/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK034171/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Jul 7;269(5220):81-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7541555" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line, Transformed ; *Cell Transformation, Neoplastic ; DNA/*metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Growth Inhibitors/pharmacology ; Interferon-gamma/pharmacology ; *Interleukin-6 ; Leukemia Inhibitory Factor ; Lymphokines/pharmacology ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oncogene Protein pp60(v-src)/*physiology ; Phosphorylation ; Phosphotyrosine ; STAT3 Transcription Factor ; *Signal Transduction ; Trans-Activators/*metabolism ; Tyrosine/analogs & derivatives/metabolism
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1995-08-11
    Description: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), the gene product that is mutated in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, has a well-recognized function as a cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-regulated chloride channel, but this property does not account for the abnormally high basal rate and cAMP sensitivity of sodium ion absorption in CF airway epithelia. Expression of complementary DNAs for rat epithelial Na+ channel (rENaC) alone in Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells generated large amiloride-sensitive sodium currents that were stimulated by cAMP, whereas coexpression of human CFTR with rENaC generated smaller basal sodium currents that were inhibited by cAMP. Parallel studies that measured regulation of sodium permeability in fibroblasts showed similar results. In CF airway epithelia, the absence of this second function of CFTR as a cAMP-dependent regulator likely accounts for abnormal sodium transport.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stutts, M J -- Canessa, C M -- Olsen, J C -- Hamrick, M -- Cohn, J A -- Rossier, B C -- Boucher, R C -- CFF R026/PHS HHS/ -- HL 34322/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL 42384/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Aug 11;269(5225):847-50.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cystic Fibrosis/Pulmonary Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 27599-7020, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7543698" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: 3T3 Cells ; Absorption ; Amiloride/pharmacology ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Cell Membrane Permeability ; Chloride Channels/metabolism ; Cyclic AMP/*metabolism ; Cystic Fibrosis/*metabolism ; Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator ; DNA, Complementary ; Dogs ; Humans ; Membrane Proteins/*metabolism ; Mice ; Patch-Clamp Techniques ; Rats ; Sodium/metabolism ; Sodium Channels/*metabolism ; Transfection
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  • 28
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-04-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stone, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Apr 21;268(5209):356-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7716533" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Carcinogenicity Tests ; Carcinogens/*toxicity ; Chloroform/toxicity ; Dioxins/toxicity ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Guidelines as Topic ; Humans ; National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; Neoplasms/*chemically induced ; Risk Assessment ; Structure-Activity Relationship ; United States ; United States Environmental Protection Agency
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-12-08
    Description: Telomeres are the protein-DNA structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. In yeast, and probably most other eukaryotes, telomeres are essential. They allow the cell to distinguish intact from broken chromosomes, protect chromosomes from degradation, and are substrates for novel replication mechanisms. Telomeres are usually replicated by telomerase, a telomere-specific reverse transcriptase, although telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance exist. Telomere replication is both cell cycle- and developmentally regulated, and its control is likely to be complex. Because telomere loss causes the kinds of chromosomal changes associated with cancer and aging, an understanding of telomere biology has medical relevance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zakian, V A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Dec 8;270(5242):1601-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, NJ 08544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7502069" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Cycle ; Chromosomes/metabolism/physiology ; DNA/analysis/chemistry/metabolism ; DNA Replication ; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Telomerase/metabolism ; Telomere/chemistry/*physiology
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 1995-01-13
    Description: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are thought to influence many processes in vertebrate development because of their diverse sites of expression and wide range of biological activities in in vitro culture systems. As a means of elucidating embryonic functions of FGF-4, gene targeting was used to generate mice harboring a disrupted Fgf4 gene. Embryos homozygous for the null allele underwent uterine implantation and induced uterine decidualization but did not develop substantially thereafter. As was consistent with their behavior in vivo, Fgf4 null embryos cultured in vitro displayed severely impaired proliferation of the inner cell mass, whereas growth and differentiation of the inner cell mass were rescued when null embryos were cultured in the presence of FGF-4 protein.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feldman, B -- Poueymirou, W -- Papaioannou, V E -- DeChiara, T M -- Goldfarb, M -- HD21988/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- HD27198/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Jan 13;267(5195):246-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Integrated Program in Cellular, Molecular, and Biophysical Studies, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7809630" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Blastocyst/cytology/physiology ; Crosses, Genetic ; Culture Techniques ; Embryonic Development/*physiology ; Embryonic and Fetal Development/*physiology ; Female ; Fibroblast Growth Factor 4 ; Fibroblast Growth Factors/genetics/pharmacology/*physiology ; Gene Targeting ; Heterozygote ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Morula/drug effects/physiology ; Phenotype ; Pregnancy ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/pharmacology/*physiology ; Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology
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  • 31
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-04-14
    Description: The ability of cells to communicate with and respond to their external environment is critical for their continued existence. A universal feature of this communication is that the external signal must in some way penetrate the lipid bilayer surrounding the cell. In most cases of such signal acquisition, the signaling entity itself does not directly enter the cell but rather transmits its information to specific proteins present on the surface of the cell membrane. These proteins then communicate with additional proteins associated with the intracellular face of the membrane. Membrane localization and function of many of these proteins are dependent on their covalent modification by specific lipids, and it is the processes involved that form the focus of this article.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Casey, P J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Apr 14;268(5208):221-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710-3686, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7716512" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acylation ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Membrane/*metabolism ; GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Glycosylphosphatidylinositols/*metabolism ; *Lipid Metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 1995-04-21
    Description: Sulfonylureas are a class of drugs widely used to promote insulin secretion in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. These drugs interact with the sulfonylurea receptor of pancreatic beta cells and inhibit the conductance of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent potassium (KATP) channels. Cloning of complementary DNAs for the high-affinity sulfonylurea receptor indicates that it is a member of the ATP-binding cassette or traffic ATPase superfamily with multiple membrane-spanning domains and two nucleotide binding folds. The results suggest that the sulfonylurea receptor may sense changes in ATP and ADP concentration, affect KATP channel activity, and thereby modulate insulin release.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Aguilar-Bryan, L -- Nichols, C G -- Wechsler, S W -- Clement, J P 4th -- Boyd, A E 3rd -- Gonzalez, G -- Herrera-Sosa, H -- Nguy, K -- Bryan, J -- Nelson, D A -- DK41898/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK44311/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- HL45742/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Apr 21;268(5209):423-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7716547" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ; Adenosine Diphosphate/metabolism ; Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Line ; Cloning, Molecular ; Cricetinae ; Insulin/*secretion ; Islets of Langerhans/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phosphorylation ; Potassium Channels/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; *Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Receptors, Drug/chemistry/*genetics/metabolism ; Sequence Alignment ; Sulfonylurea Compounds/metabolism ; Sulfonylurea Receptors ; Transfection ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 1995-06-23
    Description: Deficiency in monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), an enzyme that degrades serotonin and norepinephrine, has recently been shown to be associated with aggressive behavior in men of a Dutch family. A line of transgenic mice was isolated in which transgene integration caused a deletion in the gene encoding MAOA, providing an animal model of MAOA deficiency. In pup brains, serotonin concentrations were increased up to ninefold, and serotonin-like immunoreactivity was present in catecholaminergic neurons. In pup and adult brains, norepinephrine concentrations were increased up to twofold, and cytoarchitectural changes were observed in the somatosensory cortex. Pup behavioral alterations, including trembling, difficulty in righting, and fearfulness were reversed by the serotonin synthesis inhibitor parachlorophenylalanine. Adults manifested a distinct behavioral syndrome, including enhanced aggression in males.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844866/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844866/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cases, O -- Seif, I -- Grimsby, J -- Gaspar, P -- Chen, K -- Pournin, S -- Muller, U -- Aguet, M -- Babinet, C -- Shih, J C -- K05 MH 00796/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH 37020/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH 39085/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH039085/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R37 MH039085-23/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Jun 23;268(5218):1763-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Unite de Recherche Associee (URA), Institut Curie, Orsay, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7792602" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aggression/*physiology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Base Sequence ; Blotting, Southern ; Brain/*metabolism ; Disease Models, Animal ; Dopamine/metabolism ; Female ; Interferon-beta/genetics ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C3H ; Mice, Transgenic ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Monoamine Oxidase/*deficiency ; Norepinephrine/*metabolism ; Sequence Deletion ; Serotonin/*metabolism
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  • 34
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-04-14
    Description: A fundamental question in signal transduction is how stimulation of a specific protein kinase leads to phosphorylation of particular protein substrates throughout the cell. Recent studies indicate that specific anchoring proteins located at various sites in the cell compartmentalize the kinases to their sites of action. Inhibitors of the interactions between kinases and their anchoring proteins inhibit the functions mediated by the kinases. These data indicate that the location of these anchoring proteins provides some of the specificity of the responses mediated by each kinase and suggest that inhibitors of the interaction between the kinases and their anchoring proteins may be useful as therapeutic agents.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mochly-Rosen, D -- R01 HL-43380/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Apr 14;268(5208):247-51.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, CA 94305-5332, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7716516" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Cell Compartmentation ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; Cytoskeleton/metabolism ; Humans ; Protein Kinases/*metabolism ; Proteins/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 1995-07-14
    Description: CD1 molecules are distantly related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I proteins. They are of unknown function. Screening random peptide phage display libraries with soluble empty mouse CD1 (mCD1) identified a peptide binding motif. It consists of three anchor positions occupied by aromatic or bulky hydrophobic amino acids. Equilibrium binding studies demonstrated that mCD1 binds peptides containing the appropriate motif with relatively high affinity. However, in contrast to classical MHC class I molecules, strong binding to mCD1 required relatively long peptides. Peptide-specific, mCD1-restricted T cell responses can be raised, which suggests that the findings are of immunological significance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Castano, A R -- Tangri, S -- Miller, J E -- Holcombe, H R -- Jackson, M R -- Huse, W D -- Kronenberg, M -- Peterson, P A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Jul 14;269(5221):223-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7542403" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Antigen Presentation ; Antigens, CD/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; Antigens, CD1 ; Cell Line ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptides/chemistry/*immunology/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/*immunology ; Transfection
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 1995-09-01
    Description: Eukaryotic chromosomes are capped with repetitive telomere sequences that protect the ends from damage and rearrangements. Telomere repeats are synthesized by telomerase, a ribonucleic acid (RNA)-protein complex. Here, the cloning of the RNA component of human telomerase, termed hTR, is described. The template region of hTR encompasses 11 nucleotides (5'-CUAACCCUAAC) complementary to the human telomere sequence (TTAGGG)n. Germline tissues and tumor cell lines expressed more hTR than normal somatic cells and tissues, which have no detectable telomerase activity. Human cell lines that expressed hTR mutated in the template region generated the predicted mutant telomerase activity. HeLa cells transfected with an antisense hTR lost telomeric DNA and began to die after 23 to 26 doublings. Thus, human telomerase is a critical enzyme for the long-term proliferation of immortal tumor cells.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feng, J -- Funk, W D -- Wang, S S -- Weinrich, S L -- Avilion, A A -- Chiu, C P -- Adams, R R -- Chang, E -- Allsopp, R C -- Yu, J -- AG09383/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Sep 1;269(5228):1236-41.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Geron Corporation, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7544491" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Cell Death ; *Cell Division ; Cell Line ; Cloning, Molecular ; DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase/antagonists & ; inhibitors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology ; Polymerase Chain Reaction ; RNA/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Templates, Genetic ; Transfection ; Tumor Cells, Cultured
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-07-07
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Aitken, R J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Jul 7;269(5220):39-40.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Reproductive Biology Unit, Medical Research Council, Edinburgh, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7604276" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Egg Proteins/*metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Lectins/metabolism ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/*metabolism ; Mice ; Phosphorylation ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins ; Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*metabolism ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*metabolism ; Sperm-Ovum Interactions/*physiology ; Spermatozoa/metabolism ; Zona Pellucida/*metabolism
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-03-24
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stone, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Mar 24;267(5205):1770-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7892597" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Environmental Pollutants/*adverse effects ; Humans ; Ozone/*adverse effects ; Polychlorinated Biphenyls/*adverse effects ; Respiratory Tract Infections/etiology ; Smoke/*adverse effects ; Thyroid Hormones/metabolism ; Water Purification/methods
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  • 39
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-11-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holtzman, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 17;270(5239):1101.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7502020" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Humans ; Risk Assessment ; *Toxicity Tests/statistics & numerical data
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-05-05
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moffat, A S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 May 5;268(5211):658, 660.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7732373" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antibody Formation ; Plants, Genetically Modified/*immunology ; Vaccines, Synthetic/*biosynthesis/immunology
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  • 41
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-11-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Morell, V -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 17;270(5239):1117.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7502032" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Africa ; Animals ; Biological Evolution ; *Fossils ; History, Ancient ; *Hominidae/anatomy & histology ; Humans
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 1995-12-22
    Description: Reliable germline transformation is required for molecular studies and ultimately for genetic control of economically important insects, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata. A prerequisite for the establishment and maintenance of transformant lines is selectable or phenotypically dominant markers. To this end, a complementary DNA clone derived from the medfly white gene was isolated, which showed substantial similarity to white genes in Drosophila melanogaster and other Diptera. It is correlated with a spontaneous mutation causing white eyes in the medfly and can be used to restore partial eye color in transgenic Drosophila carrying a null mutation in the endogenous white gene.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zwiebel, L J -- Saccone, G -- Zacharopoulou, A -- Besansky, N J -- Favia, G -- Collins, F H -- Louis, C -- Kafatos, F C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Dec 22;270(5244):2005-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Heidelberg, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8533095" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: *ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Animals, Genetically Modified ; Base Sequence ; Cloning, Molecular ; Diptera/chemistry/*genetics ; *Drosophila Proteins ; Drosophila melanogaster/genetics ; Eye Color/genetics ; Eye Proteins/chemistry/*genetics ; *Genes, Insect ; Genetic Markers ; Insect Hormones/chemistry/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Phenotype ; Sequence Alignment ; *Transformation, Genetic
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-12-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Fischman, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Dec 1;270(5241):1436.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7491485" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Biological Evolution ; Brain/anatomy & histology/*growth & development ; Ear Ossicles/anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Ear, Middle/*anatomy & histology/growth & development ; Hearing ; Mammals/*anatomy & histology ; *Paleontology
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1995-11-17
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Streilein, J W -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1995 Nov 17;270(5239):1158-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7502038" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Anterior Chamber/immunology ; Fas Ligand Protein ; Graft Rejection ; Graft Survival ; *Immune Tolerance ; Male ; Membrane Glycoproteins/*physiology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred Strains ; Sertoli Cells/immunology ; T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; *Transplantation Immunology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology ,