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  • 1
    ISSN: 0303-2647
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell nucleus ; Evolution ; Plants ; Protoctista ; Taxonomy
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Cellular slime molds ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Maximum-likelihood method ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phylogenetic position of Dictyostelium inferred from 18S rRNA data contradicts that from protein data. Protein trees always show the close affinity of Dictyostelium with animals, fungi, and plants, whereas in 18S rRNA trees the branching of Dictyostelium is placed at a position before the massive radiation of protist groups including the divergence of the three kingdoms. To settle this controversial issue and to determine the correct position of Dictyostelium, we inferred the phylogenetic relationship among Dictyostelium and the three kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae by a maximum-likelihood method using 19 different protein data sets. It was shown at the significance level of 1 SE that the branching of Dictyostelium antedates the divergence of Animalia and Fungi, and Plantae is an outgroup of the Animalia-Fungi-Dictyostelium clade.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 42 (1996), S. 183-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Small-subunit ribosomal RNA ; Phylogeny ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plants ; Alveolates ; Heterokonts ; Stramenopiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The evolutionary relationships of four eukaryotic kingdoms—Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista—remain unclear. In particular, statistical support for the closeness of animals to fungi rather than to plants is lacking, and a preferred branching order of these and other eukaryotic lineages is still controversial even though molecular sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa have been analyzed. We report a statistical analysis of 214 sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene undertaken to clarify these evolutionary relationships. We have considered the variability of substitution rates and the nonindependence of nucleotide substitution across sites in the srRNA gene in testing alternative hypotheses regarding the branching patterns of eukaryote phylogeny. We find that the rates of evolution among sites in the srRNA sequences vary substantially and are approximately gamma distributed with size and shape parameter equal to 0.76. Our results suggest that (1) the animals and true fungi are indeed closer to each other than to any other “crown” group in the eukaryote tree, (2) red algae are the closest relatives of animals, true fungi, and green plants, and (3) the heterokonts and alveolates probably evolved prior to the divergence of red algae and animal-fungus-green-plant lineages. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that the branching order of the eukaryotic lineages that diverged prior to the evolution of alveolates may be generally difficult to resolve with the srRNA sequence data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-322X
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; consciousness ; Australia ; Hong Kong ; India ; Israel ; Japan ; New Zealand ; The Philippines ; Russia ; Singapore ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract The interactions between humans, animals and the environment have shaped human values and ethics, not only the genes that we are made of. The animal rights movement challenges human beings to reconsider interactions between humans and other animals, and maybe connected to the environmental movement that begs us to recognize the fact that there are symbiotic relationships between humans and all other organisms. The first part of this paper looks at types of bioethics, the implications of autonomy and the value of being alive. Then the level of consciousness of these relationships are explored in survey results from Asia and the Pacific, especially in the 1993 International Bioethics Survey conducted in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, The Philippines, Russia, Singapore and Thailand. Very few mentioned animal consciousness in the survey, but there were more biocentric comments in Australia and Japan; and more comments with the idea of harmony including humans in Thailand. Comparisons between questions and surveys will also be made, in an attempt to describe what people imagine animal consciousness to be, and whether this relates to human ethics of the relationships.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypophysis ; Rostral pars distalis ; Mugil platanus ; Animals ; Prolactin hormone secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rostral pars distalis (RPD) of the teleost Mugil platanus from animals pretreated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HODA) were assayed for dopamine (DA) or noradrenaline (NA) or for prolactin hormone. Such determinations were coupled with electron microscopy. It was found that reserpine and 6-HODA produced a significant decrease in the content of DA, NA, and prolactin. Electron microscope studies revealed that prolactin cells became activated as judged by ultrastructural criteria. After 6-HODA treatment type “B” neurosecretory fibers entering the RPD became selectively destroyed. These observations lead us to suggest that prolactin secretion is under inhibitory control by type “B” neurosecretory fibers of adrenergic nature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Machine vision and applications 8 (1995), S. 187-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1769
    Keywords: Tracking ; Segmentation ; Pigs ; Animals ; Computer vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An algorithm was developed for the segmentation and tracking of piglets and tested on a 200-image sequence of 10 piglets moving on a straw background. The image-capture rate was 1 image/140 ms. The segmentation method was a combination of image differencing with respect to a median background and a Laplacian operator. The features tracked were blob edges in the segmented image. During tracking, the piglets were modelled as ellipses initialised on the blobs. Each piglet was tracked by searching for blob edges in an elliptical window about the piglet's position, which was predicted from its previous two positions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-05-07
    Description: Niphargus is a speciose amphipod genus found in groundwater habitats across Europe. Three Niphargus species living in the sulphidic Frasassi caves in Italy harbour sulphur-oxidizing Thiothrix bacterial ectosymbionts. These three species are distantly related, implying that the ability to form ectosymbioses with Thiothrix may be common among Niphargus. Therefore, Niphargus-Thiothrix associations may also be found in sulphidic aquifers other than Frasassi. In this study, we examined this possibility by analysing niphargids of the genera Niphargus and Pontoniphargus collected from the partly sulphidic aquifers of the Southern Dobrogea region of Romania, which are accessible through springs, wells and Movile Cave. Molecular and morphological analyses revealed seven niphargid species in this region. Five of these species occurred occasionally or exclusively in sulphidic locations, whereas the remaining two were restricted to nonsulphidic areas. Thiothrix were detected by PCR on all seven Dobrogean niphargid species and observed using microscopy to be predominantly attached to their hosts' appendages. 16S rRNA gene sequences of the Thiothrix epibionts fell into two main clades, one of which (herein named T4) occurred solely on niphargids collected in sulphidic locations. The other Thiothrix clade was present on niphargids from both sulphidic and nonsulphidic areas and indistinguishable from the T3 ectosymbiont clade previously identified on Frasassi-dwelling Niphargus. Although niphargids from Frasassi and Southern Dobrogea are not closely related, the patterns of their association with Thiothrix are remarkably alike. The finding of similar Niphargus-Thiothrix associations in aquifers located 1200 km apart suggests that they may be widespread in European groundwater ecosystems.
    Keywords: amphipods; ecology; sulphide; symbiosis; systematics; taxonomy ; Amphipoda ; Animals ; DNA, Bacterial ; Ecosystem ; Groundwater ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S ; Romania ; Sequence Analysis, DNA ; Sulfur ; Symbiosis ; Thiothrix
    Language: English , English
    Type: article , publishedVersion
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  • 9
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1978-03-10
    Description: Several strains of attenuated rabies virus lacking the capacity to kill adult mice acquired a high lethal potential for mice after one to five serial passages in murine or human neuroblastoma cells. The virulence acquired after passage in neuroblastoma cells is a stable genetic trait retained during subsequent passage of viruses in nonneuroblastoma cell systems.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Clark, H F -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 Mar 10;199(4333):1072-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/628831" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Mice ; Neuroblastoma/*microbiology ; Neurons/microbiology ; Rabies Vaccines/toxicity ; Rabies virus/genetics/*pathogenicity ; Vaccines, Attenuated/toxicity ; Virus Replication
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1978-07-14
    Description: By injecting plastic microspheres of a specific size (3 to 4 micrometers) into the circulation and following their movement and distribution in the spleen, it was revealed how blood travels from the arterial capillaries to the venous sinuses. This method demonstrated that both open and closed circulation exist in the spleen and that about 90 percent of the blood takes the open route of circulation in the normal unanesthetized rabbit.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, L T -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1978 Jul 14;201(4351):157-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/663644" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Microcirculation ; Microspheres ; Rabbits ; Spleen/*blood supply
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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