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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Cellular slime molds ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plantae ; Maximum-likelihood method ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The phylogenetic position of Dictyostelium inferred from 18S rRNA data contradicts that from protein data. Protein trees always show the close affinity of Dictyostelium with animals, fungi, and plants, whereas in 18S rRNA trees the branching of Dictyostelium is placed at a position before the massive radiation of protist groups including the divergence of the three kingdoms. To settle this controversial issue and to determine the correct position of Dictyostelium, we inferred the phylogenetic relationship among Dictyostelium and the three kingdoms Animalia, Fungi, and Plantae by a maximum-likelihood method using 19 different protein data sets. It was shown at the significance level of 1 SE that the branching of Dictyostelium antedates the divergence of Animalia and Fungi, and Plantae is an outgroup of the Animalia-Fungi-Dictyostelium clade.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of molecular evolution 42 (1996), S. 183-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Small-subunit ribosomal RNA ; Phylogeny ; Animals ; Fungi ; Plants ; Alveolates ; Heterokonts ; Stramenopiles
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The evolutionary relationships of four eukaryotic kingdoms—Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, and Protista—remain unclear. In particular, statistical support for the closeness of animals to fungi rather than to plants is lacking, and a preferred branching order of these and other eukaryotic lineages is still controversial even though molecular sequences from diverse eukaryotic taxa have been analyzed. We report a statistical analysis of 214 sequences of nuclear small-subunit ribosomal RNA (srRNA) gene undertaken to clarify these evolutionary relationships. We have considered the variability of substitution rates and the nonindependence of nucleotide substitution across sites in the srRNA gene in testing alternative hypotheses regarding the branching patterns of eukaryote phylogeny. We find that the rates of evolution among sites in the srRNA sequences vary substantially and are approximately gamma distributed with size and shape parameter equal to 0.76. Our results suggest that (1) the animals and true fungi are indeed closer to each other than to any other “crown” group in the eukaryote tree, (2) red algae are the closest relatives of animals, true fungi, and green plants, and (3) the heterokonts and alveolates probably evolved prior to the divergence of red algae and animal-fungus-green-plant lineages. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that the branching order of the eukaryotic lineages that diverged prior to the evolution of alveolates may be generally difficult to resolve with the srRNA sequence data.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Machine vision and applications 8 (1995), S. 187-193 
    ISSN: 1432-1769
    Keywords: Tracking ; Segmentation ; Pigs ; Animals ; Computer vision
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract An algorithm was developed for the segmentation and tracking of piglets and tested on a 200-image sequence of 10 piglets moving on a straw background. The image-capture rate was 1 image/140 ms. The segmentation method was a combination of image differencing with respect to a median background and a Laplacian operator. The features tracked were blob edges in the segmented image. During tracking, the piglets were modelled as ellipses initialised on the blobs. Each piglet was tracked by searching for blob edges in an elliptical window about the piglet's position, which was predicted from its previous two positions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1573-322X
    Keywords: Animals ; Asia ; consciousness ; Australia ; Hong Kong ; India ; Israel ; Japan ; New Zealand ; The Philippines ; Russia ; Singapore ; Thailand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Philosophy
    Notes: Abstract The interactions between humans, animals and the environment have shaped human values and ethics, not only the genes that we are made of. The animal rights movement challenges human beings to reconsider interactions between humans and other animals, and maybe connected to the environmental movement that begs us to recognize the fact that there are symbiotic relationships between humans and all other organisms. The first part of this paper looks at types of bioethics, the implications of autonomy and the value of being alive. Then the level of consciousness of these relationships are explored in survey results from Asia and the Pacific, especially in the 1993 International Bioethics Survey conducted in Australia, Hong Kong, India, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, The Philippines, Russia, Singapore and Thailand. Very few mentioned animal consciousness in the survey, but there were more biocentric comments in Australia and Japan; and more comments with the idea of harmony including humans in Thailand. Comparisons between questions and surveys will also be made, in an attempt to describe what people imagine animal consciousness to be, and whether this relates to human ethics of the relationships.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Animals ; Indicators ; Air pollution ; Ecosystem responses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract With existing and proposed air-quality regulations, ecological disasters resulting from air emissions such as those observed at Copperhill, Tennessee, and Sudbury, Ontario, are unlikely. Current air-quality standards, however, may not protect ecosystems from subacute and chronic exposure to air emissions. The encouragement of the use of coal for energy production and the development of the fossil-fuel industries, including oil shales, tar sands, and coal liquification, point to an increase and spread of fossil-fuel emissions and the potential to influence a number of natural ecosystems. This paper reviews the reported responses of ecosystems to air-borne pollutants and discusses the use of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to these pollutants. Animal species and populations can act as important indicators of biotic and abiotic responses of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These responses can indicate long-term trends in ecosystem health and productivity, chemical cycling, genetics, and regulation. For short-term trends, fish and wildlife also serve as monitors of changes in community structure, signaling food-web contamination, as well as providing a measure of ecosystem vitality. Information is presented to show not only the importance of animals as indicators of ecosystem responses to air-quality degradation, but also their value as air-pollution indices, that is, as air-quality-related values (AQRV), required in current air-pollution regulation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Hypophysis ; Rostral pars distalis ; Mugil platanus ; Animals ; Prolactin hormone secretion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The rostral pars distalis (RPD) of the teleost Mugil platanus from animals pretreated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-HODA) were assayed for dopamine (DA) or noradrenaline (NA) or for prolactin hormone. Such determinations were coupled with electron microscopy. It was found that reserpine and 6-HODA produced a significant decrease in the content of DA, NA, and prolactin. Electron microscope studies revealed that prolactin cells became activated as judged by ultrastructural criteria. After 6-HODA treatment type “B” neurosecretory fibers entering the RPD became selectively destroyed. These observations lead us to suggest that prolactin secretion is under inhibitory control by type “B” neurosecretory fibers of adrenergic nature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0303-2647
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell nucleus ; Evolution ; Plants ; Protoctista ; Taxonomy
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2014-03-05
    Description: Epithelial folding mediated by apical constriction converts flat epithelial sheets into multilayered, complex tissue structures and is used throughout development in most animals. Little is known, however, about how forces produced near the apical surface of the tissue are transmitted within individual cells to generate the global changes in cell shape that characterize tissue deformation. Here we apply particle tracking velocimetry in gastrulating Drosophila embryos to measure the movement of cytoplasm and plasma membrane during ventral furrow formation. We find that cytoplasmic redistribution during the lengthening phase of ventral furrow formation can be precisely described by viscous flows that quantitatively match the predictions of hydrodynamics. Cell membranes move with the ambient cytoplasm, with little resistance to, or driving force on, the flow. Strikingly, apical constriction produces similar flow patterns in mutant embryos that fail to form cells before gastrulation ('acellular' embryos), such that the global redistribution of cytoplasm mirrors the summed redistribution occurring in individual cells of wild-type embryos. Our results indicate that during the lengthening phase of ventral furrow formation, hydrodynamic behaviour of the cytoplasm provides the predominant mechanism transmitting apically generated forces deep into the tissue and that cell individualization is dispensable.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4111109/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4111109/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉He, Bing -- Doubrovinski, Konstantin -- Polyakov, Oleg -- Wieschaus, Eric -- 5R37HD15587/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM 071508/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD015587/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R37 HD015587/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 17;508(7496):392-6. doi: 10.1038/nature13070. Epub 2014 Mar 2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA [2]. ; Department of Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA. ; 1] Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA [2] Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590071" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Membrane/metabolism ; *Cell Polarity ; *Cell Shape ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/*cytology/*embryology ; Female ; Gastrulation ; Hydrodynamics ; Male ; Mesoderm/cytology/metabolism ; *Morphogenesis ; Movement
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-04-11
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Moss, Andrew -- Jensen, Eric -- Gusset, Markus -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 10;508(7495):186. doi: 10.1038/508186d.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Chester Zoo, UK. ; University of Warwick, Coventry, UK. ; World Association of Zoos and Aquariums, Gland, Switzerland.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24717506" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; *Animals, Zoo ; *Biodiversity ; Conservation of Natural Resources/*trends ; Ecology/*education
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-11-11
    Description: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that recycles nutrients upon starvation and maintains cellular energy homeostasis. Its acute regulation by nutrient-sensing signalling pathways is well described, but its longer-term transcriptional regulation is not. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are activated in the fasted and fed liver, respectively. Here we show that both PPARalpha and FXR regulate hepatic autophagy in mice. Pharmacological activation of PPARalpha reverses the normal suppression of autophagy in the fed state, inducing autophagic lipid degradation, or lipophagy. This response is lost in PPARalpha knockout (Ppara(-/-), also known as Nr1c1(-/-)) mice, which are partially defective in the induction of autophagy by fasting. Pharmacological activation of the bile acid receptor FXR strongly suppresses the induction of autophagy in the fasting state, and this response is absent in FXR knockout (Fxr(-/-), also known as Nr1h4(-/-)) mice, which show a partial defect in suppression of hepatic autophagy in the fed state. PPARalpha and FXR compete for binding to shared sites in autophagic gene promoters, with opposite transcriptional outputs. These results reveal complementary, interlocking mechanisms for regulation of autophagy by nutrient status.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267857/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4267857/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Jae Man -- Wagner, Martin -- Xiao, Rui -- Kim, Kang Ho -- Feng, Dan -- Lazar, Mitchell A -- Moore, David D -- DK43806/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK019525/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30DX56338-05A2/PHS HHS/ -- P39CA125123-04/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK049780/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK49780/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK043806/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10RR027783-01A1/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54HD-07495-39/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Dec 4;516(7529):112-5. doi: 10.1038/nature13961. Epub 2014 Nov 12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism and the Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19014, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25383539" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autophagy/genetics/*physiology ; Cell Line ; Cells, Cultured ; Fasting/physiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Hepatocytes/metabolism ; Liver/cytology/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Knockout ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; PPAR alpha ; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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