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  • Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy  (9,274)
  • Inorganic Chemistry  (7,017)
  • 1995-1999  (3,979)
  • 1990-1994  (10,685)
  • 1950-1954  (1,627)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; CE ; chemical migration ; food contact plastics ; dihydroxybenzenes ; packaging ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A capillary electrophoresis method has been developed to determine 1,2-dihydroxybenzene and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene in the food simulants distilled water, 3% acetic acid, 15% ethanol, and olive oil. Both substances, used as monomers and additives to make food packaging plastics, could be analyzed within 15 min. The 1,4-dihydroxybenzene isomer was unretained and eluted with the electroosmotic flow, and so the CE method can give only a semi-quantitative estimate of this isomer if it is present as a migrant. The analytical recovery for the 1,2- and 1,3-isomers from spiked simulants was good at 87% to 98% except for 1,2-dihydroxybenzene which could only be recovered to the extent of 58% from olive oil. Calibration graphs were linear and the limit of detection for each substance was 0.6 mg/kg, which is well below migration limits for these substances. It is concluded that CE offers a rapid and reliable analysis for the control of migration from plastics intended for food contact which employ 1,2-dihydroxybenzene or 1,3-dihydroxybenzene during manufacture, and offers a screening method for 1,4-dihydroxybenzene migration.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Ethanol ; mobile phase ; factorial planning ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin ; micellar electrokinetic chromatography ; separation of regioisomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography ; sample dissolving solvent ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Divinylbenzene copolymers ; exclusion limit ; size exclusion chromatography ; surface area ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography ; flame ionization detection ; solvent effects ; aqueous injection ; toluene analysis ; dioxane ; sample preparation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A gas chromatographic method is presented for determining from 1 to 100 μg/mL of 1,4-dioxane in toluene with purities ranging from commercial to high-purity grades. This method relies on extracting 1,4-dioxane from toluene into water. The water extract is analyzed for 1,4-dioxane content by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection and a capillary column coated with a bonded polyethylene glycol stationary phase. Splitless injection is used to achieve a 1 μg/mL detection limit. Purging extracts with nitrogen after an initial analysis is suggested as an extract clean-up procedure and as a means to confirm the identification of 1,4-dioxane. However, for absolute identification of dioxane, gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy should be considered.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Average velocity ; characteristic parameters ; flow rate ; high pressure drop ; low pressure drop ; outlet velocity ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: When the column pressure drop is high, the average velocity of a carrier gas is proportional to the square root of the outlet velocity and the flow rate. Characteristic velocity, flow rate and pressure - the boundary conditions between low and high pressure drop regions - are introduced. Previously derived equations for average velocity vs. outlet velocity were modified to include the flow rate and to become more suitable for the separate studies of the low and high pressure drop regions.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Membrane extraction ; hollow fiber membrane ; thermodesorption ; GC-MS ; volatile organic compounds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The range of application of a commercial thermodesorption-cryofocussing unit connected to a gas chromatograph/mass selective detector was extended to water analysis by using it in conjunction with membrane extraction. A flow of nitrogen passes through a silicone hollow fiber immersed in the water sample and extracted volatile organic compounds are enriched in a sorption tube mounted on top of the extraction cell. The sorption tube is then placed in the thermodesorption unit and analyzed by GC/MS. The optimal extraction parameters of this combined method were found to be 30 min extraction at 20°C with a stirring speed of 1,250 rpm and a flow rate of 100 mL/min nitrogen using a silicone hollow fiber of 0.3 m length. Under these conditions the reproducibility of the method was 5.2-10.5% RSD. The linear dynamic range of the optimized method spans three orders of magnitude and detection limits were found to be 0.02-0.1 μg/L for cis/trans-1,2-dichloroethene, benzene, trichloroethene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, ethylbenzene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, and 1,2/1,4-dichlorobenzene. The method was found to be suitable for compounds with boiling points up to 220°C as memory effects increased considerably from dichloro- to hexachlorobenzene. Highly contaminated groundwater samples were analyzed. Quantitative results corresponded well with those achieved with conventional headspace-GC/FID.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Trace analysis ; air samples ; BTX ; equilibrium-sorptive enrichment ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Cryogenic modulation ; LMCS ; GC×GC ; multidimensional GC ; comprehensive gas chromatography ; petroleum analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 11
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; 6-O-ethyl-2,3-O-pentyl-β-cyclodextrin ; essential oils ; carboxylic acids ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 12
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: High performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) ; Amitraz ; cattle dipping bath ; pesticide ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 13
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Electrophoresis ; electrophoretic mobilities ; CZE ; MEKC ; peptides ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A computer model is presented for the prediction of the electrophoretic mobilities of peptides from physical constants derived from their amino acid sequences. The model assumes that the electrophoretic mobility can be represented by a product of four functions according to the relation:  lcomp= l(L)w(W)q(Q)c(CC), where L (a length parameter) is represented by the number of amino acid residues of the peptide, W (a width parameter) is represented by the average residue mass, Q = the charge of the peptide, and CC = the position of the center of charge relative to the center of mass. The model was used to calculate the electrophoretic mobilities of peptides in a 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.5. Sixty-four test peptides ranging in size from 2 to 39 amino acid residues were used for this study. The calculated mobilities show excellent correlation with experimental measurements with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.98.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
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  • 14
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Sulfur chemiluminescence detection ; sulfur simulated distillation ; boiling point distribution ; simultaneous FID/SCD analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A gas chromatographic system for the simultaneous acquisition of hydrocarbon and sulfur chromatograms was developed. Detection of sulfur compounds is achieved using a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD) mounted in series with a flame ionization detector (FID). A constant fraction of the effluent of the FID is transferred to the SCD by means of a fixed restrictor. Unlike previous versions of this approach, the FID is not used to generate the chemiluminescent sulfur species. Rather, the FID is operated under optimum conditions for hydrocarbon analysis and a furnace is used to generate the chemiluminescent sulfur species. The system permits dual acquisition of the hydrocarbon and sulfur signals in a single analysis with a single column, since the detectors are operated in a serial fashion. The application of sulfur simulated distillation using this approach was examined, since this requires simultaneous universal and sulfur selective detection. Precision of absolute response of both the FID and SCD was typically less than 2% RSD for a standard reference material.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 15
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; pulsed splitless injection ; pesticide residues ; matrix effects ; retention gap ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The applicability of pulsed splitless injection to the gas chromatographic analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables has been evaluated. 22 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes, including those known to be liable to matrix induced response enhancement, were selected for the study. The parameters of pressure pulse have been tested for optimum performance of injection. Application of the pressure pulse was found to decrease matrix effects during analyses of real samples. Further decline of matrix effects was obtained using higher sample injection volumes. The installation of a deactivated retention gap was necessary to obtain good peak shapes with injection volumes exceeding 1 μL of sample. Up to 4 μL was then injected without peak distortion and consequent loss of resolution. Using 4 μL pulsed splitless injection, matrix effects were almost completely eliminated even at very low concentration levels of analytes. The highest matrix effects observed for tested compounds at the lowest concentration level tested were in the range of 110-122%.
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  • 16
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Selenium ; water ; SPME ; GC/MS ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method for the selective determination of Se4+ and Se6+ using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and GC/MS analysis is presented. Se4+ is selectively derivatized by reaction with 4,5-dichloro-1,2-phenylenediamine to form the corresponding piazselenolo complex, extracted by the SPME fiber, and determined by GC/MS. The RSD at a 5 μg/L concentration was 9.88% and the theoretical detection limit 6 ng/L. The method was employed to test real matrices; tap and river water were analyzed before and after spiking giving a recovery rate of 102% in river water and 97% in tap water.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 17
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin ; 2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin ; γ-dithiolactones ; olfactometry ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 18
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; nitrotyrosine ; nitrotocopherol ; analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---For three decades, high performance liquid chromatography has proven itself to be a powerful, flexible, and inexpensive tool for basic and clinical research. Recent advances in our understanding of disease have prompted a demand for more sensitive and selective methods of routine bioanalysis, particularly with respect to the determination of oxidative metabolites and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Multidimensional detectors utilizing coulometric arrays offer a solution to these research needs. The challenge to the bioanalyst is now to creatively apply HPLC-ECD technology to promising research and clinical enterprises.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 19
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; experimental design ; cyclodextrin ; chiral separation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Orthogonal design and uniform design were used for the optimization of separation of enantiomers using 2,6-di-O-methyl-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) as a chiral selector by capillary zone electrophoresis. The concentration of DM-β-CD, buffer pH, running voltage, and capillary temperature were selected as variable parameters, their different effects on peak resolution were studied by the design methods. It was concluded that orthogonal design offers a rapid and efficient means for testing the importance of individual parameters and for determining the optimum operating conditions. However, for a large number of both factors and levels, uniform design is more efficient. The effect of addition of methanol and citric acid buffer on the separation of enantiomers was also examined.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 20
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fast gas chromatography ; gas chromatography ; resistive heating ; organophosphorus pesticides ; PAHs ; triazines ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The features of a resistive-heated capillary column for fast temperature-programmed gas chromatography (GC) have been evaluated. Experiments were carried out using a commercial available EZ Flash GC, an assembly which can be used to upgrade existing gas chromatographs. The capillary column is placed inside a metal tube which can be heated, and cooled, much more rapidly than any conventional GC oven. The EZ Flash assembly can generate temperature ramps up to 1200°/min and can be cooled down from 300 to 50°C in 30 s. Samples were injected via a conventional split/splitless injector and transferred to the GC column. The combination of a short column (5 m×0.25 mm i. d.), a high gas flow rate (up to 10 mL/min), and fast temperature programmes typically decreased analysis times from 30 min to about 2.5 min. Both the split and splitless injection mode could be used. With n-alkanes as test analytes, the standard deviations of the retention times with respect to the peak width were less than 15% (n = 7). First results on RSDs of peak areas of less than 3% for all but one n-alkane indicate that the technique can also be used for quantification. The combined use of a short GC column and fast temperature gradients does cause some loss of separation efficiency, but the approach is ideally suited for fast screening as illustrated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus pesticides, and triazine herbicides as test compounds. Total analysis times - which included injection, separation, and equilibration to initial conditions - were typically less than 3 min.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 21
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Organic peroxides ; gas chromatography ; FID ; cold on-column injection ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 22
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography ; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry ; essential oil analysis ; Lepechinia schiedeana ; antioxidant activity ; lipid peroxidation ; Ledol; Ledol HMQC ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Steam distillation (SD), simultaneous distillation-solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MWE), and supercritical (CO2) extraction (SFE) were used to isolate secondary metabolites from Lepechinia schiedeana. The various extracts were analyzed by capillary gas-chromatography, on poly (dimethylsiloxane) (DB-1) and poly(ethyleneglycol) (INNOWAX), 60 m columns, using FID or MSD (EI, 70 eV). Kováts indexes, mass spectra, or standard compounds were employed for compound identification. 43, 61, 67, and 79 compounds at concentrations above 0.01% were detected in the SD, SDE, MWE, and SFE extracts, respectively. Ledol, C15H26O, was the major constituent (20.04-36.87%) in all extracts. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes (24.36-43.14%), C10H16, monoterpenes (27.70-39.87%), and C15H24, sesquiterpenes (10.04-22.22%) were the main groups of compounds present in SD, SDE, MWE, and SFE extracts. Heavy hydrocarbons (Cn 〉 15), diterpenoids, and phytosterols were found only in MWE and SFE extracts. The antioxidant activity of Lepechinia schiedeana was measured by the HRGC quantification of the volatile carbonyl compounds, final products of lipoxidation, released in a model lipid system (sunflower oil) by the effect of the Fenton reagent. The concentration of volatile carbonyl compounds decreased by 65% when lipid oxidation was induced in the presence of macerated Lepechinia plant. The protection of polyunsaturated acids in sunflower oil was also studied by measuring their concentrations after heating of the oil (180°C, 2 h) with and without macerated Lepechinia plant.
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  • 23
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Silver ion HPLC ; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid ; isopropanol ; separation of positional isomers ; degree of unsaturation ; normal phase retention effect ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A high resolution approach to silver ion HPLC was studied for the separation of positional isomers of triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in enzymatically synthesized structured TAGs. Isopropanol was used as a novel modifier in a hexane-acetonitrile based mobile phase for silver ion HPLC. Peak identification was based on HPLC-mass spectroscopy and selectivities of lipases. Positional isomers of TAGs containing one molecule of EPA, DHA, or DPA with saturated fatty acids (FAs) such as caprylic acid and palmitic acid were separated within 13 min using a gradient of hexane-isopropanol-acetonitrile as mobile phase. TAGs containing two or more EPA, DHA, or DPA were also separated from each other within 25 min, but their positional isomers were unresolved. The retention characteristics of the TAG were found to be related to the number of carbon atoms in the FAs present in addition to the number of double bonds and their isomeric configuration. One isomer with an unsaturated FA in the sn-2 position eluted faster than the other with the unsaturated FA in the sn-1 or 3 position. Species with longer chain FAs attached to TAGs with the same degree of unsaturation eluted faster than those that have shorter chain FAs. For example, docosapentaenoylhexadecanoyloctanoin (DPA/C16/C8) was eluted faster than dioctanoyldocosapentaenoin (DPA/C8/C8).
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  • 24
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Sweeping ; sample stacking ; micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) ; retention factor (k) ; sample matrix ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The concept of sweeping has been used in electrokinetic chromatography to explain the concentrating mechanism in micellar electrokinetic chromatography when the sample matrix is a high resistivity non-micellar aqueous solution. Theoretical and experimental studies were undertaken. It was found that the total focusing effect is brought about by the cumulative effect of sweeping and sample stacking. For better analytical results, compounds showing low to moderate retention factors (k) and compounds showing high values of k must be dissolved in low and high conductivity matrices, respectively.
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  • 25
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fast GC ; fast temperature programming ; resistive heating techniques ; short columns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---One possible way to speed up a gas chromatographic analysis is the application of fast temperature programming by using resistive heating techniques. With this heating technique programming rates up to 20° per second can be reached. A relative standard deviation of retention times better than 0.2% is obtained. Using fast temperature programming the analysis-times of a mineral oil sample, an industrial oligomer sample, and toxic compounds in diesel fuel have been reduced 5 to 20 times, compared to a standard temperature programmed analysis. In most cases resistive heating cannot be applied to reduce the analysis time of a complex sample. The use of fast temperature programming is preferable to the use of short columns and columns operated at above-optimum carrier gas velocities.
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  • 26
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Multichannel silicone trap ; water analysis ; flow rate ; methanol ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The application of Multichannel Silicone Rubber Traps for the direct analysis of organic compounds in water was studied. The optimum collection flow rate for a 10 mL sample was found to be ca. 150 μL·min-1. The effect of methanol on the retention power of the trap was evaluated. The addition of a methanol fraction of up to 40% to the water standards did not show any loss in collection efficiency. It was shown that the extraction of organic compounds from water with the multichannel trap is uncomplicated, i. e. methanol is not required to achieve accurate analyses, concentration of the sample onto the trap is by gravity flow, and excess water remaining in the multichannel trap after water extraction is removed by centrifugation. With the use of the multichannel silicone rubber trap a wide boiling point range of compounds were analyzed from aqueous samples at levels of 1-4 μg·L-1.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 27
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chlorobiphenyl congeners ; Aroclor 1254 ; DB-XLB phase ; GC-MS-SIM ; PCB 126 ; toxic equivalency ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Complete PCB congener distributions in a panel of Aroclor mixtures were previously obtained by combining data from several HRGC systems. In that study quantitation of minor components may have been unreliable due to single level calibration against high levels of individual congener standards. Two lots of Aroclor 1254 had markedly different congener distributions. In this study, the design and performance of a congener-specific PCB analysis method employing GC-MS-SIM detection of congeners separated on a DB-XLB capillary column are discussed. Quantitation is carried out against a 6-level inclusive standard curve of a mixture of 144 congeners found in Aroclors. A separate procedure to measure trace levels of PCB 126 in Aroclors using the same system, combined with levels initially acquired for other congeners, facilitates estimation of TEQ values (Toxic Equivalencies of the PCB mixtures to 2,3,7,8-TCDD). PCB congener profiles of 15 Aroclor 1254 mixtures are presented. These profiles show that the less common, high TEQ variety of Aroclor 1254 was manufactured by an atypical, two-stage chlorination process that was apparently used during the final 1% of Aroclor 1254 production (ca. 1974-1976).
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  • 28
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Water analysis ; polar pollutants ; solid-phase extraction ; chemically-modified polymeric resins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---This study assesses how the physical characteristics of styrene-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) resins affect the extent to which they are modified when they are functionalized, and how they affect recoveries in on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) of some polar phenolic compounds, pesticides, and metabolites from water samples which were analyzed by liquid chromatography and UV detection. For this purpose, three commercial PS-DVB resins with different physical characteristics (Amberchrom GC-161m and two different PLRP-S resins) were chemically modified by placing a hydrophilic group, an o-carboxybenzoyl moiety, on their surface; although the physical characteristics are different, the extent of modification did not vary significantly. The results from the SPE process with each sorbent were related to their physical and chemical properties. The polymers with higher surface area provided better recoveries. Moreover, the recoveries for these analytes were better with the chemically-modified polymers due to the higher polarity of these sorbents. The best recovery values were with the sorbent obtained from the chemical modification of Amberchrom GC-161m, the commercial sorbent with higher surface area. For instance, in the analysis of 50 mL of a sample of 2 μg L-1, the recovery of phenol was 40% with Amberchrom GC-161m and 65% with the chemically-modified Amberchrom GC-161m.
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  • 29
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; dead time ; multiparametric least-squares adjustment ; homologous series ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In reversed phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), the validity of a multiparametric non-linear least-squares regression iterative method for the determination of the column dead time tM and the regression parameter (slope b), based on the use of alkan-2-ones, alkyl aryl ketones, and 1-nitroalkanes has been evaluated. The determination of tM and b has been extensively studied for two mobile phase systems acetonitrile-water and methanol-water on seven octadecyl-C18 and one octyl C8 analytical columns. The calculated tM and b values were compared with those obtained by Guardino's and Grobler's methods. The influence exerted thereon by the nature of the homologous series, the mobile phase composition, and the packing materials were investigated.
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  • 30
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Xylitol ; samarium ; weak association ; equilibrium constant ; capillary electrophoresis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
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  • 31
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; retention ; mixed stationary phases ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Most commercially available instruments for capillary electrochromatography (CEC) have a fixed configuration and lack the flexibility to use shorter columns. Applying a blended stationary phase (a phase consisting of a given ratio of bare silica and reversed phase material) can simulate columns of different length in CEC. The goal of this work was to examine the effect of the degree of blending of reversed-phase columns (with bare silica) on the speed of the separation of neutral compounds in CEC. Optimum column packing mixture was determined from the variation of the solute retention factors as a function of the ratios of blending of reversed-phase and bare silica. By adjusting the column composition, solute retention factors and the analysis run time were halved when compared to a pure reversed-phase column of the same length. Stationary phase blending can be considered as an additional parameter to mobile phase variation, column temperature and applied electric field for the optimization of selectivity and analysis time. By adjusting the stationary phase composition, mobile phase composition, column temperature and applied electric field, the analysis run time of neutral components was decreased more than 75% when compared to a separation obtained on neat reversed-phase column of the same dimensions. The linear dependence of the retention factors as a function of the blend ratio (reversed phase/bare silica) offers a framework for designing a “blended” packed capillary column for CEC separations.
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  • 32
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (enantio-MDGC-MS) ; methylcitric acid (MCA) ; inherited metabolic disease ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Methylcitric acid (2-hydroxybutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid-MCA) is a structural analogue of citric acid, but due to an additional methyl group it is a chiral molecule with two stereogenic centers and thus four stereoisomers are conceivable. MCA occurs naturally as prominent metabolite in body fluids of patients with inherited metabolic diseases such as propionic acidemia, methylmalonic aciduria, or holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. Therefore methylcitric acid is considered to be an important diagnostic marker for these diseases. MCA is most likely produced from accumulated propionyl-CoA in these diseases by the enzyme si-citrate synthase from the citric acid cycle; however, there are other enzymes known which could catalyze the same reaction with different stereoselectivity, such as re-citrate synthase or the more specific enzyme methylcitrate synthase, found in microorganisms. Almost all methods dealing with MCA in the literature are non-enantioselective. For that reason there is no information about occurrence of MCA enantiomers in healthy people, patients with propionic acidemia, methylmalonic aciduria, or holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency and about value of enantiomeric distribution for diagnosis and long-term treatment. The enantioselective analysis of MCA as corresponding trimethyl ester was achieved by enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry using heptakis-(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin as chiral stationary phase. The described method allows a reliable screening of MCA in complex matrices like urine without time consuming sample preparation and with mass selective detection. During this investigation urine samples from various patients and healthy controls were analyzed. As concluded, MCA is a good diagnostic marker and can be easily measured by the method presented. Only the two stereoisomers (2S,3R) and (2S,3S) were detectable in patients and healthy controls. The varying ratios of these stereoisomers cannot presently be correlated with the health status of patients, although there are some indications that this might be possible. However, the quantitative levels of MCA, determined as the ratio of MCA absolute peak area divided by 1,000 to the creatinine contents of urine samples in this investigation, showed a dependence on the state of health and MCA would thus also be a possible marker for long-term treatment. Such a substance is of major interest nowadays since there are different studies searching for such a long-term marker in propionic acidemia or methylmalonic aciduria.
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  • 33
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Liquid chromatography ; retention index ; multiparametric least-squares adjustment ; homologous series ; nitramines ; nitroaromatics ; aminoaromatics and nitrophenols ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In reversed phase liquid chromatography, the retention indices of some neutral and acidic explosives and related compounds (nitramines, nitroaromatics, aminoaromatics, and nitrophenols) based on the alkan-2-one, alkyl aryl ketone, and 1-nitroalkane retention index standards have been determined by the application of a new mathematical adaptation method, viz. a multiparametric least-squares regression iterative method. This method was applied to two types of columns. The first group includes six octadecyl-C18 columns with different packing materials and obtained from different manufacturers, while the second group comprises one octyl-C8 column. The retention indices have been extensively studied using either methanol-water or methanol-phosphate buffer mobile phase systems. The calculated multiparametric retention indices values were compared with those obtained by Guardino's, Grobler's, and Kovàts' methods. The influences of the concentration of the organic modifier in the mobile phase, aqueous mobile phase pH, and the column packing material on the retention indices of the explosives were also investigated. Good agreement was observed between the retention indices calculated by the use of the four mathematical methods for both neutral and acidic explosives.
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  • 34
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Organochlorine compounds ; pesticides ; food analysis ; tomatoes ; GLC-ECD ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method is described for the simultaneous extraction and determination of twenty organochlorine pesticides residues [hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers (α, β, γ, δ), aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor and its epoxide (HE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-endosulfan, o,p′-DDD, p,p′-DDD, o,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDE, o,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDT, dicofol, methoxychlor, and mirex] that were spiked in tomatoes. Samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, and the extract was subjected to a rapid clean-up using a Florisil column. The residues were determined by GLC-ECD using two columns of different polarity. The calibration graph correlation coefficient ranged from 0.9903 to 0.9990. The recoveries ranged from 95 to 99% with relative standard deviation ranging from 0.5 to 14.7% in the concentration range 0.005 to 0.2 μg/g. The limits of detection ranged from 0.004 to 0.05 μg/g and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.174 μg/g.
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  • 35
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: p-Nitrophenol ; urine ; SPME ; GC/MS ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
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  • 36
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Dill ether ; stereoselective synthesis ; dill ether stereoisomers ; enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (enantio-MDGC/MS) ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
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  • 37
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Supercritical fluid extraction ; hydrocarbons ; high temperature ; thermal desorption ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The extraction of n-alkanes, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (naphthalene, methylated naphthalenes, phenanthrene, methylated phenanthrenes, anthracene, and methylated anthracenes) and biomarkers (hopanes) from Posidonia shale by high temperature supercritical fluid (HT-SFE) carbon dioxide extraction has been evaluated, including the relative contributions from thermal desorption and relative comparisons to conventional Soxhlet extraction. These current results confirm those of previous studies indicating a widely differing extractability of strongly and weakly associated hydrocarbons in ancient sediments and the significantly higher recoveries possible using HT-SFE compared to conventional Soxhlet extraction. The present study also demonstrates that these high HT-SFE recoveries are due to true extraction rather than simple thermal desorption and that this procedure is a useful tool to study speciation as well as total extractable hydrocarbons from sediments.
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  • 38
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective capillary gas chromatography ; chiral stationary phase ; chiral recognition mechanism ; cholic acid ; cyclocholates ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The suitability of cyclocholates as chiral selectors in gas chromatography has been evaluated. We present the synthesis and characterization of two cyclocholates, viz. 3α,7α-diacetoxycyclo[3]cholate and 3α,7α-diacetoxycylo[4]cholate. Mixtures of these new selectors with polysiloxanes were tested as chiral stationary phases in capillary gas chromatography. Several enantiomer separations of common racemates were achieved with the 3α,7α-diacetoxycyclo[3]cholate at 10% in OV-1701 (w/w). It was shown that column efficiency was strongly dependent on temperature and that enantioselectivity was very sensitive to column conditioning. This chromatographic behavior suggested that cyclocholates were only dispersed in polysiloxane. Thus, it was assumed that chiral discrimination occurred via enantioselective adsorption interactions of enantiomers at the surface of the solid chiral selector dispersed in the polysiloxane matrix OV-1701.
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  • 39
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; thickeners ; monosaccharides ; PMMA capillaries ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Gelling agents based on polysaccharides have become extremely important in the food industry. As more and more products like soups and sauces have become available in lyophilized form, thickeners have to be added to give a controlled consistency to the finished meal. A capillary electrophoretic method has been developed to investigate the monosaccharide composition of hydrolyzed thickeners. 2-Aminoanthracene was used as a derivatization reagent to allow sensitive fluorescence detection. This system was applied to a set of standard thickeners as well as to food samples.
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  • 40
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Polypeptides ; subcritical fluid chromatography ; supercritical fluid chromatography ; carbon dioxide ; additives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The effect of mobile phase modifier and additive on the chromatographic properties of various small polypeptides was explored under subcritical conditions. A polymeric column was used to separate various enkephalin analogs, bradykinin, and oxytocin using a carbon dioxide-based mobile phase with either an ethanol or a 2-methoxyethanol modifier. The role of the modifier was found to be secondary to that of the mobile phase additive. As progressively stronger acidic mobile phase additives were used, the peak profiles of the various polypeptides improved and retention decreased. Heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid was found to be the most useful additive for these types of solutes under near-critical conditions, while the potassium salt of heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid failed to elute any of the polypeptides. At low temperatures, pressure gradients with a carbon dioxide/ethanol/heptadecafluorooctanesulfonic acid ternary mobile phase produced reasonably good peak profiles with the polymeric column.
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  • 41
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Multidimensional Gas Chromatography ; orthogonal separations ; GC×GC ; comprehensive two-dimensional chromatography ; characterization of gasoline ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), two capillary columns are connected in series through an interface known as a “thermal modulator”. This device transforms effluent from the first capillary column into a series of sharp injection-like chemical pulses suitable for high-speed chromatography on the second column. Dramatic increases in the resolving power, sensitivity, and speed of the gas chromatograph result. This paper describes the development of a robust and reliable thermal modulator for GC×GC.
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  • 42
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin ; γ(δ)-thionolactones ; olfactometry ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The even numbered γ(δ)-thionolactones (C6-C12) were investigated, using heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)- and heptakis(2,3-di-O-acetyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin as chiral stationary phases in capillary gas chromatography. The odor characteristics of γ(δ)-thionolactone enantiomers were investigated by enantioselective gas chromatography/olfactometry.
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  • 43
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Multi-dimensional chromatography ; LC-GC ; AED ; memory effects ; fossil fuel ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Conventional operation of the GC Atomic Emission Detector (AED) system involves backflushing of the microwave induced plasma (MIP) during the elution of small volumes of solvent from the GC column. When performing multi-dimensional, on-line LC-GC-AED, significantly larger solvent volumes are introduced into the system and must subsequently be removed. Thus solvent venting procedures are required and the backflushing of the plasma must be extended to facilitate solvent but not solute removal. This study demonstrates the significance of memory effects imparted upon the MIP of the AED if solvent venting is incomplete. Comparison of conventional GC-AED and multi-dimensional LC-GC-AED is made with respect to a fossil fuel sample.
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  • 44
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fresh water systems ; burbot ; organotin compounds ; speciation analysis ; GC-AED ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
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  • 45
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) ; solid phase extraction (SPE) ; phenylurea(s) ; herbicide(s) ; monuron ; linuron ; diuron ; isoproturon ; monolinuron ; drinking water ; environmental water ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The present paper describes the application of capillary electrophoresis in the micellar mode to the separation and quantitative determination of five phenylurea herbicides, viz. monuron, linuron, diuron, isoproturon, and monolinuron, in water samples. Using uncoated fused silica capillary and phosphate-borate buffer (pH 7.0) containing SDS, the five pesticides are resolved in less than 15 min and quantitatively determined by an ultraviolet detector at 244 nm. Method optimization and validation parameters are presented. Good linearity and repeatability were observed for all the compounds studied (correlation coefficients 0.999). The feasibility of the method developed was tested by simultaneous determination of these herbicides in environmental and drinking water samples at the minimum residue levels (MRLs) (0.1 μg/L) after solid-phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration procedure.
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  • 46
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary GC ; milk fat purity ; chemometrics ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The adulteration of milk fat with foreign fat has been and still is a major concern in the dairy industry. Milk fat purity is currently evaluated by triglyceride analysis by using the Official EU method. The detection limit of the various vegetable and animal fats ranges between 4 and 6%. This research was carried out to verify whether it is possible to decrease the detection limits of beef tallow, which is the most widely used adulterating animal fat. For this purpose, determinations of diglycerides and 3,5-cholestadiene, together with the Official EU method, were applied both to several samples of pure milk fat and to mixtures of milk fat with different percentages of beef tallow. The best results were obtained combining the data deriving from the three determinations by multivariate statistical techniques; in particular, the statistical model obtained by the UNEQ technique seems to be able to decrease the detection limit of beef tallow from 5.2 to 2%. The diglyceride and 3,5-cholestadiene evaluation, combined with the Official EU method for triglycerides, can be usefully applied both to detect small additions of beef tallow and to demonstrate the adulteration of milk fat samples showing results close to the detection limit of the official method.
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  • 47
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: HPLC ; stationary phase ; copper-amine complex ; aromatic amines ; polyaromatic hydrocarbons ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Chromatographic silica (10 μm) was chemically modified with the silylating agent: [3-(2-aminoethyl)aminopropyl]trimethoxysilane (AEAPTS). The reaction product was characterized by elemental analysis and infrared and 13C and 29Si NMR spectra. The chemically modified silica was treated with Cu(II) in methanol medium. This cation was strongly adsorbed through complexation by the pendant ethylenediamine groups attached to the silica surface. The complex formed on the silica surface was shown to be stable in both aqueous and non-aqueous media. The aim of Cu(II) immobilization is to use this new material as a stationary phase in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Separations of synthetic mixtures of aromatic amines and of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were undertaken using 150×3.9 mm HPLC columns packed with the modified silica, with and without copper ions, to follow the influence of the cation on the chromatographic separation and to verify the efficiency of the new stationary phase for HPLC.
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  • 48
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Solid-phase microextraction ; capillary gas chromatography ; volatile polar compounds ; water matrix ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method was developed for the analysis of volatile polar compounds in a water matrix using open cap vials Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) and Capillary Gas Chromatography (CGC). Both SPME techniques - direct sampling and headspace - were tested. Optimization of experimental conditions - exposure time, desorption time, with headspace SPME in addition the influence of the temperature and ionic strength of the sample solution on compound sorption, and finally GC response - were investigated. The analytes were extracted by directly immersing the 85 μm polyacrylate fiber in the aqueous sample or in the headspace. The linear range of the preconcentration process and the precision were examined. The amount of polar analytes sorbed on the fiber was determined and was found to be concentration dependent; it amounted to 0.014-0.64% in the concentration range of 0.00425-425 ppm studied in aqueous solution for direct sampling SPME and to 0.011-2.76% for solutions of concentration 0.0425-255 ppm for headspace SPME. The limits of determination were ascertained. Headspace SPME was applied to the analysis of real-life samples.
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  • 49
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fast gas chromatography ; peak band broadening ; packed capillary columns ; narrow-bore columns ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 50
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Fast gas chromatography ; multi-capillary column ; band broadening ; simulation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 51
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary gas chromatography (GC) ; atomic emission detection (AED) ; human plasma ; drug monitoring ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 52
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Micellar electrokinetic chromatography ; capillary electrophoresis ; amines ; cyclodextrins ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 53
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: GC-MS ; kava pyrones ; Alpinia zerumbet ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 54
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: RP-HPLC ; theophylline ; asthma ; apnea ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 55
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Chromatographic separation techniques ; High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) ; Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) ; Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) ; Capillary HPLC ; Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy ; hyphenation of chromatography with NMR spectroscopy ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---The hyphenation of chromatographic separation techniques with NMR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and time-saving methods for the separation and structural elucidation of unknown compounds and molecular compositions of mixtures. Most of the routinely used NMR flow-cells have detection volumes between 40-180 μL for conventional separations with analytical columns, and the newest designs employ detection volumes in the order of 200 nL for capillary separations. The low flow rates used in capillary chromatography permit the use of deuterated solvents. Unequivocal structural assignment of unknown chromatographic peaks is possible by two-dimensional stopped-flow capillary HPLC-NMR experiments.
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  • 56
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Vapor analysis ; nerve agents ; sulfur mustard ; data acquisition ; automation ; valve injection ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---A method is presented for the continuous analysis of generated vapors of the nerve agents soman and sarin and the blistering agent sulfur mustard. By using a gas sampling valve and a very short (15 cm) column connected to an on-column injector with a “standard length” column, the system can either be calibrated or used for performing high speed gas analyses. When using a flame ionization detector, the detection limit was ca. 100 ppb (ca. 0.5-1.0 mg/m3). This technique is applied in inhalation toxicokinetic studies of nerve agents and mustard gas in the guinea pig.
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  • 57
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Cyclic carbonates ; thermal stability ; chemical stability ; gas phase chromatography ; liquid phase chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
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  • 58
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Solid phase microextraction (SPME) ; SPME/HPLC interface ; C-8 refocusing unit ; explosives analysis ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
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  • 59
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; capillary ; fused silica ; rotenone ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: No abstract
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 60
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrophoresis ; conductivity detection ; inorganic anions ; organic acids ; electrodipcoats ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
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  • 61
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; food analysis ; pesticide residues ; thiabendazole ; imazalil ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---No abstract
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 62
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Capillary electrochromatography ; isomers ; pneumocandins ; separation