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  • Amino Acid Sequence  (2,910)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (2,910)
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-02-06
    Description: SH3 and multiple ankyrin repeat domains 3 (SHANK3) haploinsufficiency is causative for the neurological features of Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMDS), including a high risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used unbiased, quantitative proteomics to identify changes in the phosphoproteome of Shank3-deficient neurons. Down-regulation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)-mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling resulted from enhanced phosphorylation and activation of serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) regulatory subunit, B56beta, due to increased steady-state levels of its kinase, Cdc2-like kinase 2 (CLK2). Pharmacological and genetic activation of Akt or inhibition of CLK2 relieved synaptic deficits in Shank3-deficient and PMDS patient-derived neurons. CLK2 inhibition also restored normal sociability in a Shank3-deficient mouse model. Our study thereby provides a novel mechanistic and potentially therapeutic understanding of deregulated signaling downstream of Shank3 deficiency.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bidinosti, Michael -- Botta, Paolo -- Kruttner, Sebastian -- Proenca, Catia C -- Stoehr, Natacha -- Bernhard, Mario -- Fruh, Isabelle -- Mueller, Matthias -- Bonenfant, Debora -- Voshol, Hans -- Carbone, Walter -- Neal, Sarah J -- McTighe, Stephanie M -- Roma, Guglielmo -- Dolmetsch, Ricardo E -- Porter, Jeffrey A -- Caroni, Pico -- Bouwmeester, Tewis -- Luthi, Andreas -- Galimberti, Ivan -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1199-203. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5487. Epub 2016 Feb 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Developmental Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ; Friedrich Miescher Institute, Basel, Switzerland. ; Analytical Sciences and Imaging, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ; Neuroscience, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, USA. ; Developmental Molecular Pathways, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland. ivan.galimberti@novartis.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26847545" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Autism Spectrum Disorder/*drug therapy/enzymology/genetics ; Chromosome Deletion ; Chromosome Disorders/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22/genetics ; Disease Models, Animal ; Down-Regulation ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Humans ; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Multiprotein Complexes/metabolism ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/*genetics ; Neurons/enzymology ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Phosphatase 2/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Proteomics ; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics/metabolism ; Rats ; Signal Transduction ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-01-23
    Description: Mono-ubiquitination of Fancd2 is essential for repairing DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The Fan1 nuclease, also required for ICL repair, is recruited to ICLs by ubiquitinated (Ub) Fancd2. This could in principle explain how Ub-Fancd2 promotes ICL repair, but we show that recruitment of Fan1 by Ub-Fancd2 is dispensable for ICL repair. Instead, Fan1 recruitment--and activity--restrains DNA replication fork progression and prevents chromosome abnormalities from occurring when DNA replication forks stall, even in the absence of ICLs. Accordingly, Fan1 nuclease-defective knockin mice are cancer-prone. Moreover, we show that a Fan1 variant in high-risk pancreatic cancers abolishes recruitment by Ub-Fancd2 and causes genetic instability without affecting ICL repair. Therefore, Fan1 recruitment enables processing of stalled forks that is essential for genome stability and health.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4770513/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lachaud, Christophe -- Moreno, Alberto -- Marchesi, Francesco -- Toth, Rachel -- Blow, J Julian -- Rouse, John -- WT096598MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):846-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad5634. Epub 2016 Jan 21.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; Centre for Gene Regulation and Expression, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. ; School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK. ; Medical Research Council Protein Phosphorylation and Ubiquitylation Unit, College of Life Sciences, Sir James Black Centre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland, UK. j.rouse@dundee.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26797144" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; *Chromosome Aberrations ; DNA Repair ; *DNA Replication ; Endodeoxyribonucleases/genetics/*metabolism ; Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group D2 Protein/genetics/*metabolism ; Female ; Gene Knock-In Techniques ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease ; Genomic Instability/*genetics ; Liver Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lung Neoplasms/genetics/pathology ; Lymphoma/genetics/pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Pancreatic Neoplasms/*genetics ; *Ubiquitination
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-03-26
    Description: Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a major HIV vaccine goal. Germline-targeting immunogens aim to initiate bnAb induction by activating bnAb germline precursor B cells. Critical unmet challenges are to determine whether bnAb precursor naive B cells bind germline-targeting immunogens and occur at sufficient frequency in humans for reliable vaccine responses. Using deep mutational scanning and multitarget optimization, we developed a germline-targeting immunogen (eOD-GT8) for diverse VRC01-class bnAbs. We then used the immunogen to isolate VRC01-class precursor naive B cells from HIV-uninfected donors. Frequencies of true VRC01-class precursors, their structures, and their eOD-GT8 affinities support this immunogen as a candidate human vaccine prime. These methods could be applied to germline targeting for other classes of HIV bnAbs and for Abs to other pathogens.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872700/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4872700/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Jardine, Joseph G -- Kulp, Daniel W -- Havenar-Daughton, Colin -- Sarkar, Anita -- Briney, Bryan -- Sok, Devin -- Sesterhenn, Fabian -- Ereno-Orbea, June -- Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr -- Deresa, Isaiah -- Hu, Xiaozhen -- Spencer, Skye -- Jones, Meaghan -- Georgeson, Erik -- Adachi, Yumiko -- Kubitz, Michael -- deCamp, Allan C -- Julien, Jean-Philippe -- Wilson, Ian A -- Burton, Dennis R -- Crotty, Shane -- Schief, William R -- P01 AI094419/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P01 AI110657/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103393/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084817/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- UM1 AI100663/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 25;351(6280):1458-63. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9195.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Program in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention (SCHARP), Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Program in Molecular Structure and Function, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A4, Canada. Departments of Biochemistry and Immunology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada. ; IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02129, USA. ; Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, USA. schief@scripps.edu shane@lji.org. ; Department of Immunology and Microbial Science, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. IAVI Neutralizing Antibody Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02129, USA. schief@scripps.edu shane@lji.org.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27013733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: AIDS Vaccines/*immunology ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; Antibody Affinity ; B-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cell Separation ; Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques ; Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry/genetics/*immunology ; Germ Cells/*immunology ; HIV Antibodies/chemistry/*immunology/isolation & purification ; HIV-1/*immunology ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Peptide Library ; Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid/*immunology ; Protein Conformation
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-04-02
    Description: The recent rapid spread of Zika virus and its unexpected linkage to birth defects and an autoimmune neurological syndrome have generated worldwide concern. Zika virus is a flavivirus like the dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile viruses. We present the 3.8 angstrom resolution structure of mature Zika virus, determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The structure of Zika virus is similar to other known flavivirus structures, except for the ~10 amino acids that surround the Asn(154) glycosylation site in each of the 180 envelope glycoproteins that make up the icosahedral shell. The carbohydrate moiety associated with this residue, which is recognizable in the cryo-EM electron density, may function as an attachment site of the virus to host cells. This region varies not only among Zika virus strains but also in other flaviviruses, which suggests that differences in this region may influence virus transmission and disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845755/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845755/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sirohi, Devika -- Chen, Zhenguo -- Sun, Lei -- Klose, Thomas -- Pierson, Theodore C -- Rossmann, Michael G -- Kuhn, Richard J -- R01 AI073755/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076331/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI073755/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI076331/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 22;352(6284):467-70. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf5316. Epub 2016 Mar 31.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Markey Center for Structural Biology and Purdue Institute for Inflammation, Immunology and Infectious Disease, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA. ; Viral Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27033547" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Glycosylation ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Viral Envelope Proteins/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Zika Virus/*chemistry/*ultrastructure
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-04-16
    Description: The nuclear pore complex (NPC) controls the transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, but its molecular architecture has thus far remained poorly defined. We biochemically reconstituted NPC core protomers and elucidated the underlying protein-protein interaction network. Flexible linker sequences, rather than interactions between the structured core scaffold nucleoporins, mediate the assembly of the inner ring complex and its attachment to the NPC coat. X-ray crystallographic analysis of these scaffold nucleoporins revealed the molecular details of their interactions with the flexible linker sequences and enabled construction of full-length atomic structures. By docking these structures into the cryoelectron tomographic reconstruction of the intact human NPC and validating their placement with our nucleoporin interactome, we built a composite structure of the NPC symmetric core that contains ~320,000 residues and accounts for ~56 megadaltons of the NPC's structured mass. Our approach provides a paradigm for the structure determination of similarly complex macromolecular assemblies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Daniel H -- Stuwe, Tobias -- Schilbach, Sandra -- Rundlet, Emily J -- Perriches, Thibaud -- Mobbs, George -- Fan, Yanbin -- Thierbach, Karsten -- Huber, Ferdinand M -- Collins, Leslie N -- Davenport, Andrew M -- Jeon, Young E -- Hoelz, Andre -- 5 T32 GM07616/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- ACB-12002/PHS HHS/ -- AGM-12006/PHS HHS/ -- R01 GM111461/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM111461/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007616/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Apr 15;352(6283):aaf1015. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf1015. Epub 2016 Apr 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. hoelz@caltech.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27081075" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Active Transport, Cell Nucleus ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Electron Microscope Tomography ; Fungal Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nuclear Pore/chemistry/*metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; *Protein Interaction Maps ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry/genetics/metabolism
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: With functions that range from cell envelope structure to signal transduction and transport, lipoproteins constitute 2 to 3% of bacterial genomes and play critical roles in bacterial physiology, pathogenicity, and antibiotic resistance. Lipoproteins are synthesized with a signal peptide securing them to the cytoplasmic membrane with the lipoprotein domain in the periplasm or outside the cell. Posttranslational processing requires a signal peptidase II (LspA) that removes the signal peptide. Here, we report the crystal structure of LspA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa complexed with the antimicrobial globomycin at 2.8 angstrom resolution. Mutagenesis studies identify LspA as an aspartyl peptidase. In an example of molecular mimicry, globomycin appears to inhibit by acting as a noncleavable peptide that sterically blocks the active site. This structure should inform rational antibiotic drug discovery.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Vogeley, Lutz -- El Arnaout, Toufic -- Bailey, Jonathan -- Stansfeld, Phillip J -- Boland, Coilin -- Caffrey, Martin -- BB/I019855/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 19;351(6275):876-80. doi: 10.1126/science.aad3747.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉School of Medicine and School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK. ; School of Medicine and School of Biochemistry and Immunology, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland. martin.caffrey@tcd.ie.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912896" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/genetics ; Bacterial Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry/genetics ; Catalytic Domain ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Mutagenesis ; Peptides/*chemistry/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Pseudomonas aeruginosa/*enzymology ; Substrate Specificity
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-02-26
    Description: T cell-mediated destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas causes type 1 diabetes (T1D). CD4 T cell responses play a central role in beta cell destruction, but the identity of the epitopes recognized by pathogenic CD4 T cells remains unknown. We found that diabetes-inducing CD4 T cell clones isolated from nonobese diabetic mice recognize epitopes formed by covalent cross-linking of proinsulin peptides to other peptides present in beta cell secretory granules. These hybrid insulin peptides (HIPs) are antigenic for CD4 T cells and can be detected by mass spectrometry in beta cells. CD4 T cells from the residual pancreatic islets of two organ donors who had T1D also recognize HIPs. Autoreactive T cells targeting hybrid peptides may explain how immune tolerance is broken in T1D.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Delong, Thomas -- Wiles, Timothy A -- Baker, Rocky L -- Bradley, Brenda -- Barbour, Gene -- Reisdorph, Richard -- Armstrong, Michael -- Powell, Roger L -- Reisdorph, Nichole -- Kumar, Nitesh -- Elso, Colleen M -- DeNicola, Megan -- Bottino, Rita -- Powers, Alvin C -- Harlan, David M -- Kent, Sally C -- Mannering, Stuart I -- Haskins, Kathryn -- 1K01DK094941/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- 1R01DK081166/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- 5U01DK89572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK104211/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Feb 12;351(6274):711-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2791.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. thomas.delong@ucdenver.edu katie.haskins@ucdenver.edu. ; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. ; Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA. ; Immunology and Diabetes Unit, St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia. ; Department of Medicine, Diabetes Division, Diabetes Center of Excellence, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA. ; Institute of Cellular Therapeutics, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. ; Division of Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, and Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN, USA. ; Immunology and Diabetes Unit, St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, 9 Princes Street, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia. University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, St. Vincent's Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26912858" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; C-Peptide/chemistry/*immunology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; Clone Cells ; Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/*immunology/pathology ; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/*immunology/pathology ; Epitopes/*immunology ; Immune Tolerance ; Insulin-Secreting Cells/*immunology/pathology ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred NOD ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Peptides/chemistry/immunology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-03-12
    Description: Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) is used extensively worldwide in plastic products, and its accumulation in the environment has become a global concern. Because the ability to enzymatically degrade PET has been thought to be limited to a few fungal species, biodegradation is not yet a viable remediation or recycling strategy. By screening natural microbial communities exposed to PET in the environment, we isolated a novel bacterium, Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6, that is able to use PET as its major energy and carbon source. When grown on PET, this strain produces two enzymes capable of hydrolyzing PET and the reaction intermediate, mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid. Both enzymes are required to enzymatically convert PET efficiently into its two environmentally benign monomers, terephthalic acid and ethylene glycol.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoshida, Shosuke -- Hiraga, Kazumi -- Takehana, Toshihiko -- Taniguchi, Ikuo -- Yamaji, Hironao -- Maeda, Yasuhito -- Toyohara, Kiyotsuna -- Miyamoto, Kenji -- Kimura, Yoshiharu -- Oda, Kohei -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 11;351(6278):1196-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad6359.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan. Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan. ; Department of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan. ; Life Science Materials Laboratory, ADEKA, 7-2-34 Higashiogu, Arakawa-ku, Tokyo 116-8553, Japan. ; Department of Polymer Science, Faculty of Textile Science, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Matsugasaki, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan. ; Ecology-Related Material Group Innovation Research Institute, Teijin, Hinode-cho 2-1, Iwakuni, Yamaguchi 740-8511, Japan. ; Department of Biosciences and Informatics, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965627" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Betaproteobacteria/*enzymology ; Environmental Restoration and Remediation ; Enzymes/classification/genetics/metabolism ; Hydrolysis ; Microbial Consortia ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phthalic Acids/metabolism ; Phylogeny ; Plastics/*metabolism ; Polyethylene Terephthalates/*metabolism ; Recycling
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-05-23
    Description: Extremophiles, microorganisms thriving in extreme environmental conditions, must have proteins and nucleic acids that are stable at extremes of temperature and pH. The nonenveloped, rod-shaped virus SIRV2 (Sulfolobus islandicus rod-shaped virus 2) infects the hyperthermophilic acidophile Sulfolobus islandicus, which lives at 80 degrees C and pH 3. We have used cryo-electron microscopy to generate a three-dimensional reconstruction of the SIRV2 virion at ~4 angstrom resolution, which revealed a previously unknown form of virion organization. Although almost half of the capsid protein is unstructured in solution, this unstructured region folds in the virion into a single extended alpha helix that wraps around the DNA. The DNA is entirely in the A-form, which suggests a common mechanism with bacterial spores for protecting DNA in the most adverse environments.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉DiMaio, Frank -- Yu, Xiong -- Rensen, Elena -- Krupovic, Mart -- Prangishvili, David -- Egelman, Edward H -- GM035269/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):914-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4181.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. ; Institut Pasteur, Department of Microbiology, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, Paris 75015, France. ; Institut Pasteur, Department of Microbiology, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, Paris 75015, France. egelman@virginia.edu david.prangishvili@pasteur.fr. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. egelman@virginia.edu david.prangishvili@pasteur.fr.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25999507" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; DNA, A-Form/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Rudiviridae/*metabolism/ultrastructure ; Spores, Bacterial/genetics/virology ; Sulfolobus/*genetics/*virology ; Virion/*ultrastructure
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-10-10
    Description: Strigolactones are naturally occurring signaling molecules that affect plant development, fungi-plant interactions, and parasitic plant infestations. We characterized the function of 11 strigolactone receptors from the parasitic plant Striga hermonthica using chemical and structural biology. We found a clade of polyspecific receptors, including one that is sensitive to picomolar concentrations of strigolactone. A crystal structure of a highly sensitive strigolactone receptor from Striga revealed a larger binding pocket than that of the Arabidopsis receptor, which could explain the increased range of strigolactone sensitivity. Thus, the sensitivity of Striga to strigolactones from host plants is driven by receptor sensitivity. By expressing strigolactone receptors in Arabidopsis, we developed a bioassay that can be used to identify chemicals and crops with altered strigolactone levels.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Toh, Shigeo -- Holbrook-Smith, Duncan -- Stogios, Peter J -- Onopriyenko, Olena -- Lumba, Shelley -- Tsuchiya, Yuichiro -- Savchenko, Alexei -- McCourt, Peter -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 9;350(6257):203-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9476.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto M5S 3B2, Canada. ; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5, Canada. Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases, contracted by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto M5S 3E5, Canada. ; Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules, Nagoya University, Japan, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602, Japan. ; Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto M5S 3B2, Canada. peter.mccourt@utoronto.ca.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450211" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Arabidopsis/genetics/metabolism ; Catalytic Domain ; Germination/drug effects ; Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Lactones/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Plant Growth Regulators/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Plant Proteins/*chemistry/classification/genetics ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Receptors, Cell Surface/*chemistry/classification/genetics ; Seeds/genetics/growth & development/metabolism ; Striga/genetics/growth & development/*metabolism ; Structure-Activity Relationship
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2015-01-31
    Description: The 18-kilodalton translocator protein (TSPO), proposed to be a key player in cholesterol transport into mitochondria, is highly expressed in steroidogenic tissues, metastatic cancer, and inflammatory and neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. TSPO ligands, including benzodiazepine drugs, are implicated in regulating apoptosis and are extensively used in diagnostic imaging. We report crystal structures (at 1.8, 2.4, and 2.5 angstrom resolution) of TSPO from Rhodobacter sphaeroides and a mutant that mimics the human Ala(147)--〉Thr(147) polymorphism associated with psychiatric disorders and reduced pregnenolone production. Crystals obtained in the lipidic cubic phase reveal the binding site of an endogenous porphyrin ligand and conformational effects of the mutation. The three crystal structures show the same tightly interacting dimer and provide insights into the controversial physiological role of TSPO and how the mutation affects cholesterol binding.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Fei -- Liu, Jian -- Zheng, Yi -- Garavito, R Michael -- Ferguson-Miller, Shelagh -- ACB-12002/PHS HHS/ -- AGM-12006/PHS HHS/ -- GM094625/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM26916/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 30;347(6221):555-8. doi: 10.1126/science.1260590.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. fergus20@msu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635101" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Cholesterol/metabolism ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Humans ; Hydrogen Bonding ; Isoquinolines/metabolism ; Ligands ; Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry ; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ; Porphyrins/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protoporphyrins/metabolism ; Receptors, GABA/chemistry/genetics ; Rhodobacter sphaeroides/*chemistry
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2015-01-13
    Description: NADPH/NADP(+) (the reduced form of NADP(+)/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) homeostasis is critical for countering oxidative stress in cells. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (TH), a membrane enzyme present in both bacteria and mitochondria, couples the proton motive force to the generation of NADPH. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of the transmembrane proton channel domain of TH from Thermus thermophilus and the 6.9 A crystal structure of the entire enzyme (holo-TH). The membrane domain crystallized as a symmetric dimer, with each protomer containing a putative proton channel. The holo-TH is a highly asymmetric dimer with the NADP(H)-binding domain (dIII) in two different orientations. This unusual arrangement suggests a catalytic mechanism in which the two copies of dIII alternatively function in proton translocation and hydride transfer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4479213/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4479213/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Leung, Josephine H -- Schurig-Briccio, Lici A -- Yamaguchi, Mutsuo -- Moeller, Arne -- Speir, Jeffrey A -- Gennis, Robert B -- Stout, Charles D -- 1R01GM103838-01A1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- 5R01GM061545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM073197/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM095600/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P41GM103310/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM061545/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM095600/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM103838/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 9;347(6218):178-81. doi: 10.1126/science.1260451.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA. ; National Resource for Automated Molecular Microscopy, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. dave@scripps.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25574024" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NADP Transhydrogenases/*chemistry ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; *Protons ; Thermus thermophilus/enzymology
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2015-06-13
    Description: The spindle checkpoint of the cell division cycle senses kinetochores that are not attached to microtubules and prevents precocious onset of anaphase, which can lead to aneuploidy. The nuclear division cycle 80 complex (Ndc80C) is a major microtubule receptor at the kinetochore. Ndc80C also mediates the kinetochore recruitment of checkpoint proteins. We found that the checkpoint protein kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) directly bound to Ndc80C through two independent interactions. Both interactions involved the microtubule-binding surfaces of Ndc80C and were directly inhibited in the presence of microtubules. Elimination of one such interaction in human cells caused checkpoint defects expected from a failure to detect unattached kinetochores. Competition between Mps1 and microtubules for Ndc80C binding thus constitutes a direct mechanism for the detection of unattached kinetochores.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ji, Zhejian -- Gao, Haishan -- Yu, Hongtao -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jun 12;348(6240):1260-4. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa4029.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX 74390, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 6001 Forest Park Road, Dallas, TX 74390, USA. hongtao.yu@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26068854" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding, Competitive ; *Cell Cycle ; Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Kinetochores/*metabolism ; Microtubules/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nuclear Proteins/*metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism ; Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/genetics/*metabolism
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2015-03-15
    Description: Rgs2, a regulator of G proteins, lowers blood pressure by decreasing signaling through Galphaq. Human patients expressing Met-Leu-Rgs2 (ML-Rgs2) or Met-Arg-Rgs2 (MR-Rgs2) are hypertensive relative to people expressing wild-type Met-Gln-Rgs2 (MQ-Rgs2). We found that wild-type MQ-Rgs2 and its mutant, MR-Rgs2, were destroyed by the Ac/N-end rule pathway, which recognizes N(alpha)-terminally acetylated (Nt-acetylated) proteins. The shortest-lived mutant, ML-Rgs2, was targeted by both the Ac/N-end rule and Arg/N-end rule pathways. The latter pathway recognizes unacetylated N-terminal residues. Thus, the Nt-acetylated Ac-MX-Rgs2 (X = Arg, Gln, Leu) proteins are specific substrates of the mammalian Ac/N-end rule pathway. Furthermore, the Ac/N-degron of Ac-MQ-Rgs2 was conditional, and Teb4, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane-embedded ubiquitin ligase, was able to regulate G protein signaling by targeting Ac-MX-Rgs2 proteins for degradation through their N(alpha)-terminal acetyl group.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4748709/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4748709/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Park, Sang-Eun -- Kim, Jeong-Mok -- Seok, Ok-Hee -- Cho, Hanna -- Wadas, Brandon -- Kim, Seon-Young -- Varshavsky, Alexander -- Hwang, Cheol-Sang -- DK039520/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- GM031530/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK039520/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM031530/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 13;347(6227):1249-52. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3844.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, South Korea. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Medical Genomics Research Center, KRIBB, Daejeon, South Korea. Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon, South Korea. ; Division of Biology and Biological Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. cshwang@postech.ac.kr avarsh@caltech.edu. ; Department of Life Sciences, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784, South Korea. cshwang@postech.ac.kr avarsh@caltech.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766235" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Amino Acid Sequence ; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11/metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Humans ; Membrane Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Processing, Post-Translational ; Protein Stability ; Proteolysis ; RGS Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics/metabolism ; Ubiquitination
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2015-02-24
    Description: Notch receptors guide mammalian cell fate decisions by engaging the proteins Jagged and Delta-like (DLL). The 2.3 angstrom resolution crystal structure of the interacting regions of the Notch1-DLL4 complex reveals a two-site, antiparallel binding orientation assisted by Notch1 O-linked glycosylation. Notch1 epidermal growth factor-like repeats 11 and 12 interact with the DLL4 Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 (DSL) domain and module at the N-terminus of Notch ligands (MNNL) domains, respectively. Threonine and serine residues on Notch1 are functionalized with O-fucose and O-glucose, which act as surrogate amino acids by making specific, and essential, contacts to residues on DLL4. The elucidation of a direct chemical role for O-glycans in Notch1 ligand engagement demonstrates how, by relying on posttranslational modifications of their ligand binding sites, Notch proteins have linked their functional capacity to developmentally regulated biosynthetic pathways.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445638/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4445638/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Luca, Vincent C -- Jude, Kevin M -- Pierce, Nathan W -- Nachury, Maxence V -- Fischer, Suzanne -- Garcia, K Christopher -- 1R01-GM097015/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM097015/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 20;347(6224):847-53. doi: 10.1126/science.1261093.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. kcgarcia@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25700513" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alagille Syndrome/genetics ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Amino Acid Substitution ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fucose/chemistry ; Glucose/chemistry ; Glycosylation ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*chemistry/genetics ; Ligands ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/ultrastructure ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Molecular Targeted Therapy ; Polysaccharides/chemistry ; Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy/genetics ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Rats ; Receptor, Notch1/*chemistry/genetics/ultrastructure ; Serine/chemistry/genetics ; Threonine/chemistry/genetics
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: In cells, biosynthetic machinery coordinates protein synthesis and folding to optimize efficiency and minimize off-pathway outcomes. However, it has been difficult to delineate experimentally the mechanisms responsible. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we studied cotranslational folding of the first nucleotide-binding domain from the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. During synthesis, folding occurred discretely via sequential compaction of N-terminal, alpha-helical, and alpha/beta-core subdomains. Moreover, the timing of these events was critical; premature alpha-subdomain folding prevented subsequent core formation. This process was facilitated by modulating intrinsic folding propensity in three distinct ways: delaying alpha-subdomain compaction, facilitating beta-strand intercalation, and optimizing translation kinetics via codon usage. Thus, de novo folding is translationally tuned by an integrated cellular response that shapes the cotranslational folding landscape at critical stages of synthesis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Soo Jung -- Yoon, Jae Seok -- Shishido, Hideki -- Yang, Zhongying -- Rooney, LeeAnn A -- Barral, Jose M -- Skach, William R -- P30CA069533/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30EYE010572/PHS HHS/ -- R01DK51818/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01GM53457/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- S10OD012246/OD/NIH HHS/ -- S10RR025571/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Apr 24;348(6233):444-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa3974.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), Portland, OR 97239, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550-0620, USA. Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550-0620, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU), Portland, OR 97239, USA. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. skachw@ohsu.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25908822" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Codon/chemistry/*metabolism ; Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance ; Regulator/*biosynthesis/*chemistry/genetics ; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer ; Humans ; Kinetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Peptide Chain Elongation, Translational ; *Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Ribosomes/chemistry/metabolism
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2015-01-24
    Description: Chemokines and their receptors control cell migration during development, immune system responses, and in numerous diseases, including inflammation and cancer. The structural basis of receptor:chemokine recognition has been a long-standing unanswered question due to the challenges of structure determination for membrane protein complexes. Here, we report the crystal structure of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in complex with the viral chemokine antagonist vMIP-II at 3.1 angstrom resolution. The structure revealed a 1:1 stoichiometry and a more extensive binding interface than anticipated from the paradigmatic two-site model. The structure helped rationalize a large body of mutagenesis data and together with modeling provided insights into CXCR4 interactions with its endogenous ligand CXCL12, its ability to recognize diverse ligands, and the specificity of CC and CXC receptors for their respective chemokines.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362693/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362693/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Qin, Ling -- Kufareva, Irina -- Holden, Lauren G -- Wang, Chong -- Zheng, Yi -- Zhao, Chunxia -- Fenalti, Gustavo -- Wu, Huixian -- Han, Gye Won -- Cherezov, Vadim -- Abagyan, Ruben -- Stevens, Raymond C -- Handel, Tracy M -- ACB-12002/PHS HHS/ -- AGM-12006/PHS HHS/ -- R01 GM071872/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM081763/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI101687/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM094612/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094618/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 6;347(6226):1117-22. doi: 10.1126/science.1261064. Epub 2015 Jan 22.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉University of California, San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. ; University of California, San Diego, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. thandel@ucsd.edu stevens@usc.edu ikufareva@ucsd.edu. ; Department of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute. Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute. ; Department of Chemistry, Bridge Institute. Department of Biological Sciences, Bridge Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA. thandel@ucsd.edu stevens@usc.edu ikufareva@ucsd.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612609" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Chemokine CXCL12/chemistry ; Chemokines/*chemistry ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Design ; Humans ; Models, Chemical ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Binding ; Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs ; Protein Multimerization ; Receptors, CXCR4/agonists/antagonists & inhibitors/*chemistry ; Structural Homology, Protein
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2015-08-01
    Description: The inefficient clearance of dying cells can lead to abnormal immune responses, such as unresolved inflammation and autoimmune conditions. We show that tumor suppressor p53 controls signaling-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells through its target, Death Domain1alpha (DD1alpha), which suggests that p53 promotes both the proapoptotic pathway and postapoptotic events. DD1alpha appears to function as an engulfment ligand or receptor that engages in homophilic intermolecular interaction at intercellular junctions of apoptotic cells and macrophages, unlike other typical scavenger receptors that recognize phosphatidylserine on the surface of dead cells. DD1alpha-deficient mice showed in vivo defects in clearing dying cells, which led to multiple organ damage indicative of immune dysfunction. p53-induced expression of DD1alpha thus prevents persistence of cell corpses and ensures efficient generation of precise immune responses.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Yoon, Kyoung Wan -- Byun, Sanguine -- Kwon, Eunjeong -- Hwang, So-Young -- Chu, Kiki -- Hiraki, Masatsugu -- Jo, Seung-Hee -- Weins, Astrid -- Hakroush, Samy -- Cebulla, Angelika -- Sykes, David B -- Greka, Anna -- Mundel, Peter -- Fisher, David E -- Mandinova, Anna -- Lee, Sam W -- CA142805/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA149477/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA80058/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- DK062472/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK091218/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK093378/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK57683/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- S10RR027673/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 31;349(6247):1261669. doi: 10.1126/science.1261669.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Center for Regenerative Medicine and Technology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. ; Department of Medicine, Glom-NExT Center for Glomerular Kidney Disease and Novel Experimental Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Cutaneous Biology Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Building 149, 13th Street, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. swlee@mgh.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26228159" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Apoptosis/genetics/*immunology ; Autoimmune Diseases/genetics/immunology ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammation/genetics/immunology ; Macrophages/immunology ; Male ; Membrane Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phagocytosis/*immunology ; Phosphatidylserines/*metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/*metabolism
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2015-01-31
    Description: Translocator proteins (TSPOs) bind steroids and porphyrins, and they are implicated in many human diseases, for which they serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. TSPOs have tryptophan-rich sequences that are highly conserved from bacteria to mammals. Here we report crystal structures for Bacillus cereus TSPO (BcTSPO) down to 1.7 A resolution, including a complex with the benzodiazepine-like inhibitor PK11195. We also describe BcTSPO-mediated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) reactions, including catalytic degradation to a previously undescribed heme derivative. We used structure-inspired mutations to investigate reaction mechanisms, and we showed that TSPOs from Xenopus and man have similar PpIX-directed activities. Although TSPOs have been regarded as transporters, the catalytic activity in PpIX degradation suggests physiological importance for TSPOs in protection against oxidative stress.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4341906/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4341906/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Guo, Youzhong -- Kalathur, Ravi C -- Liu, Qun -- Kloss, Brian -- Bruni, Renato -- Ginter, Christopher -- Kloppmann, Edda -- Rost, Burkhard -- Hendrickson, Wayne A -- GM095315/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM107462/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM107462/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM075026/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 30;347(6221):551-5. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa1534.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. ; The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. ; The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. New York Structural Biology Center, Synchrotron Beamlines, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA. ; The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. Department of Informatics, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Technische Universitat Munchen, Garching 85748, Germany. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. The New York Consortium on Membrane Protein Structure (NYCOMPS), New York Structural Biology Center, 89 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10027, USA. New York Structural Biology Center, Synchrotron Beamlines, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA. Department of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. wayne@xtl.cumc.columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25635100" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Bacillus cereus/*chemistry ; Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Isoquinolines/metabolism ; Ligands ; Membrane Transport Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutant Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Subunits/chemistry ; Protoporphyrins/metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Tryptophan/analysis
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: The nuclear pore complex (NPC) constitutes the sole gateway for bidirectional nucleocytoplasmic transport. We present the reconstitution and interdisciplinary analyses of the ~425-kilodalton inner ring complex (IRC), which forms the central transport channel and diffusion barrier of the NPC, revealing its interaction network and equimolar stoichiometry. The Nsp1*Nup49*Nup57 channel nucleoporin heterotrimer (CNT) attaches to the IRC solely through the adaptor nucleoporin Nic96. The CNT*Nic96 structure reveals that Nic96 functions as an assembly sensor that recognizes the three-dimensional architecture of the CNT, thereby mediating the incorporation of a defined CNT state into the NPC. We propose that the IRC adopts a relatively rigid scaffold that recruits the CNT to primarily form the diffusion barrier of the NPC, rather than enabling channel dilation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stuwe, Tobias -- Bley, Christopher J -- Thierbach, Karsten -- Petrovic, Stefan -- Schilbach, Sandra -- Mayo, Daniel J -- Perriches, Thibaud -- Rundlet, Emily J -- Jeon, Young E -- Collins, Leslie N -- Huber, Ferdinand M -- Lin, Daniel H -- Paduch, Marcin -- Koide, Akiko -- Lu, Vincent -- Fischer, Jessica -- Hurt, Ed -- Koide, Shohei -- Kossiakoff, Anthony A -- Hoelz, Andre -- ACB-12002/PHS HHS/ -- AGM-12006/PHS HHS/ -- P30-CA014599/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM090324/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01-GM111461/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U01-GM094588/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54-GM087519/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 2;350(6256):56-64. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9176. Epub 2015 Aug 27.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉California Institute of Technology, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Biochemistry Center of Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; California Institute of Technology, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA. hoelz@caltech.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26316600" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Chaetomium/metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Fungal Proteins/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nuclear Pore/metabolism/*ultrastructure ; Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Nuclear Proteins/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2015-09-19
    Description: A wide variety of RNAs encode small open-reading-frame (smORF/sORF) peptides, but their functions are largely unknown. Here, we show that Drosophila polished-rice (pri) sORF peptides trigger proteasome-mediated protein processing, converting the Shavenbaby (Svb) transcription repressor into a shorter activator. A genome-wide RNA interference screen identifies an E2-E3 ubiquitin-conjugating complex, UbcD6-Ubr3, which targets Svb to the proteasome in a pri-dependent manner. Upon interaction with Ubr3, Pri peptides promote the binding of Ubr3 to Svb. Ubr3 can then ubiquitinate the Svb N terminus, which is degraded by the proteasome. The C-terminal domains protect Svb from complete degradation and ensure appropriate processing. Our data show that Pri peptides control selectivity of Ubr3 binding, which suggests that the family of sORF peptides may contain an extended repertoire of protein regulators.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zanet, J -- Benrabah, E -- Li, T -- Pelissier-Monier, A -- Chanut-Delalande, H -- Ronsin, B -- Bellen, H J -- Payre, F -- Plaza, S -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 18;349(6254):1356-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5677.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Centre de Biologie du Developpement, Universite de Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, Batiment 4R3, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse, France. CNRS, UMR5547, Centre de Biologie du Developpement, F-31062 Toulouse, France. ; Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Neurological Research Institute, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; Centre de Biologie du Developpement, Universite de Toulouse III-Paul Sabatier, Batiment 4R3, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse, France. CNRS, UMR5547, Centre de Biologie du Developpement, F-31062 Toulouse, France. francois.payre@univ-tlse3.fr serge.plaza@univ-tlse3.f.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26383956" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Drosophila Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Drosophila melanogaster/enzymology/genetics/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Open Reading Frames ; Peptides/genetics/*metabolism ; Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/*metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; *Proteolysis ; RNA Interference ; Transcription Factors/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes/metabolism ; Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism ; Ubiquitination
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2015-03-15
    Description: TREK-2 (KCNK10/K2P10), a two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel, is gated by multiple stimuli such as stretch, fatty acids, and pH and by several drugs. However, the mechanisms that control channel gating are unclear. Here we present crystal structures of the human TREK-2 channel (up to 3.4 angstrom resolution) in two conformations and in complex with norfluoxetine, the active metabolite of fluoxetine (Prozac) and a state-dependent blocker of TREK channels. Norfluoxetine binds within intramembrane fenestrations found in only one of these two conformations. Channel activation by arachidonic acid and mechanical stretch involves conversion between these states through movement of the pore-lining helices. These results provide an explanation for TREK channel mechanosensitivity, regulation by diverse stimuli, and possible off-target effects of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor Prozac.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Dong, Yin Yao -- Pike, Ashley C W -- Mackenzie, Alexandra -- McClenaghan, Conor -- Aryal, Prafulla -- Dong, Liang -- Quigley, Andrew -- Grieben, Mariana -- Goubin, Solenne -- Mukhopadhyay, Shubhashish -- Ruda, Gian Filippo -- Clausen, Michael V -- Cao, Lishuang -- Brennan, Paul E -- Burgess-Brown, Nicola A -- Sansom, Mark S P -- Tucker, Stephen J -- Carpenter, Elisabeth P -- 084655/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 092809/Z/10/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 13;347(6227):1256-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1261512.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Target Discovery Institute, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7FZ, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. ; Pfizer Neusentis, Granta Park, Cambridge CB21 6GS, UK. ; OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QU, UK. ; Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. liz.carpenter@sgc.ox.ac.uk stephen.tucker@physics.ox.ac.uk. ; Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. OXION Initiative in Ion Channels and Disease, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PN, UK. liz.carpenter@sgc.ox.ac.uk stephen.tucker@physics.ox.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25766236" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Arachidonic Acid/pharmacology ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Fluoxetine/analogs & derivatives/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Humans ; *Ion Channel Gating ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Potassium/metabolism ; Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain/antagonists & ; inhibitors/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Conformation ; Protein Folding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2015-09-26
    Description: Cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) detects intracellular DNA and signals through the adapter protein STING to initiate the antiviral response to DNA viruses. Whether DNA viruses can prevent activation of the cGAS-STING pathway remains largely unknown. Here, we identify the oncogenes of the DNA tumor viruses, including E7 from human papillomavirus (HPV) and E1A from adenovirus, as potent and specific inhibitors of the cGAS-STING pathway. We show that the LXCXE motif of these oncoproteins, which is essential for blockade of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor, is also important for antagonizing DNA sensing. E1A and E7 bind to STING, and silencing of these oncogenes in human tumor cells restores the cGAS-STING pathway. Our findings reveal a host-virus conflict that may have shaped the evolution of viral oncogenes.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lau, Laura -- Gray, Elizabeth E -- Brunette, Rebecca L -- Stetson, Daniel B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 30;350(6260):568-71. doi: 10.1126/science.aab3291. Epub 2015 Sep 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. ; Department of Immunology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. stetson@uw.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26405230" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adenovirus E1A Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Amino Acid Motifs ; Amino Acid Sequence ; DNA Tumor Viruses/*immunology ; DNA, Neoplasm/immunology ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; HEK293 Cells ; HeLa Cells ; Host-Pathogen Interactions ; Humans ; Membrane Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleotides, Cyclic/*antagonists & inhibitors ; Oncogene Proteins, Viral/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Retinoblastoma Protein/antagonists & inhibitors ; *Tumor Escape
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2015-09-12
    Description: Podophyllotoxin is the natural product precursor of the chemotherapeutic etoposide, yet only part of its biosynthetic pathway is known. We used transcriptome mining in Podophyllum hexandrum (mayapple) to identify biosynthetic genes in the podophyllotoxin pathway. We selected 29 candidate genes to combinatorially express in Nicotiana benthamiana (tobacco) and identified six pathway enzymes, including an oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase that closes the core cyclohexane ring of the aryltetralin scaffold. By coexpressing 10 genes in tobacco-these 6 plus 4 previously discovered-we reconstitute the pathway to (-)-4'-desmethylepipodophyllotoxin (the etoposide aglycone), a naturally occurring lignan that is the immediate precursor of etoposide and, unlike podophyllotoxin, a potent topoisomerase inhibitor. Our results enable production of the etoposide aglycone in tobacco and circumvent the need for cultivation of mayapple and semisynthetic epimerization and demethylation of podophyllotoxin.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lau, Warren -- Sattely, Elizabeth S -- DP2 AT008321/AT/NCCIH NIH HHS/ -- R00 GM089985/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Sep 11;349(6253):1224-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7202.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. sattely@stanford.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26359402" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Biosynthetic Pathways/genetics ; Etoposide/*metabolism ; Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic ; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant ; *Genetic Engineering ; Methylation ; Mixed Function Oxygenases/genetics/*metabolism ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Podophyllotoxin/*analogs & derivatives/biosynthesis/*metabolism ; Podophyllum peltatum/*enzymology/genetics ; Tobacco/genetics/*metabolism ; Topoisomerase Inhibitors/*metabolism ; Transcriptome
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2015-09-01
    Description: DNA strand exchange plays a central role in genetic recombination across all kingdoms of life, but the physical basis for these reactions remains poorly defined. Using single-molecule imaging, we found that bacterial RecA and eukaryotic Rad51 and Dmc1 all stabilize strand exchange intermediates in precise three-nucleotide steps. Each step coincides with an energetic signature (0.3 kBT) that is conserved from bacteria to humans. Triplet recognition is strictly dependent on correct Watson-Crick pairing. Rad51, RecA, and Dmc1 can all step over mismatches, but only Dmc1 can stabilize mismatched triplets. This finding provides insight into why eukaryotes have evolved a meiosis-specific recombinase. We propose that canonical Watson-Crick base triplets serve as the fundamental unit of pairing interactions during DNA recombination.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580133/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4580133/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lee, Ja Yil -- Terakawa, Tsuyoshi -- Qi, Zhi -- Steinfeld, Justin B -- Redding, Sy -- Kwon, YoungHo -- Gaines, William A -- Zhao, Weixing -- Sung, Patrick -- Greene, Eric C -- CA146940/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- GM074739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA146940/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 ES015252/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM074739/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01ES015252/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007367/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 28;349(6251):977-81. doi: 10.1126/science.aab2666.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Department of Biophysics, Kyoto University, Sakyo, Kyoto, Japan. ; Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biophysics and Biochemistry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. ecg2108@cumc.columbia.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26315438" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Base Pairing ; Base Sequence ; Cell Cycle Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; DNA/*chemistry/*metabolism ; DNA, Single-Stranded/metabolism ; DNA-Binding Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Escherichia coli Proteins/chemistry/metabolism ; Evolution, Molecular ; *Homologous Recombination ; Humans ; Meiosis ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Rad51 Recombinase/chemistry/*metabolism ; Rec A Recombinases/chemistry/*metabolism ; Recombinases/chemistry/*metabolism ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Thermodynamics
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: Retroviruses depend on self-assembly of their capsid proteins (core particle) to yield infectious mature virions. Despite the essential role of the retroviral core, its high polymorphism has hindered high-resolution structural analyses. Here, we report the x-ray structure of the native capsid (CA) protein from bovine leukemia virus. CA is organized as hexamers that deviate substantially from sixfold symmetry, yet adjust to make two-dimensional pseudohexagonal arrays that mimic mature retroviral cores. Intra- and interhexameric quasi-equivalent contacts are uncovered, with flexible trimeric lateral contacts among hexamers, yet preserving very similar dimeric interfaces making the lattice. The conformation of each capsid subunit in the hexamer is therefore dictated by long-range interactions, revealing how the hexamers can also assemble into closed core particles, a relevant feature of retrovirus biology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Obal, G -- Trajtenberg, F -- Carrion, F -- Tome, L -- Larrieux, N -- Zhang, X -- Pritsch, O -- Buschiazzo, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 3;349(6243):95-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5182. Epub 2015 Jun 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Unit of Protein Biophysics, Mataojo 2020, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay. Departamento de Inmunobiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la Republica, Avenida General Flores 2125, 11800, Montevideo, Uruguay. ; Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Unit of Protein Crystallography, Mataojo 2020, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay. ; Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Unit of Protein Biophysics, Mataojo 2020, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay. ; Institut Pasteur, Unite de Virologie Structurale, Departement de Virologie and CNRS Unite Mixte de Recherche 3569, 28, Rue du Docteur Roux, 75015, Paris, France. ; Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Unit of Protein Biophysics, Mataojo 2020, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay. Departamento de Inmunobiologia, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la Republica, Avenida General Flores 2125, 11800, Montevideo, Uruguay. pritsch@pasteur.edu.uy alebus@pasteur.edu.uy. ; Institut Pasteur de Montevideo, Unit of Protein Crystallography, Mataojo 2020, 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay. Institut Pasteur, Department of Structural Biology and Chemistry, 25, Rue du Dr Roux, 75015, Paris, France. pritsch@pasteur.edu.uy alebus@pasteur.edu.uy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26044299" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Capsid/*chemistry ; Capsid Proteins/*chemistry/genetics ; Cattle ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Leukemia Virus, Bovine/*chemistry/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Mutation ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2015-02-01
    Description: During virus infection, the adaptor proteins MAVS and STING transduce signals from the cytosolic nucleic acid sensors RIG-I and cGAS, respectively, to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other antiviral molecules. Here we show that MAVS and STING harbor two conserved serine and threonine clusters that are phosphorylated by the kinases IKK and/or TBK1 in response to stimulation. Phosphorylated MAVS and STING then bind to a positively charged surface of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and thereby recruit IRF3 for its phosphorylation and activation by TBK1. We further show that TRIF, an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor signaling, activates IRF3 through a similar phosphorylation-dependent mechanism. These results reveal that phosphorylation of innate adaptor proteins is an essential and conserved mechanism that selectively recruits IRF3 to activate the type I IFN pathway.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Liu, Siqi -- Cai, Xin -- Wu, Jiaxi -- Cong, Qian -- Chen, Xiang -- Li, Tuo -- Du, Fenghe -- Ren, Junyao -- Wu, You-Tong -- Grishin, Nick V -- Chen, Zhijian J -- AI-93967/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- GM-094575/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM-63692/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Mar 13;347(6227):aaa2630. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2630. Epub 2015 Jan 29.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. ; Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. ; Departments of Biophysics and Biochemistry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. ; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9148, USA. zhijian.chen@utsouthwestern.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25636800" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/chemistry/*metabolism ; Adaptor Proteins, Vesicular Transport/chemistry/*metabolism ; Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Cell Line ; Humans ; I-kappa B Kinase/metabolism ; Interferon Regulatory Factor-3/chemistry/*metabolism ; Interferon-alpha/biosynthesis ; Interferon-beta/biosynthesis ; Membrane Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism ; Mice ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phosphorylation ; Protein Binding ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Sendai virus/physiology ; Serine/metabolism ; Signal Transduction ; Ubiquitination ; Vesiculovirus/physiology
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2015-01-09
    Description: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) protein kinase is a master growth regulator that responds to multiple environmental cues. Amino acids stimulate, in a Rag-, Ragulator-, and vacuolar adenosine triphosphatase-dependent fashion, the translocation of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface, where it interacts with its activator Rheb. Here, we identify SLC38A9, an uncharacterized protein with sequence similarity to amino acid transporters, as a lysosomal transmembrane protein that interacts with the Rag guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) and Ragulator in an amino acid-sensitive fashion. SLC38A9 transports arginine with a high Michaelis constant, and loss of SLC38A9 represses mTORC1 activation by amino acids, particularly arginine. Overexpression of SLC38A9 or just its Ragulator-binding domain makes mTORC1 signaling insensitive to amino acid starvation but not to Rag activity. Thus, SLC38A9 functions upstream of the Rag GTPases and is an excellent candidate for being an arginine sensor for the mTORC1 pathway.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295826/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4295826/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wang, Shuyu -- Tsun, Zhi-Yang -- Wolfson, Rachel L -- Shen, Kuang -- Wyant, Gregory A -- Plovanich, Molly E -- Yuan, Elizabeth D -- Jones, Tony D -- Chantranupong, Lynne -- Comb, William -- Wang, Tim -- Bar-Peled, Liron -- Zoncu, Roberto -- Straub, Christoph -- Kim, Choah -- Park, Jiwon -- Sabatini, Bernardo L -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F30 CA180754/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 AG044064/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA180271/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 9;347(6218):188-94. doi: 10.1126/science.1257132. Epub 2015 Jan 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Harvard Medical School, 260 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, 220 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biology, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. sabatini@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25567906" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Amino Acid Transport Systems/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Arginine/deficiency/*metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Lysosomes/*enzymology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins/*metabolism ; Multiprotein Complexes/*metabolism ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Signal Transduction ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/*metabolism
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2015-02-14
    Description: Nucleotide analog inhibitors have shown clinical success in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, despite an incomplete mechanistic understanding of NS5B, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Here we study the details of HCV RNA replication by determining crystal structures of stalled polymerase ternary complexes with enzymes, RNA templates, RNA primers, incoming nucleotides, and catalytic metal ions during both primed initiation and elongation of RNA synthesis. Our analysis revealed that highly conserved active-site residues in NS5B position the primer for in-line attack on the incoming nucleotide. A beta loop and a C-terminal membrane-anchoring linker occlude the active-site cavity in the apo state, retract in the primed initiation assembly to enforce replication of the HCV genome from the 3' terminus, and vacate the active-site cavity during elongation. We investigated the incorporation of nucleotide analog inhibitors, including the clinically active metabolite formed by sofosbuvir, to elucidate key molecular interactions in the active site.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Appleby, Todd C -- Perry, Jason K -- Murakami, Eisuke -- Barauskas, Ona -- Feng, Joy -- Cho, Aesop -- Fox, David 3rd -- Wetmore, Diana R -- McGrath, Mary E -- Ray, Adrian S -- Sofia, Michael J -- Swaminathan, S -- Edwards, Thomas E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Feb 13;347(6223):771-5. doi: 10.1126/science.1259210.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA. todd.appleby@gilead.com tedwards@be4.com. ; Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Drive, Foster City, CA 94404, USA. ; Beryllium, 7869 NE Day Road West, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110, USA. ; Beryllium, 7869 NE Day Road West, Bainbridge Island, WA 98110, USA. todd.appleby@gilead.com tedwards@be4.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25678663" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Catalytic Domain ; Conserved Sequence ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Hepacivirus/enzymology/genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; RNA Replicase/*chemistry ; RNA, Viral/*biosynthesis ; Ribonucleotides/*chemistry ; Sofosbuvir ; Uridine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives/chemistry ; Viral Nonstructural Proteins/*chemistry ; *Virus Replication
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2015-12-19
    Description: The voltage-gated calcium channel Ca(v)1.1 is engaged in the excitation-contraction coupling of skeletal muscles. The Ca(v)1.1 complex consists of the pore-forming subunit alpha1 and auxiliary subunits alpha2delta, beta, and gamma. We report the structure of the rabbit Ca(v)1.1 complex determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. The four homologous repeats of the alpha1 subunit are arranged clockwise in the extracellular view. The gamma subunit, whose structure resembles claudins, interacts with the voltage-sensing domain of repeat IV (VSD(IV)), whereas the cytosolic beta subunit is located adjacent to VSD(II) of alpha1. The alpha2 subunit interacts with the extracellular loops of repeats I to III through its VWA and Cache1 domains. The structure reveals the architecture of a prototypical eukaryotic Ca(v) channel and provides a framework for understanding the function and disease mechanisms of Ca(v) and Na(v) channels.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Wu, Jianping -- Yan, Zhen -- Li, Zhangqiang -- Yan, Chuangye -- Lu, Shan -- Dong, Mengqiu -- Yan, Nieng -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 18;350(6267):aad2395. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2395.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. ; National Institute of Biological Sciences, Beijing 102206, China. ; State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. Center for Structural Biology, School of Life Sciences and School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. nyan@tsinghua.edu.cn.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26680202" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Calcium Channels, L-Type/*chemistry/genetics/isolation & purification ; Cell Membrane/chemistry ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Muscle, Skeletal/chemistry ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Protein Subunits/isolation & purification ; Rabbits
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2015-06-06
    Description: The detailed molecular interactions between native HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) hexamers that shield the viral genome and proteins have been elusive. We report crystal structures describing interactions between CA monomers related by sixfold symmetry within hexamers (intrahexamer) and threefold and twofold symmetry between neighboring hexamers (interhexamer). The structures describe how CA builds hexagonal lattices, the foundation of mature capsids. Lattice structure depends on an adaptable hydration layer modulating interactions among CA molecules. Disruption of this layer alters interhexamer interfaces, highlighting an inherent structural variability. A CA-targeting antiviral affects capsid stability by binding across CA molecules and subtly altering interhexamer interfaces remote to the ligand-binding site. Inherent structural plasticity, hydration layer rearrangement, and effector binding affect capsid stability and have functional implications for the retroviral life cycle.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584149/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584149/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gres, Anna T -- Kirby, Karen A -- KewalRamani, Vineet N -- Tanner, John J -- Pornillos, Owen -- Sarafianos, Stefan G -- AI076119/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI099284/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI100890/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI112417/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI120860/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- GM066087/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM103368/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM103368/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI076119/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI099284/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI100890/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI120860/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM066087/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R21 AI112417/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 3;349(6243):99-103. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5936. Epub 2015 Jun 4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. ; Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. ; Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. ; Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA. ; Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. sarafianoss@missouri.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26044298" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Capsid/*chemistry ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; HIV-1/*chemistry/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/*chemistry/genetics
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2015-06-27
    Description: Light-gated rhodopsin cation channels from chlorophyte algae have transformed neuroscience research through their use as membrane-depolarizing optogenetic tools for targeted photoactivation of neuron firing. Photosuppression of neuronal action potentials has been limited by the lack of equally efficient tools for membrane hyperpolarization. We describe anion channel rhodopsins (ACRs), a family of light-gated anion channels from cryptophyte algae that provide highly sensitive and efficient membrane hyperpolarization and neuronal silencing through light-gated chloride conduction. ACRs strictly conducted anions, completely excluding protons and larger cations, and hyperpolarized the membrane of cultured animal cells with much faster kinetics at less than one-thousandth of the light intensity required by the most efficient currently available optogenetic proteins. Natural ACRs provide optogenetic inhibition tools with unprecedented light sensitivity and temporal precision.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4764398/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4764398/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Govorunova, Elena G -- Sineshchekov, Oleg A -- Janz, Roger -- Liu, Xiaoqin -- Spudich, John L -- R01 GM027750/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01GM027750/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R21MH098288/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- S10RR022531/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Aug 7;349(6248):647-50. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa7484. Epub 2015 Jun 25.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA. ; Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26113638" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Chloride Channels/classification/genetics/*physiology ; Cryptophyta/genetics/*metabolism ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Ion Channel Gating ; Light ; Membrane Potentials/physiology/*radiation effects ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Neural Inhibition ; Neurons/physiology/*radiation effects ; Optogenetics/*methods ; Photic Stimulation ; Phylogeny ; Rhodopsins, Microbial/classification/genetics/*physiology ; Transfection
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2015-04-18
    Description: Measles is a highly contagious human disease. We used cryo-electron microscopy and single particle-based helical image analysis to determine the structure of the helical nucleocapsid formed by the folded domain of the measles virus nucleoprotein encapsidating an RNA at a resolution of 4.3 angstroms. The resulting pseudoatomic model of the measles virus nucleocapsid offers important insights into the mechanism of the helical polymerization of nucleocapsids of negative-strand RNA viruses, in particular via the exchange subdomains of the nucleoprotein. The structure reveals the mode of the nucleoprotein-RNA interaction and explains why each nucleoprotein of measles virus binds six nucleotides, whereas the respiratory syncytial virus nucleoprotein binds seven. It provides a rational basis for further analysis of measles virus replication and transcription, and reveals potential targets for drug design.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gutsche, Irina -- Desfosses, Ambroise -- Effantin, Gregory -- Ling, Wai Li -- Haupt, Melina -- Ruigrok, Rob W H -- Sachse, Carsten -- Schoehn, Guy -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 8;348(6235):704-7. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa5137. Epub 2015 Apr 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉CNRS, Unit for Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 38042 Grenoble, France. Universite Grenoble Alpes, Unit for Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 38042 Grenoble, France. gutsche@embl.fr. ; Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 69917 Heidelberg, Germany. ; CNRS, Unit for Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 38042 Grenoble, France. Universite Grenoble Alpes, Unit for Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 38042 Grenoble, France. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, 38044 Grenoble, France. CNRS, IBS, 38044 Grenoble, France. CEA, IBS, 38044 Grenoble, France. ; Institut Laue-Langevin, 38000 Grenoble, France. ; CNRS, Unit for Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 38042 Grenoble, France. Universite Grenoble Alpes, Unit for Virus Host-Cell Interactions, 38042 Grenoble, France. Universite Grenoble Alpes, IBS, 38044 Grenoble, France. CNRS, IBS, 38044 Grenoble, France. CEA, IBS, 38044 Grenoble, France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25883315" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Humans ; Measles/*virology ; Measles virus/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Nucleic Acid Conformation ; Nucleocapsid/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Nucleoproteins/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; RNA, Viral/chemistry/ultrastructure ; Viral Proteins/chemistry/ultrastructure
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2015-05-09
    Description: In the fruit fly Drosophila, head formation is driven by a single gene, bicoid, which generates head-to-tail polarity of the main embryonic axis. Bicoid deficiency results in embryos with tail-to-tail polarity and no head. However, most insects lack bicoid, and the molecular mechanism for establishing head-to-tail polarity is poorly understood. We have identified a gene that establishes head-to-tail polarity of the mosquito-like midge, Chironomus riparius. This gene, named panish, encodes a cysteine-clamp DNA binding domain and operates through a different mechanism than bicoid. This finding, combined with the observation that the phylogenetic distributions of panish and bicoid are limited to specific families of flies, reveals frequent evolutionary changes of body axis determinants and a remarkable opportunity to study gene regulatory network evolution.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449817/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449817/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Klomp, Jeff -- Athy, Derek -- Kwan, Chun Wai -- Bloch, Natasha I -- Sandmann, Thomas -- Lemke, Steffen -- Schmidt-Ott, Urs -- 1R03HD67700-01A1/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R03 HD067700/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 May 29;348(6238):1040-2. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa7105. Epub 2015 May 7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. ; Division of Signaling and Functional Genomics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. ; Department of Organismal Biology and Anatomy, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. uschmid@uchicago.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25953821" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Animals ; Body Patterning/*genetics ; Chironomidae/*embryology/genetics ; DNA-Binding Proteins/classification/genetics/*physiology ; Embryo, Nonmammalian/*embryology ; Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Homeodomain Proteins/classification/genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phylogeny ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/genetics ; Trans-Activators/classification/genetics/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2015-11-21
    Description: Eukaryotic cells coordinate growth with the availability of nutrients through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a master growth regulator. Leucine is of particular importance and activates mTORC1 via the Rag guanosine triphosphatases and their regulators GATOR1 and GATOR2. Sestrin2 interacts with GATOR2 and is a leucine sensor. Here we present the 2.7 angstrom crystal structure of Sestrin2 in complex with leucine. Leucine binds through a single pocket that coordinates its charged functional groups and confers specificity for the hydrophobic side chain. A loop encloses leucine and forms a lid-latch mechanism required for binding. A structure-guided mutation in Sestrin2 that decreases its affinity for leucine leads to a concomitant increase in the leucine concentration required for mTORC1 activation in cells. These results provide a structural mechanism of amino acid sensing by the mTORC1 pathway.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698039/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698039/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Saxton, Robert A -- Knockenhauer, Kevin E -- Wolfson, Rachel L -- Chantranupong, Lynne -- Pacold, Michael E -- Wang, Tim -- Schwartz, Thomas U -- Sabatini, David M -- AI47389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- F30 CA189333/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA180271/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- F31 CA189437/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P41 GM103403/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI047389/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01CA103866/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- S10 RR029205/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32GM007287/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Jan 1;351(6268):53-8. doi: 10.1126/science.aad2087. Epub 2015 Nov 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. ; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Department of Biology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, 7 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. sabatini@wi.mit.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26586190" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Binding Sites ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; HEK293 Cells ; Humans ; Leucine/*chemistry/metabolism ; Metabolic Networks and Pathways ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Mutation ; Nuclear Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: Understanding the evolution of sex determination in plants requires identifying the mechanisms underlying the transition from monoecious plants, where male and female flowers coexist, to unisexual individuals found in dioecious species. We show that in melon and cucumber, the androecy gene controls female flower development and encodes a limiting enzyme of ethylene biosynthesis, ACS11. ACS11 is expressed in phloem cells connected to flowers programmed to become female, and ACS11 loss-of-function mutants lead to male plants (androecy). CmACS11 represses the expression of the male promoting gene CmWIP1 to control the development and the coexistence of male and female flowers in monoecious species. Because monoecy can lead to dioecy, we show how a combination of alleles of CmACS11 and CmWIP1 can create artificial dioecy.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Boualem, Adnane -- Troadec, Christelle -- Camps, Celine -- Lemhemdi, Afef -- Morin, Halima -- Sari, Marie-Agnes -- Fraenkel-Zagouri, Rina -- Kovalski, Irina -- Dogimont, Catherine -- Perl-Treves, Rafael -- Bendahmane, Abdelhafid -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Nov 6;350(6261):688-91. doi: 10.1126/science.aac8370.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Universite d'Evry, Universite Paris-Diderot, Batiment 630, 91405, Orsay, France. ; Laboratoire de Chimie et Biochimie Pharmacologiques et Toxicologiques, CNRS, UMR 8601, Universite Rene Descartes, Paris, France. ; The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. ; INRA, UR 1052, Unite de Genetique et d'Amelioration des Fruits et Legumes, BP 94, F-84143 Montfavet, France. ; Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Universite d'Evry, Universite Paris-Diderot, Batiment 630, 91405, Orsay, France. bendahm@evry.inra.fr.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26542573" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Alleles ; Amino Acid Sequence ; *Biological Evolution ; Cucumis sativus/enzymology/genetics/growth & development ; Cucurbitaceae/enzymology/genetics/*growth & development ; Ethylenes/biosynthesis ; Flowers/enzymology/genetics/*growth & development ; Genes, Plant/genetics/physiology ; Lyases/genetics/*physiology ; Molecular Sequence Data ; Phloem/enzymology/genetics/growth & development ; Plant Proteins/genetics/*physiology ; Sex Determination Processes/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2015-12-19
    Description: Voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels propagate action potentials in excitable cells. Accordingly, Nav channels are therapeutic targets for many cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Selective inhibitors have been challenging to design because the nine mammalian Nav channel isoforms share high sequence identity and remain recalcitrant to high-resolution structural studies. Targeting the human Nav1.7 channel involved in pain perception, we present a protein-engineering strategy that has allowed us to determine crystal structures of a novel receptor site in complex with isoform-selective antagonists. GX-936 and related inhibitors bind to the activated state of voltage-sensor domain IV (VSD4), where their anionic aryl sulfonamide warhead engages the fourth arginine gating charge on the S4 helix. By opposing VSD4 deactivation, these compounds inhibit Nav1.7 through a voltage-sensor trapping mechanism, likely by stabilizing inactivated states of the channel. Residues from the S2 and S3 helices are key determinants of isoform selectivity, and bound phospholipids implicate the membrane as a modulator of channel function and pharmacology. Our results help to elucidate the molecular basis of voltage sensing and establish structural blueprints to design selective Nav channel antagonists.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ahuja, Shivani -- Mukund, Susmith -- Deng, Lunbin -- Khakh, Kuldip -- Chang, Elaine -- Ho, Hoangdung -- Shriver, Stephanie -- Young, Clint -- Lin, Sophia -- Johnson, J P Jr -- Wu, Ping -- Li, Jun -- Coons, Mary -- Tam, Christine -- Brillantes, Bobby -- Sampang, Honorio -- Mortara, Kyle -- Bowman, Krista K -- Clark, Kevin R -- Estevez, Alberto -- Xie, Zhiwei -- Verschoof, Henry -- Grimwood, Michael -- Dehnhardt, Christoph -- Andrez, Jean-Christophe -- Focken, Thilo -- Sutherlin, Daniel P -- Safina, Brian S -- Starovasnik, Melissa A -- Ortwine, Daniel F -- Franke, Yvonne -- Cohen, Charles J -- Hackos, David H -- Koth, Christopher M -- Payandeh, Jian -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 18;350(6267):aac5464. doi: 10.1126/science.aac5464.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Structural Biology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. ; Department of Neuroscience, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. ; Department of Biology, Xenon Pharmaceuticals Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia, V5G 4W8, Canada. ; Department of Discovery Chemistry, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. ; Department of Biochemical and Cellular Pharmacology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. ; Department of Chemistry, Xenon Pharmaceuticals Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia, V5G 4W8, Canada. ; Department of Neuroscience, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. hackos.david@gene.com koth.christopher@gene.com payandeh.jian@gene.com. ; Department of Structural Biology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. hackos.david@gene.com koth.christopher@gene.com payandeh.jian@gene.com.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26680203" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acid Sequence ; Cell Membrane/chemistry ; Crystallization/methods ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Humans ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Sequence Data ; NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel/*chemistry/genetics ; Pain Perception/drug effects ; Protein Engineering ; Protein Isoforms/antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Sodium Channel Blockers/*chemistry/*pharmacology ; Sulfonamides/*chemistry/*pharmacology ; Thiadiazoles/*chemistry/*pharmacology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2015-07-25
    Description: Lipid transfer between cell membrane bilayers at contacts between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and other membranes help to maintain membrane lipid homeostasis. We found that two similar ER integral membrane proteins, oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 5 (ORP5) and ORP8, tethered the ER to the plasma membrane (PM) via the interaction of their pleckstrin homology domains with phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) in this membrane. Their OSBP-related domains (ORDs) harbored either PI4P or phosphatidylserine (PS) and exchanged these lipids between bilayers. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that ORP5 and ORP8 could mediate PI4P/PS countertransport between the ER and the PM, thus delivering PI4P to the ER-localized PI4P phosphatase Sac1 for degradation and PS from the ER to the PM. This exchange helps to control plasma membrane PI4P levels and selectively enrich PS in the PM.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4638224/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4638224/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chung, Jeeyun -- Torta, Federico -- Masai, Kaori -- Lucast, Louise -- Czapla, Heather -- Tanner, Lukas B -- Narayanaswamy, Pradeep -- Wenk, Markus R -- Nakatsu, Fubito -- De Camilli, Pietro -- DA018343/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- DK082700/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- DK45735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- P30 DA018343/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- P30 DK045735/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK082700/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS036251/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37NS036251/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007223/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jul 24;349(6246):428-32. doi: 10.1126/science.aab1370.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, and Program for Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration, and Repair, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. ; Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 117456 Singapore. ; Department of Cell Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Kavli Institute for Neuroscience, and Program for Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration, and Repair, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. pietro.decamilli@yale.edu nakatsu@med.niigata-u.ac.jp.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26206935" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉