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  • Alkenes  (5)
  • 1960-1964  (5)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Koch carboxylic acid synthesis ; Carboxylic acids ; Alkenes ; Isomerization ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: When straight-chain mono-olefins, from pentene to decene, are subjected to the Koch carboxylic acid synthesis by the addition of CO and H2O or CH3OH in the presence of strongly acidic catalysts, not only the expected secondary acids, but also mixtures of a specific type of tertiary acids or their methyl esters are formed. When the catalysts contain boron trifluoride, the secondary acids are formed in ratios of isomers which are, within the scope of this investigation, independent of the experimental conditions and which agree well with the values calculated from the isomer equilibria of the corresponding n-olefins. Using concentrated sulfuric acid as catalyst, a larger proportion of tertiary acids is obtained than with BF3-catalysis, and amongst the secondary acids, those isomers predominate in which the COOH group is situated near the centre of the molecule.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Emulsion polymerization ; Polymerization ; Polymerization ; Alkenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Ionizing radiation induces the polymerization of some vinyl monomers in aqueous emulsion with high radiation yields. With identical emulsion compositions, the kinetics of this reaction and the kinetics of emulsion polymerization induced by water-soluble initiators are very similar. The rate of reaction in emulsion polymerization is about one hundred times greater than in bulk polymerization. The initiation of emulsion polymerization by means of ionizing radiation permits uniform “illumination” of the reacting volume, as well as almost any desired variation in the frequency of initiation during the reaction. The sharp decrease in the overall rate of reaction when initiation is interrupted during emulsion polymerization of styrene induced by γ-rays contradicts the earlier concept of sharply separated reaction zones.
    Additional Material: 11 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Titanium ; Alkenes ; Polymerization ; Titanium ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: At low temperatures, ethylene and α-olefins (Δ1-olefins or 1-alkenes) are rapidly converted into oligomrs by the two-component organometallic catalyst CH3TiCl3·CH3AlCl2. To achieve smooth oligomerizations, aromatic or chlorinated hydrocarbons must be used as solvents. Although the activity of the titanium-carbon bond is enhanced by the aluminum component of the catalyst, the aluminum and its methyl group do not participate in the reaction proper; the latter proceeds exclusively at the titanium-carbon bond. The reaction will olefins can be used as an analytical method for the quantitative determination of the titanium-carbon bond in admixture with the organoaluminum component. It is thus possible to follow the reaction leading to formation of the catalyst from titanium tertrachloride, as well as the processes occurring at the titanium-carbon bond during the oligomerization of olefins. All the observations indicate that the catalyst possesses an ionic structure which is determined by the solvent. It is shown that the initial reaction step probably involves formation of a complex between the olefin and the alkyltitanium cation. The reaction scheme proposed is based on organometallic reactions which are characterized by carbanion and hydride transfers within the olefin-cation complex. This mechanism, which is unusual for Ziegler catalysts, is due to the predominance of hydride transfers.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Addition ; Alkenes ; Electrophilic reactions ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Various structures have been proposed for the intermediates of electrophilic additions onto olefins; these include halonium ions, classical carbonium ions, π-complexes (i.e. nonclassical carbonium ions), and π-complexes with back-coordination. It is shown here that it is impossible to use any one of these entities alone to explain all such electrophilic additions; the electrophile itself determines the nature of the transition state formed. Polar addition of hydrogen halides onto olefins appears to proceed via a classical carbonium ion which does not occur as the free ion but as an undissociated ion pair. Various other mechanisms have been excluded by studies reported here of the stereochemical course of such additions.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Oxidation ; Palladium ; Catalysis ; Alkenes ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The oxidation of olefins to carbonyl compounds with palladium compounds, especially the oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde, is at present carried out on a technical scale. The reaction takes place via a palladium-olefin complex, the formation of which is inhibited by halide ions. Hydrolysis to the carbonyl compound is inhibited by hydrogen ions. The knowledge gained by studying the reaction of olefins with pure solutions of palladium salts allows important conclusions to be drawn concerning the action of technical catalyst solutions containing copper and palladium chloride.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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