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  • Aircraft Stability and Control  (10)
  • FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER  (8)
  • AERODYNAMICS  (7)
  • 42.75  (6)
  • 1950-1954  (31)
  • 1953  (31)
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  • 1950-1954  (31)
Year
  • 1
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Zoologische Mededelingen (0024-0672) vol.32 (1953) nr.18 p.203
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: COPROMORPHIDAE Meyrick, 1905, Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, vol. 16, p. 606. This small family represents a natural group with clearly marked characters, and is easy of descrimination. It inhabits tropical regions of Asia and extends through the Papuan region over the whole Pacific. The last mentioned region might be the country of origin of this group, as genera with peculiar and possibly archaic characters have been recorded from the Pacific Islands; some of those species are distinguished by an exceptionally large size. One of the interesting points with regard to the family is its possible place in the system. The long-ciliate or pectinate antennae, the neuration, and the complicated genital apparatus of the male seem to indicate an affinity with the Tineoidea. The general facies, however, is divergent to some extent, while the presence of a cubital pecten on the hind wings fundamentally discriminates this family from all the Tineoidea sensu stricto. When describing the family, Meyrick suggested that the cubital pecten might point towards an affinity with the Tortricoidea ; this relation, however, is not supported by any other characters. He further surmised that the Copromorphidae would be nearest allied to the Xyloryctidae ; in my opinion this surmise is devoid of any ground. Later Meyrick tried to combine with the Copromorphidae two other groups of "Tineina" that also are in possession of a cubital pecten, viz., the family Orneodidae, and the genus Hypertropha Meyr. The relation of the former with the Copromorphidae, however, is problematic, and deserves further proofs, while Hypertropha has in my opinion nothing in common with the family concerned, except for the
    Keywords: 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: Contents ι. Introduction..............I 2. Systematics (a, The correct name of the genus p. 4; b, Diagnostic characters of the species and subspecies p. 6; c, Abbreviations p. 9; d, Key to the species and subspecies p. 10; e, Survey of the species and subspecies p. 11; f, Disregarded specimens p. 30; g, Wilcoxon tests for the difference between certain measurements in allied subspecies p. 31; h, Early stages p. 36; i, The species concept in Nyctalemon p. 37).......... 3. Biology............... 38 4. Distribution.............. 43 5. Evolution............... 46 6. Bibliography.............. 52 1. INTRODUCTION In November 1949 the late Professor Dr. L. J. Toxopeus of Bandung, Java, sent me a specimen of Nyctalemon for identification, but neither with the help of our collection, nor with the current literature did I succeed in ascertaining the correct name of this insect. On the contrary it appeared that, though the described forms of this genus clearly were of different value, viz., partly good species, partly geographical subspecies representing these species in restricted areas, no satisfactory division of the genus into species and subspecies had been given. Thus, Seitz' classification of the known forms into four species of which three are polytypic proved to make no sense. Therefore I resolved to study the genus more closely. In the ensuing correspondence Toxopeus gave me the benefit of his experience by providing references to relevant literature and quotations from
    Keywords: 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 3
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Zoologische Mededelingen (0024-0672) vol.32 (1953) nr.9 p.87
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: I have to thank Dr. H. C. Blöte of the Leiden Museum of Natural History for his kindness to entrust me with a number of Carabidae from Indonesia for identification. A few species appear to be new to science; the descriptions follow below. One genus, Horniulus Jedl., is new to the whole of the Malay Archipelago, and another, Bembidion Latr., is new to Sumatra. Of the latter genus there are already a couple of species known from Java. I am much obliged to Mr. E. B. Britton of the British Museum, who carefully compared a few species with specimens in the collections of the British Museum and in Andrewes' collections. The type specimens are in the Leiden Museum. Oxygnathopsis gen. nov. (fig. 1 f) (Andrewes (1938, p. 196) described Oxygnathus javanus upon a single specimen from Java. With regard to the proper genus Andrewes was not absolutely sure because of a number of important differences, but before introducing a new genus he preferred to wait till more material was available. In the sending of the Leiden Museum I found a second specimen, which shows the same characteristics as the specimen described by Andrewes, so that in my opinion a new genus is desirable. The two genera are to be distinguished as follows: 1 (2) Head with the clypeus bisetose, two setae on each side over the eyes, facial carinae and sulci present; prothorax with two lateral setae on each side. Range: Assam and Burma.........Oxygnathus Dej. 2 (1) Clypeus without setae, one supra-orbital seta, the front seta is wanting, no facial Fig. 1. a, Coptodera flavipes sp. n., left elytron; b, Horniulus quadrimaculatus sp. n.,
    Keywords: 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Zoologische Mededelingen (0024-0672) vol.32 (1953) nr.6 p.49
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: I. Attacus dohertyi dammermani nov. subspec. (Plate II) Large, apex of fore wing moderately produced, general coloration of wings, head, notum including patagia, and abdomen rather light reddish brown, several intersegmental folds between the abdominal tergites blackish. In both wings the terminal area somewhat lighter, more yellowish brown, in apex of fore wing grading into yellowish. Hind wing with the apical area markedly reddish. In fore wing the dark apical spot and red dash weak, submarginal line practically wanting, in hind wing a somewhat undulating submarginal dark line well developed. Postmedian band in both wings strongly serrate, but not bent inwards. Antemedian band in both wings less distinct, not serrate, in fore wing angled on base of v2, in hind wing curved inwards. The vitreous patches in both wings very large, guttiform by having the base curved outwards, the basal angles rounded, and the top elongated and pointed towards the postmedian band. In both wings with two additional vitreous patches which are in fore wing slightly larger than in hind wing. In hind wing the lower patch communicates with the interior black border of the postmedian band. All these spots bordered by a black margin. The interior orange yellow border, so obvious in many dohertyi specimens, is wanting or indicated by some inconspicuous traces only. Underside corresponding with upperside, the outer half very light, as in atlas, but the subterminal markings in both wings practically wanting or obsolete. Lateral markings of abdomen much less developed than in atlas. I ♀, 25 cm, holotype, W. Sumba, IV. 1925, labelled Dammerman, Sumba Exp., in Museum Leiden. 2. THE SPECIES OF THE GENUS Attacus L. IN THE FAR EAST.
    Keywords: 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 5
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Zoologische Mededelingen (0024-0672) vol.32 (1953) nr.3 p.31
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: Eine Bestimmungssendung des Deutschen Entomologischen Institutes veranlasste mich, die Systematik der asiatischen Coenochilus zu studieren. Die Museen Leiden, Berlin und München und die Herren Frey, Haberäcker, Klapperich und van Nidek stellten mir ihr Material zur Verfügung; Herr Reichert des Museums Dresden und Herr Ruter des Museums Paris gaben bereitwillig Auskunft über Typen ihrer Museen. Ihnen alien sowie den Herren Prof. Dr. Sachtleben, Prof. Dr. Delkeskamp, Dr. C. de Jong, Dr. H. C. Blöte, Dr. Forster, H. Freude, P. Müller und St. von Breuning danke ich bestens für ihre Hilfe. Als Ergebnis meiner Studien veröffentliche ich hier die Beschreibung zweier neuer Arten und des ♂ von C. leopoldi Bourg. sowie eine aus der Arrow'schen Tabelle in der Fauna of British India weiterentwickelte Bestimmungstabelle aller asiatischen Arten. 1. Der Katalog von Junk-Schenkling Pars 72 aus 1921 ist auf Seite 366 f. durch folgende Arten zu ergänzen: assmuthi Wasmann, Wiener Ent. Zeit., vol. 37, 1918, S. 19. bifoveolatus Fairmaire, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 1888, S. 344. leopoldi Bourgoin, Mem. Mus. Roy. H.N. Belg., 1933, Voyage Leopold, vol. IV fasc. 9, Col. II, S. 31. leveillei Nonfried, Berl. Ent. Zeit., 1891, S. 372, der nach Arrow kein Pilinurgus ist. obesus Wasmann, Wiener Ent. Zeit., vol. 37, 1918, S. 21. obscurus Westwood, Tijdsch. v. Ent., vol. 26, 1883, S. 62-65. platycerus Gerstäcker, von S. 368 des Kat. (1883). sumatranus Westwood, Tijdsch. v. Ent., vol. 26, 1883, S. 62-65. uncinatipes Moser, D. Ent. Zeit., 1915, S. 596.
    Keywords: 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Zoologische Mededelingen (0024-0672) vol.32 (1953) nr.5 p.43
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: Some time ago I was asked to identify a fossil coleopteron which had been found in the drill cuttings of an oil well in the Southern part of Sumatra. As the fossil is only a few millimetres long it may be mentioned as an amazing fact that so small an object has been found during rather rough work like oil drilling. The details of the locality as given by Mr. A. Wright Jr. of the N.V. Standard-Vacuum Petroleum Maatschappij are as follows: "The well is one of our Kaja wells, a wildcat well located 3.3 kilometres N. 300 E. from the northeast edge of the Djirah oilfield. The drill cutting was obtained from a depth of 1930 feet subsea. Although, in drill cuttings, there is a certain measure of uncertainty as to the exact level of derivation, we have sufficient evidence to be sure that the fossil actually derives from this depth. The age is Tertiary-e; it occurs below beds of Baturadja stage age, but 200 feet above a lepidocyclina-bearing horizon. The fossil occurs in a shale interval of a formation which is generally non-fossiliferous; conditions were presumably marine, but either oligotrophe or toxic; the water at the time of deposition was shallow." The fossil is pyritized, dark bronze-greyish in colour. It is nearly free from substrate, though in some crevices a light grey, rather soft, somewhat fattish substance is found which can be taken away rather easily. The fossil was sent to the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, mounted in a small box on a slide, pasted to the bottom with tragacanth. During the studies it was left in the small box, and kept in an exsiccator to preserve the fossil against deterioration by atmospheric influence.
    Keywords: 42.75
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-05-29
    Description: Conference on aerodynamics of high speed aircraft
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-57121
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An experimental investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to determine the rolling stability derivatives of a 1/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient were investigated for the complete model and for certain components of the model. Effects of control deflections and of propeller blade angle were investigated for the complete model. Most of the tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4deg to 29deg, and the thrust coefficient range was from 0 to 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this paper.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53E13
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An experimental investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to deter+nine the yawing stability derivatives of a 1/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient were investigated for the complete model and for certain components of the model. Effects of control deflections and of propeller blade angle were investigated for the complete model. Most of the tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4deg to 29deg, and the thrust coefficient range was from 0 to 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53D01
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation was made to determine the static lateral stability and control characteristics of a l/6-scale model of the Republic XF-84H airplane with the propeller operating. The model had a 40deg swept wing of aspect ratio 3.45 and had a thin 3-blade supersonic-type propeller. Many modifications to the basic configuration were investigated in attempts to alleviate lateral and directional trim problems which appeared to be associated with propeller slipstream rotation. Although significant benefits were realized with several modifications, none of those tested would be expected to afford satisfactory behavior for all normal flight conditions. A marked left-wing roll-off tendency was indicated at high angles of attack for the basic model configuration. Projection of only the left slat was the most effective remedy found for this problem with the propeller operating. The use of differential wing-flap deflection also appeared to offer a promising means for reducing the roll-off tendency with power on. The large sidewash over the vertical tail, associated with slip- stream rotation, severely restricted the conditions for which directional , trim could be maintained. A small triangular dorsal fin, oriented opposite to the slipstream rotation, was found very effective in reducing the adverse sidewash flow at the tail.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53G10
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An experimental investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to determine the pitching stability derivatives of a 1/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient, control deflections, and propeller blade angle were investigated. The tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4deg to 29deg, and the thrust coefficient range was from 0 to 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this paper.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53G27
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a l/23-scale model of the Lockheed XFV-1 airplane to determine the effects of control setting and movement upon the erect-spin and recovery characteristics for a range of airplane loading conditions. A windmilling propeller was simulated on the model for some of the tests. The investigation included determination of the size of tail parachute required for emergency recovery from demonstration spins. The tumbling tendencies of the model were also investigated. The results indicated that any erect or inverted spin obtained on the airplane will be satisfactorily terminated if recovery is attempted by full rudder reversal accompanied by simultaneous lateral and longitudinal movement of the stick to neutral, The model test results showed that an 11.5-foot flat-type tail parachute (drag coefficient approximately 0.73) with a 27.5-foot towline will be effective as an emergency spin-recovery device during demonstration spins of the airplane. The model results also indicate that the airplane will not tumble for any.loading condition indicated possible.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53G24
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation is being conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 0.13-scale flying model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. This paper presents the results of flight tests to determine the stability and control characteristics of the model during constant-altitude slow transitions from hovering to normal unstalled forward flight. The tests indicated that the airplane can be flown through the transition range fairly easily although some difficulty will probably encountered in controlling the yawing motions at angles of attack between about 60 and 40. An increase in the size of the vertical tail will not materially improve the controllability of the yawing motions in this range of angle of attack but the use of a yaw damper will make the yawing motions easy to control throughout the entire transitional flight range. The tests also indicated that the airplane can probably be flown sideways satisfactorily at speeds up to approximately 33 knots (full scale) with the normal control system and up to approximately 37 knots (full scale) with both elevons and rudders rigged to move differentially for roll control. At sideways speeds above these values, the airplane will have a strong tendency to diverge uncontrollably in roll.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53E18
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/10-scale model of the Convair YF-102 airplane has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The model was flown over a lift-coefficient range from 0.5 to the stall in its basic configuration and with several modifications involving leading-edge slats and increases in vertical-tail size. Only relatively low-altitude conditions were simulated and no attempt was made to determine the effect of freeing the controls. The longitudinal stability characteristics of the model were considered satisfactory for all conditions investigated. The lateral stability characteristics were considered satisfactory for the basic configuration over the speed range investigated except near the stall, where large values of static directional instability caused the model to be directionally divergent. The addition of leading-edge slats or an 8-percent increase in vertical-tail area increased the angle of attack at which the model became directionally divergent. The use of leading-edge slats in combination with a 40-percent increase in vertical-tail size eliminated the directional divergence and produced satisfactory stability characteristics through the stall. The longitudinal and lateral control characteristics were generally satisfactory. Although the adverse sideslip characteristics for the model were considered satisfactory over the angle-of-attack range, analysis indicates that the adverse sideslip characteristics of the airplane may be objectionable at high angles of attack.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53L04
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-TN-2903
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-TN-2904
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The general effect of wing sweep on cloud-droplet trajectories about swept wings of high aspect ratio moving at subsonic speeds is discussed. A method of computing droplet trajectories about yawed cylinders and swept wings is presented, and illustrative droplet trajectories are computed. A method of extending two-dimensional calculations of droplet impingement on nonswept wings to swept wings is presented. It is shown that the extent of impingement of cloud droplets on an airfoil surface, the total rate of collection of water, and the local rate of impingement per unit area of airfoil surface can be found for a swept wing from two-dimensional data for a nonswept wing. The impingement on a swept wing is obtained from impingement data for a nonswept airfoil section which is the same as the section in the normal plane of the swept wing by calculating all dimensionless parameters with respect to flow conditions in the normal plane of the swept wing.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-TN-2931
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The trajectories of droplets in the air flowing past an NACA 65A004 a irfoil at an angle of attack of 4 deg were determined. The amount of water in droplet form impinging on the airfoil, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement per unit area on the airfoil surface were calculated from the trajectories and presented to cover a large range of flight and atmospheric conditions. The effect of a change in airfoil thickness from 12 to 4 percent at 4 deg angle of attack is presented by comparing the impingement calculations for the NACA 65A004 airfoil with those for the NACA 65(sub 1)-208 and 65(sub 1)-212 airfoils. The rearward limit of impingement on the upper surface decreases as the airfoil thickness decreases. The rearward limit of impingement on the lower surface increases with a decrease in airfoil t hickness. The total water intercepted decreases as the airfoil thickness is decreased.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-TN-3047
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Trajectories were determined for droplets in air flowing through 90 deg elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion with low pressure losses. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of the flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around a 90 deg bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. The elbows produced by the complex potential function selected are suitable for use in aircraft air-intake ducts. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations in such a manner that the collection efficiency, the area, the rate, and the distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-TN-2999
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An investigation has been made in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the aerodynamic and icing characteristics of a full-scale induction-system air-scoop assembly incorporating a flush alternate inlet. The flush inlet was located immediately downstream of the offset ram inlet and included a 180 deg reversal and a 90 deg elbow in the ducting between inlet and carburetor top deck. The model also had a preheat-air inlet. The investigation was made over a range of mass-air- flow ratios of 0 to 0.8, angles of attack of 0 and 4 deg airspeeds of 150 to 270 miles per hour, air temperatures of 0 and 25 F various liquid-water contents, and droplet sizes. The ram inlet gave good pressure recovery in both clear air and icing but rapid blockage of the top-deck screen occurred during icing. The flush alternate inlet had poor pressure recovery in both clear air and icing. The greatest decreases in the alternate-inlet pressure recovery were obtained at icing conditions of low air temperature and high liquid-water content. No serious screen icing was observed with the alternate inlet. Pressure and temperature distributions on the carburetor top deck were determined using the preheat-air supply with the preheat- and alternate-inlet doors in various positions. No screen icing occurred when the preheat-air system was operated in combination with alternate-inlet air flow.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NACA-RM-E53E07
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Convective heat-transfer coefficients in dry air were obtained for an ellipsoidal spinner of 30-inch maximum diameter for both stationary and rotating operation over a range of conditions including airspeeds up to 275 miles per hour, rotational speeds up to 1200 rpm, and angles of attack of zero and 40 The results are presented in terms of Nusselt numbers, Reynolds numbers, and convective heat-transfer coefficients. The studies included both uniform heating densities over the spinner and uniform surface temperatures.. In general, the results showed that rotation will increase the convective heat transfer from a spinner, especially in the turbulent-flow regions. Rotation of the spinner at 1200 rpm and at a free-stream velocity of 275 miles per hour increased the Nusselt number parameter in the turbulent-flow region by 32 percent over that obtained with a stationary spinner; whereas in the nose region, where the flow was laminar, an increase of only 18 percent was observed. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurred over a large range of Reynolds numbers primarily because of surface roughness of the spinner. Operation at an angle of attack of 40 had only small effects on the local convective heat transfer for the model studied.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-RM-E53F02
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: An analysis of combined heat and mass transfer from a flat plate has been made in terms of Prandtl t s simplified physical concept of the turbulent boundary layer. The results of the analysis show that for conditions of reasonably small heat and mass transfer, the ratio of the mass-and heat-transfer coefficients is dependent on the Reynolds number of the boundary layer, the Prandtl number of the medium of diffusion, and the Schmidt number of the diffusing fluid in the medium of diffusion. For the particular case of water evaporating into air, the ratio of mass-transfer coefficient to heat-transfer coefficient is found to be slightly greater than unity.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-TN-3045
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The effects of primary and. runback icing and frost formations on the drag of an 8-foot-chord NACA 651-212 airfoil section were investigated over a range of angles of attack from 20 to 80 and airspeeds up to 260 miles per hour for icing conditions with liquid-water contents ranging from 0.25 to 1.4 grams per cubic meter and datum air temperatures of -30 to 30 F. The results showed that glaze-ice formations, either primary or runback, on the upper surface near the leading edge of the airfoil caused large and rapid increases in drag, especially at datum air temperatures approaching 32 F and in the presence of high rates of water catch. Ice formations at lower temperatures (rime ice) did not appreciably increase the drag coefficient over the initial (standard roughness) drag coefficient. Cyclic de-icing of the primary Ice formations on the airfoil leading-edge section permitted the drag coefficient to return almost to the bare airfoil drag value. Runback icing on the lower surface did not present a serious drag problem except when heavy spanwise ridges of runback ice occurred aft of the heatable area. Frost formations caused rapid and large increases in drag with incipient stalling of the airfoil.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NACA-TN-2962
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NACA-RM-E53C26
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Calculations have been made for the icing limit of a diamond airfoil at zero angle of attack in terms of the stream Mach number, stream temperature, and pressure altitude. The icing limit is defined as a wetted-surface temperature of 320 F and is related to the stream conditions by the method of Hardy. The results show that the point most likely to ice on the airfoil lies immediately behind the shoulder and is subject to possible icing at Mach numbers as high as 1.4.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NACA-TN-2861
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The effects of existing frictional heating were analyzed to determine the conditions under which ice formations on aircraft surfaces can be prevented. A method is presented for rapidly determining by means of charts the combination of-Mach number, altitude, and stream temperature which will maintain an ice-free surface in an icing cloud. The method can be applied to both subsonic and supersonic flow. The charts presented are for Mach numbers up to 1.8 and pressure altitudes from sea level to 45,000 feet.
    Keywords: FLUID MECHANICS AND HEAT TRANSFER
    Type: NACA-TN-2914
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NACA-RM-A53G08
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Flight measurements of the stability characteristics of the Bell X-5 research airplane at 59 deg sweepback were made in steady sideslips at Mach numbers from 0.62 to 0.97 at altitudes ranging between 35,000 and 40,000 feet. The results showed that the apparent directional stability was positive and increased at Mach numbers above 0.90. The apparent effective dihedral was positive and high, increasing at Mach numbers above 0.75. The cross-wind force coefficient per degree of sideslip was positive and increased rapidly at Mach numbers above 0.94.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-L52K13b
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: During the flight program on the Bell X-5 airplane with 59 deg sweepback to determine the practical Mach number and normal-force coefficient limits of this configuration, a reduction in static longitudinal stability was encountered in maneuvering flight. A determination of the boundary for reduction of longitudinal stability extending to a Mach number of 0.98 is presented in this paper. A reduction of static longitudinal stability existed for all elevator and all stabilizer-executed maneuvers. The reduction of stability existed for maneuvers executed with elevator near a normal-force coefficient of 0.6 for a Mach number range of about 0.31 to 0.76. Above a Mach number of 0.76 the normal-force coefficient for reduction of stability gradually decreased to a value of 0.2 at a Mach number of 0.98. For stabilizer-executed maneuvers the stability boundary was the same as for elevator maneuvers up to a Mach number of 0.88. Above this Mach number the reduction of stability occurred at slightly higher normal-force coefficients decreasing from about 0.51 at a Mach number of 0.92 to a value of 0.311 at a Mach number of 0.97. The airplane has been flown to a Mach number of 1.04 at a normal-force coefficient of about 0.15 without encountering any reduction of stability. The pilot did not consider the reduction of stability to be dangerous at altitudes above 30,000 feet; however, precise flight was impossible. At angles of attack above that at which the reduction of longitudinal stability occurred, directional instability and aileron control overbalance were encountered.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-L53A09b
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: During the acceptance tests of the Bell X-5 airplane, measurements of the static stability and control characteristics and horizontal-tail loads were obtained by the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station. The results of the stability and control measurements are presented in this paper. A change in sweep angle between 20 deg and 59 deg had a minor effect on the longitudinal trim, with a maximum change of about 2.5 deg in elevator deflection being required at a Mach number near 0.85; however, sweeping the wings produced a total stick-force change of about 40 pounds. At low Mach numbers there was a rapid increase in stability at high normal-force coefficients for both 20 0 and 1100 sweepback, whereas a condition of neutral stability existed for 58 0 sweepback at high normal-force coefficients. At Mach numbers near 0.8 there was an instability at normal-force coefficients above 0.5 for all sweep angles tested. In the low normal-force-coefficient range a high degree of stability resulted in high stick forces which limited the maximum load factors attainable in the demonstration flights to values under 5g for all sweep angles at a Mach number near 0.8 and an altitude of 12,000 feet. The aileron effectiveness at 200 sweepback was found to be low over the Mach number range tested.
    Keywords: Aircraft Stability and Control
    Type: NACA-RM-L52K18b
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-05-23
    Description: Drag measurements at low lift of four-nacelle aircraft configuration with longitudinal distribution of cross-sectional area conducive to low transonic drag rise
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NACA-RM-L53E29
    Format: application/pdf
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