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  • Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance  (68)
  • 1950-1954  (68)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-05-25
    Description: An investigation was conducted on a 35 deg swept-wing fighter airplane to determine the effects of several blunt-trailing-edge modifications to the wing and tail on the high-speed stability and control characteristics and tracking performance. The results indicated significant improvement in the pitch-up characteristics for the blunt-aileron configuration at Mach numbers around 0.90. As a result of increased effectiveness of the blunt-trailing-edge aileron, the roll-off, customarily experienced with the unmodified airplane in wings-level flight between Mach numbers of about 0.9 and 1.0 was eliminated, The results also indicated that the increased effectiveness of the blunt aileron more than offset the large associated aileron hinge moment, resulting in significant improvement in the rolling performance at Mach numbers between 0.85 and 1.0. It appeared from these results that the tracking performance with the blunt-aileron configuration in the pitch-up and buffeting flight region at high Mach numbers was considerably improved over that of the unmodified airplane; however, the tracking errors of 8 to 15 mils were definitely unsatisfactory. A drag increment of about O.OOl5 due to the blunt ailerons was noted at Mach numbers to about 0.85. The drag increment was 0 at Mach numbers above 0.90.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-A54C31
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: An investigation of the 1XP excitation of inclined single-rotation propellers has indicated a new concept for determining propeller shaft forces and moments of an inclined propeller. This report presents preliminary results, in particular to the counterrotating propeller.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-A54C30
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An investigation of a 1/14-scale dynamically similar model of a panto-base version of the Chase C-123 airplane was conducted to evaluate the hydrodynamic characteristics of the airplane. The resistance, longitudinal stability, and spray patterns during take-off and general behavior in calm- and rough-water landings were determined. Brief calm-water tests were made to compare the initial vertical impact accelerations of the model with and without hydro-skis. Take-off stability was satisfactory for calm-water operation. A ratio of gross load to maximum resistance of 3,6 was obtained. Heavy spray reached the propellers only during ski emergence. The landing behavior in calm water and in waves 3 feet by 150 feet (full scale) was satisfactory for a normal range of trim angles. Initial impacts in calmwater landings resulted in vertical accelerations of about 2 1/2 with the hydro-skis installed and about 4g with the hydro-skis removed,
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL54A28
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An investigation has been conducted to determine the static stability and control and damping in roll and yaw of a 0.13-scale model of the Convair XFY-1 airplane with propellers off from 0 deg to 90 deg angle of attack. The tests showed that a slightly unstable pitch-up tendency occurred simultaneously with a break in the normal-force curve in the angle-of-attack range from about 27 deg to 36 deg. The top vertical tail contributed positive values of static directional stability and effective dihedral up to an angle of attack of about 35 deg. The bottom tail contributed positive values of static directional stability but negative values of effective dihedral throughout the angle-of-attack range. Effectiveness of the control surfaces decreased to very low values at the high angles of attack, The model had positive damping in yaw and damping in roll about the body axes over the angle-of-attack range but the damping in yaw decreased to about zero at 90 deg angle of attack.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL54J04
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Additional results on the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a 0.05-scale model of the Convair F2Y-1 water-based fighter airplane were obtained in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel over a Mach number range of 0.50 to 0.92. The maximum angle-of-attack range (obtained at the lower Mach numbers) was from -2 degrees to 25 degrees. The sideslip-angle range investigated was from -4 degrees to 12 degrees. The investigation included effects of various arrangements of wing fences, leading-edge chord-extensions, and leading-edge notches. Various fuselage fences, spoilers, and a dive brake also were investigated. From overall considerations of lift, drag, and pitching moments, it appears that there were two modifications somewhat superior to any of the others investigated: One was a configuration that employed a full-chord fence and a partial-chord fence located at 0.63 semispan and 0.55 semispan, respectively. The second was a leading-edge chord-extension that extended from 0.68 semispan to 0.85 semispan in combination with a leading-edge notch located at 0.68 semispan. With plus or minus 10 degrees aileron, the estimated wing-tip helix angle was reduced from 0.125 at a Mach number of 0.50 to 0.088 at a Mach number of 0.92, with corresponding rates of roll of 4.0 and 5.2 radians per second. The upper aft fuselage dive brake, when deflected 30 degrees and 60 degrees, reduced the rudder effectiveness about 10 to 20 percent and about 35 to 50 percent, respectively.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL54H05
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel on a 0.3-scale model of the Republic RF-84F airplane to determine modifications which would eliminate the pitch-up that occurred near maximum lift during flight tests of the airplane. The effects of high-lift and stall-control devices, horizontal tail locations, external stores, and various inlets on the longitudinal characteristics of the model were investigated. For the most part, these tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 9.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.19. The results indicated that from the standpoint of stability the inlets should possess blunted side bodies. The horizontal tail located at either the highest or lowest position investigated improved the stability of the model. Three configurations were found for the model equipped with the production tail which eliminated the pitch-up through the lift range up to the maximum lift and provided a stable static margin which did not vary more than 15% of the mean aerodynamic chord through the lift range up to 85% of maximum lift. The three configurations are as follows: the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with an inlet similar to the production inlet but smaller in plan form in conjunction with either (1) a wing fence located at 65% of the win semispan or (2) an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 65.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan and (3) the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with the production inlet and an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 70.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL54B17
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Data were obtained in an altitude test chamber for a range of altitudes from 20,000 to 58,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.9, and for several flight Mach numbers at an altitude of 45,000 feet. Data approximating sea-level operation are also included. Engine component performance data are presented in addition to windmilling, exhaust-nozzle, and ejector performance.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SE54H06
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Altitude performance characteristics of the J65-B3 turbojet engine and its components were obtained at engine-inlet conditions corresponding to Reynolds number indices from 0.2 to 0.8 over a range of corrected engine speeds from 70 to 110 percent of rated speed. Engine operational limits up to an altitude of 75,000 feet together with ignition and windmilling characteristics were also obtained. The engine and component data are presented both in graphical and in tabulated form. The operational characteristics are presented in graphical form.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SE54H18
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An investigation was made of the take-off characteristics of a 1/10-scale dynamic model of the Convair XF2Y-1 airplane. This airplane is a water-based, jet-propelled, delta-wing fighter incorporating a hydro-ski landing gear. Tests were made with the original configuration, with the beaching wheels removed, and with the wheels installed and fairings added in front of the wheels. Each configuration was tested at weight and balance conditions simulating 17,000 pounds gross weight with the moment due t o 7,600 pounds of thrust, 17,300 pounds gross weight with a 9,500-pound thrust condition, and 23,000 pounds gross weight with a 9,300-pound thrust condition. Constant-speed runs were made at various elevon settings and vertical ski-strut positions; and trim, rise, and resistance were measured. Accelerated runs were made with controlled elevons and scale shock struts which could be extended as desired, and the longitudinal stability and spray characteristics were observed and photographed.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL54G08a
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Missions for which a rocket interceptor is suited and the effect of rocket-engine performance on interceptor performance are discussed. Flight missions for interceptors having rocket and turbojet engines are compared, and circumstances under which a combination of rocket and turbojet may be advantageous are discussed.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-E54D15
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  • 11
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Free-flight tests in the transonic speed range utilizing rocketpropelled models have been made on three pairs of 0.11-scale North American F-100 airplane wings having an aspect ratio of 3.47, a taper ratio of 0.308, 45 degree sweepback at the quarter-chord line, and thickness ratios of 31 and 5 percent to investigate the possibility of flutte r. Data from tests of two other rocket-propelled models which accidentally fluttered during a drag investigation of the North American F-100 airplane are also presented. The first set of wings (5 percent thick) was tested on a model which was disturbed in pitch by a moving tail and reached a maximum Mach number of 0.85. The wings encountered mild oscillations near the first - bending frequency at high lift coefficients. The second set of wings 9 percent thick was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 0.95 at (2) angles of attack provided by small rocket motors installed in the nose of the model. No oscillations resembling flutter were encountered during the coasting flight between separation from the booster and sustainer firing (Mach numbers from 0.86 to 0.82) or during the sustainer firing at accelerations of about 8g up to the maximum Mach number of the test (0.95). The third set of wings was similar to the first set and was tested up to a maximum Mach number of 1.24. A mild flutter at frequencies near the first-bending frequency of the wings was encountered between a Mach number of 1.15 and a Mach number of 1.06 during both accelerating and coasting flight. The two drag models, which were 0.ll-scale models of the North American F-100 airplane configuration, reached a maximum Mach number of 1.77. The wings of these models had bending and torsional frequencies which were 40 and 89 percent, respectively, of the calculated scaled frequencies of the full-scale 7-percent-thick wing. Both models experienced flutter of the same type as that experienced-by the third set of wings.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL54G29
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  • 12
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/23-scale model of the McDonnell F3H-1N airplane. The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the clean condition. Spin-recovery parachute tests were also performed. The results indicated that erect spins obtained on the airplane for the take-off or combat loadings should be satisfactorily terminated if full rudder reversal is accompanied by moving the ailerons to full with the spin (stick full right in a right spin). The spins obtained should be oscillatory in pitch, roll, and yaw. Recoveries from inverted spins should be satisfactory by full reversal of the rudder. A 16.7-foot- diameter tail parachute with a towline length of 30 feet and a drag coefficient of 0.734 should be adequate for emergency recovery from demonstration spins.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL55A10a
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  • 13
    Publication Date: 2019-08-17
    Description: Measurement of average skin-friction coefficients have been made on six rocket-powered free-flight models by using the boundary-layer rake technique. The model configuration was the NACA RM-10, a 12.2-fineness-ratio parabolic body of revolution with a flat base. Measurements were made over a Mach number range from 1 to 3.7, a Reynolds number range 40 x 10(exp 6) to 170 x 10(exp 6) based on length to the measurement station, and with aerodynamic heating conditions varying from strong skin heating to strong skin cooling. The measurements show the same trends over the test ranges as Van Driest's theory for turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate. The measured values are approximately 7 percent higher than the values of the flat-plate theory. A comparison which takes into account the differences in Reynolds number is made between the present results and skin-friction measurements obtained on NACA RM-10 scale models in the Langley 4- by 4-foot supersonic pressure tunnel, the Lewis 8- by 6-foot supersonic tunnel, and the Langley 9-inch supersonic tunnel. Good agreement is shown at all but the lowest tunnel Reynolds number conditions. A simple empirical equation is developed which represents the measurements over the range of the tests.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L54G14
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: The lift, pitching-moment, and drag characteristics of a missile configuration having a body of fineness ratio 9.33 and a cruciform triangular wing and tail of aspect ratio 4 were measured at a Mach number of 1.99 and a Reynolds number of 6.0 million, based on the body length. The tests were performed through an angle-of-attack range of -5 deg to 28 deg to investigate the effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of roll angle, wing-tail interdigitation, wing deflection, and interference among the components (body, wing, and tail). Theoretical lift and moment characteristics of the configuration and its components were calculated by the use of existing theoretical methods which have been modified for application to high angles of attack, and these characteristics are compared with experiment. The lift and drag characteristics of all combinations of the body, wing, and tail were independent of roll angle throughout the angle-of-attack range. The pitching-moment characteristics of the body-wing and body-wing- tail combinations, however, were influenced significantly by the roll angle at large angles of attack (greater than 10 deg). A roll from 0 deg (one pair of wing panels horizontal) to 45 deg caused a forward shift in the center of pressure which was of the same magnitude for both of these combinations, indicating that this shift originated from body-wing interference effects. A favorable lift - interference effect (lift of the combination greater than the sum of the lifts of the components) and a rearward shift in the center of pressure from a position corresponding to that for the components occurred at small angles of attack when the body was combined with either the exposed wing or tail surfaces. These lift and center-of-pressure interference effects were gradually reduced to zero as the angle of attack was increased to large values. The effect of wing-tail interference, which influenced primarily the pitching-moment characteristics, is dependent on the distance between the wing trailing vortex wake and the tail surfaces and thus was a function of angle of attack, angle of roll, and wing- tail interdigitation. Although the configuration at zero roll with the wing and tail in line exhibited the least center-of-pressure travel, the configuration with the wing and tail interdigitated had the least change in wing- tail interference over the angle - of-attack range. The lift effectiveness of the variable-incidence wing was reduced by more than 70 percent as a result of an increase in the combined angle of attack and wing incidence from 0 deg to 40 deg center dot The wing- tail interference (effective downwash at the tail) due to wing deflection was nearly zero as a result of a region of negative vorticity shed from the inboard portion of the wing. The lift characteristics of the configuration and its components were satisfactorily predicted by the calculated results, but the pitching moments at large angles of attack were not because of the influence of factors for which no adequate theory is available, such as the variation of the cross flow drag coefficient along the body and the effect of the wing downwash field on the after body loading.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-A54H27
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 2014-07-15
    Description: A method has been proposed for predicting the effect of a rapid blade-pitch increase on the thrust and induced-velocity response of a helicopter rotor. General equations have been derived for the ensuing motion of the helicopter. These equations yield time histories of thrust, induced velocity, and helicopter vertical velocity for given rates of blade-pitch-angle changes and given rotor-angular-velocity time histories. The results of the method have been compared with experimental results obtained with a rotor mounted on the Langley helicopter test tower. The calculated and experimental results are in good agreement, although, in general, the calculated thrust-coefficient overshoots are about 10 percent greater than those obtained experimentally.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-TN-3044
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  • 16
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: A free-flight 0.12-scale rocket-boosted model of the North American MX-770 (X-10) missile has been tested in flight by the Pilotless Aircraft Research Division of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. Drag, longitudinal stability, and duct performance data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.8 to 1.7 covering a Reynolds number range of about 9 x 10(exp 6) to 24 x 10(exp 6) based on wing mean aerodynamic chord. The lift-curve slope, static stability, and damping-in-pitch derivatives showed similar variations with Mach number, the parameters increasing from subsonic values in the transonic region and decreasing in the supersonic region. The variations were for the most part fairly smooth. The aerodynamic center of the configuration shifted rearward in the transonic region and moved forward gradually in the supersonic region. The pitching effectiveness of the canard control surfaces was maintained throughout the flight speed range, the supersonic values being somewhat greater than the subsonic. Trim values of angle of attack and lift coefficient changed abruptly in the transonic region, the change being associated with variations in the out-of-trim pitching moment, control effectiveness, and aerodynamic-center travel in this speed range. Duct total-pressure recovery decreased with increase in free-stream Mach number and the values were somewhat less than normal-shock recovery. Minimum drag data indicated a supersonic drag coefficient about twice the subsonic drag coefficient and a drag-rise Mach number of approximately 0.90. Base drag was small subsonically but was about 25 percent of the minimum drag of the configuration supersonically.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53D10A
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation was made to determine the static longitudinal and lateral stability and control characteristics of a l/6-scale model of the revised Republic XF-84H airplane with and without the propeller operating. The model had a 40deg swept wing of aspect ratio 3.45 and was equipped with a thin, three-blade supersonic-type propeller. Modifications incorporated in the revised model included a raised horizontal tail, increased rudder size, wing fences at 65 percent semispan, and a modified wing leading edge outboard of the fences. The test results for flap-retracted and flap-deflected conditions indicated that the revised configuration should be satisfactory for most normal flight conditions provided the angle of attack does not exceed the angle for pitch-up. An abrupt pitch-up tendency of the model was evident for the zero thrust condition above approximately 15' angle of attack. Although the effects of power were destabilizing, power-on longitudinal stability was satisfactory through the angle-of-attack range for which the model was stable with zero thrust. Above the angle of attack for pitch-up, an uncontrollable left roll-off tendency would be expected with power on and slats retracted. Projection of wing slats or use of leading-edge chord-extensions with only the left extension drooped were found beneficial in controlling the roll-off tendency with power on; however the most effective means found was projection of only the left slat.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53I24
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  • 18
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Pressure-distribution measurements have been made on the fus elage of the Bell X- 1 research airplane. Data are presented for angles of attack from 2 deg. to 8 deg. during pull-ups at Mach numbers of about 0.78, 0.85, 0.88, and 1.02. The results of the investigation indicated that a large portion of the load carried by the fuselage was in the vicinity of the wing and may be attributed to wing-to-fuselage carryover. The presence of the wing from the 41 to 60 percent fuselage stations influenced the fuselage pressures from about 30 to 65 percent fuselage length at Mach numbers of approximat ely 0.78, 0.85, and 0.88, and from about 35 to 80 percent fuselage length at a Mach number of approximately 1.02. The fuselage contributed about 20 percent of the total airplane normal-force coefficient. The center of pressure of the fuselage load throughout the tests was located from 41 to 51 percent fuselage length, which corresponds to the forward half of the wing root-chord location.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L53I15
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  • 19
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An investigation has been made at high subsonic speeds of the aerodynamic'characteristics in pitch and sideslip of a l/l4-scale model of the Grumman XF10F airplane with a wing sweepback angle of 42.5. The longitudinal stability characteristics (with the horizontal tail fixed) indicate a pitch-up near the stall; however, this was somewhat alleviated by the addition of fins to the side of the fuselage below the horizontal tail. The original model configuration became directionally unstable for small sideslip angles at Mach numbers above 0.8; however, the instability was eliminated by several different modifications.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53G20
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: A limited investigation of a 1/24-scale dynamically similar model of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics DR-77 design was conducted in Langley tank no. 2 to determine the calm-water take-off and the rough-water landing characteristics of the design with particular regard to the take-off resistance and the landing accelerations. During the take-off tests, resistance, trim, and rise were measured and photographs were taken to study spray. During the landing tests, motion-picture records and normal-acceleration records were obtained. A ratio of gross load to maximum resistance of 3.2 was obtained with a 30 deg. dead-rise hydro-ski installation. The maximum normal accelerations obtained with a 30 deg. dead-rise hydro-ski installation were of the order of 8g to log in waves 8 feet high (full scale). A yawing instability that occurred just prior to hydro-ski emergence was improved by adding an afterbody extension, but adding the extension reduced the ratio of gross load to maximum resistance to 2.9.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53F04
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  • 21
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 0.13-scale free-flight model of the Convair XFY-1 airplane in test setups representing the setup proposed for use in the first flight tests of the full-scale airplane in the Moffett Field airship hangar. The investigation was conducted in two parts: first, tests with the model flying freely in an enclosure simulating the hangar, and second, tests with the model partially restrained by an overhead line attached to the propeller spinner and ground lines attached to the wing and tail tips. The results of the tests indicated that the airplane can be flown without difficulty in the Moffett Field airship hangar if it does not approach too close to the hangar walls. If it does approach too close to the walls, the recirculation of the propeller slipstream might cause sudden trim changes which would make smooth flight difficult for the pilot to accomplish. It appeared that the tethering system proposed by Convair could provide generally satisfactory restraint of large-amplitude motions caused by control failure or pilot error without interfering with normal flying or causing any serious instability or violent jerking motions as the tethering lines restrained the model.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL54B16A
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  • 22
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Static tests on a segment of a transpiration-cooled turbine rotor blade with a wire-cloth shell were conducted to determine the flow coefficients associated with some representative metering orifices. Average flow coefficients from 0.96 to 0.79 were obtained for orifices of 0.031 to 0.102 inch diameter.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-E53L30a
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  • 23
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An experimental investigation has been made in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to determine the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a l/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient were investigated for the complete model and for certain components of the model. Effects of control deflections and of propeller-blade angle were investigated briefly for the complete model. Most of the tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4 deg. to 29 deg, and the thrust-coefficient range was from 0 t o 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data to interested persons, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this report,
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53B20
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An application of airfoil design methods was used to design series of related turbine-blade profiles to satisfy the conditions of inlet flow angle and turning angle encountered in the usual range of turbine operation. A series of blade profiles applicable to most turbine blading requirements and a secondary series with particular reference to impulse conditions were designed. Five blade sections from these series ranging in mean-line turning angles from 63 deg. to 120 deg. were tested in low-speed cascade tunnels. From low-speed test results optimum blade angles of attack were selected at each test condition. The induced angle and the deviation angle of the flow were determined from the low-speed data. If these angles are known for the solidity and inlet angle of an application, the necessary camber is specified. A method of predicting high-speed pressure distributions from low-speed cascade test results is presented to extend the usefulness of the low-speed data. Sample high-speed tests of two of the five blade sections were made at Mach numbers up to the critical value. The results indicated satisfactory flow conditions in all of the blade passages tested.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L53G15
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley 9- by 12-inch supersonic blowdown tunnel to determine the effects of external-store location on the lift, drag, and pitching-moment characteristics of a 45 degree sweptback wing at Mach numbers of 1.41, 1.62, and 1.96. The spanwise, chordwise, and vertical location of a Douglas-Aircraft Company, Inc., store of fineness ratio 8.58 was systematically varied over the outer 60 percent of the wing semispan. A brief investigation of strut sweep angle was also made. The test Reynolds number based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord ranged from 1.3 x 10(exp 6) to 1.5 x 10(exp 6).
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L52J27
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  • 26
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: The hydrodynamic characteristics of a preliminary design of the Martin XP6M-1 flying boat have been determined. Longitudinal stability during take-off and landing, resistance of the complete model, and behavior during taxiing and landing in rough water are presented.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53K06
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Preliminary results of one phase of a control-motion study program involving several jet fighter-type airplanes are presented in time-history form and are summarized as maximum measured quantities plotted against indicated airspeed. The results pertain to approximately 1,000 maneuvers performed by a Republic F-84G jet-fighter airplane during squadron operational training. The data include most tactical maneuvers of which the F-84G airplane is capable. Maneuvers were performed at pressure altitudes of 0 to 30,000 feet with indicated airspeeds ranging from the stalling speed to approximately 515 knots.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L53C27
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: A systematic research program is being carried out in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of various arrangements of the component parts of research-type airplane models, including some complete model configurations. Data are being obtained on characteristics in pitch, sideslip, and during steady roll at Mach numbers from 0.40 to about 0.95. This paper presents results which show the effect of taper ratio on the aerodynamic characteristics in sideslip of wing-fuselage combinations having wings with a sweep of 45 degrees at the quarter-chord line, an aspect ratio of 4, and a NACA 65A006 airfoil section.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L53B25a
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  • 29
    Publication Date: 2014-07-15
    Description: A cascade of 65-(12)10 compressor blades was tested at one geometric setting over a range of inlet Mach number from 0.12 to 0.89. Two groups of data are presented and compared: the first from the cascade operating conventionally with no boundary-layer control, and the second with the boundary layer controlled by a combination of upstream slot suction and porous-wall suction at the blade tips. A criterion for two-dimensionality was used to specify the degree of boundary-layer control by suction to be applied. The data are presented and an analysis is made to show the effect of Mach number on turning angle, blade wake, pressure distribution about the blade profile and static-pressure rise. The influence of boundary-layer control on these parameters as well as on the secondary losses is illustrated. A system of correlating the measured static-pressure rise through the cascade with the theoretical isentropic values is presented which gives good agreement with the data. The pressure distribution about the blade profile for an inlet Mach number of 0.21 is corrected with the Prandtl-Glauert, Karman-Tsien, and vector-mean velocity - contraction coefficient compressibility correction factors to inlet Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.7. The resulting curves are compared with the experimental pressure distributions for inlet Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.7 so that the validity of applying the three corrections can be evaluated.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-TN-2649
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Tests have been made at the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory on a 6000-horsepower propeller dynamometer installed at a ground test facility to determine the effect of a half-scale model of the Wright Aeronautical Development Center 30,000-horsepower whirl rig upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a three-blade NACA 10-(3)(062)-045 propeller. The model of the whirl rig was mounted in front of the 6000-horsepower propeller dynamometer. Static propeller tests were made for 0deg, 5deg, 10deg, 15deg, and 20deg blade angles over a range of rotational speeds from 600 to 2200 rpm in 100-rpm increments. Measurements were made of propeller thrust and torque, stresses in the propeller blades, and static and total pressures over the surface of the model. Propeller thrust and torque were increased up to 33 percent by the presence of the model of the whirl rig, but the average increase was from 5 to 10 percent. Blade vibratory stresses were small.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL52F20
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An elementary type of analysis has been used to determine the amount of wing tip that must be severed to produce irrevocable loss of control of a B-29 airplane. The remaining inboard structure of the Boeing B-29 wing has then been analyzed and curves are presented for the estimated reduction in structural strength due to four general types of damage produced by rod-type warhead fragments. The curves indicate the extent of structural damage required to produce a kill of the aircraft within 10 seconds.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L52H01A
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  • 32
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The stator-blade angles in the twelfth through fifteenth stages of a 16-stage axial-flow compressor were increased 3O. The over-all performance of this modified compressor is compared to the performance of the compressor with original blade angles. The matching characteristics of the modified compressor and a two-stage turbine were obtained and compared to those of the compressor with original blade angles and the same turbine.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-E52A10
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  • 33
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: As part of a program to determine the feasibility of using a fighter airplane as a parasite in combination with a Consolidated Vultee RB-36 for long-range reconnaissance missions (project FICON), an experimental investigation has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the dynamic stability and control characteristics of a 1/17.5-scale model of a Chance Vought F7U-3 airplane in several tow configurations. The investigation consisted of flight tests in which the model was towed from a strut in the tunnel by a towline and by a direct coupling which provided complete angular freedom. The tests with the direct coupling also included a study of the effect of spring restraint in roll in order to simulate approximately the proposed full-scale arrangement in which the only freedom is that permitted by the flexibility of the launching and retrieving trapeze carried by the-bomber. For the tow configurations in which a towline was used (15 and 38 feet full scale), the model had a very unstable lateral oscillation which could not be controlled. The stability was also unsatisfactory for the tow configuration in Which the model was coupled directly to the strut with complete angular freedom. When spring restraint in roll was added, however, the stability was satisfactory. The use of the yaw damper which increased the damping in yaw to about six times the normal value of the model appeared to have no appreciable effect on the lateral oscillations in the towline configurations, but produced a slight improvement in the case of the direct coupling configurations. The longitudinal stability was satisfactory for those cases in which the lateral stability was good enough to permit study of longitudinal motions.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL53D07
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: The aerodynamic characteristics in pitch of the Army Ordnance Corps T205 3.5-inch HEAT rocket with various head designs and one fin modification have been determined at velocities of 500, 700 and 900 feet per second in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel. The results presented are those of the full-scale model. Comparison of results obtained at 500 feet per second shows, in general, that for changes on the forward portion of the head the missile configurations having the greatest stability - most rearward center-of-loads location - were those having the highest drag. However, very limited comparisons indicate that the shape of the rear position of the head may be an important factor in reducing the drag and increasing the restoring moments. Generally, large increases in drag were noted for the various head designs with an increase in Mach number from 0.62 to 0.82. Pitching-moment-curve slopes increased with Mach number on all models except those having reasonably well-faired forward sections. These models showed a decrease in stability with increases in Mach number.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL52G15
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  • 35
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Preliminary results of one phase of a control-motion study program are presented in the form of plots of load factor.and angular acceleration against indicated airspeed and of time histories of several measured quantities. The results were obtained from 197 maneuvers performed by an F-86A jet-fighter airplane during normal squadron operational training. Most of the tactical maneuver8 of which the F-86A is capable were performed at pressure altitudes ranging from 0 to 32,000 feet and at indicated airspeeds ranging from 95 to 650 miles per hour.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L52C19
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Force characteristics determined from tank tests of a 1/5.78 scale model of a hydro-ski-wheel combination for the Grumman JRF-5 airplane are presented. The model was tested in both the submerged and planing conditions over a range of trim, speed, and load sufficiently large to represent the most probable full-size conditions.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SLS2B28
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  • 37
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-foot pressure wind tunnel to determine the effect of an operating propeller on the aerodynamic characteristics of a l/l9-scale model of the Lockheed XFV-1 airplane, Several full-scale power conditions were simulated at Mach numbers from 0.50 to 0.92; the.Reynolds number was constant at 1,7 million. Lift, longitudinal force, pitch, roll, and yaw characteristics, determined with and without power, are presented for the complete model and for various combinations of model components, Results of an investigation to determine the characteristics of the dual-rotating propeller used on the model are given also,
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SA52E06
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  • 38
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The stator-blade angles in the first four stages of a 16-stage axial-flow compressor were increased in order to decrease the angles of attack of these stages, and thereby to improve part-speed performance. The performance of this modified compressor was compared with that of the same compressor with original blade angles.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-E52B15
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: An impulse-momentum method for determining impact conditions for landing gears in eccentric landings is presented. The analysis is primarily concerned with the determination of contact velocities for impacts subsequent to initial touchdown in eccentric landings and with the determination of the effective mass acting on each landing gear. These parameters determine the energy-absorption requirements for the landing gear and, in conjunction with the particular characteristics of the landing gear, govern the magnitude of the ground loads. Changes in airplane angular and linear velocities and the magnitude of landing-gear vertical, drag, and side impulses resulting from a landing impact are determined by means of impulse-momentum relationships without the necessity for considering detailed force-time variations. The effective mass acting on each gear is also determined from the calculated landing-gear impulses. General equations applicable to any type of eccentric landing are written and solutions are obtained for the particular cases of an impact on one gear, a simultaneous impact on any two gears, and a symmetrical impact. In addition a solution is presented for a simplified two-degree-of-freedom system which allows rapid qualitative evaluation of the effects of certain principal parameters. The general analysis permits evaluation of the importance of such initial conditions at ground contact as vertical, horizontal, and side drift velocities, wing lift, roll and pitch angles, and rolling and pitching velocities, as well as the effects of such factors as landing gear location, airplane inertia, landing-gear length, energy-absorption efficiency, and wheel angular inertia on the severity of landing impacts. -A brief supplementary study which permits a limited evaluation of variable aerodynamic effects neglected in the analysis is presented in the appendix. Application of the analysis indicates that landing-gear impacts in eccentric landings can be appreciably more severe than impacts in symmetrical landings with the same sinking speed. The results also indicate the effects of landing-gear location, airplane inertia, initial wing lift, side drift velocity, attitude, and initial rolling velocity on the severity of both initial and subsequent landing-gear impacts. A comparison of the severity of impacts on auxiliary gears for tricycle and quadricycle configurations is also presented.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-TN-2596
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  • 40
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: The damping in roll and rolling effectiveness of two models of a missile having cruciform, triangular, interdigitated wings and tails have been determined through a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.8 by utilizing rocket-propelled test vehicles. Results indicate that the damping in roll was relatively constant over the Mach umber range investigated. The rolling effectiveness was essentially constant at low supersonic speeds and increased with increasing mach numbers in excess of 1.4 over the Mach number range investigated. Aeroelastic effects increase the rolling-effectiveness parameters pb/2V divided by delta and decrease both the rolling-moment coefficient due to wing deflection and the damping-in-roll coefficient.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L51D16
    Format: text
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 2014-07-15
    Description: The empirical relation between the induced velocity, thrust, and rate of vertical descent of a helicopter rotor was calculated from wind tunnel force tests on four model rotors by the application of blade-element theory to the measured values of the thrust, torque, blade angle, and equivalent free-stream rate of descent. The model tests covered the useful range of C(sub t)/sigma(sub e) (where C(sub t) is the thrust coefficient and sigma(sub e) is the effective solidity) and the range of vertical descent from hovering to descent velocities slightly greater than those for autorotation. The three bladed models, each of which had an effective solidity of 0.05 and NACA 0015 blade airfoil sections, were as follows: (1) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 3-ft radius; (2) untwisted blades of 3-ft radius having a 3/1 taper; (3) constant-chord blades of 3-ft radius having a linear twist of 12 degrees (washout) from axis of rotation to tip; and (4) constant-chord, untwisted blades of 2-ft radius. Because of the incorporation of a correction for blade dynamic twist and the use of a method of measuring the approximate equivalent free-stream velocity, it is believed that the data obtained from this program are more applicable to free-flight calculations than the data from previous model tests.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-TN-2474
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  • 42
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: A flight investigation of a 1/7-scale rocket-powered model of the XF10F Grumman XFl0F airplane in the swept-wing configuration has been made. The purpose of this test was to determine the static longitudinal stability, damping in pitch, and longitudinal control effectiveness of the airplane with the center of gravity at 20 percent of the wing mean aerodynamic chord. Only a small amount of data was obtained from the test because, immediately after booster separation at a Mach number of 0.88, the configuration was directionally unstable and diverged in sideslip. Simultaneous with the sideslip divergence, the model became longitudinally unstable at 3 degree angle of attack and -6 degree sideslip and diverged in pitch to a high angle of attack. During the pitch-up the free-floating horizontal tail became unstable at 5 degree angle of attack and the tail drifted against its positive deflection limit.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL52I25
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  • 43
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation of a 1/24- scale dynamically similar model of the Douglas C-124 airplane was made to determine the ditching characteristics and proper technique for ditching the airplane. Various conditions of damage, landing attitude, flap setting, and speed were investigated. The behavior of the model was determined from visual observations, motion- picture records, and time-history deceleration records. The results of the investigation are presented in table form, photographs, and curves. It was concluded on the basis of results from model tests with scale-strength bottoms (equivalent to 1150 pounds per square foot, full scale) that the airplane should be ditched at a medium nose-high landing attitude (near 7deg) with flaps full down. The airplane will probably make a smooth run with considerable damage resulting to the fuselage bottom just forward of the wing, but it is not likely that the water inflow will be overwhelming to personnel provided they are not in the belly compartment. Longitudinal decelerations in calm water will be about 2 1/2g and the landing run will be about four fuselage lengths.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL51F20
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  • 44
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The present paper presents the results of a brief investigation made to determine the effectiveness of a proposed emergency spin-recovery device to be used during demonstration spins of the Northrop XF -89 airplane. The proposed device makes use of split-type ailerons deflected +/-60deg on the outboard wing (left wing in a right spin). Tests made on a model which represented the airplane to a scale of 7 indicated that, if an uncontrollable spin is obtained in the design gross--weight loading, the device is not sufficiently effective to insure recovery,
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL-51H24
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  • 45
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: As part of a study of means of airspeed measurement at transonic speeds the use of static orifices located ahead of the wing tip has been investigated for possible application to service or research airspeed installations. The local static pressure and local Mach number have been measured at a distance of 1 tip chord ahead of the wing tip of a model of a swept-wing fighter airplane at true Mach numbers between 0.7 and 1.08 by the NACA wing-flow method. All measurements were made at or near zero lift. The local Mach number was found to be essentially equal to the true Mach numbers less than about 0.90. The local Mach number was found to be about 0.97 at a true Mach number of 0.95, and to be about 1.04 at a true Mach number of 1.08. The local Mach number provided a reasonable sensitive measure of true Mach number except for a restricted region near a true Mach number of 1.0 where the local Mach number did not change appreciably with true Mach number. The linear theory was found to predict qualitatively the effect of the fuselage on the static pressure ahead of the wing time but gave a reasonable prediction of the effect of the wing on the static pressure only at Mach numbers below 0.95.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L50L28
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  • 46
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Two theoretical procedures are developed for designing asymmetric supersonic nozzles for which the calculated exit flow is nearly uniform over a range of Mach numbers. One procedure is applicable at Mach numbers less than approximately 3. This approach yields, without iteration, a nozzle for which the calculated exit flow is uniform at two Mach numbers and, with proper design, is nearly uniform at Mach numbers between, slightly above, and slightly below these two. The use of an inclined and curved sonic line is an essential feature of this approach, The second procedure requires iteration and is used far designs at Mach numbers exceeding 3. Although it is not a necessary feature, an inclined and curved sonic line is also used in this procedure. In both approaches the flow field dawn stream of the sonic line is determined using the method of characteristics.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-A51A19
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: A tank investigation has been conducted on a 1/8-size powered dynamic model of the Grumman JRF-5 airplane equipped with twin hydro-skis. The results of tests using two types of skis are presented: one had vertical sides joining the top surface to the chine; the other had the top surface faired to the chine to eliminate the vertical sides. Both configurations had satisfactory longitudinal stability although the model had a slightly greater stable elevator range available when the skis without the vertical sides were attached. Free model tests indicated no instability present when one ski emerged before the other. Considerable excess thrust was available at all speeds with either type of skis. A hump gross load-resistance ratio of 3.37 was obtained with the skis with the vertical sides and 3.53 with the other skis. Landing behavior in smooth water with yaw up to 15deg and roll up to 15deg in opposite directions was satisfactory with either type of skis.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA RM-SL52D17
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  • 48
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: A tank investigation has been conducted of a 1/10-size powered-dynamic model of the Edo model 142 hydra-ski research airplane. The results of tests of two configurations are presented: One included a large ski and a ski well; the other, a small ski without a well. Water take-offs would be possible with the available thrust for either configuration: however, the configuration with the large ski emerged sooner and had less resistance from ski emergence until take-off. Longitudinal stability and landing behavior in smooth water were satisfactory for both configurations. Some alteration to the design of the tail would be desirable in order to reduce the spray loads.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL51I24
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  • 49
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2019-08-15
    Description: It has been shown that the circumferential pressure distributions for the inclined body and circular cylinder deviate from their respective theoretical inviscid distributions on the lee or downstream side in the same manner. With the aid of visual flow techniques, it has been shown that there is a shedding of vortices within the crossflow field of the inclined body. It has also been found that the vortex configuration depoends to a large extent on the shape of the nose of the body. To illustrate this, vapor screen pictures were made and results are discussed.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA Conference on Aerodynamic Design Problems of Supersonic Guided Missiles; Oct 02, 1951 - Oct 03, 1951; Moffett Field, CA; United States|Aerodynamic Characteristics of Bodies at Supersonic Speeds: A Collection of Three Papers; 31-44; NACA-RM-A51J25
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  • 50
    Publication Date: 2014-07-15
    Description: The autorotative performance of an assumed helicopter was studied to determine the effect of inoperative jet units located at the rotor-blade tip on the helicopter rate of descent. For a representative ramjet design, the effect of the jet drag is to increase the minimum rate of descent of the helicopter from about 1,OO feet per minute to 3,700 feet per minute when the rotor is operating at a tip speed of approximately 600 feet per second. The effect is less if the rotor operates at lower tip speeds, but the rotor kinetic energy and the stall margin available for the landing maneuver are then reduced. Power-off rates of descent of pulse-jet helicopters would be expected to be less than those of ramjet. helicopters because pulse jets of current design appear to have greater ratios of net power-on thrust to power-off, drag than currently designed rain jets. Iii order to obtain greater accuracy in studies of autorotative performance, calculations in'volving high power-off rates of descent should include the weight-supporting effect of the fuselage parasite-drag force and the fact that the rotor thrust does not equal the weight of the helicopter.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-TN-2154
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  • 51
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Investigations have been conducted to determine by means of total-pressure surveys the boundaries of single and twin jets discharging through convergent nozzles into quiescent air. The jet boundaries for the region from the nozzle outlets to a station 6 nozzle diameters downstream are presented for nozzle pressure ratios ranging from 2.5 t o 16.0 and for twin-Jet nozzle center-line spacings ranging from 1.42 to 2.50 nozzle diameters. The effects of these parameters on the interaction of twin Jets are discussed. In order to ascertain the utility of the results for other than the test conditions, the effects of jet temperature, Reynolds number, and humidity on the pressure boundaries have been briefly investigated. The result indicate that for a jet of 2.6 the pressure boundaries are slightly smaller than those of corresponding unheated jets and that the effects of Reynolds number and humidity are negligible.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-E50E03a
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  • 52
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: At the request of the Air Materiel Command, an investigation was made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the longitudinal stability and control characteristics of models coupled together in a tandem configuration for aerial refueling similar to one proposed by the Douglas Aircraft Company, Inc. Static force tests were made with 1/20-scale models of the B-29 and F-80 airplanes to determine the effects of rigidly coupling the airplanes together. The Douglas configuration differs from the rigid configuration tested in that it provides for some freedom in pitch and vertical displacement. The force tests showed that, for the bomber alone, the aerodynamic center was 0.21 mean aerodynamic chord behind the center of gravity (stable) but that for the tandem configuration with rigid coupling the aerodynamic center was 0.28 mean aerodynamic chord forward of the center of gravity of the combination (unstable). This reduction in stability was caused by the downwash of the bomber on the fighter. The pitching moment produced by elevator deflection of the bomber was reduced approximately 50 percent by addition of the fighter. Some recent flight tests made in the free-flight tunnel on models in a similar tandem configuration indicated that, with a hinged coupling permitting freedom in pitch, the stability of the combination was better than that obtained with a rigid coupling and was about the same as that for the bomber alone.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50E01
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  • 53
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An experimental investigation of the variation of aileron rolling effectiveness and total drag with Mach number has been made using 1/6-scale rocket-propelled models of the Bell MX-776. Three models having constant-chordwise-thickness full-span aileron at approximate deflections of 2 deg, 5 deg, and 15 deg have been flown. Positive control effectiveness over the Mach number range between approximately 0.5 and 1.2 was obtained from the models and no indication of reversal of effectiveness was encountered. The ratio of tip helix angle to aileron deflection indicated a decrease in proportional rolling effectiveness with increasing deflections in the Mach number range from approximately 0.7 to 1.0. A drag rise of about 125 percent in the transonic region between Mach numbers of 0.85 and 1.02 followed by a gradual decrease at higher speeds was revealed.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL51D27
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  • 54
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation has been made in the Langley gust tunnel with two identical airplane models approximating 1/40-scale models of the B-29, coupled in tandem with a boom so that the individual centers of gravity were equidistant from the single coupling joint at the tail of the lead airplane. Time histories of the boom joint load were obtained as the models were flown through a gust. The results indicate that on a similar configuration involving airplanes the size of B-29 airplanes a load on the boom joint of 10,000 to 14,000 pounds could be induced by encountering a gust of 50 feet per second and having a gradient distance of 17 chords, at a forward speed of 380 feet per second and that the total load is extremely sensitive to the steadiness of flight that can be maintained with or without a gust. It is felt that the results are probably satisfactory to show order of magnitude, but it does not appear possible that a precise determination of the joint load that would be applicable to the full-scale airplanes can be obtained by gust-tunnel tests.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL51E01A
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  • 55
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Free-flight tests have been made to determine the zero-lift drag of several configurations of the XAAM-N-2 pilotless aircraft. Base-pressure measurements were also obtained for some of the configurations. The results show that increasing the wing-thickness ratio from 4 to 6 percent increased the wing drag by about 100 percent at M = 1.3 and by about 30 percent at M = 1.8. Increasing the nose fineness ratio from 5.00 to 6.25 reduced the drag coefficient of the wingless models a maximum of about 0.030 (10 percent) at M = 2.0. A corresponding change in nose shape for the winged models decreased the drag coefficient by about 0.05 in the Mach number range from 1.1 to 1.4; at Mach numbers greater than 1.6 no measurable reduction in drag coefficient was obtained. The drag of the present Sparrow fuselage is less than that of a parabolic fuselage which could contain the same equipment.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50C16a
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  • 56
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: An investigation was conducted with a single combustor from a J47 turbojet engine using weathered aviation gasoline and several spark-plug modifications to determine altitude ignition, acceleration, and steady state operating characteristics. Satisfactory ignition was obtained with two modifications of the original opposite-polarity spark plug up to and including an altitude of 40,003 feet at conditions simulating equilibrium windmilling of the engine at a flight speed of 400 miles per hour. At a simulated altitude of 30,000 feet, satisfactory ignition was obtained over a range of simulated engine speeds. No significant effect of fuel temperature on ignition limits was observed over a range of fuel temperatures from 80 deg to -52 deg F. At an altitude of 30,000 feet, the excess temperature rise available for acceleration at low engine speeds was limited by the ability of the combustor to produce temperature rise, whereas at high engine speeds the maximum allowable turbine-inlet temperature became the restricting factor. Altitude operational limits increased from about 51,500 feet at 55 percent of rated engine speed to about 64,500 feet at 85 percent of rated speed. Combustion efficiencies varied from 59.0 to 92.6 percent over the range investigated and decreased with a decrease in engine speed and with an increase in altitude; higher efficiencies would have been obtained if lower altitudes had been investigated. Comparisons were made of the combustion efficiencies of weathered aviation gasoline and MIL-F-5616 fuel at altitudes of 30,000 and 40,000 feet. Combustion efficiencies obtained with MIL-F-5616 fuel were 8 percent higher at rated engine speed and 14 percent lower at 55 percent of rated speed than those obtained with weathered aviation gasoline.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SE50J12
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  • 57
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: An investigate ion was made of the disturbed motion of a gas for the harmonic vibrations of a thin slightly cambered wing of finite span moving forward with supersonic velocity. This problem was considered by E. A. Krasilshchikova who applied the method of Fourier series and obtained a solution of the space problem for the condition that the Mach cones drawn through the leading edge of the wing intersect the wing or are tangent to it. In this paper, a different method of solution is given, which is free from the previously mentioned condition. In particular, the vibrations of a triangular wing lying within the Mach cone are considered.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-TM-1257 , Prikladnaya Matematika i Mekhanika; 11; 371-376
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  • 58
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation of a 1/24-scale dynamically similar model of the Boeing B-47 airplane was made to determine the ditching characteristics and proper ditching technique for the airplane. Various conditions of damage, landing attitude, flap setting, and speed were investigated. The behavior of the model was determined from visual observations, motion-picture records, and time-history deceleration records. The results of the investigation are presented in table form, photographs, and curves. The airplane should be ditched at the lowest speed and highest attitude consistent with adequate control; the flaps should be full down. The airplane will probably make a deep but fairly smooth run. The fuselage bottom will be damaged and partially filled with water; consequently, crew members should be assigned ditching stations near an exit in the upper or forward part of the fuselage. The nacelles may be expected to be torn away from the wing. In calm water the maximum decelerations will be about 3g and the landing run will be about 6 fuselage lengths.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50E03
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 59
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation was made by the NACA wing-flow method to determine the drag, pitching-moment, lift, and angle-of-attack characteristics at transonic speeds of various configurations of a semispan model of an early configuration of the XF7U-1 tailless airplane. The results of the tests indicated that for the basic configuration with undeflected ailavator, the zero-lift drag rise occurred at a Mach number of about 0.85 and that about a five-fold increase in drag occurred through the transonic speed range. The results of the tests also indicated that the drag increment produced by -8.0 degrees deflection of the ailavator increased with increase in normal-force coefficient and was smaller at speeds above than at speeds below the drag rise. The drag increment produced by 35 degree deflection of the speed brakes varied from 0.040 to 0.074 depending on the normal-force coefficient and Mach number. These values correspond to drag coefficients of about 0.40 and 0.75 based on speed-brake frontal area. Removal of the fin produced a small positive drag increment at a given normal-force coefficient at speeds during the drag rise. A large forward shift of the neutral-point location occurred at Mach numbers above about 0.90 upon removal of the fin, and also a considerable forward shift throughout the Mach number range occurred upon deflection of the speed brakes. Ailavator ineffectiveness or reversal at low deflections, similar to that determined in previous tests of the basic configuration of the model in the Mach number range from about 0.93 to 1.0, was found for the fin-off configuration and for the model equipped with skewed (more highly sweptback) hinge-line ailavators. With the speed brakes deflected, little or no loss in the incremental pitching moment produced by deflection of the ailavator from O degrees to -8.00 degrees occurred in the Mach number range from 0.85 to 1.0 in contrast to a considerable loss found in previous tests with the speed brakes off.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50D18
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 60
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: A ditching investigation of a model of the Convair-Liner airplane was made to observe the behavior and determine the safest procedure for making an emergency water landing. The ditching model was designed and constructed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Design information on the airplane was furnished by the Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation. A three-view drawing of the airplane is shown. The investigation was made in calm water at the Langley tank no. 2 monorail.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50K02
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 61
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: A flight test was made to determine the servoplane effectiveness and stability characteristics of the free-floating horizontal stabilizer to be used on the XF10F airplane. The results of this test indicate that servoplane effectiveness is practically constant through the speed range up to a Mach number of 1.15, and the stabilizer static stability is satisfactory. A loss of damping occurs over a narrow Mach number range near M = 1.0, resulting in dynamic instability of the stabilizer in this narrow range. Above M = 1.0 there is a gradual positive trim change of the stabilizer.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL51E04
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 62
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Calculations have been made to find range? attainable by bombers of gross weights from l40,000 to 300,000 pounds powered by turbine-propeller power plants. Only conventional configurations were considered and emphasis was placed upon using data for structural and aerodynamic characteristics which are typical of modern military airplanes. An effort was made to limit the various parameters invoked in the airplane configuration to practical values. Therefore, extremely high wing loadings, large amounts of sweepback, and very high aspect ratios have not been considered. Power-plant performance was based upon the performance of a typical turbine-propeller engine equipped with propellers designed to maintain high efficiencies at high-subsonic speeds. Results indicated, in general, that the greatest range, for a given gross weight, is obtained by airplanes of high wing loading, unless the higher cruising speeds associated with the high-wing-loading airplanes require-the use of thinner wing sections. Further results showed the effect of cruising at-high speeds, of operation at very high altitudes, and of carrying large bomb loads.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L50F12 , Rept-3185
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 63
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the spin and recovery characteristics of a 0.057-scale model of the modified Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane. The primary change in the design from that previously tested was a revision of the twin vertical tails. Tests were also made to determine the effect of installation of external wing tanks. The results indicated that the revision in the vertical tails did not greatly alter the spin and recovery characteristics of the model and recovery by normal use of controls (fill rapid rudder reversal followed approximately one-half turn later by movement of the stick forward of neutral) was satisfactory. Adding the external wing tanks to cause the recovery characteristics to become critical and border on an unsatisfactory condition; however, it was shown that satisfactory recovery could be obtained by jettisoning the tanks, followed by normal recovery technique.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50F02
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 64
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the stability and control characteristics of a full-size model of the Hughes MX-904 missile. Aerodynamic characteristics of the complete model through moderate ranges of angles of attack and yaw, with an additional test made through an angle of attack of 180 degrees, are presented. The effects of horizontal tail deflection are also included.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL9D28
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 65
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: An investigation of the static and dynamic longitudinal stability characteristics of 1/3.7 scale rocket-powered model of the Bell MX-776A has been made for a Mach number range from 0.8 to 1.6. Two models were tested with all control surfaces at 0 degree deflection and centers of gravity located 1/4 and 1/2 body diameters, respectively, ahead of the equivalent design location. Both models were stable about the trim conditions but did not trim at 0 degree angle of attack because of slight constructional asymmetries. The results indicated that the variation of lift and pitching moment was not linear with angle of attack. Both lift-curve slope and pitching-moment-curve slope were of the smallest magnitude near 0 degree angle of attack. In general, an increase in angle of attack was accompanied by a rearward movement of the aerodynamic center as the rear wing moved out of the downwash from the forward surfaces. This characteristic was more pronounced in the transonic region. The dynamic stability in the form of total damping factor varied with normal-force coefficient but was greatest for both models at a Mach number of approximately 1.25. The damping factor was greater at the lower trim normal-force coefficients except at a Mach number of 1.0. At that speed the damping factor was of about the same magnitude for both models. The drag coefficient increased with trim normal-force coefficient and was largest in the transonic region.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50B23
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 66
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: At the request of the Air Materiel Command an investigation was made in the Langley free-flight tunnel to determine the static longitudinal stability and control characteristics of models coupled together in a tandem configuration proposed by All American Airways, Inc. Force tests were made using 1/20-scale models of B-29 end F-80 airplanes to determine the effects of coupling the fighter to the tail of the bomber. The results of the investigation showed that for the bomber alone the aerodynamic center was 0.21 mean aerodynamic chord behind the center of gravity (stable) but that for the tandem configuration the aerodynamic center was 0.09 mean aerodynamic chord forward of the center of gravity, of the combination (unstable). The elevator effectiveness of the bomber was reduced approximately 50 percent by addition of the fighter. Some recent flight tests made in the free-flight tunnel with models simulating the proposed configuration indicate that the reduction in stability may be minimized by incorporating a hinged coupling permitting freedom in pitch.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-SL50C14A
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 67
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Flight tests have been conducted on rocket-propelled models of an airplane configuration incorporating a sweptback wing with inverse taper to investigate the drag, stability, and control characteristics at transonic and supersonic speeds. The models were tested with a conventional tail arrangement in the Mach number range from 0.55 to 1.2. In addition to the various aerodynamic parameters obtained, the flying qualities were computed for a full-scale airplane with the center-of-gravity location at 18 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. Also, included in this investigation are drag measurements made on relatively simple fixed-control models tested with both conventional and V-tail arrangements.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-RM-L50G18a
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 68
    Publication Date: 2019-08-13
    Description: The study of the hydrodynamic properties of planing bottom of flying boats and seaplane floats is at the present time based exclusively on the curves of towing tests conducted in tanks. In order to provide a rational basis for the test procedure in tanks and practical design data, a theoretical study must be made of the flow at the step and relations derived that show not only qualitatively but quantitatively the inter-relations of the various factors involved. The general solution of the problem of the development of hydrodynamic forces during the motion of the seaplane float or flying boat is very difficult for it is necessary to give a three-dimensional solution, which does not always permit reducing the analysis to the form of workable computation formulas. On the other had, the problem is complicated by the fact that the object of the analysis is concerned with two fluid mediums, namely, air and water, which have a surface of density discontinuity between them. The theoretical and experimental investigations on the hydrodynamics of a ship cannot be completely carried over to the design of floats and flying-boat hulls, because of the difference in the shape of the contour lines of the bodies, and, because of the entirely different flow conditions from the hydrodynamic viewpoint.
    Keywords: Aircraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NACA-TM-1246 , Materialy po Gidrodinamicheskomu Raschetu Glisserov i Gidrosamoletov; 1-39; CAHI-Rept-149
    Format: application/pdf
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