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  • Adult  (149)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (149)
  • Annual Reviews
  • 1980-1984  (149)
Collection
Publisher
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (149)
  • Annual Reviews
  • Springer  (2)
Years
Year
  • 1
    Publication Date: 1980-10-31
    Description: A wide range of animals are able to orient toward home when subjected to displacement-release experiments. When comparable experiments are performed on blindfolded humans, a similar ability emerges. Such goal-orientation does not result from following the complete journey on a mental map, nor is it influenced by cloud cover. Bar magnets worn on the head do seem to exert an influence.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baker, R R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 31;210(4469):555-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7423208" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Female ; Humans ; Magnetics ; Male ; Orientation/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-05-09
    Description: Moderate chronic malnutrition has only a minor effect on fecundity (reproductive capacity), and the resulting effect on fertility (actural reproduction) is very small. Among the fecundity components examined here in noncontracepting populations, age at menarche and the duration of lactational amenorrhea appear to be the ones most affected by malnutrition. But from neither of those effects can a difference in fertility of more than a few percent be expected between poorly and well-nourished women in developing countries.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bongaarts, J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 May 9;208(4444):564-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7367878" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Abortion, Induced ; Adolescent ; Adult ; Age Factors ; Behavior ; Birth Intervals ; Contraception ; Female ; *Fertility ; Fetal Death/epidemiology ; Humans ; Lactation ; Male ; Marriage ; Menarche ; Menopause ; Middle Aged ; Nutrition Disorders/*physiopathology ; Nutritional Physiological Phenomena ; Ovulation ; Pregnancy ; Spermatogenesis
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-08
    Description: Visual temporal acuity, as measured by the critical flicker frequency decreased and then increased during 24 hours of auditory deprivation. This intermodal effect is similar to intramodal changes in the critical flicker frequency of the nonoccluded eye during monocular deprivation; a single mechanism appears to underlie both phenomena.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bross, M -- Harper, D -- Sicz, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 8;207(4431):667-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352281" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Auditory Perception/*physiology ; Denervation ; Flicker Fusion ; Humans ; Reticular Formation/physiology ; Time Factors ; Visual Perception/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1980-03-28
    Description: Growth of head-fold-stage rat embryos cultured with human serum for 48 hours was enhanced by supplementation with glucose. Embryo growth (protein and DNA contents) varied with the source of the serum. Serum from 16 of 19 untreated subjects produced normal embryos. Serum from five subjects undergoing cancer chemotherapy and six subjects receiving anticonvulsants was either lethal or teratogenic.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chatot, C L -- Klein, N W -- Piatek, J -- Pierro, L J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 28;207(4438):1471-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7361097" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Anticonvulsants/pharmacology ; Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology ; Blood ; Culture Media ; *Culture Techniques ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/*methods ; *Embryo, Mammalian/drug effects ; Female ; Glucose ; Humans ; Male ; Rats ; *Teratogens
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1980-12-12
    Description: Two- to threefold variations in sleep length were observed in 12 subjects living on self-selected schedules in an environment free of time cues. The duration of polygraphically recorded sleep episodes was highly correlated with the circadian phase of the body temperature rhythm at bedtime and not with the length of prior wakefulness. Furthermore, the rate of REM (rapid eye movement) sleep accumulation , REM latency, bedtime selection, and self-rated alertness assessments were also correlated with the body temperature rhythm.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Czeisler, C A -- Weitzman, E d -- Moore-Ede, M C -- Zimmerman, J C -- Knauer, R S -- AG-00792/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- GM-07365/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- MH-28460/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Dec 12;210(4475):1264-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7434029" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Body Temperature ; *Circadian Rhythm ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Sleep/*physiology ; Sleep, REM/physiology ; Wakefulness
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-29
    Description: Auditory thresholds were determined for infants and adults to half-octave bands of noise centered at 10,000 and 19,000 hertz. Adults were significantly more sensitive than infants at 10,000 hertz, but at 19,000 hertz, adults and infants had comparable thresholds.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schneider, B -- Trehub, S E -- Bull, D -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 29;207(4434):1003-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352294" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Age Factors ; Auditory Threshold/*physiology ; Child, Preschool ; Environment ; Hearing/*physiology ; Humans ; Infant ; Noise ; Pitch Perception/*physiology
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 7
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-03-21
    Description: Phonemically similar syllables, differing only by temporal acoustic cues, were presented dichotically to investigate temporal processing mechanisms in hemispheric specialization for speech. Reducing the rate of acoustic change within syllables while keeping their phonemic characteristics constant significantly decreased the characteristic asymmetry in processing speech.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schwartz, J -- Tallal, P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 21;207(4437):1380-1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7355297" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Auditory Pathways/physiology ; Auditory Perception/*physiology ; Brain/*physiology ; Female ; *Functional Laterality ; Humans ; Linguistics ; Male ; Speech Perception/*physiology ; Time Factors
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  • 8
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-09-12
    Description: The ability to see spatial structures of a wide range of sizes was measured for two groups of observers (mean ages, 18 and 73 years). All observers had good visual acuity. Although older and younger observers did not differ in ability to see targets with fine structure (high spatial frequencies), older observers were only one-third as sensitive to targets with coarse structure (low spatial frequencies) as were younger observers or to changes in criterion. Older observers were also less able than younger observers to see moving targets. The reduced sensitivity of the older observers may adversely affect routine perceptual activities, such as face recognition and visually guided postural behavior, that depend upon low spatial frequencies.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sekuler, R -- Hutman, L P -- Owsley, C J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 12;209(4462):1255-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7403884" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; *Aging ; Humans ; Motion Perception/physiology ; Size Perception/*physiology ; Space Perception/*physiology ; Visual Acuity
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1980-10-31
    Description: The activity of natural killer cells was found to be deficient in 10 of 12 males with X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, a life-threatening proliferation of lymphocytes after infection by Epstein-Barr virus. The activity levels of natural killer cells from affected males were increased after treatment with interferon in vitro, but normal levels of killing were not obtained. Deficient activity of killer cells in individuals with immunodeficiency and chronic infection by Epstein-Barr virus may contribute to the development of lymphoproliferative disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sullivan, J L -- Byron, K S -- Brewster, F E -- Purtilo, D T -- CA 23561-01/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Oct 31;210(4469):543-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6158759" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Cytotoxicity, Immunologic ; Female ; Humans ; *Immunity, Innate ; Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/*genetics ; Infectious Mononucleosis/immunology ; Interferons/pharmacology ; Killer Cells, Natural/*immunology ; Lymphoproliferative Disorders/genetics/*immunology ; Male ; X Chromosome
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  • 10
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-08-08
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sun, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 8;209(4457):669-70.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7394524" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Brain Death ; Child ; *Death ; Humans ; *Legislation, Medical ; *Religion and Medicine ; United States
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  • 11
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-08
    Description: When young adults detected auditory stimuli at split-second intervals, different components of the event-related brain potentials showed markedly different speeds of recovery. The P3 component (latency 300 to 350 milliseconds) was fully recovered at intervals of less than 1.0 second, while the N1--P2 components (latencies 100 to 180 milliseconds) were markedly attenuated with stimulus repetition even at longer interstimulus intervals. Thus, the N1--P2 recovers much more slowly than a subject's ability to evaluate signals, whereas the P3 appears to be generated at the same high rates as the decision processes with which it is associated.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Woods, D L -- Hillyard, S A -- Courchesne, E -- Galambos, R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 8;207(4431):655-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352278" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Auditory Perception/physiology ; Brain/*physiology ; Cognition/physiology ; Decision Making/*physiology ; Evoked Potentials ; Humans ; Memory/physiology ; Time Factors
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  • 12
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-06-19
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Jun 19;212(4501):1416-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7233233" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Female ; Foot/*anatomy & histology ; *Functional Laterality ; Humans ; Male ; Sex Factors
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  • 13
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1981-03-06
    Description: Auditory brainstem potentials were recorded from abstinent chronic alcoholics and control subjects. The latencies of peaks II, III, IV, and V were significantly delayed in the alcoholic patients compared to control subjects. Brainstem transmission time was longer in alcoholics than in controls. This study provides systematic evidence that chronic alcohol abuse results in brainstem deficits suggesting possible demyelination of auditory tracts.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Begleiter, H -- Porjesz, B -- Chou, C L -- AA 02686/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Mar 6;211(4486):1064-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7466379" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Alcoholism/*physiopathology ; Auditory Perception/*physiology ; Brain Stem/*physiopathology ; Evoked Potentials ; Humans ; Male ; Membrane Potentials
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  • 14
    Publication Date: 1981-02-27
    Description: The concentration of norepinephrine in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with essential hypertension is higher than that from healthy normal volunteers, but the concentrations of norepinephrine in plasma from these groups are similar. This finding indicates that central nervous system noradrenergic hyperactivity occurs in essential hypertension but apparently is not reflected in abnormal function of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system in these patients.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lake, C R -- Gullner, H G -- Polinsky, R J -- Ebert, M H -- Ziegler, M G -- Bartter, F C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Feb 27;211(4485):955-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7466370" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Blood Pressure ; Female ; Humans ; Hypertension/blood/*cerebrospinal fluid ; Middle Aged ; Norepinephrine/blood/*cerebrospinal fluid ; Posture
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  • 15
    Publication Date: 1981-03-06
    Description: Eight chronic schizophrenia patients completed a research program consisting of ten weekly sessions of active hemodialysis and ten weekly sessions of sham dialysis in a double-blind design. Previous reports of therapeutic efficacy were not substantiated. None of the patients improved during active dialysis; four patients worsened.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Schulz, S C -- van Kammen, D P -- Balow, J E -- Flye, M W -- Bunney, W E Jr -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1981 Mar 6;211(4486):1066-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7466380" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Double-Blind Method ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; *Renal Dialysis ; Schizophrenia/*therapy ; Sex Factors
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  • 16
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1982-07-30
    Description: Biochemical, electrophysiological, and pharmacological evidence supporting a role for cholinergic dysfunction in age-related memory disturbances is critically reviewed. An attempt has been made to identify pseudoissues, resolve certain controversies, and clarify misconceptions that have occurred in the literature. Significant cholinergic dysfunctions occur in the aged and demented central nervous system, relationships between these changes and loss of memory exist, similar memory deficits can be artificially induced by blocking cholinergic mechanisms in young subjects, and under certain tightly controlled conditions reliable memory improvements in aged subjects can be achieved after cholinergic stimulation. Conventional attempts to reduce memory impairments in clinical trials hav not been therapeutically successful, however. Possible explanations for these disappointments are given and directions for future laboratory and clinical studies are suggested.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bartus, R T -- Dean, R L 3rd -- Beer, B -- Lippa, A S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Jul 30;217(4558):408-14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7046051" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylcholine/metabolism ; Adult ; Aged ; Aging ; Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology ; Animals ; Brain Chemistry ; Choline/metabolism ; Choline O-Acetyltransferase/metabolism ; Cognition ; Forecasting ; Humans ; Memory/drug effects ; Memory Disorders/*physiopathology ; Mice ; *Models, Neurological ; Parasympathetic Nervous System/*physiopathology ; Parasympathomimetics/pharmacology ; Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism ; Rats ; Receptors, Muscarinic/metabolism
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  • 17
    Publication Date: 1982-01-08
    Description: Sympathetic nervous system activity was assessed in experimental and control subjects who were exposed to graded orthostatic and isometric stress during monthly hospital visits. After the first session, the experimental subjects practiced a technique that elicited the relaxation response. Their concentrations of plasma norepinephrine during subsequent graded stresses were significantly higher. No such changes were noted in the control group. These results were than replicated in the control group in a crossover experiment. The groups did not differ in their heart rate and blood pressure responses. These observations are consistent with reduced norepinephrine end-organ responsivity after regular elicitation of the relaxation response.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hoffman, J W -- Benson, H -- Arns, P A -- Stainbrook, G L -- Landsberg, G L -- Young, J B -- Gill, A -- HL-07374/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-22727/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- HL-24084/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Jan 8;215(4529):190-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7031901" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Blood Pressure ; Female ; Heart Rate ; Humans ; Male ; *Muscle Contraction ; *Muscle Relaxation ; Norepinephrine/blood ; *Relaxation Therapy ; Stress, Physiological/physiopathology ; Sympathetic Nervous System/*physiology
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  • 18
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1982-08-06
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Maugh, T H 2nd -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Aug 6;217(4559):522.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7089578" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; *Bandages ; *Biological Dressings ; Burns/*therapy ; Cells, Cultured ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; Epidermis/cytology ; Humans ; Surgical Flaps ; Wound Healing
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  • 19
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1982-02-26
    Description: The urinary excretion rate of the endogenous, amphetamine-like substance beta-phenethylamine was markedly elevated in human subjects in association with an initial parachuting experience. The increases were delayed in most subjects and were not correlated with changes in urinary pH or creatinine excretion. The data suggest a stress-related role for beta-phenethylamine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Paulos, M A -- Tessel, R E -- DA-01614/DA/NIDA NIH HHS/ -- GM-27430/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- RR-05606/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Feb 26;215(4536):1127-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7063846" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; *Aerospace Medicine ; Creatinine/urine ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Phenethylamines/*urine ; Stress, Physiological/*urine ; Time Factors
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  • 20
    Publication Date: 1982-11-26
    Description: The timing of two event-related potential components was differentially affected by two experimental variables. The earlier component (NA) was affected by degradation of the stimuli and the later component (N2) by the nature of a classification task. The results support the hypothesis that NA and N2 reflect sequential stages of information processing, namely, pattern recognition and stimulus classification.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ritter, W -- Simson, R -- Vaughan, H G Jr -- Macht, M -- HD 10804/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- IF32 AGO-5193/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- MH 06723/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Nov 26;218(4575):909-11.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7134983" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Action Potentials ; Adult ; Brain/*physiology ; Brain Mapping ; Cognition/*physiology ; Discrimination (Psychology)/physiology ; Evoked Potentials ; Humans ; Information Theory ; Perception/*physiology ; Time Factors
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  • 21
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1982-07-02
    Description: Nine expert drivers operated an instrumented vehicle in tests over a highway at night after being treated with diazepam (5 and 10 milligrams), a placebo, and nothing. They reacted to 10 milligrams of diazepam with increased lateral position variability. Potentially dangerous impairment was inferred from the reactions of some subjects.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉O'Hanlon, J F -- Haak, T W -- Blaauw, G J -- Riemersma, J B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Jul 2;217(4554):79-81.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7089544" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; *Automobile Driving ; Diazepam/*pharmacology ; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ; Double-Blind Method ; Functional Laterality ; Humans ; Male ; Motor Activity/*drug effects ; Placebos
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  • 22
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1982-06-18
    Description: A rhesus monkey accurately recognized pictures in a Sternberg memory scanning experiment. When the monkey was tested with pictures that were reused during the same session, the monkey's performance was nearly identical to that of a human subject; this result demonstrates the monkeys are capable of some of the short-term retrieval mechanisms of humans.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sands, S F -- Wright, A A -- EY-01256/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- MH35202/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Jun 18;216(4552):1333-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7079768" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Female ; Humans ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Memory/*physiology ; Species Specificity ; Time Factors ; *Visual Perception
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  • 23
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1982-07-30
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sun, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 Jul 30;217(4558):424-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6211767" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Carcinogens ; Contraceptive Agents, Female ; Dogs ; Drug Evaluation ; Drug Evaluation, Preclinical ; Female ; Humans ; International Agencies ; Medroxyprogesterone/adverse effects/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology ; Medroxyprogesterone Acetate ; Risk ; United States ; United States Food and Drug Administration
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  • 24
    Publication Date: 1982-05-28
    Description: Plasma melatonin concentrations were determined over a period of 24 hours in 20 women with clinical stage I or II breast cancer. In ten of the patients, whose tumors were estrogen receptor positive, the nocturnal increase in plasma melatonin was much lower than that observed in eight control subjects. Women with the lowest peak concentration of melatonin had tumors with the highest concentrations of estrogen receptors. A significant correlation was found between the peak plasma melatonin concentration and the tumor estrogen receptor concentration in 19 of the patients. These data suggest that low nocturnal melatonin concentrations may indicate the presence of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and could conceivably have etiologic significance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tamarkin, L -- Danforth, D -- Lichter, A -- DeMoss, E -- Cohen, M -- Chabner, B -- Lippman, M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1982 May 28;216(4549):1003-5.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7079745" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Breast Neoplasms/*blood/metabolism/physiopathology ; *Circadian Rhythm ; Humans ; Melatonin/*blood ; Middle Aged ; Pineal Gland/*physiopathology ; Receptors, Estrogen/*metabolism
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  • 25
    Publication Date: 1983-06-03
    Description: The eye movements of human subjects were experimentally modified while they were awake to determine the effect of waking experience on electroculographic activity during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. After normal eye movements were monitored under controlled conditions, subjects spent 5 days wearing goggles that contained minification lenses and that curtailed vision to a 5 degree field. The amplitude and frequency of eye movements decreased when subjects were awake and increased during REM sleep; sleep stage durations and distributions were unaffected. Values returned to normal in the first 24 hours of recovery.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Herman, J H -- Roffwarg, H P -- MH 3414/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1983 Jun 3;220(4601):1074-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6844929" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Electrooculography ; *Eye Movements ; Humans ; Oculomotor Muscles/physiology ; Sleep, REM/*physiology ; Wakefulness/*physiology
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  • 26
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1983-06-10
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kolata, G -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1983 Jun 10;220(4602):1137-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6857238" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; Cholesterol/blood ; Coronary Disease/*blood ; Estrogens/*blood ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Myocardial Infarction/blood ; Risk
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  • 27
    Publication Date: 1983-06-10
    Description: The compound 2-phenylethylamine is an "endogenous amphetamine" which may modulate central adrenergic functions. 2-Phenylethylamine is mainly metabolized by monoamine oxidase to form phenyl acetate (PAA). The 24-hour urinary excretion of PAA was measured in normal healthy volunteers and depressed patients. Patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, edition 3. In 70 percent of healthy volunteers of both sexes, the excretion of PAA ranged between 70 and 175 milligrams per 24 hours (mean = 141.1 +/- 10.2). Inpatients with major depressive disorder (unipolar type) (N = 31) excreted less PAA (68.7 +/- 7.0 milligrams per 24 hours) and 55 percent of them excreted less than 70 milligrams per 24 hours; there were no significant differences in the PAA excretion between untreated patients (N = 13) and those treated with antidepressants that were not effective (N = 18). The PAA excretion was reduced to a lesser extent in 35 less severely depressed unipolar outpatients (drug-free for 1 week) (86.3 +/- 11.8 milligrams per 24 hours). These results suggest that low PAA urinary excretion may be a reliable state marker for the diagnosis of some forms of unipolar major depressive disorders.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sabelli, H C -- Fawcett, J -- Gusovsky, F -- Javaid, J -- Edwards, J -- Jeffriess, H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1983 Jun 10;220(4602):1187-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6857245" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology ; Depressive Disorder/*diagnosis/urine ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Phenethylamines/metabolism/physiology ; Phenylacetates/*urine
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  • 28
    Publication Date: 1983-04-29
    Description: Urine of the human fetus stimulated prostaglandin biosynthesis in vitro by increasing the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. The stimulatory activity in urine from fetuses delivered at term after labor of spontaneous onset was greater than that in urine from fetuses delivered by cesarean section at term before the onset of labor. Such stimulation of prostaglandin biosynthesis by the fetal membranes, by way of a substance released into the urine and thence into amniotic fluid, could serve as a signal for the initiation of parturition.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Strickland, D M -- Saeed, S A -- Casey, M L -- Mitchell, M D -- 5-P50-HD11149/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1983 Apr 29;220(4596):521-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6573023" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Dinoprostone ; Extraembryonic Membranes/physiology ; Female ; Fetus/*physiology ; Humans ; *Labor Onset ; *Labor, Obstetric ; Male ; Pregnancy ; Prostaglandins/*biosynthesis ; Prostaglandins E/biosynthesis ; *Urine
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  • 29
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1984-09-28
    Description: Recent neurophysiological findings have demonstrated that abstinent chronic alcoholics manifest deficits in event-related brain potentials. To explore possible biological antecedents of alcoholism the present study examined boys at high risk for alcoholism. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from biological sons of alcoholic fathers and matched control boys. Differences in the P3 component of the potentials were obtained between the high-risk and control subjects.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Begleiter, H -- Porjesz, B -- Bihari, B -- Kissin, B -- AA 05524/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Sep 28;225(4669):1493-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6474187" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Alcoholism/*genetics/physiopathology ; Analysis of Variance ; Brain/*physiopathology ; Child ; Evoked Potentials ; Fathers ; Humans ; Male ; Memory Disorders/etiology ; Risk
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  • 30
    Publication Date: 1984-06-08
    Description: A domain of DNA designated N-myc is amplified 20- to 140-fold in human neuroblastoma cell lines but not in cell lines from other tumor types. N-myc has now been found to be amplified in neuroblastoma tissue from 24 of 63 untreated patients (38 percent). The extent of amplification appears to be bimodal, with amplification of 100- to 300-fold in 12 cases and 3- to 10-fold in 10 others. Amplification was found in 0 of 15 patients with stage 1 or 2 disease, whereas 24 of 48 cases (50 percent) with stage 3 or 4 had evidence of N-myc amplification. These data indicate that N-myc amplification is a common event in untreated human neuroblastomas. Furthermore, N-myc amplification is highly correlated with advanced stages of disease (P less than 0.001) and with the ability to grow in vitro as an established cell line, both of which are associated with a poor prognosis.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brodeur, G M -- Seeger, R C -- Schwab, M -- Varmus, H E -- Bishop, J M -- CA02971/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA13539/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- CA17829/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- etc. -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Jun 8;224(4653):1121-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6719137" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Aged ; Cell Line ; Child ; Child, Preschool ; DNA, Neoplasm/genetics ; Eye Neoplasms/genetics ; *Gene Amplification ; Humans ; Infant ; Lymphatic Metastasis ; Middle Aged ; Neuroblastoma/*genetics/physiopathology ; Nucleic Acid Hybridization ; *Oncogenes ; Prognosis ; Retinoblastoma/genetics
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  • 31
    Publication Date: 1984-07-06
    Description: A retrovirus isolated from three patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States was morphologically and antigenically identical to lymphadenopathy associated virus isolated in France. Two of these isolates were from a blood donor-recipient pair, each of whom developed AIDS. Lymphadenopathy associated virus was isolated from the blood donor's lymphocytes 12 months after his onset of AIDS symptoms and from the blood recipient's lymphocytes 1 month after her onset of AIDS symptoms. Two isolates from the blood donor-recipient pair and an isolate from an epidemiologically unrelated homosexual man were examined by competitive radioimmunoassay to determine their antigenic relatedness to each other and to other human retroviruses. The major core proteins (p25) of the isolates were antigenically identical and all three isolates were identical to prototype lymphadenopathy associated virus isolated in France.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Feorino, P M -- Kalyanaraman, V S -- Haverkos, H W -- Cabradilla, C D -- Warfield, D T -- Jaffe, H W -- Harrison, A K -- Gottlieb, M S -- Goldfinger, D -- Chermann, J C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Jul 6;225(4657):69-72.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6328663" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*microbiology/transmission ; Adult ; Antibodies, Viral/immunology ; *Blood Donors ; Blood Transfusion/adverse effects ; Deltaretrovirus/immunology ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Retroviridae/*immunology ; Retroviridae Infections/*immunology
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  • 32
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1984-06-01
    Description: A method developed for quantifying respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during voluntary cardiorespiratory synchronization relies on computer-assisted rhythmometric cosinor analysis of instantaneous heart rate data. The RSA was present in all subjects tested, even those at advanced ages. The amplitude of the RSA falls approximately 10 percent per decade. An individual with a transplanted heart and one with severe diabetic neuropathy each had resting RSA values that were normal for their ages. The shape and amplitude of the RSA during voluntary cardiorespiratory synchronization may reflect the suppleness of the heart and its response to rhythmically changing intrathoracic pressure and the subsequent ebb-and-flow of venous return. Our technology allows objective quantitative assessment of the biologic age of the heart and also the effect of any drug, disease, or behavior that affects the RSA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Hrushesky, W J -- Fader, D -- Schmitt, O -- Gilbertsen, V -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Jun 1;224(4652):1001-4.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6372092" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Aged ; *Aging ; Arrhythmia, Sinus/*physiopathology ; Compliance ; Diabetic Neuropathies/physiopathology ; Female ; Heart/*physiology/physiopathology ; Heart Rate ; Heart Transplantation ; Humans ; Male ; Microcomputers ; Middle Aged ; *Respiration
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  • 33
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1984-10-05
    Description: Deaths associated with injected street preparations of heroin increased substantially in the District of Columbia between April 1979 and December 1982. The 1981 population-based mortality rate (17.4 per 100,000) is possibly the highest ever reported. A case-control study based on toxicologic analyses of postmortem blood samples indicates that concentrations of both heroin and ethanol are substantial risk factors for heroin-related deaths. Analyses of the composition of street-level preparations of heroin and quarterly mortality indicate that the quantity of heroin in packages sold on the street, the price of heroin in these packages, and the quinine weight per package each predict deaths equally as well. An increase in the causal use of heroin in combination with ethanol and quinine is the probable cause of this epidemic.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ruttenber, A J -- Luke, J L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 Oct 5;226(4670):14-20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6474188" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Alcoholic Intoxication/complications ; Costs and Cost Analysis ; District of Columbia ; Drug Contamination ; Ethanol/blood ; Female ; Heroin/analysis/*poisoning ; Humans ; Male ; Morphine/blood ; *Pharmaceutical Preparations ; Quinine/poisoning ; Risk ; *Street Drugs ; Substance-Related Disorders/complications/*mortality
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  • 34
    Publication Date: 1984-05-04
    Description: In cats, infection with T-lymphotropic retroviruses can cause T-cell proliferation and leukemia or T-cell depletion and immunosuppression. In humans, some highly T4 tropic retroviruses called HTLV-I can cause T-cell proliferation and leukemia. The subgroup HTLV-II also induces T-cell proliferation in vitro, but its role in disease is unclear. Viruses of a third subgroup of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses, collectively designated HTLV-III, have been isolated from cultured cells of 48 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The biological properties of HTLV-III and immunological analyses of its proteins show that this virus is a member of the HTLV family, and that it is more closely related to HTLV-II than to HTLV-I. Serum samples from 88 percent of patients with AIDS and from 79 percent of homosexual men with signs and symptoms that frequently precede AIDS, but from less than 1 percent of heterosexual subjects, have antibodies reactive against antigens of HTLV-III. The major immune reactivity appears to be directed against p41, the presumed envelope antigen of the virus.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sarngadharan, M G -- Popovic, M -- Bruch, L -- Schupbach, J -- Gallo, R C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1984 May 4;224(4648):506-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6324345" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/*immunology/microbiology ; Adult ; Antibodies, Viral/*analysis ; Antigens, Viral/immunology ; Child, Preschool ; Deltaretrovirus/*immunology ; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay ; Female ; Homosexuality ; Humans ; Infant ; Male ; Middle Aged ; Sarcoma, Kaposi/immunology ; Substance-Related Disorders ; T-Lymphocytes/microbiology ; Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology
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  • 35
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-03-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Broad, W J -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 21;207(4437):1326-7.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7355292" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Female ; Humans ; *Insemination, Artificial ; *Insemination, Artificial, Heterologous ; Male ; *Nobel Prize ; *Spermatozoa ; *Tissue Banks ; Tissue Donors
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  • 36
    Publication Date: 1980-04-18
    Description: Wilson's disease fibroblasts have an elevated intracellular copper concentration as compared to cultured control cells. A decreased ratio of copper to protein was observed in cytoplasmic protein (or proteins) having a molecular weight greater than or equal to 30,000 in Wilson's disease cells. The results of this culture study indicate its potential importance in the early unequivocal diagnosis of this disorder.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chan, W Y -- Cushing, W -- Coffman, M A -- Rennert, O M -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Apr 18;208(4441):299-300.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7367859" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adolescent ; Adult ; Age Factors ; Cadmium/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Child ; Copper/metabolism ; Fibroblasts/metabolism ; Hepatolenticular Degeneration/diagnosis/*genetics/metabolism ; Humans ; Skin/metabolism
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  • 37
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-03-21
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holden, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Mar 21;207(4437):1323-5, 1327-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7188816" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Environment ; Female ; Genetics, Medical ; Humans ; Intelligence ; Male ; Pregnancy ; Twins/*psychology ; Twins, Monozygotic/*psychology
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  • 38
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-22
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Holden, C -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 22;207(4433):855-6.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7355266" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Alcohol Drinking ; Alcoholism/*physiopathology/prevention & control/therapy ; Follow-Up Studies ; Humans ; Male
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  • 39
    Publication Date: 1980-08-15
    Description: In humans and rhesus monkeys, dexamethasone decreased concentrations of plasma cortisol but did not alter circulating beta-endorphin immunoreactivity. Contrary to current theory suggesting that pituitary beta-endorphin and adrenocorticotropic hormone are controlled by identical regulatory mechanisms for synthesis and release, our evidence suggests that in higher primates the established glucocorticoid feedback mechanism for the adrenocorticotropic hormone-cortisol system does not regulate beta-endorphin secretion in the same way.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kalin, N H -- Risch, S C -- Cohen, R M -- Insel, T -- Murphy, D L -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 15;209(4458):827-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6250217" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone/secretion ; Adult ; Animals ; Dexamethasone/*pharmacology ; Endorphins/*blood/secretion ; Feedback ; Female ; Haplorhini ; Humans ; Hydrocortisone/blood ; Macaca mulatta ; Male ; Pituitary Gland, Anterior/secretion ; Protein Precursors/metabolism ; Species Specificity ; Stress, Physiological/blood
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  • 40
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-07-25
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kolata, G B -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jul 25;209(4455):475-6, 478-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7394512" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Anorexia Nervosa ; Female ; *Human Experimentation ; Humans ; *Jurisprudence ; Lithium ; *National Institutes of Health (U.S.) ; *Patient Selection ; *Research ; *Research Subjects ; Sleep ; United States ; Vomiting
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  • 41
    Publication Date: 1980-01-18
    Description: Concentrations of norepinephrine in cerebrospinal fluid are higher in schizophrenic patients, particularly in those with paranoid features, than in normal volunteer subjects of the same age. This observation supports recent reports of elevated concentrations of norepinephrine in specific brain areas adjacent to the cerebral ventricles of paranoid schizophrenic patients. Overflow of the amine from periventricular regions into the cerebrospinal fluid may reflect abnormally high release or diminished enzymatic destruction of norepinephrine in patients with schizophrenia.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lake, C R -- Sternberg, D E -- van Kammen, D P -- Ballenger, J C -- Ziegler, M G -- Post, R M -- Kopin, I J -- Bunney, W E -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jan 18;207(4428):331-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7350667" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Blood Pressure ; Brain/metabolism ; Heart Rate ; Humans ; Norepinephrine/*cerebrospinal fluid ; Phenethylamines/metabolism ; Schizophrenia/*cerebrospinal fluid/physiopathology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 42
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-08
    Description: Heroin-dependent men were given buprenorphine (a partial opiate agonist-antagonist) or a placebo under duoble-blind conditions on a clinical research ward where they could acquire heroin (21 to 40.5 milligrams per day, intravenously). Buprenorphine significantly (P less than .001) suppressed the self-administration of heroin over 10 days. Control subjects took between 93 and 100 percent of the available heroin. The effects of buprenorphine were dose-dependent; a dose of 8 milligrams per day reduced heroin use by 69 to 98 percent; a dose of 4 milligrams per day reduced heroin use by 45 percent. Termination of buprenorphie maintenance did not result in opiate withdrawal signs or symptoms. The subjects liked buprenorphine and indicated that it was preferable to methadone or naltrexone. Buprenorphine should be a safe and effective new pharmacotherapy for heroin dependence.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Mello, N K -- Mendelson, J H -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 8;207(4431):657-9.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352279" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Buprenorphine/adverse effects/*therapeutic use ; Double-Blind Method ; Heroin Dependence/*drug therapy ; Humans ; Informed Consent ; Morphinans/*therapeutic use ; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/prevention & control ; Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 43
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-08-22
    Description: A rhesus monkey correctly recognized 86 and 81 percent of 10- and 20-item lists, respectively. It serial position curve was similar in form to a human's curve, revealing prominent primacy and recency effects. The key to these findings was in minimizing proactive interference through the use of a large pool of 211 color photographs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Sands, S F -- Wright, A A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Aug 22;209(4459):938-40.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6773143" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animals ; Female ; Haplorhini ; Humans ; Macaca/*physiology ; Macaca mulatta/*physiology ; Male ; Memory/*physiology ; Memory, Short-Term/physiology ; Methods ; Retention (Psychology)/*physiology
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 44
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-01
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Smith, J R -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 1;207(4430):509.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352257" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Female ; Humans ; Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology ; Smoking/*complications
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    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 45
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-02-01
    Description: A group of 50 smokers experienced greater sleep difficulty than a group of 50 nonsmokers matched by age and sex. The two groups did not differ in personality patterns or drug consumption. Also, sleep patterns significantly improved in a group of eight chronic smokers when they abstained from cigarette smoking. These findings are consistent with reports on the stimulant effects of nicotine.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Soldatos, C R -- Kales, J D -- Scharf, M B -- Bixler, E O -- Kales, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Feb 1;207(4430):551-3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7352268" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Coffee/adverse effects ; Female ; Humans ; Male ; Sleep Stages ; Sleep Wake Disorders/*etiology ; Smoking/*complications ; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/physiopathology
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  • 46
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
    Publication Date: 1980-06-13
    Description: Teacher interactions with hyperactive and comparison boys were observed during classroom activities. A double-blind, methylphenidate-placebo cross-over design was used within the hyperactive group. With no knowledge of any child's diagnosis or drug status, the teacher was more intense and controlling toward hyperactive boys taking placebo than toward either medicated hyperactive boys or comparison boys; her behavior did not differ toward the latter two groups. Discussion focused on the need to consider the broad social ramifications of pharmacologic treatment programs.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Whalen, C K -- Henker, B -- Dotemoto, S -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Jun 13;208(4449):1280-2.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7375940" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Behavior/drug effects ; Child ; Humans ; Hyperkinesis/*drug therapy ; *Interpersonal Relations ; Male ; Methylphenidate/pharmacology/*therapeutic use ; *Teaching
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  • 47
    Publication Date: 1980-09-26
    Description: Regular consumers of caffeine had higher muscle tension after three or more hours of abstinence than low caffeine consumers. This difference was absent after double-blind administration of caffeine citrate or placebo. In a discriminative reaction time test, caffeine treatment improved performance. Among subjects receiving placebo, anxiety was highly correlated with prior caffeine use, suggesting that even a brief abstinence may produce anxiety in the regular user.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉White, B C -- Lincoln, C A -- Pearce, N W -- Reeb, R -- Vaida, C -- AA 03513/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS/ -- HD 05958/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- NS 11618/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 1980 Sep 26;209(4464):1547-8.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7433978" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Anxiety/*etiology ; Caffeine/*pharmacology ; Humans ; Muscle Contraction/*drug effects ; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome/complications/*physiopathology
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  • 48
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    American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)